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how businesses make money and how organizations get things done every day, HR has increasingly played

a pivotal
role in building organizational capacity by attracting, assessing, selecting, and developing the talent required by

The challenge of leadership

There are of course, many kinds of leaders.There are the highly visible and famous leaders like politicians who
inspire the people of their nation to do great things, or military commanders who take their troops into battle and
save their country.
Semua pemimpin perlu pengikut, yang paling penting, pengikut dengan keterampilan dan kemampuan untuk
melakukan apa yang diperlukan, mendapatkan hasil, dan membawa ke kehidupan visi leaders. To mereka mencapai
tujuan besar atau menyadari visi besar membutuhkan orang-orang berbakat yang dapat dimobilisasi, berinovasi
dan mendapatkan sesuatu. Meskipun semua teknologi, inovasi, dan kemajuan di dunia, keberhasilan atau
kegagalan masih tergantung pada bakat orang dalam organisasi dan kepemimpinan untuk membimbing dan
mengarahkan mereka.

Evolution of leadership
Awalnya leadership hanya bisa dilahrikan bukan dibuat tetapi banyak riset
yang mengembangkan berbagi model leadership theory
diantaranya :Leadership behaviors ,Situational Leadership ,transactional and transformational leadership.
1. Leaders stimulate and inspire(transform) followers to achieve extraordinary
2. Characteristics:

Leadership is proactive


Works to change the organizational culture by implementing

new ideas


Employees achieve objectives through higher ideals and moral



Motivates followers by encouraging them to put group interests



Intellectual stimulation: Promote creative and innovative ideas

to solve problems.

3. Leaders promote compliance of his followers through both reward or

4. Characteristics:

Leadership is reactive
Works within the organizational culture


Employees achieve objectives through rewards and punishments

set by leader


Motivates followers by appealing to their own self interest


Management-by-exception: maintain the status quo; stress

correct actions to improve performance

5. According to the contingency approach of leadership, a single leadership

style is not applicable to all situations.
6. The 3 contingency models of leadership styles.
1. Fiedlers Contingency Model
2. Hersey and Blanchards situational theory
3. Path Goal Theory
4. Tannenbaum and Schmidts leadership continuum
A leadership development model
According McCall be belajarpelajari hal yang benar adalah dari bakat dan
Innovative classroom learning initiatives
development is usually thought of as formal development experiences in corporate training facilities and universities
where the newest and best thinking is taught and shared with the students.

technological innovations,
Improvements in formal development experiences continue to strengthen the transfer of learning and real
world relevance through design, technology, and innovation.Technology has brought virtual classrooms and
learning teams together from around the world.

leadership pipelines, and

Leadership development pipelines or pathways have been clearly defined with specific leadership
requirements at several key passages within the organization (Charan et al. 2001). Six typical passages
have been identified that in turn characterize important transitions thatcharacterize the various sets of
leadership skill requirements of large global organizations.

action learning,
In place of business cases and lectures, participants are formed into ad hoc teams assigned an issue or
problem facing the company, and sent out to work the issue onsite

several new innovations in classroom-based learning characterize the way

new training methodologies are used to develop leaders:

strategy and business-driven curriculum;

Formats such as action learning tackle real time business issues. Leadership development professionals work with
senior management to anticipate new areas where business skills and knowledge need to be str engthened and design
curriculum focused on those needs.

leadership competencies driven;

Studies of leadership competencies yield an inventory of competencies leaders need today,
and in the future.These competencies provide the basis for assessment and development
systems throughout the organization. Not only are they helpful to the organization for such
things as curriculum development and career planning, but they help individuals map out
their personal development plans.

management as faculty;
Business school cases provide interesting discussions and broaden perspectives on issues, which leads to greater
knowledge and perspective on a problem. Involving senior management in the instruction of future leaders is a
powerful approach to sharing information and transferring best practices. Sessions characterized by sharing of ideas
and discussion are much more valuable than those characterized by lecturing and presenting. Not only will ideas that
are immediately applicable to business challenges be shared, but next generation leaders will develop increased
respect for the wisdom and leadership of those who share their experience, knowledge, and expertise.

multiple-session classroom training;

360-degree feedback assessments on values and competencies;
360-degree feedback tools are well established as an extremely powerful tool for focusing development and
behavior.Valid assessments, aligned with business strategy, and organizationspecific leadership competencies,
provide focus and motivation to learn new KSAs needed to meet the challenges of the future.

leadership advisory board;

These, comprised of senior line executives and learning professionals (both internal and external), are used to
provide direction and focus to ensure learning initatives do not stray from key needs or grow stale.They create
shared ownership for leadership development effectiveness and enlighten leaders regarding new technologies and
approaches to learning.

centralized funding;
Core programs that focus on basic building blocks such as key transitions are fully funded so they dont force the
geographic or market units to trade off necessary investments in strategic development against tactical training

core leadership curriculum with additional electives.

Core leadership development programs form the basis of an organization-wide definition of leadership. These core
programs usually focus on typical leadership issues that cut across the organization, and create a richer learning
environment. Participants can be drawn from diverse backgrounds and experiences to build networks across the
organization, and facilitate communication and innovation.

Innovations in experience-based learning

Determining the right stuf

leadership development professionals ask their best leaders what on-the-job learning experiences have been
most valuable to them in their careers and where they got thatexperience. By identifying key learning
experiences, organizations determine which experiences future leaders need to have to get the best

Identifying talent
Most of a companys future leadership team is already part of the organization. They are the talented
best and the brightest individuals that were hired by the organization years ago. They have been
working and contributing to the organization in a wide variety of roles and responsibilities, each experience
adding to their knowledge, perspective, vision, and drive for the future and ability to lead effectively.

Identifying developmental experiences

People learn from all kinds of experiences, but in order to leverage learning experiences that make
successful leaders, experiences with the highest value need to be identified.To identify key development
experiences for future leaders, focus groups, archival analysis, and structured interviews are used.

Getting the right experience

understanding what key lessons are learned in a typical expatriate experience and how they relate to future
leadership requirements, leadership development professionals can search for a series of ad hoc experiences
that the person can have outside of their home country on a temporary basis rather than waiting for an
opening, and moving their family. Everyone wins: less expense, less risk, more frequent, and more

Talent management
Key elements that make strong talent successful
Lots of early bets
Identifying highly talented professionals and future leaders is a numbers game. The earlier in the process the
assessment and development begins, the greater the chances are of developing the right people. Rather than focusing
on a select few, successful talent management systems stock the development pipeline with as many talented
candidates as they can, carefully assessing them and nurturing them as much as possible.
Talented individuals are encouraged to seek out mentors to help guide and teach them. Experienced high performers
are encouraged to share their knowledge and experiences with others, coaching and teaching them those things that
cant be learned any other way.
Job and project assignments
On-the-job learning is facilitated by identifying and tracking key learning assignments in the organization and
ensuring that not only high performers but high-potential talent has an opportunity to have key learning
experiences.The focus is shifted from staffing based solely on performance, to performance and learning needs to
meet future leadership requirements.
In-depth assessments

In addition to self-assessments by the individual, and management assessments by superiors, selected high potentials
and next-generation leaders are assessed using in-depth assessmentprocesses. These assessments create a deep
understanding of the individuals strengths, weaknesses, developmental needs, and long-term potential. They are
focused largely on feedback from individuals who have worked closely with the candidate over an extended period
of time against comprehensive criteria for advancement to very senior level positions within the organization.They
include detailed interviews, 360-degree survey assessments and other assessment tools aimed at getting a deep
understanding of the individuals capabilities and potential. Sometimes aptitude tests and other measurement tools
with appropriate reliability and validity are used.
Winning or performance culture
In addition to the methods and approaches listed above, organizations that are successful in managing their talent
often have a winning or performance culture where moderate risk taking, high performance, competition, openness,
freedom and flexibility, empowerment, and high standards of achievement are evident.A high performance culture is
a high development culture as individuals and organizational units stretch to reach challenging objectives and break
performance goals and targets through innovation and hard work.
Banyak awal "taruhan"

Mengidentifikasi profesional yang sangat berbakat dan pemimpin masa depan adalah permainan angka.
Sebelumnya dalam proses pengkajian dan pengembangan dimulai, semakin besar kemungkinan mengembangkan
orang yang tepat. Daripada berfokus pada beberapa pilih, sukses sistem manajemen bakat saham pipa
pembangunan dengan banyak calon berbakat yang mereka bisa, hati-hati menilai mereka dan memelihara mereka
sebanyak mungkin.

Individu-individu berbakat didorong untuk mencari mentor untuk membantu panduan dan mengajar mereka.
Berpengalaman pemain tinggi didorong untuk berbagi pengetahuan dan pengalaman mereka dengan orang lain,
pembinaan dan mengajar mereka hal-hal yang tidak bisa dipelajari dengan cara lain.

Pekerjaan dan proyek tugas

On-the-job learning difasilitasi dengan mengidentifikasi dan melacak tugas belajar kunci dalam organisasi dan
memastikan bahwa tidak hanya pemain tinggi tetapi bakat yang berpotensi tinggi memiliki kesempatan untuk
memiliki kunci fokus experiences.The pembelajaran bergeser dari staf hanya berdasarkan kinerja, kinerja dan
pembelajaran perlu untuk memenuhi kebutuhan kepemimpinan masa depan.

Penilaian mendalam
Selain penilaian diri oleh individu, dan penilaian manajemen oleh atasan, karena potensi tinggi dan pemimpin
generasi berikutnya yang dinilai menggunakan mendalam assessmentprocesses. Penilaian ini membuat pemahaman
yang mendalam dari kekuatan individu, kelemahan, kebutuhan perkembangan, dan potensi jangka panjang. Mereka
berfokus terutama pada umpan balik dari orang-orang yang telah bekerja sama dengan calon selama jangka waktu
terhadap kriteria yang komprehensif untuk kemajuan ke posisi tingkat yang sangat senior dalam organization.They
termasuk wawancara rinci, penilaian survei 360 derajat dan penilaian lainnya alat yang ditujukan untuk
mendapatkan pemahaman yang mendalam tentang kemampuan individu dan potensi. Kadang-kadang tes bakat dan
alat-alat pengukuran lain dengan keandalan dan validitas yang tepat digunakan.

Menang atau budaya kinerja

Selain metode dan pendekatan yang tercantum di atas, organisasi yang berhasil dalam mengelola bakat mereka
sering memiliki menang atau kinerja budaya di mana pengambilan risiko moderat, kinerja tinggi, persaingan,
keterbukaan, kebebasan dan fleksibilitas, pemberdayaan, dan standar yang tinggi dari pencapaian yang jelas .A
budaya kinerja tinggi budaya pengembangan tinggi sebagai individu dan unit organisasi peregangan untuk
mencapai tujuan yang menantang dan memecahkan tujuan kinerja dan target melalui inovasi dan kerja keras.

Sistem manajemen bakat yang efektif terintegrasi membuat bahasa yang sama di seluruh organisasi untuk
membahas dan menilai talent.They memastikan rencana pengembangan individu masalah bisnis yang lebih
terfokus, dan karir terintegrasi. Mereka memperkuat rasa tanggung jawab untuk akuisisi dan pengembangan bakat
melalui keterlibatan yang konsisten dari tim manajemen.