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FIN331

Fall 2010 Extra Credit


Dr. Rhee
1.

Which one (s) is (are) an external financing and has the flotation cost?
a. Retained earnings
b. Bonds
c. Preferred stock
d. a & b
e. b & c
Answer: e
Retained earnings are internal source of fund. Issuing bonds, preferred stocks, and common stocks are
external source of fund, which have the floation cost.

2.

The costs of financing from different sources are as follows:


IEF = 5%, EEF=6%, cost of debt before tax = 5%, tax rate=20%, the size of retained earnings=$30m. The
capital structure is: We=40% and Wd=60%. Determine the WAMCC before and after the break point.
a. 4.4% 4.8%
b. 4.4% 5.2%
c. 4.6% 4.8%
d. 4.6% 5.2%
e. 4.8% 5.2%
Answer: a
5%*(1 0.2)*0.6 + 5%*0.4 = 4.4%,
5%*(1 0.2)*0.6 + 6%*0.4 =4.8%

3.

Given D1 = $1.00 and K=10%, what is the value of the stock at 8% growth rate? If the current price of the
stock is $50, would you buy it?
a. $55, Buy
b. $54, Buy
c. $55, Dont
d. $54, Dont
e. $50, Indifferent
Answer: e
PV=D1/(k-g)=1.00/(0.10 - 0.08) = $50. Since the price=PV, you are indifferent.

4.

For a preferred stock with the dividend amount of $2.00 each quarter, what is the PV of it with an annual
discount rate of 8%? If the price of the preferred stock is $80, what is the yield (ROI, APR) of this security?
a. $60, 8%
b. $80, 8%
c. $60, 10%
d. $80, 10%
e. $100, 10%
Answer: e
V0 = D/k = 8/0.08 = $100. ROI = (80+8)/80 = 10%

5.

I checked the Microsoft stock price at 9:12am this morning. It was $24.88. The last 12 month trailing (ttm)
net earnings is $14.58 billion with 9 billion shares. What is the 12 month trailing EPS and P/E ratio?
a.
b.
c.

$1.62, 15.36
$2.26, 13.31
$1.26, 17.88

d. $2.32, 12.21
e. $1.18, 20.33
Answer: a
EPS = NE/Shares Outstanding = $14.58/9 = $1.62
P/E = Price per share/Earnings per share = $24.88/$1.62 = 15.36
6.

For a common stock with the current dividend amount of = $.70 (Do = .70), what is the (P)V of it with an
annual discount rate of 12% and the dividend is expected to grow at the rate of 10% per annum forever?
a. $33.5
b. $35.0
c. $38.5
d. $45.0
e. $37.5
Answer: c
V0 = D1 / (k-g) = (0.70* 1.1)/(0.12-0.10) = 38.5

7.

The preemptive right is important to shareholders because it


a. allows managers to buy additional shares below the current market price.
b. will result in higher dividends per share.
c. is included in every corporate charter.
d. protects the current shareholders against a dilution of their ownership interests.
e. protects bondholders, and thus enables the firm to issue debt with a relatively low interest rate.
Answer: d

8.

Which of the following statements is CORRECT?


a.

The constant growth model takes into consideration the capital gains investors expect to earn on a
stock.
b. Two firms with the same expected dividend and growth rate must also have the same stock price.
c. It is appropriate to use the constant growth model to estimate a stock's value even if its growth rate is
never expected to become constant.
d. If a stock has a required rate of return rs = 12%, and if its dividend is expected to grow at a constant
rate of 5%, this implies that the stocks dividend yield is also 5%.
e. The price of a stock is the present value of all expected future dividends, discounted at the dividend
growth rate.
Answer: a
Statement a is true, because the expected growth rate is also the expected capital gains yield. All the other
statements are false.
9.

The Francis Company is expected to pay a dividend of D1 = $1.25 per share at the end of the year, and that
dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 6.00% per year in the future. The company's beta is 1.15,
the market risk premium is 5.50%, and the risk-free rate is 4.00%. What is the company's current stock
price?
a. $28.90
b. $29.62
c. $30.36
d. $31.12
e. $31.90
Answer: a
D1
b
rRF
RPM

$1.25
1.15
4.00%
5.50%

g
rs = rRF + b(RPM) =
P0 = D1/(rs g)
10.

6.00%
10.33%
$28.90

Goode Inc.'s stock has a required rate of return of 11.50%, and it sells for $25.00 per share. Goode's
dividend is expected to grow at a constant rate of 7.00%. What was the last dividend, D0?
a. $0.95
b. $1.05
c. $1.16
d. $1.27
e. $1.40
Answer: b
Stock price
Required return
Growth rate
P0 = D1/(rs g), so D1 = P0(rs g) =
Last dividend = D0 = D1/(1 + g)

11.

You must estimate the intrinsic value of Noe Technologies stock. The end-of-year free cash flow (FCF 1) is
expected to be $27.50 million, and it is expected to grow at a constant rate of 7.0% a year thereafter. The
companys WACC is 10.0%, it has $125.0 million of long-term debt plus preferred stock outstanding, and
there are 15.0 million shares of common stock outstanding. What is the firm's estimated intrinsic value per
share of common stock?
a. $48.64
b. $50.67
c. $52.78
d. $54.89
e. $57.08
Answer: c
FCF1
Constant growth rate
WACC
Debt & preferred stock
Shares outstanding
Total firm value = FCF1/(WACC g) =
Less: Value of debt & preferred
Value of equity
Number of shares
Value per share = Equity value/Shares =

12.

$25.00
11.50%
7.00%
$1.1250
$1.05

$27.50
7.0%
10.0%
$125
15
$916.67
-$125.00
$791.67
15
$52.78

Carter's preferred stock pays a dividend of $1.00 per quarter. If the price of the stock is $45.00, what is its
nominal (not effective) annual rate of return?
a. 8.03%
b. 8.24%
c. 8.45%
d. 8.67%
e. 8.89%
Answer: e
Pref. quarterly dividend
Annual dividend = Qtrly dividend 4 =
Preferred stock price
Nom. required return = Annual dividend/Price =

$1.00
$4.00
$45.00
8.89%

13.

Capital structure refers to


a. The types of projects a firm invests in.
b. The mixture of short-term and long-term debt.
c. The amount of debt and equity a firm has
d. Short-term assets and short-term liabilities.
e. The size, timing, and risk
Answer: c

14.

Which of the following statements is CORRECT?


a.

When calculating the cost of debt, a company needs to adjust for taxes, because interest payments are
deductible by the paying corporation.
b. When calculating the cost of preferred stock, companies must adjust for taxes, because dividends paid
on preferred stock are deductible by the paying corporation.
c. Because of tax effects, an increase in the risk-free rate will have a greater effect on the after-tax cost of
debt than on the cost of common stock as measured by the CAPM.
d. If a companys beta increases, this will increase the cost of equity used to calculate the WACC, but
only if the company does not have enough retained earnings to take care of its equity financing and
hence must issue new stock.
e. Higher flotation costs reduce investors' expected returns, and that leads to a reduction in a companys
WACC.
Answer: a
Statement a is true, because interest payments on debt are tax deductible. The other statements are false.
15.

What is the % of total financing by equity if the total $12m funding include $7.5m from debt?
a. 35%
b. 37.5%
c. 46.5%
d. 50%
e. 62.5%
Answer: b
Component of capital: (LT)debt, PFD stocks, and Common Equity. Therefore (12-7.5)/12 = 37.5%

16.

The amount of retained earnings limit the size of internal equity financing. If the amount of retained
earnings is $25m, where do you have a switch from the internal to external equity financing in terms of the
size of the total funding when the equity financing accounts for 25% of the total funding and the remaining
is from debt?
a. $150m
b. $100m
c. $180m
d. $130m
e. $150m
Answer: b
25m/.25=$100m

17.

Long-term debt of Topstone Industries is currently selling for $1,045. Its face value is $1,000. The issue
matures in 10 years and pays an annual coupon of 8% of face. What is the before-tax cost of debt for
Topstone if the company is in 30% tax bracket?
a.
b.
c.
d.

6.75%
7.35%
6.85%
7.45%

e. 8.35%
Answer: b
Find YTM. N=10, PV=-1045, PMT=80, FV=1000 => I/Y= 7.35%
18.

Several years ago the Jakob Company sold a $1,000 par value, noncallable bond that now has 20 years to
maturity and a 7.00% annual coupon that is paid semiannually. The bond currently sells for $925, and the
companys tax rate is 40%. What is the component cost of debt for use in the WACC calculation?
a.
4.28%
b.
4.46%
c.
4.65%
d.
4.83%
e.
5.03%
Answer: c
Coupon rate
Periods/year
Maturity (yr)
Bond price
Par value
Tax rate

7.00%
2
20
$925.00
$1,000
40%

Calculator inputs:
N = 2 20
PV = Bond's price
PMT = Coupon rate Par/2
FV = Par = Maturity value
I/YR
Times periods/yr = before-tax cost of debt
= After-tax cost of debt (A-T rd) for use in WACC
19.

4.65%

Weaver Chocolate Co. expects to earn $3.50 per share during the current year, its expected dividend payout
ratio is 65%, its expected constant dividend growth rate is 6.0%, and its common stock currently sells for
$32.50 per share. New stock can be sold to the public at the current price, but a flotation cost of 5% would
be incurred. What would be the cost of equity from new common stock?
a.
12.70%
b.
13.37%
c.
14.04%
d.
14.74%
e.
15.48%
Answer: b
Expected EPS1
Payout ratio
Expected dividend, D1 = EPS Payout
Current stock price
g
F

20.

40
-$925.00
$35
$1,000
3.87%
7.74%

$3.50
65%
$2.275
$32.50
6.00%
5.00%
re = D1/(P0 (1 F)) + g

13.37%

Which of the following statements is CORRECT?


a.
b.
c.
d.

A change in a companys target capital structure cannot affect its WACC.


WACC calculations should be based on the before-tax costs of all the individual capital components.
Flotation costs associated with issuing new common stock normally reduce the WACC.
If a companys tax rate increases, then, all else equal, its weighted average cost of capital will decline.

e.

An increase in the risk-free rate will normally lower the marginal costs of both debt and equity
financing.
Answer: d
Statement d is true, because the cost of debt for WACC purposes = rd(1 T), so if T increases, then
rd(1 T) declines.
21.

Which of the following statements is CORRECT?


a.
b.

The WACC as used in capital budgeting is an estimate of a companys before-tax cost of capital.
The percentage flotation cost associated with issuing new common equity is typically smaller than the
flotation cost for new debt.
c. The WACC as used in capital budgeting is an estimate of the cost of all the capital a company has
raised to acquire its assets.
d. There is an opportunity cost associated with using retained earnings, hence they are not free.
e. The WACC as used in capital budgeting would be simply the after-tax cost of debt if the firm plans to
use only debt to finance its capital budget during the coming year.
Answer: d
22.

Rivoli Inc. hired you as a consultant to help estimate its cost of capital. You have been provided with the
following data: D0 = $0.80; P0 = $22.50; and g = 8.00% (constant). Based on the DCF approach, what is
the cost of equity from retained earnings?
a. 10.69%
b. 11.25%
c. 11.84%
d. 12.43%
e. 13.05%
Answer: c
D0
P0
g
D1 = D0 (1 + g)
rs = D1/P0 + g

23.

$0.80
$22.50
8.00%
$0.864
11.84%

Keys Printing plans to issue a $1,000 par value, 20-year noncallable bond with a 7.00% annual coupon,
paid semiannually. The company's marginal tax rate is 40.00%, but Congress is considering a change in the
corporate tax rate to 30.00%. By how much would the component cost of debt used to calculate the WACC
change if the new tax rate was adopted?
a. 0.57%
b. 0.63%
c. 0.70%
d. 0.77%
e. 0.85%
Answer: c
Coupon rate
Periods/year
Maturity (yr)
Bond price = Par value
Old and New tax rates
Calculator inputs:
N = 2 20
PV = Bond's price

Tax Rate
Old rate, 40%
New rate
7.00%
7.00%
2
2
20
20
$1,000.00
$1,000.00
40%
30%
40
-$1,000.00

40
-$1,000.00

PMT = Coupon rate Par/2


FV = Par = Maturity value
I/YR
Times periods/yr = before-tax cost of debt
= After-tax cost of debt (A-T rd) for use in WACC
Difference = Cost at new rate Cost at old rate =
24.

$35.00
-$1,000
3.50%
7.00%
4.20%
0.70%

$35
-$1,000
3.50%
7.00%
4.90%

S. Bouchard and Company hired you as a consultant to help estimate its cost of capital. You have obtained
the following data: D0 = $0.85; P0 = $22.00; and g = 6.00% (constant). The CEO thinks, however, that the
stock price is temporarily depressed, and that it will soon rise to $40.00. Based on the DCF approach, by
how much would the cost of equity from retained earnings change if the stock price changes as the CEO
expects?
a. -1.49%
b. -1.66%
c. -1.84%
d. -2.03%
e. -2.23%
Answer: c
D0
P0
g
D1 = D0 (1 + g)
rs = D1/P0 + g
Difference, rs0 rs1

25.

Old Price
$0.85
$22.00
6.00%
$0.901
10.10%
-1.84%

New Price
$0.85
$40.00
6.00%
$0.901
8.25%

Sapp Truckings balance sheet shows a total of noncallable $45 million long-term debt with a coupon rate
of 7.00% and a yield to maturity of 6.00%. This debt currently has a market value of $50 million. The
balance sheet also shows that the company has 10 million shares of common stock, and the book value of
the common equity (common stock plus retained earnings) is $65 million. The current stock price is
$22.50 per share; stockholders' required return, rs, is 14.00%; and the firm's tax rate is 40%. The CFO
thinks the WACC should be based on market value weights, but the president thinks book weights are more
appropriate. What is the difference between these two WACCs?
a. 1.55%
b. 1.72%
c. 1.91%
d. 2.13%
e. 2.36%
Answer: e
P0
Shares outstanding (millions)
bond coupon rate (not used)
YTM = rd
rs
Tax rate
BV debt (millions)
BV equity (millions)
MV debt (millions)
MV equity (millions) = # sh P0 =
AT cost of debt = rd(1T)

$22.50
10
7.00%
6.00%
14.00%
40%
$45.00
$65.00
$50.00
$225.00
3.60%

Book value weights-WRONG!!!


Capital
Weights
Cost rates
Product
Debt
$45.00
40.91%
3.60%
1.47%
Equity $65.00
59.09%
14.00%
8.27%
Total $110.00
100.00% WACC =
9.75%
Market value weights--RIGHT!!!
Capital
Weights
Cost rates
Product
Debt
$50.00
18.18%
3.60%
0.65%
Equity $225.00
81.82%
14.00%
11.45%
Total $275.00
100.00%WACC =
12.11%
Difference =
2.36%

26.

What would you do for capital budgeting if you have limited resources?
a. Focus on the projects the firm has already invested in
b. Reduce short-term and long-term debt.
c. Rank good looking projects and choose from the most profitable ones
d. evaluate to determine good projects
e. Determine the size, timing, and risk of a firm's future cash flows.
Answer: c

27.

What is the decision rule for IRR?


a. Accept a project when IRR > 0
b. Accept a project if at the IRR the NPV is positive
c. Reject any project if the IRR is below 10%
d. Accept a project if the IRR exceeds the firm's bank borrowing rate
e. Accept a project if the IRR exceeds the firm's required rate of return
Answer: e

28.

What is the % of total financing by common equity if the total $12m funding include $7.5m from debt
assuming no preferred stocks are used?
a. 35%
b. 37.5%
c. 46.5%
d. 50%
e. 62.5%
Answer: b
IRR decision rule: accept when IRR > WAMCC

29.

You have only three investment opportunities as follows: Project A with 5% return, Project B with 7%
return, Project C with 9% return. What should be the required rate of return when you consider for Project
B?
a. 5%
b. 7%
c. 9%
d. 12%
e. 14%
Answer: a
To accept B, required return should be less than the expected return of C, and higher or equal to the
expected return of A

30.

Lasik Vision Inc. recently analyzed the project whose cash flows are shown below. However, before Lasik
decided to accept or reject the project, the Federal Reserve took actions that changed interest rates and
therefore the firm's WACC. The Fed's action did not affect the forecasted cash flows. By how much did
the change in the WACC affect the project's forecasted NPV? Note that a project's projected NPV can be
negative, in which case it should be rejected.
Old WACC: 8.00%
Year
0
Cash flows
-$1,000
a.
b.
c.

-$59.03
-$56.08
-$53.27

New WACC: 11.25%


1
2
$410
$410

3
$410

d.
-$50.61
e.
-$48.08
Answer: a
Old WACC: 8.00%
Year
Cash flows

0
-$1,000

New WACC: 11.25%


1
2
$410
$410

3
$410

Old NPV = $56.61


New NPV = -$2.42
Change = -$59.03
31.

Hindelang Inc. is considering a project that has the following cash flow and WACC data. What is the
project's MIRR? Note that a project's projected MIRR can be less than the WACC (and even negative), in
which case it will be rejected.
WACC: 12.25%
Year
Cash flows

0
-$850

1
$300

2
$320

3
$340

4
$360

0
-$850

1
$300
$424.31

2
$320
$403.20

3
$340
$381.65

4
$360
$360.00

a.
13.42%
b.
14.91%
c.
16.56%
d.
18.22%
e.
20.04%
Answer: c
WACC: 12.25%
Year
Cash flows
Compounded values

TV = Sum of comp'ed inflows: $1,569.16


MIRR = 16.56% Found as discount rate that equates PV of TV to cost, discounted back 4 years @ WACC
MIRR = 16.56% Alternative calculation, using Excel's MIRR function
32.

Stern Associates is considering a project that has the following cash flow data. What is the project's
payback?
Year
Cash flows
a.
2.31 years
b.
2.56 years
c.
2.85 years
d.
3.16 years
e.
3.52 years
Answer: e
Year
Cash flows
Cumulative CF
Payback = 3.52

0
-$1,100

1
$300

2
$310

3
$320

4
$330

5
$340

0
-$1,100
-$1,100

1
$300
-$800

2
$310
-$490

3
$320
-$170

4
$330
$160

5
$340
$500

33.

Which of the following statements is CORRECT?


a.
b.

An NPV profile graph shows how a projects payback varies as the cost of capital changes.
The NPV profile graph for a normal project will generally have a positive (upward) slope as the life of
the project increases.
c. An NPV profile graph is designed to give decision makers an idea about how a projects risk varies
with its life.
d. An NPV profile graph is designed to give decision makers an idea about how a projects contribution
to the firms value varies with the cost of capital.
e. We cannot draw a projects NPV profile unless we know the appropriate WACC for use in evaluating
the projects NPV.
Answer: d
34.

Which of the following statements is CORRECT? Assume that the project being considered has normal
cash flows, with one outflow followed by a series of inflows.
a.

35.

A projects NPV is generally found by compounding the cash inflows at the WACC to find the terminal
value (TV), then discounting the TV at the IRR to find its PV.
b. The higher the WACC used to calculate the NPV, the lower the calculated NPV will be.
c. If a projects NPV is greater than zero, then its IRR must be less than the WACC.
d. If a projects NPV is greater than zero, then its IRR must be less than zero.
e. The NPVs of relatively risky projects should be found using relatively low WACCs.
Answer: b
Datta Computer Systems is considering a project that has the following cash flow data. What is the
project's IRR? Note that a project's projected IRR can be less than the WACC (and even negative), in
which case it will be rejected.
Year
Cash flows

0
-$1,100

1
$450

2
$470

3
$490

a. 9.70%
b. 10.78%
c. 11.98%
d. 13.31%
e. 14.64%
Answer: d
Year
Cash flows

0
-$1,100

1
$450

2
$470

3
$490

IRR = 13.31%
36.

Masulis Inc. is considering a project that has the following cash flow and WACC data. What is the project's
discounted payback?
WACC: 10.00%
Year
Cash flows

0
-$950

1
$525

2
$485

3
$445

4
$405

a. 1.61 years
b. 1.79 years
c. 1.99 years
d. 2.22 years
e. 2.44 years
Answer: d
WACC: 10.00%
Year

Cash flows
PV of CFs
Cumulative CF
Payback = 2.22
37.

-$950
-$950
-$950
-

$525
$477
-$473
-

$485
$401
-$72
-

$445
$334
$262
2.22

$405
$277
$539
-

Tesar Chemicals is considering Projects S and L, whose cash flows are shown below. These projects are
mutually exclusive, equally risky, and not repeatable. The CEO believes the IRR is the best selection
criterion, while the CFO advocates the NPV. If the decision is made by choosing the project with the
higher IRR rather than the one with the higher NPV, how much, if any, value will be forgone, i.e., what's
the chosen NPV versus the maximum possible NPV? Note that (1) "true value" is measured by NPV, and
(2) under some conditions the choice of IRR vs. NPV will have no effect on the value gained or lost.
WACC: 7.50%
Year
CFS
CFL

0
-$1,100
-$2,700

1
$550
$650

2
$600
$725

3
$100
$800

4
$100
$1,400

a. $138.10
b. $149.21
c. $160.31
d. $171.42
e. $182.52
Answer: a
First, recognize that NPV makes theoretically correct capital budgeting decisions, so the highest NPV tells
us how much value could be added. We calculate the two projects' NPVs, IRRs, and MIRRs, but the MIRR
information is not needed for this problem. We then see what NPV would result if the decision were based
on the IRR (and the MIRR). The difference between the NPV is the loss incurred if the IRR criterion is
used. Of course, it's possible that IRR could choose the correct project.
WACC: 7.5000%
Year
CFS
Compounded CFs:
CFL
Compounded CFs:

0
-$1,100
-$2,700

MIRR, L = 9.67%
MIRR, S = 9.55%
MIRR Choice: L
NPV using MIRR: $224.31

1
$550
673.77
$650
796.28

3
$100
107.00
$800
856.00

IRR, L = 10.71181%
IRR, S = 12.24157%
IRR Choice: S
NPV using IRR: $86.20

Lost value using IRR versus MIRR: $138.10


Lost value using MIRR versus NPV: $0.00
Lost value using IRR versus NPV: $138.10
38.

2
$600
686.94
$725
830.05

4
TV
MIRR
$100
100.00 $1,567.71 9.5469%
$1,400
1400.00 $3,882.33 9.6663%
NPV, L = $224.3065
NPV, S = $86.2036
NPV Choice: L
NPV using NPV: $224.31

Loss below: 7.9850%


Loss below: 10.1638%
Loss below: 10.1638%

Yonan Inc. is considering Projects S and L, whose cash flows are shown below. These projects are
mutually exclusive, equally risky, and not repeatable. If the decision is made by choosing the project with
the shorter payback, some value may be forgone. How much value will be lost in this instance? Note that
under some conditions choosing projects on the basis of the shorter payback will not cause value to be lost.
WACC: 10.25%
Year
CFS
CFL
a.

$24.14

0
-$950
-$2,100

1
$500
$400

2
$800
$800

3
$0
$800

4
$0
$1,000

b. $26.82
c. $29.80
d. $33.11
e. $36.42
Answer: d
WACC: 10.250%
Year
CFS
CFL
Cumulative CF, S
Cumulative CF, L
Payback S = 1.56
Payback L = 3.10
NPV, L =
NPV, S =
Value lost
39.

0
-$950
-$2,100
-$950
-$2,100
-

Crossover = 11.093%
1
2
$500
$800
$400
$800
-$450
$350
-$1,700
-$900
1.56
-

3
$0
$800
$350
-$100
-

4
$0
$1,000
$350
$900
3.10

$194.79
$161.68
$33.11

A company is considering a new project. The CFO plans to calculate the projects NPV by estimating the
relevant cash flows for each year of the projects life (i.e., the initial investment cost, the annual operating
cash flows, and the terminal cash flow), then discounting those cash flows at the companys overall WACC.
Which one of the following factors should the CFO be sure to INCLUDE in the cash flows when
estimating the relevant cash flows?
a.
b.
c.

All sunk costs that have been incurred relating to the project.
All interest expenses on debt used to help finance the project.
The investment in working capital required to operate the project, even if that investment will be
recovered at the end of the projects life.
d.
Sunk costs that have been incurred relating to the project, but only if those costs were incurred
prior to the current year.
e.
Effects of the project on other divisions of the firm, but only if those effects lower the projects
own direct cash flows.
Answer: c
40.

Which one of the following would NOT result in incremental cash flows and thus should NOT be included
in the capital budgeting analysis for a new product?
a.

Using some of the firm's high-quality factory floor space that is currently unused to produce the
proposed new product. This space could be used for other products if it is not used for the project
under consideration.
b.
Revenues from an existing product would be lost as a result of customers switching to the new
product.
c.
Shipping and installation costs associated with a machine that would be used to produce the new
product.
d.
The cost of a study relating to the market for the new product that was completed last year. The
results of this research were positive, and they led to the tentative decision to go ahead with the
new product. The cost of the research was incurred and expensed for tax purposes last year.
e.
It is learned that land the company owns and would use for the new project, if it is accepted, could
be sold to another firm.
Answer: d
41.

A company is considering a proposed new plant that would increase productive capacity. Which of the
following statements is CORRECT?

a.

In calculating the project's operating cash flows, the firm should not deduct financing costs such as
interest expense, because financing costs are accounted for by discounting at the WACC. If
interest were deducted when estimating cash flows, this would, in effect, double count it.
b.
Since depreciation is a non-cash expense, the firm does not need to deal with depreciation when
calculating the operating cash flows.
c.
When estimating the projects operating cash flows, it is important to include both opportunity
costs and sunk costs, but the firm should ignore the cash flow effects of externalities since they are
accounted for in the discounting process.
d.
Capital budgeting decisions should be based on before-tax cash flows.
e.
The WACC used to discount cash flows in a capital budgeting analysis should be calculated on a
before-tax basis.
Answer: a
42.

Fool Proof Software is considering a new project whose data are shown below. The equipment that would
be used has a 3-year tax life, and the allowed depreciation rates for such property are 33%, 45%, 15%, and
7% for Years 1 through 4. Revenues and other operating costs are expected to be constant over the project's
10-year expected life. What is the Year 1 cash flow?
Equipment cost (depreciable basis)
Sales revenues, each year
Operating costs (excl. deprec.)
Tax rate

$65,000
$60,000
$25,000
35.0%

a.
$30,258
b.
$31,770
c.
$33,359
d.
$35,027
e.
$36,778
Answer: a
Equipment cost
Depreciation rate
Sales revenues
Operating costs (excl. deprec.)
Depreciation
Operating income (EBIT)
Taxes
Rate = 35%
After-tax EBIT
+ Depreciation
Cash flow, Year 1
43.

$65,000
33.0%
$60,000
25,000
21,450
$13,550
4,743
$ 8,808
21,450
$30,258

Temple Corp. is considering a new project whose data are shown below. The equipment that would be used
has a 3-year tax life, would be depreciated by the straight-line method over its 3-year life, and would have a
zero salvage value. No new working capital would be required. Revenues and other operating costs are
expected to be constant over the project's 3-year life. What is the project's NPV?
Risk-adjusted WACC
Net investment cost (depreciable basis)
Straight-line deprec. rate
Sales revenues, each year
Operating costs (excl. deprec.), each year
Tax rate
a.
b.
c.

$15,740
$16,569
$17,441

10.0%
$65,000
33.3333%
$65,500
$25,000
35.0%

d.
$18,359
e.
$19,325
Answer: e
WACC
10.0%
Investment cost
Sales revenues
Operating costs (excl. deprec.)
Depreciation rate = 33.333%
Operating income (EBIT)
Taxes
Rate = 35%
After-tax EBIT
+ Depreciation
Cash flow

Years

0
-$65,000

-$65,000
NPV

44.

$65,500
$65,500
25,000
25,000
21,667
21,667
$18,833
$18,833
6,592
6,592
$12,242
$12,242
21,667
21,667
$33,908
$33,908
$19,325

3
$65,500
25,000
21,667
$18,833
6,592
$12,242
21,667
$33,908

Liberty Services is now at the end of the final year of a project. The equipment originally cost $22,500, of
which 75% has been depreciated. The firm can sell the used equipment today for $6,000, and its tax rate is
40%. What is the equipments after-tax salvage value for use in a capital budgeting analysis? Note that if
the equipment's final market value is less than its book value, the firm will receive a tax credit as a result of
the sale.
a.
$5,558
b.
$5,850
c.
$6,143
d.
$6,450
e.
$6,772
Answer: b
% depreciated on equip.
Tax rate

75%
40%

Equipment cost
$22,500
Accumulated deprec.
16,875
Current book value of equipment
$ 5,625
Market value of equipment
6,000
Gain (or loss): Market value Book value
$ 375
Taxes paid on gain () or credited (+) on loss
-150
AT salvage value = market value +/ taxes $ 5,850
45.

Your company, CSUS Inc., is considering a new project whose data are shown below. The required
equipment has a 3-year tax life, and the accelerated rates for such property are 33%, 45%, 15%, and 7% for
Years 1 through 4. Revenues and other operating costs are expected to be constant over the project's 10year expected operating life. What is the project's Year 4 cash flow?
Equipment cost (depreciable basis)
Sales revenues, each year
Operating costs (excl. deprec.)
Tax rate
a.
$11,814
b.
$12,436
c.
$13,090
d.
$13,745
e. $14,432
Answer: c
Equipment cost
Depreciation rate, Year 4

$70,000
$42,500
$25,000
35.0%

$70,000
7.0%

Sales revenues
Operating costs (excl. deprec.)
Depreciation
Operating income (EBIT)
Taxes
Rate = 35%
After-tax EBIT
+ Depreciation
Cash flow, Year 4

$42,500
25,000
4,900
$12,600
4,410
$ 8,190
4,900
$13,090

46.
A firm is considering a new project whose risk is greater than the risk of the firms average project, based
on all methods for assessing risk. In evaluating this project, it would be reasonable for management to do which
of the following?
a.
b.
c.
d.

Increase the estimated IRR of the project to reflect its greater risk.
Increase the estimated NPV of the project to reflect its greater risk.
Reject the project, since its acceptance would increase the firms risk.
Ignore the risk differential if the project would amount to only a small fraction of the firms total
assets.
e. Increase the cost of capital used to evaluate the project to reflect its higher-than-average risk.
Answer: e
47.

Langston Labs has an overall (composite) WACC of 10%, which reflects the cost of capital for its average
asset. Its assets vary widely in risk, and Langston evaluates low-risk projects with a WACC of 8%,
average-risk projects at 10%, and high-risk projects at 12%. The company is considering the following
projects:
Project
A
B
C
D
E

Risk
High
Average
High
Low
Low

Expected Return
15%
12%
11%
9%
6%

Which set of projects would maximize shareholder wealth?


a. A and B.
b. A, B, and C.
c. A, B, and D.
d. A, B, C, and D.
e. A, B, C, D, and E.
Answer: c
Statement c is true; the others are false. The following table shows the required return for each project on
the basis of its risk level.
Project
A
B
C
D
E
48.

Risk
High
Average
High
Low
Low

Expected
Return
15%
12%
11%
9%
6%

Req'd return
for this risk
12%
10%
12%
8%
8%

Decision
accept
accept
reject
accept
reject

As a member of UA Corporation's financial staff, you must estimate the Year 1 cash flow for a proposed
project with the following data. What is the Year 1 cash flow?

Sales revenues, each year


Depreciation
Other operating costs
Interest expense
Tax rate

$42,500
$10,000
$17,000
$4,000
35.0%

a. $16,351
b. $17,212
c. $18,118
d. $19,071
e. $20,075
Answer: e
This problem is a bit harder than some of the earlier ones because it provides information on interest, and
some students might incorrectly include it as an input. We like this wrinkle because it's important for
students to know not to include financing costs in the cash flows.
Sales revenues
Operating costs (excl. deprec.)
Depreciation
Operating income (EBIT)
Taxes
Rate = 35%
After-tax EBIT
+ Depreciation
Cash flow, Year 1
49.

$42,500
17,000
10,000
$15,500
5,425
$10,075
10,000
$20,075

Marshall-Miller & Company is considering the purchase of a new machine for $50,000, installed. The
machine has a tax life of 5 years, and it can be depreciated according to the following rates. The firm
expects to operate the machine for 4 years and then to sell it for $12,500. If the marginal tax rate is 40%,
what will the after-tax salvage value be when the machine is sold at the end of Year 4?
Year
1
2
3
4
5
6
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

Depreciation Rate
0.20
0.32
0.19
0.12
0.11
0.06

$8,878
$9,345
$9,837
$10,355
$10,900

Answer: e
Year
1
2
3
4
5
6
Gross sales proceeds

Deprec.
Rate
0.20
0.32
0.19
0.12
0.11
0.06
1.00

Basis
$50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
$12,500

Annual
Deprec.
$10,000
16,000
9,500
6,000
5,500
3,000
$50,000

Year-end
Book Value
$40,000
24,000
14,500
8,500
3,000
0

Book value, end of Year 4


Profit
Tax on profit
Rate = 40%
AT salvage value = market value +/ taxes
50.

8,500
$ 4,000
1,600
$10,900

TexMex Food Company is considering a new salsa whose data are shown below. The equipment to be used
would be depreciated by the straight-line method over its 3-year life and would have a zero salvage value,
and no new working capital would be required. Revenues and other operating costs are expected to be
constant over the project's 3-year life. However, this project would compete with other TexMex products
and would reduce their pre-tax annual cash flows. What is the project's NPV? (Hint: Cash flows are
constant in Years 1-3.)
WACC
Pre-tax cash flow reduction for other products (cannibalization)
Investment cost (depreciable basis)
Straight-line deprec. rate
Sales revenues, each year for 3 years
Annual operating costs (excl. deprec.)
Tax rate

10.0%
-$5,000
$80,000
33.333%
$67,500
-$25,000
35.0%

a. $3,636
b. $3,828
c. $4,019
d. $4,220
e. $4,431
Answer: b
Investment (Basis)
WACC = 10%
Sales revenues
Cannibalization cost
Operating costs (excl. deprec.)
Basis x rate = deprec. Rate = 33.33%
Operating income (EBIT)
Taxes
Rate = 35%
After-tax EBIT
+ Depreciation
Cash flow
NPV
$3,828

t=0
$80,000

-$80,000

t=1
$67,500
-5,000
-25,000
-26,667
$10,833
-3,792
$ 7,042
26,667
$33,708

t=2
$67,500
-5,000
-25,000
-26,667
$10,833
-3,792
$ 7,042
26,667
$33,708

t=3
$67,500
-5,000
-25,000
-26,667
$10,833
-3,792
$ 7,042
26,667
$33,708