Abstract Algebra
(B.Sc)
Dr. Radhika
Lecturer
Deptt. of Science
Biyani Girls College, Jaipur
Published by :
Think Tanks
Biyani Group of Colleges
Edition: 2015
Price:
Preface
am glad to present this book, especially designed to serve the needs of the students.
The book has been written keeping in mind the general weakness in understanding the
fundamental concepts of the topics. The book is selfexplanatory and adopts the Teach
Yourself style. It is based on questionanswer pattern. The language of book is quite easy and
understandable based on scientific approach.
Any further improvement in the contents of the book by making corrections, omission and
inclusion is keen to be achieved based on suggestions from the readers for which the author
shall be obliged.
I acknowledge special thanks to Mr. Rajeev Biyani, Chairman & Dr. Sanjay Biyani, Director
(Acad.) Biyani Group of Colleges, who are the backbones and main concept provider and also
have been constant source of motivation throughout this Endeavour. They played an active role
in coordinating the various stages of this Endeavour and spearheaded the publishing work.
I look forward to receiving valuable suggestions from professors of various educational
institutions, other faculty members and students for improvement of the quality of the book. The
reader may feel free to send in their comments and suggestions to the under mentioned
address.
Author
UnitI
The set of all real numbers under the usual multiplication operation is not a group
since
a)
b)
c)
d)
Ans.
2
1
If (G, ) is a group s.t. (ab)
=
a)
b)
c)
d)
a1
b1 ,
a, b
G then G is
Ans.
3
d)
b)
c)
2
If (G, ) is a group s.t. a = e, a G then G is
a) semi group
c) nonabelian group
Ans.
5
b) abelian group
d) none of these
b)
Z is a
a)
0
c)
1
`Ans. c)
6
1
1
In the group (G, ) the value of (a b)
is
a)
Ans.
7
b) 1
d) 12
ab
b) b
c) a
d)
ba
b)
Let G denotes the set of all n n singular matrices with rational numbers as
entries. Then under multiplication G is
a)
Subgroup
b)
c)
d)
Ans.
c)
10
a)
Ans.
c)
b) 1
c) 5
d) 4
Ans.
a)
b) 8
th
d) 4
d) 2
a)
b)
c)
d)
Ans.
d)
Q .1
Define order of an element of a group and prove that order of every element of a
finite group is finite and less than or equal to the order of the group.
Ans.
Order of an element of a group Let a be an element of a group G if n is a least positive integer s.t.
an
denoted by
O( a )=n
Statement of Theorem Order of every element of a finite group is finite and less than or equal to the order of the
group.
Proof  Let (G, * ) be a finite group whose order is n.
2
G then a a = a
Let a
a2
n
So on a
a = a3
s.t.
s
= a ,r<s
r 1
ar . (a )
r 1
s
= a . (a )
e = a sr where s  r 0
and a
= e where k 0
O( a )
(1)
now since k = s  r n
k n
(2)
O (G) = n
Hence proved that order of every element of a finite group is finite and less than or equal
to the order of the group.
Q.2
Give the definition of cyclic group with example and prove that every infinite cyclic
group has two and only two generators
Ans.
Cyclic group Let G be a group then G is called cyclic group of G if there exist a element a in such
a way that every element of G can be written as some integral power of a
n
or G = { a /nZ }.
Statement of Theorem Every infinite cyclic group has two and only two generators.
proof
s.t.
m
x= a
x = (a1 )m
x can also be written as some integral power of a1
a1 is also generator of G.
so
If possible
1
Let a = a
a . a = a1 . a
a2 = e
O( a )=2
O (G) = 2
a1 .
Now we prove that there does not exist any other generator.
m
Let if possible a , m
So for a
1 is also generator of G.
G, n
a = (am )n
a . a1
mn
1
= a . a
s.t.
e = amn1
O ( a ) mn1
O (G) mn1
which is contradiction
1
Hence a and a
are only two generators of Z.
Hence proved that every infinite cyclic group has two and only two generators.
Q.3
Pn
Proof Let S = {
x2

xn
Pn
Pn
Pn
1 Associativity We know that one  one and on  to function satisfy associative property.
i.e. fo (goh) = (fog) oh
so permutation multiplication is associative in
Pn
Since I
(foI) (
xi
) = f [I(
=f(
xi
so
xi
]
)]
xi
S, f
Pn
be
(Iof) (
xi
) = I [f(
xi
=f(
xi
xi
S, f
Pn
Hence I is identity
3 Existence of inverse Pn
Let f
1
. Since f is one  one and on  to so inverse of f i.e. f
1
also one  one and on  to on S so f
Pn
Now
exist which is
Of
(x) = f
[f (x)] = x = I (x)
fof 1 = I = f 1 Of
Pn
Pn
multiplication.
This is called "Symmetric Group".
Q.4
Ans
x1
x2

xn
cyclic permutation if
f(
xi
)=
x i+1
f(
xk
)=
x1
and f (
xj
)=
, i = 1, 2, 3k  1, k n
xj
, j 1, 2, 3,k
Example  f = (1 2 4 6)
S7
Order of a cycle n
If f is cycle of length n then f I, where n is least positive integer then n is called order of
cycle f.
Example
Let f = (1 2 5 7)
f=
f4 =
f3
S7
f=
= (1 2 4) (5 8 9) (6 7)
= (1 4) (1 2) (5 9) (5 8) (6 7)
Here number of transposition is 5 which is odd so permutation f is odd permutation
Q.5
An
n!
2
Proof We know that multiplication of two even permutation is even so set
An
is closed for
multiplication.
1
So I is identity of multiplication in
3
An
An
Let Set
Sn
has
e1
e2
Or
Sn
={
e1
e2
,

em
em
O1
An
is
n!
2
O2

Or
O1
O2
,
m + r = n! Now let
(1)
e1
e2

em
are
O2
Or

odd permutation.
e1
Now since
e2
of odd permutation is r in
Sn

em
so
m r (2)
O1
similarly
even permutation is
m in
O2
Sn

Or
so
r m (3)
By (2)
& (3)
m=r
Now from (1)
n!
2
m=r=
Order of
Q. 6
If
An
= (1 7 2 6 3 5 8 4)
n
2 !
Also express
Find whether
Ans
1 =
Now
( )
1 =
= (1 3 2 6 5 7 4 8)
= (2 6 5 7 4 8 1 3)
= ( (1) (7) (2) (6) (3) (5) (8) (4))
Now
=
= (1 2 5 8) (3 4) (6 7)
= (1 8) (1 5) (1 2) (3 4) (6 7)
number of transposition is 5 so
Q .7
Define Subgroup of a group with example and prove that necessary and sufficient
condition for a nonempty subset H of a group G to be a subgroup is a H, b
Ans
is odd.
ab1
b H
Now
b H
1
H and b H
ab1 H
condition is necessary
Sufficient condition H, b H
Let a
ab H
H, a
aa1 H
H, b
eb1 H
b H
Now
H, b
a(b1)1 H
a b
H, b H
Lastly
a , b, c
a (bc) = ( a b) c
a , b, c G
H is associative
Hence H is subgroup
Thus condition is sufficient
Q .8
The union of two subgroups of a group G is a subgroup iff one is contained in the
other.
Proof
H1
Let
H1
H2
H1
Since
H1
H2
H2
H1
or
or
then
H1
(1)
and
H2
are subgroup so by
H2
is also a subgroup of G.
H1
(1)
H2
and
Sufficient condition H1
Let
and
H2
H1
H1
or
U
H2
H2
is also a subgroup of G
H1
H1
Now
H1 H2
H 1
H2
a
but
and
a b
a H 1
H1
H 1
H2
and a
b H 2
and
H2
and b
H1
H2
H2
b H1
H1
H1
U
U
H2
H2
is subgroup)
H1
a b
H1
Now if a b
a
H1
H2
or a b
H1
and a b
a1
H1
and a b
H1
1
eb
H1
( a b)
H1
H1
which is contradiction
H2
Now if a b
a b
H2
and b
H2
( a b) b1
a e
a b
H2
and b
H2
H2
H2
H2
which is contradiction
Our assumption is wrong
H1
H2
or
H2 H1
Q.9
Define cosets and find all the cosets of H = {0,4} in the group G = (
Ans
Coset
Z8
+8
).
G then set
a H = { ah/h H }
H}
Z8
+8
)=
({0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7},
+8
}
Here G = {0,1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
H = {0, 4}
Here H is subgroup of G for
+8
and it is commutative so all left cosets are equal to
right cosets.
Now
0
G and0 + H = H +0
= {0
G and
= {1
G and
+8
+8
0,
0
4} = {0,4} = H
1+ H = H + 1
+8
+8
0, 1 4} = {1,5}
2+ H = H + 2
+8
+8
0, 2 4} = {2,6}
= {2
3
G and
3+ H = H + 3
+8
+8
0, 3 4} = {3,7}
= {3
4
G and
4+ H = H + 4
+8
+8
0,
4
4} = {4,0} = H
= {4
5
G and
5+ H = H + 5
+8
+8
0,
5
= {5
6
G and
6+ H = H + 6
+8
+8
0,
6
= {6
7
G and
4} = {5,1} = H+1
4} = {6,2} = H+2
7+ H = H + 7
= {7
+8
+8
0, 7 4} = {7,3} = H+3
Ans
Statement Order of each subgroup of a finite group is a divisor of the order of the
group.
Proof Let G be a finite group of order n and H be a subgroup of order m.
f(h) = a h
a H
H,
a2
G=
a1
HU
O(G) = O(
a1 H
so
H, a2
ak
H
ak
H) + O(
a3
H UU
) + O(
a2
H)O(
ak
H)
Let G be a group of prime order p then we have to prove that G is cyclic since p is prime
p >1 i.e. O(G) > 1 G has at least two elements. So there exist an element a s.t.
a
e.
Now
let
O( a ) = m
so
O( a ) 2
G.
Proof
Given that (G: H) = 2 i.e. H has two different right coset or left costs in G. We know
that H is left and right coset of itself. So
G=HUH a
H H a =
and G = H U bH
H bH =
so H a = bH
Now
a
aH, a
H a , H a = bH
bH bH = a H
**********************
bH
UnitII
then
prove that
i) H is a subgroup of G
f(H) is a subgroup of G'
ii)
f 1 ( H ' ) = {x G / + (x)
'
Proof i) Since f is homomorphism from G to G and
,
H s.t. f(e) = e
'
'
Let a , b
f(H)
f(H)
a , b H s.t.
G' .
'
f( a ) =
a
Now
'
a and f(b) = b
'
' 1
1
= f( a ) of (b)
1
= f(a) Of ( b )
= f( a b
) (1)
{f is homomorphism}
Since H is subgroup so if
a
H b H
a b H
f( a b1 )
'
'1
b
1
Thus if a
, b
f(H)
11
f(H)
1
'
ii> We have to prove f
( H ) is subgroup of G where
Now f
'
( H ) is nonempty set
'
because e
Now let a , b
f(a)
f 1 ( H ' )
H ' , f(b)
H'
1
1
f( a b ) = f( a ) O f( b )
1
= f( a ) O [f (b)]
(2)
f( a )
H 1 f(b)
H'
H'
H ' is subgroup of
G'
f( a ) O [f (b)]1
H'
a b
Thus a
H'
'
( H )
f 1 ( H ' ), b
f 1 ( H ' )
a a b1
f 1 (
H' )
Hence f
Q .2
'
( H ) is subgroup of G.
Ans
1
'
G and e is identity element of G }
Proof of Statement
Let f be a monomorphism i.e. f is oneone homomorphism there we have to prove that
Kernel of f ={e}.
Let K be Kernel of f and x K
f(x) = e '
'
so K = {e}
Conversely
Let K = {e} then we have to prove that f is oneone
Let x, y
G s.t.
f(x) = f(y)
1
1
f(x) o [f ( y )]
= f(y) o [f ( y )]
1
1
f(x) o f( y ) = f(y) o f( y )
1
1
f (x y
) = f (y y
)
1
f (x y
) = f (e)
1
'
f (x y
)= e
1
x y
But
K = {e}
so
1
x y
=e
x=y
Q.3
gn
G,
g1
N.
N and every g
Ans
Normal subgroup
Let G be a group then a subgroup N of G is called normal subgroup of G if Ng = gN
g
G.
let n N,
Now
gn
g G
( Ng = gN)
gN gn Ng.
gn Ng.
n1
gn =
n1
s.t.
gn
g1 = n1 g
gn
gn
g1
n1
g1
g1
N is normal.
Let
Now
G then g n
n g NG
g1
n N
n g = (g
)ng
1
=g( g
n g)
Ng gN
Now
n1
(1)
n1
=g
n1
) g.
Ng
Ng (2)
gN
From
gN
1
( g
g)
= (g n1 g
gN
(1)
& (2)
Ng = g N.
N is normal in G.
Q.4
Proof
g1 = N,
g1
gN
N, g
N
N  (1)
g1
g1
g1 N g N
g1 N g
(2)
g1
gN
g1
N gN
g1
G.
N=gN
Q .5
Proof
Conversely 
Let g N
gN
g1
gx
=N
G, x
N1
and
N2
N1
N2
is normal
subgroup of G.
N1
N2
Let
Let
then
g G, n
N1
and n
N2
G
N1
gn
N1
N1
is
N2
gn
g1
N2
N2
is
normal}
g
G, n
normal}
gn
Q.6
N1
g1
N1
N2
N2
is normal in G.
Proof
Let
x H and x
N, h
H, h
1
H hx h
N, h
1
H hx h
h x h1
{ N is normal}
H N
H N is normal in H.
Q .7
'
'
'
'
G / f(x) = e } where e is identity of G
'
since f(e) = e
e K so K
Let
Now
1
1
f ( ab ) = f( a ) f( b )
f (b)
= f( a ) ( 1
'
= e . e
= e
'
'1
{ f is homomorphism}
K is subgroup of G.
Now let a
f (x a
K and x G
x1 ) = f(x) f( a ) f( x1 )
'
= f(x) e
{f is homomorphism}
[f (x )]1
1
= f(x) [f (x )]
'
= e
x a
x1
K is normal in G.
Q.8
Solution
Let H and K are two normal subgroups of G then we have to prove that HK is
normal in G.
Firstly we will prove that HK is subgroup of G.
Let
k1
h1
k1
k2
Now
=
h1
h1
(
(
h2
h1
k2
k1
) (h2 k 2 )
) h2
k1
k2
k3
h21
h1
HK where
h1
k1
h2
( k2
k1
k 21 = k 3 (say)
h2
h1
1
k
( h2 h2 ) 3
1
h
= ( h1 h2 ) ( 2
h2
and
k3
h1
k3
k3
since
H,
h21 ) (1)
K,
h21
h2
h2
h2
K
h2
{ K is normal in G}
h1
h2
So from (1)
1
h
( h1 h2 ) ( 2
k3
h21 ) HK
( h1 k 1 ) ( h2 k 21 )
HK
HK is subgroup of G
Let
hk
HK and x
h H, x G and k
xh
(x h
x1
x1 ) (x k
x h( x1 x) k
H and x K
K, x
x1
x1 ) H K
x1
HK
HK is normal subgroup of G.
Q.9
Define Quotient Group and cosets. Prove that the set of all cosets of a normal
subgroup H of a group G. is a group with respect to multiplication of cosets defined
as Ha H b = H ab a, b G
Ans
Coset 
h H, x G}
G
H .
G
H .
Proof Let H be any normal subgroup of G and set of all right cosets of H in G is
G
H
= {H a /
G
H
is group.
Closure 
Let H a, H b
because a b
G
H
where a , b
G then H a H b = H a b
2 Associativity Let H a , H b, H c
then
G
H
where a , b, c G
G
H
H a (H b H c) = H a H b c
= H a (b c)
= H ( a b) c
=H a bHc
= (H a H b) H c
3
Identity element
Let H x be identity element of
G
H
H a Hx=H a
H a x=H a
a x= a
x=e
Thus He = H is identity
4
Existence of inverse
Let H x be inverse element of Ha then
H a Hx=H
H a x = He
a x=e
x = a1 G
Thus H x =
Thus
G
H
Ha
is inverse element of H a in
is a group
G
H
G
H
G
H
composition table of
Ans
G
H .
normal subgroup of G so
(left) cosets of H in G.
Cosets of H in G are
0+H = H+0 = { 8,4, 0, 4, 8} = H
1+H = { 7, 3, 1, 5, 9} = H+1
2+H = { 6, 2, 2, 6, 10 } = H+2
3+H = { 5, 1, 3, 7, 11 } = H+3
4+H = { 4, 0, 4, 8, } = H+4 = H
Similarly 5+H = H+5 = H+1
1 +H = { 9, 5, 1, 3, 7} = 3+H
2+H = { 10, 6, 2, 2, 6} = 2+H
and so.
So we can see here that distint cosets are
G
H
Composition table of
+
H
H+
1
H+
G
H
H
H+1
H
H+1
H+1 H+2
H+2 H+3
H+2 H+3
H+3 H
H+2
H+3
H+1
2
H+
3
H+3
H+1 H+2
G
N
s.t.
(x) = N x,
For homomorphism
(x y) = Nxy
= Nx Ny
= (x) (y)
is homomorphism
For each Nx
G
x
N ,
G s.t.
(x) = Nx
Q.12
is onto
is onto homomorphism
If is a homomorphism of G on to
then the Kernel of f = N.
G
N
G,
G
N
Let f: G
Proof
x G
then
Ker f = {x
G / f(x) = N}
G
N
N is identity of
= {x G / Nx = N}
= {x G / x
N}
=N
Ker f = N
Q.13
Proof
Let G be a group and f (G) be its homomorphic image. Let K be Kernel of f then K is
normal subgroup of K so we can define quotient group
that
G
K
f (G)
f (G)
K
G
K . then we have to prove
s.t.
(K x) = f(x)
ab
f ( ab1 ) = e '
K
{ where e is identity of f(G)}
f ( a ) f ( b1 ) = e '
f ( a ) [f (b)]1 = e '
f ( a ) = f (b)
(K a ) = (Kb)
is welldefined
For homomorphism
(K a b) = f ( a b)
= f ( a ) f (b)
= (K a ) (Kb)
is homomorphic
For oneone.
Let
(K a ) = (Kb)
f ( a ) = f (b)
f ( a ) [f (b)]1 = e '
f ( a ) f ( b1 ) = e '
{f is homomorphic}
f ( ab1 ) = e '
a b1
K a =Kb
is oneone
f (G) then x G
s.t.
b = f (x) = [K x]
is onto
Thus is isomorphic
i.e
G
K
f (G)
G'
x G is an
'
isomorphism where G is the additive group of integers and G is the additive
Here f: G
s.t.
f (x) = 2x,
x Z
We have to prove that f is isomorphism. For this we will prove that f is welldefined,
homomrphic, oneone and onto.
For well defined
Let
x1
x2
2 x1 = 2 x2
f ( x1 ) = f ( x2 )
f is well defined
For homomorphic:x1
f(
x2
x1
) = 2(
=2
x1
+2
=f(
x1
)+f(
x2
x2
x2
f is homomorphic
For oneone:Let
f(
x1
)=f(
x1
x1
x2
x2
=2
=
x2
f is oneone
For onto:'
for each element y of G , x
s.t.
G.
y = 2x = f(x)
f is onto
Hence f is isomorphism.
************************
UnitIII
Ans
A nonempty set R with two binary operation (+) and () is called ring if it satisfy
following portulats.
i) Associativity of addition
a b, c
(a + b)+c = a + (b + c),
a +0 = a = 0 +a,
a R s.t.
a +b = 0 = b +a
iv) Commutativity of addition
a +b = b +a,
a, b
v) Associativity of Multiplication
a. (b. c) = (a. b) .c,
a, b, c
a, b, c
Types of Ring
i) Commutative ring
A ring Commutative for multiplication
i.e. a. b = b. a
a, b R
a, b R s.t.
a 0, b 0 and a. b = 0
Prove that a ring R without zerodivisor iff the cancellation laws hold in R
Necessary condition
Let R be a ring without zerodivisor
Let x, y, z R.
s.t.
x. y = x. z,
yz = 0
y=z
a 0, b 0
we know that a. 0 = 0
a. b = a. 0
b=0
which is contradiction
so R is without zero divisor
Q .3
Prof
a1
Let R has
a2
an

n elements
a1
a2
. x,
a3
. x,
. x
an
.x R
let
ai
.x
aj
.x
( ai
aj
ai
aj
.x=
).x=0
aj
.x=0
because x 0
=0
aj
Thus R = {
y
If
am
y=
a1
a2
al
. x = x.
}={
al
R s.t.
al
Now
al
. y = y.
al
=(
am
. x) .
a1
R s.t.
am
and x R so
x=
am
R then
. x = x.
an

al
. x,
a2
. x 
an
. x}
am
. (x.
al
al
is identity element of R.
)=
am
.x
=y
Now
al
s.t.
R so
al
ar
ar
ar
. x = x.
ar
is multiplicative inverse of x
here x is any arbitrary element of R so every element of R has its multiplicative inverse in
R.
Hence R is field.
Q .4 Define characteristic of a ring. Prove that the characteristic of an integral domain is
either zero or prime number.
Proof
Characteristic of a ring
Let (R, +, ) be a ring then a least positive integer n is called characteristic of R if
n a = 0,
a R
p1
p2
where
Now a
p1
p2
1,
1,
a . a
a2 0
p1
< p,
p2
< p.
a2
and
p1
0 ( a2 ) =
p1
p2
p2
a2 = 0
( p1
a ) ( p2
either
p1
a )=0
p2
a = 0 or
a =0
but
p2
0. {
0 and
0 and
p2
p1
0}
which is contradiction
So our assumption that p is not prime is wrong.
Hence p is prime.
Q. 5
Let R = { m + n
2 / m, n Z}
Now let
m1
n1
2 ; m2 + n2
R.
where
m1
then (
m1
n1
n1
m2
n2
2 ) + ( m2 + n2
( m1 + n1 ), ( n1 + n2 )
(
m1
m1
n2
n1
+
+
n1
( m1
2 ) . ( m2 + n2
m2
m2
2 ) = ( m1 + n1 ) + ( n1 + n2
2 ) = ( m1
m2
n1
+2
n2
+(
2
+2
n1
n2
), (
m1
n2
n1
m2
We know that for addition and multiplication real number are associative here R is set of
real numbers so R is associative for addition and multiplication.
Now let
m+n
then (m + n
2 be any element of R
2 ) + (0 + 0 2 ) = (m +0) + (n + 0) 2
=m+n
0+0
(m + n
z is additive identity.
2 ) + [  m + (n) 2 ] = (m m) + (n n) 2
=0+0
m+n
2 ) . (1 + 0 2 ) = m + n 2
(m + n
1+0
(m + n 2 ) . (m+n 2) = 1 + 0 2
1
m+n 2
1
m+n 2
m n 2
( m+ n 2 ) ( m+n 2)
m
m 2n 2
is multiplicative inverse of m + n
n
m 2n 2
m n 2
2
2
m 2n
this is element of R if
m
2
m 2n
n
2
m 2n
Z and
m = 5, n = 3 then
=
5
7
3
7
R.
R is not a field.
Q. 6
i> a + a = 0,
ii> a +b = 0
= a
a
a =b
R prove that
Proof
i) Let
then a + a
{ R is ring
(a+ a)2 = ( a + a )
a2 = a
( a + a ). ( a +a) = a + a
a2 + a2 + a2 + a2 = a + a
a + a + a + a = a + a
( a + a )=0
a ,b
ii) Let
a +b = 0
and
a +b = a + a
{from i)
b= a
ii) Let
so
a ,b
R then
a +b
(a+ b)2 = a +b
( a +b). ( a +b) = ( a +b)
a + a . b + b. a + b = a +b
a . b + b. a = 0
2
+ a . b + b. a + b = a +b
a . b = b. a
{from ii)}
R is commutative ring
Q .7
Define subring. Let < R, +, . > be a ring and S be a nonempty subset of R. Prove
that S is a subring iff
i) a
ii)
Proof
S, b
S, b
a b S
a b S
Subring
Let R be a ring and S be any non empty subset of R then S is called subring of R if
S, b
i>
ii>
iii>
S, b S
a +b
a b
Let
a ,b
a + ( b) S
a b
{S is a ring
{S is closed
S, b
a b S
a b
S and a . b
Now
S,
a a
0 S
0 a
 a
and
S
S
S,  b S
and
a (  b)
a +b S
S, b S
a  b S
Thus S is closed for addition and multiplication. S has identity element for addition.
Every element in S has its additive inverse in S and since S c R so S is commutative
for addition, associative for addition and hold distributive law.
Hence S is subring of R.
Q.8
Ans
Define subfield and Primefield. Prove that the necessary and sufficient conditions
for a nonempty subset K of a field F to be a subfield are
K, b
i>
ii>
a K, 0 b
a b K
a b1
Subfield
Let F be a field and K be its nonempty set then K is called subfield of F if
i>
K, b K
a +b
ii>
a b
iii>
K, b
K
K
Prime Field If a field does not have any proper subfield then field is called prime field.
Proof of Theorem
Necessary condition
Let K be a subfield of field F.
Let a
K, b K
a + (  b) K
a b
K, 0 b K
K,  b K {K is field}
{K is closed}
K, b1 K {K is field }
b1 K
{K is closed}
Sufficient condition
Let K be a nonempty subset of field F
a
and
K, b
a b
1
K, a b K.
then
a
K, a
a a
0 K
K, a
K
 a
K,  b K
[additive identity]
0 a
[additive inverse]
a  (  b) K
a +b K
K, a
1 K
1.
K. a
K, b1 K
[multiplicative identity]
1. a1
[multiplicative inverse]
(b1 )1
a b
1
Prove that the set S = { a + 2
b+ 4
13
c / a , b, c Q} is a subfield of
R.
Ans
Let
S and y S
where
x=
a + 21
y=
1
d+ 2
1
b+ 4
1
e+ 4
a , b, c Q
c,
d, e, f Q
f,
then
1
x y = ( a + 2
1
b+ 4
1
= ( a d) + 2
1
c) (d + 2
1
(b e) + 4
a d, b e, c f
1
x
1
e+ 4
(c f)
Q
f)
1
x
x1 =
13
13
1
1
a+2 b+4 1 c
a +4 b + 2.2 c 2 a b 2 b c4 a c
1
1
a3 +2 b3 + 4 c 33 a . 2 b+4 c
13
13
13
13
13
1 3
13
1 3
a +(2 b) +( 4 c) ( a ) (2 b) (2 b)(4 c) a( 4 c )
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
a +(2 b) +(4 c) a(2 b) (2 b)(4 c) a (4 c)
a3 +2 b3 +4 c 36 a b c
Now
x
S, y S
then x. y = (a d + 2 b f + 2 c e) + 2
+
41
13
(a e + b d + 2 c f)
S
(a f + b e + c d)
x S,
Now
x
S, y S
y1
Hence S is a Subfield of R.
Q.10 Define i) Ring homomorphism
ii) Embedding of Ring
Ans.
Ring homomorphism
Let R and S be two ring and f be a function defined from R to S then f is called ring
homomorphism if
f (a b) = f (a) f(b),
a, b R
Embedding of Ring
Let R and
'
'
and
'
'
= Z R = {(m, a) / m Z, a R}
s. t . (m, a) + (n, b) = (m + n, a + b)
(m, a) (n, b) = (m n, n a + m b + a b)
where m, n Z, a, b R
Now we want to prove that
i)
R'
R'
= [(p + q) + r, (a + b) + c]
= (p + q + r, a +b + c)
= (p + (q + r), a + (b + c))
= (p, a) + [(q + r), (b +c)]
= (p, a) + [(q, b) + (r, c)]
ii) additive identity
such that S is
is Extension of R.
Q .11 Prove that every ring can be embedded in a ring with unity.
Ans
'
since
so
Now
0 Z and 0 R
'
(0, 0) R
Let (m, a) R
(0, 0) + (m, a) = (0 + m, 0 + a)
= (m, a)
R .
iii)additive inverse
(m, a)
R'
m Z,
m
( m,  a)
Z,
a
a R
R
Now
(m, a) + ( m,  a) = (m +( m), a + ( a))
= (m m, a  a)
= (0, 0)
( m,  a) is additive inverse of (m, a)
iv) commutative for addition
(m, a) + (n, b) = (m + n, a + b)
= (n + m, b + a)
= (n, b) + (m, a)
v)Associative for multiplication
[(p, a) (q, b)] (r, c) = (p q, q a + p b + a b) (r, c)
= [p q r, r (q a) + r (p b) + r (a b) + p g c + (q a + p b + a b) c] (1)
(p, a ) [(q, b) (r, c)]
= (p, a) (q r, r b + q c + b c)
= (p (q r), (q r) a + p (r b + q c + b c) + a (r b + q c + b c))
= (p q r, r q a + r p b + p q c + p b c + r a b + q a c + a b c)(2)
from (1) & (2)
[(p, a) (q, b)] (r, c) = (p, a) [(q, b) (r, c)]
vi)
Multiplicative identity
1
Z, 0
R'
R so (1, 0)
R'
R'
Let
S = {0} R = {(0, a) / a
R
Let
then
(0, a) (0, b)
'
= (0, a) + (0,  b)
= (0, a  b)
and
R}
S is subring of
R' .
a R
For homomorphism
(a + b) = (0, a + b)
= (0, a) + (0, b)
=
(a) + (b)
(a b) = (0, a b)
and
= (0, a) (0, b)
(a) (b)
is homomorphism
For oneone
Let
(a) = (b)
(0, a) = (0, b)
a=b
Thus.
is oneone
R'
R .
Q .12
Prove that the field < Q, +, > of rational numbers is a prime field.
Proof
We have to prove that field < Q, +, > of rational numbers is prime field. i.e. it has
no
S Q (1)
and 1 S
Now
1 S
1+1+1+m times = m
1+1+1n times = n
m
n
m
n
S
1
n
m S and
Q where m, n Z, n 0
m S and n
i.e.
1
n
m
n
S {S is subfield
m
n
Q S (2)
from (1)
&
(2)
Q=S
S is not a proper subfield of Q
< Q, +, > is prime field.
Q .13
Proof
Field of quotient
Let D be a integral domain with more than one element then (F, f) is called field of
quotient of D where F is a field and f is a monomorphism defined from D to F. Here
f ( x)
f ( y)
where x, y D y 0.
Proof of statement
Let D be a integral domain and K be a field containing it.
Let
a, b
then
Let
D, b 0
1
a b K
a, b
D, b 0}
K 1 is subfield of K and
where F is
quotient field of D.
Let x, y
K
D s. t .
a, b, c, d
b, d 0
1
1
x=a b ,y=c d
Now
1
1
xy= a b
c d
1 1
=ad d b
cb b d
1 1
= (a d c b) b d
(D is commutative
x y K1
Now
= (a b
1
= (a b
{ D K
{ K is a field
/ a, b
= {a b
K, b 0
(c d1)1
1 1
) [ (d )
K1
1
1
= (a b ) (d c )
1
1
= a ( b d) c
Hence
1 1
=ad( b c )
[D is commutative
1
= a d (c b)
a d, c b D
y1
K 1 is subfield of K.
K1
f: F
a
1
f( b )=a b
s. t .
For homomorphism
f
( ab + cd )
= f
( a db+cd b )
1
(a d + c b) (b d )
1 1
(a d + c b) ( d b )
=
=
1 1
1 1
ad d b
+cb d b
1
1
a b +c d
a
c
= f ( b )+f( d )
( ab . cd )
( ab dc )
=f
1
= (a c) (b d )
1 1
= (a c) ( d b )
1
1
= a (c d
) b
= (a b
) (c d
a
c
=f( b ).f( b )
f is homomorphism
For oneone
a
c
f( b ) = f( b )
a b1 = c d1
a b1
1
b= c d
b
a = c b d1
ad=cb
(a, b) = (c, d)
(a, b)
(c, d)
a
b
c
d
f is oneone.
For on  to
a
b
1
1
For each a b K
a
1
s. t . f ( b ) = a b
f is on to
1
F K
Hence
Now if
Hence, field of quotient of an integral domain is the smallest field containing it.
UnitIV
I1
and
I2
a1
that
I1
Ans
={
a1
containing both
I1
and
I2
a2
/
I2
I1
a2
Ideal
A nonempty subject I of a ring R is called ideal of R if
I2
} is an ideal
i>
ii>
and a. r
Proof of Theorem
Let
a1
x=
b1
and y =
a1
Now
b1
a2
I1
I1
b2
b2
a2
I2
a1
I1
b1
I1
b2
a2
I2
I1
I2
a1
b1
I1
I1
is ideal
a2
b2
I2
I2
is ideal
b2
I2
I2
Now
xy=(
a1
a2
)(
b1
=(
a1
b1
)+(
a2
I1
a1
r.
a1
and
a1
r(
a1
I1
I1
+r
a2
a2
I2
I2
I1
I, and r R,
I1
.r
a1
I1
I2
is a subgroup of R.
r R,
a
a
r R, x = 1 + 2
Now Let
Hence
I2
b2
and r.
a2
and
.r
I1
I1
is a ideal.
a2
I2
I2
a2
I2
.r+
a2
I2
I2
and
and (
a1
a1
a2
.r
) r
I1
I1
+
+
I2
I2
I1
Let
I1
I1
a2
similarly
Proof
I1
contains
a1
a1
I1
+0
I2
and
I1
both.
I2
I2
I2
I2
Theorem
I2
a2
I1
= 0+
a2
I1
I2
I2
Prove that a commutative ring with unity is a field if it has no proper ideal or if it
is a simple ring.
Let
Let Ra = {r a / r
R}, where a R
r=1
1. a = a
Ra
Ra {0}
Ra = R
For providing that R is a field we have to that R has multiplicative inverse of each of
its elements.
Since every element R can be expressed as ra where r
so for
1
R s. t .
R then since 1 R
xa=1
x= a R
Q .2
Proof
Principal ideal
An ideal I of a ring R is called principal ideal if it can be generate by a single element
i.e. if R has an element a s. t . I = [a].
Principal ideal domain
If every ideal of an integral domain is principal ideal then integral domain is called
principal ideal domain.
Proof of the theorem
Let
if
I be an ideal of Z then
I = {0} then
0 Z
s. t .
Let
if
I, m 0
m I m
{ I is ideal
Let a be smallest integer of I and b be any other integer then by division algorithm
where 0 r < a
b=aq+r
Now a I, q
aq
{ I is ideal
I, a q
baq
r I
b=aq
so I = {a q / q Z}
I is a principal ideal
Z is a principal ring
Define quotient ring. Prove that an ideal of a commutative ring R with unity is
prime iff
Ans
R
I
is an integral domain
R
I
is called
quotient ring.
Proof of the theorem
Let R be a commutative ring with unity and I be its prime ideal so
R
I
is also a
R
I
is an integral domain
for
this we will prove that R is without zero divisor.
Let I + a, I + b
s. .
R
I
(I + a) + (I + b) = I
I+ab=I
ab
a I or b
{ I is prime
I + a = I or I + b = I
R
I
Conversely
Let
ideal
of R.
Now since
so
Let
R
I
R
I
is an integral domain
ab
either a I or b
Now
ab I
I+ab=I
Q .4
(I + a) ( I + b) = I
I + a = I or I + b = I
I is prime ideal.
R
I
b I
I or
Ans
Let R be a ring and f (R) be its homomorphic image. K be Kernel of f then K be ideal of
R
K
R. So we can define
R
K
f (R)
:
s. .
f (R)
(K + a) = f (a)
a R
For welldefined
Let
a, b
K + a = K + b,
ab
'
f (a b) = 0
'
{ 0
is identity of f (R)}
f (a) f (b) = 0
f (a) = f (b)
'
(K + a) =
is welldefined
(K + b)
For homomorphism
[(K + a) + (K + b)] =
[K + (a + b)]
= f (a + b)
= f (a) + f (b)
(K + a) + (K + b)
[K + a b]
= f (a b)
= f (a) f (b)
(K + a) (K + b)
is homomorphism
For oneone
Let
(K + a) =
(K + b)
f (a) = f (b)
f (a) f (b) = 0'
f (a  b) = 0'
ab K
Ka=Kb
is oneone
For onto
For each
s. t .
K+a
R
K
(K + a) = f (a)
R
K
f (R)
Prove that an ideal I of a commutative ring R with unit is maximal iff the quotient
ring
Ans
f (R),
is onto
Hence
Q.5
f (a)
Let
R
I
is a field.
R be a commutative ring with unity and I be its maximal ideal, then we have to
prove that
Since
R
I
is a field.
R
I
if
I+a
R
I . where e is unity of I.
I+0=I
a I
a I I I + [a] R
but
since e
R so
i1
e=
r1
I, r R}
i1
.a
er1
I,
r1
r1
e
I+ e = I +
r1
I+ e = (I +
r1
) (I + a)
every element of
R
I
.a I
If I + a is multiplicative inverse of I +
R
I
i1
.a=
R s. .
r1
R
I
is a field.
R
I
is a field.
I N so
I+a I
N s. t . a I
R
I
I+a
Now
and
R
I
is a field so
eab
I N
a. b N
N N=R
I is maximal ideal
Q .6
V=
{ }
( a0 0b)
a,b R
Vector Space
An algebraic structure (V, ) where V is nonempty set is called vector space over
field
(F, , ) if
I) (V, ) is abelian group
II) if
F,v V
then
v1 v2
v1 v2
where
) =
III)
v1
and
2)
IV) ( 1
( 2 v1 )
where
VI) 1
v1
v1
F and
v1
( 1 2)
v1
1 v 1 + 2 v 4
where
V)
v1
v2
v1
F and
where
Here elements of V are called vectors and elements of F are called scalar.
Proof
I
v1
Let
where
(
a1
a1 0
0 b1
,
a2
v2
b1
b2
a2 0
0 b2
then
v1
since
v2
( a1 + a2 ) ,
a1 + a2
0
0
b1 +b 2
( b1 +b 2 )
Now
Since 0
R so
(00 00)
(a0 0b)
(a0 0b)
(a0 0b)
s. t .
(a0 0b)
(a0 b0 )
(a0 b0 )
V,
(00 00)
Hence
II
(00 00)
(00 00)
Let
then
.v
(a0 0b)
and
(a0 0b)
(a0 b0 )
III
( v 1+ v 2 )
[( ) ( ) ]
a1 0
a 0
+ 2
0 b1
0 b2
a1 +a 2
0
0
b1 +b2
a1+ a2
0
0
b1 + b2
( 1+ 2 )
a1 0
0 b1
) (
( )
a1 0
0 b1
v1
IV
( a1 +a2 )
0
0
( b 1+ b2 )
)
)
a2 0
0 b2
( )
a2 0
0 b2
v2
( 1+ 2 )
(a0 0b)
( 1+ 2 ) a
0
( 1+ 2 ) b
1 a+ 2 a
0
0
1 b+ 2 b
1a 0
0 1b
1 v + 2 v
) (
(a0 0b)
2a 0
0 2b
( )
a 0
+ 2 0 b
V>
VI>
( 1 2)
1. v
= 1
(a0 0b)
1 2
1 2 a 0
0 b
1( 2 v )
1 2 a
0
0
1 2 b
2 a 0
0 2 b
{ ( )}
(a0 0b)
(1.0.1a 0b)
(a0 0b)
= v
Let V be the set of all positive real numbers and R be the field of real numbers.
We define the following operations for any positive real numbers x and y
x y = x. y
and a x =
xa ,
R.
Then prove that V(R) is a vector space with and as vector addition
and scalar multiplication respectively.
Poof
i) Let
x, y
i.e. x y
x y = x. y
= y. x
=y x
V is commutative for addition.
iii)
For associative
Let x, y, z V
then
(x y) z
= (x. y) z
= (x. y). z
=
x. (y. z)
= x (y z)
iv)
1 x=
1. x = x
= x. 1 = x 1
v)
1 is additive identity of V.
1
x
integer.
if
s. t .
1
x
= x.
1
x
=1
1
x
let r
II
R and x
then r x =
xr
(x y) =
(x . y )
x .
( x ) ( y )
(x. y)
( + ) x =
IV
x +
x .
( x )
( x)
V>
( x)
( x )
( x )
( . ) x
1 x =
VI>
( + ) x
= x
If (V,
) be a vector space over the field (F, +, ) and 0 be the zero vector
i>
ii> 0 v =
iii> ( ) v
Proof
i>
Since
v V
=  ( v ) ,
0 is zero element so
0 0 = 0
F, v V
ii>
( 0 )
0 = 0
0 v
(0 v )
(0 0)
( 0 ) = ( 0 )
( 0 ) =
( 0 )
(0 v )
(0 v )
(0 v )
0v
= 0
[ + ( ) ]
0v
( v )
[ ( ) v ]
( v )
( )
( )
iii>
Q .9
( 0 0 ) =
Now
( v )
(0 v )
( v )
is inverse of ( v ) for
( )
=  ( v )
w1
ii>
W,
w2
F, w W
w1
w W
w2
Ans
V then W is called
vector
subspace of V if
i> W is a vector space over F under the operation of V.
Proof of theorem
Let W (F) be vector subspace of V (F) then (W, ) is abelian group
and W is closed for scalar multiplication.
w1
so
and
W,
w2
w1
w1
F, w
w1
( w2
w2
W, 
w2
Sufficient condition
Let W V, w
and i> and ii> are satisfied then we have to prove that W is
vector subspace of V.
Now
W, w
ww
Now
w,
w
0w
W
w1
Now
w2
W,
w1
w1
 (
w2
w1
w2
W, 
w2
Now since W
Let
W1
and
W1
W2
W2
or
W1
and
W2
of a vector space V is a
W1
W1
be two subspaces of V s. t . either
W1
then
W 1 W 2
W 1 W 2
is vector subspace of V.
Conversely
W2
W2
or
W 1 W 2
W1
W2
or
W 1 W 2
Let
W2
W1
W1
W1
Let
W2
w1 W 1
W2
W1
w2 W 2
W1
Now since
w1 W 1 W 2
and
w2 W 1
(2)
is a subspace so
w2 W 1 W 2
w2 W 2
w2 W 1 W 2
W2
w1
w1
(1)
w1 W 1 W 2
w1 W 1
if
then
w2 W 1 W 2
but
W2
w1 W 1 W 2
if
w1
and
w2 W 1
w1
w2 W 1
+
and
w1 W 1
)
w1 W 1
w2
w1
or
w1
w2 W 1 W 2
+
+
w2 W 2
 w1 W 1
w2 W 1
which is contradiction.
if
w1
+
(
w 2 w2
w1
and
w2
w2 W 2
) + (
w2
 w2 W 2
W2
W2
or
w1 W 2
W2
W2
or
W1
V3
(R).
W = {(x, y, z) / x 3y + 4z = 0 , x, y, z
Ans
V3
w1
=(
x1 , y1 , z1
w2
=(
x 2 , y 2 , z2
x 13 y 1+ 4 z 1
then
and
x 23 y 2+ 4 z 2
Let
, , R
then
w1
w2
=
z2
(

4 z1
y1
(R).
) +
,
z1
(
)+
x 2 , y 2 , z2
3 y2
4 z2
y2
y2
)
3 y1
4 z1
y1
z1
3 y2
4 z2
= ( ,
,
)+( (
),
z2
R}
3 y 24 z2
x1 , y1 , z1
= {(x, y, z) / x, y, z
3 y 14 z 1
x2
=0
3 y1
x1
=0
V3
R} and
3 y1
4 z1
= ( +
z2
3 y2
4 z2
),
y1
y2
z1
)
=
(3 ( y 1+ y 2 )4 ( z 1 + z 2 ) , y 1 + y 2 , z 1+ z 2)
Now
y + y 2) 4 ( z 1 + z 2 )3 ( y 1+ y 2 ) +4 ( z 1+ z 2 )
3 ( 1
3 y 1 +3 y 24 z 14 z 23 y 13 y 2 +4 z 1+ 4 z 2
=0
Thus
w1+ w 2
W is vector subspace.
v1
and
v 1+ v 2 / , F v 1
v2 V
S= {
v2 V
x, y
x=
1 v1 + 1 v2
, where
y=
2 v1 + 2 v 2
, where
Let
then
S then
, , F
x+ y
1 v 1 + 1 v 2+ ( 2 v 1 + 2 v 2)
v2
=(
here
, , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 F
a field so
and
from
v 1 +
1+ 2
v2
and F is
1+ 2
1+ 2
v 1 +
1+ 2
x+ y
(1)
(
1+ 2
1 + 2
S is a subspace of V over F.
v2
(1)
Unit V
Vector Space and Subspace
Q.1
Ans
v1
V3
(R) express v
= (1, 1, 1)
Linear Combination
Let V be a vector space over the field F. then if any element v V
v
1 v1
2 v2
++
1, 2, 3

n F
where
v1 , v2
and
then
v1 , v2
of
vn
n vn

vn
= (1,  2, 5)
is linear combination of
v

can be written as
v1
Let
1 v1
(1,  2, 5) =
=(
v2
= (1, 2, 3),
= (1,
v1 , v2 , v3
2 v2
(1, 2, 3) +
+2
3 v3
if
1, 2, 3 F
(2,  1, 1) +
,2
3
+
(1)
(1, 1, 1)
3
,3
+2
= 1(2)
= 2(3)
= 5 (4)
(1)  (2)
+3
= 3 (5)
(2)  (3)
(5)  (6)
2
= 10
from (5)
=3
from (2)
=6
using values of
v
=3
v1
=  7 (6)
=2
in (1) , we get
+2
v2
6
v3
Ans.
Let
V3
= (3, 2, 1).
u1
u=
u1
u2
(5, k,7) =
(1)
(1, 5, 3) +
(3, 2, 1)
= ( , 5 , 3 ) + (3 , 2 ,
= ( +3 , 5 +2 , 3 + )
(5, k,7 )
+3
 5 +2
= 5 (2)
= k (3)
3 + = 7 (4)
(2)  (3) (4)
from
8
=  16
=2
from (1)
=1
using values of
and
in (3)
 10 + 2 = k
Q.3
k=8
u is linear combination of
u1
and
u2
for k =  8.
Define Linear span. Show that the following vectors span the vector space
u1
= (1, 2, 3),
Linear Span
u2
= (0, 1, 2),
u3
= (0,0,1)
V3
(R)
Ans.
v1
v2

vn
} be its nonempty
subset then
collection of all possible linear combination of finite elements of S is called
linear Span L (S).
i.e.
n
i v i / i F , i=1, 2n
i=1
L (S) =
u1
S={
u1
u2
= (1, 2, 3),
u2
V3
(x, y, z)
Let
u3
V3
(R)
}
u3
= (0, 1, 2),
= (0, 0, 1)
(R)
then
u1
(x, y, z) =
=
(1, 2, 3) +
=( ,2
(0, 1, 2) +
=x
3 +2
u2
+ , 3 +2
=y
+ =z
This is echelon.
u3
(0, 0, 1)
+
=x
= y 2x
= z 3x 2y
u1
u2
u3
V3
span
(R)
Linear dependence
Let V be a vector space over the field F and S = {
v1
v2

v1
v2

vn
} be any subset
of V
then S is called linear dependent if there exist
1 v 1 + 2 v 2+
+
vn
=0
Linear independence
Let V be a vector space over the field F and S = {

vn
} be any subset
of V
then S is called linear independent if
1 v 1 + 2 v 2+
Th .1
+
=
vK
v1
vn
 =
v2
=0
n
=0

vn
Proof
Firstly let
v1
v2

vn
for which
v1
v2
where
vK
vK
vK
is linear dependent
1 v 1 + 2 v 2
i.e.

++
vK
=0
2
K
v2
=
1
K
v1
+
++ 
K1
K
v K1
Conversely
vK
i.e.
vK
1 v 1 + 2 v 2
1 v 1 +
+
++
K 1
K 1
v K1
v K1
+ (1)
vK
=0
v1
v2

vK
is linearly dependent.
1 v 1 +
vK
K 1
v K1
++
vn
=0
Th
+ (1)
v1
v2

vn
} is linearly dependent.
v1
v2

vn
Proof

v1
v2

vn
n
not all zero s. t .
1 v 1 + 2 v 2
Let
vK
vK
vK
vK
then
since coefficient of
v1
n
i
=
i=1 i K K
=0
vK
v2
1 v1 + 2 v 2 +
1 v1 +

+
vK
vn
+
K 1 v K1
K 1 v K1 + K +1 v K+1 +
+ (1)
vK
+
K +1 v K +1
n vn
++
n vn
=0
is not zero
} is linearly dependent.
(1,1,1) in
n
i v i = 0
=0=
i=1
Conversely let
Q .5
vn
n
n
i v i + K v K
i v i =
i=1
i=1 i K
so {
++
v1
= (1, 0, 0)
v2
= (0, 1, 0)
v3
= (0, 0, 1) and
v4
V 3 (C) form a L.D. set but any three of them are L.I.
Ans.
, , , C
Let
v 1+ v 2 + v 3 + v 4
s. t .
=0
(1, 0, 0) +
(0, 1, 0) +
(0, 0, 1) +
(1,1,1) = (0, 0, 0)
( + , + , + ) = (0, 0, 0)
=
=1
then
v 1+ v 2 + v 3 + v 4
=0
Let
v1
so
v2
v3
v4
= 1,
= 1,
= 1 s. t .
are L.D.
Now let
v 1+ v 2 + v 3
( , , ) = (0, 0, 0)
Q .6
=0
v1
(1, 0, 0) +
= 0,
v2
v3
(0, 1, 0) +
= 0,
(0, 0, 1) = (0, 0, 0)
=0
are L.I.
Ans
V3
(R).
Basis
Let V (F) be a vector space then a subset S of vectors of V is called basis of V if
S is Li I and S pan
Since
Let
cV 3
(R)
(1, 2, 1) +
(2, 1, 0) +
( + 2 + ,2 + , +2 ) = (0, 0, 0)
+ 2 +
2 +
=0
=0
=
S is L.I
Now let
=0
+2
then
(F).
= 0,
=
=0
= 0,
=0
V3
( , , )
(R)
( , , ) =
(1, 0, 0) +
(0, 1, 0) +
(0, 0, 1)
a + 2b + c = 1
2a + b c = 0
a + 2c = 0
a= 
2
9 ,b=
similarly (0, 1, 0) =
(0, 0, 1) =
so
Th.3
Proof
4
9
1
3
5
9 ,c=
(1, 2, 1) 
(1, 2, 1) 
1
3
1
9
1
9
2
9
(2, 1, 0) 
(2, 1, 0) +
1
3
(1, 2, 2)
(1, 1, 2)
V3
(R)
v1
v2

vn
finite
subset of V s. t . L(S) = V.
Now either S is L.I or L.D.
If S is L.I then S is basis but if S is L.D. then there exist a vector
in such a way that it can be written as linear combination of its
previous vectors.
Now we exclude
vi
from S then
vi
} be a
vi
S{
S'
'
}= S
'
also generate V i.e. L ( S ) = V
let
V then
=
vi
but
v
= (
1 v1
=
1 v1
1 v1
1+ 1 1
2 v2
v1
i1 v i1
1 v1
++ (
i+1 v i+1
i1
+ +
v2
v1
Thus
Now
aj

v i1 , v i+1
n vn
++
++
++
has (n  1) elements

++
+
i1 v i1
i i1
) ++
n vn
v i1
n vn
vn
'
L( S )=V
'
if S
'
is L.I then S
'
''
of n 2 elements.
Repeating this process we can get a subset of S which is L.I and generate V.
Morever we get a subset of S which has a single element and this is not zero
element so this is L.I. and this span V.
so this is basis of V.
Th.4
dim V = dim W.
v1
v2

vm
n.
Now we want to prove that S is basis of W. S is L.I. Since W is greatest L.I. set so
v , v 1 , v 2  v m
v
v1
W is linear combination of
v2

vm
L (S) = W
dim W = m where m n
ii>
is L.D.
dim W dim V
if W= V then W is subspace of V and V is subspace of W so
dim W dim V and dim V dim W
Th.5
dim V = dim W
Let dim (S T) = K
Proof
and W = {
1, 2

} is basis of S T.
then W
S and W
Since W
1, 2

T.

1, 2
Now
= (m + K) + (n + k) K
=m+n+K
Combining basis of S and T we get a
W1
set
={
1, 2



Now we will prove that this is basis of (S+T). For this we will prove that
W1
is L.I and L(
C 1 1+ C 2 2
Let
++
b1 1 +
n
bi i
i=1
+
W1
) = S+T.
CK K
bn n
=0
a1 1
++
K
m
C
i i
= ai i
i=1
i=1
am
(1)
K
m
C
i
i
ai i
i=1
i=1
Now
n
bi i
i=1
and
n
bi i
i=1
{using (1)
n
bi i S T
i=1
n
bi i
i=1
so
K
d
= i i
i=1
b1 1 +b 2 2
but {
1, 2
b1
++
n

b1

bn
=  =
bn n
d1
d 1 1
b2
 =
bn
++
CK K
a1 1
=0
} is L.I. so
d2
dK R

=  =
dk
=0
=0
=0
so
Since {
C1
C2
= 
CK
a1
++
, 
a2
am
} is L.I
=  =
am
=0
1,
Hence {
Let

K ,


} is L.I.
S + T then
but L (
L(
S+T
W1
L(
W1
W1
L(
W1
S+T
)=S+T
thus dim (S + T) = K + m + n
Hence
dim S + dim T = dim (S + T) + dim (S T).
Let {
v
v1
v2

1 v 1 + 2 v 2+
s. t .
vn
+
n vn
where
i F
V can be expressed as
f ( v ) = ( 1 2  n )
For homomorphism
Let u, v
n
u = ai v i , v
i=1
V then
f ( u + v ) = f
= f
n
n
ai v i+ i v i
i=1
i=1
n
( ai + i) v i
i=1
= (
a1 + 1
= (
a1 , a2

a2 + 2
an
,
)+(
an + n
,
( a1 , a2  an ) + ( 1 ,
n
n
a
v
+
i i
i vi
i=1
i=1
f (u) + f ( v )
For oneone
Let f (u) = f ( v )
f is homomorphic
n
= i v i
i=1
( )
n
ai v i
i=1
= f
( )
n
i vi
i=1
)
n

a1 , a2
ai
n
ai v i
i=1
u= v
an

) = (
1,

n
i v i
i=1
f is one  one
For onto
Since for (
v
then
a1 , a2

an
n
) F
V s. .
a ,a
a
f ( v ) = ( 1 2  n )
f is onto
Hence f is isomorphism.
Th.7
Prove that if W (F) is any subspace of a vector space V (F), then the set
cosets W + v , v
v1
v2
) + (W +
)=W+(
v1
(W + v ) = W + v
Proof
of all
V
W
V
W
is vector space
v2
v , v1 , v2 V
+ u)
{V is commutative
= (W + v ) + (W + v )
ii> Associative for addition
(W +u) +
[ ( W + v )+(W + w)]
= (W + u) + [W + ( v
= [W + (u + ( v
+ w)]
+ w))]
= W + (u + v ) + w
= (W + u + v ) + (W + w)
= [(W + u) + (W + v )] + (W + w)
iii> additive identity
0
Now
V so W + 0
V
W
(W + v ) + (W + 0)
= W+( v
+ 0) = W + v
v
W + ( v )
Now
(W + v ) + (W + ( v )) = W + [ v
=W+0
+ ( v )]
V
W
additive inverse of W + v
V
( W
is W + ( v ) in
V
W
Now
i>
[(W + u) + (W + v )] =
[W + (u + v )]
= W+
(u + v )
= W+( u+ v )
= (W + u) + (W + v )
=
ii>
( + ) (W +u)
(W + u) +
(W + v )
= W + ( + ) u
= W + ( u + u)
iii>
( ) (W + u)
(W + u) + (W + u)
(W + u) +
= W+
=
(W +
(W + u)
u
u) =
(W + u)]
iv) 1. (W + u) = W + 1.u = W + u
Hence
Th.8
V
W
If W (F) is a subspace of finite dimensional vector space V (F), then the quotient space
V
( W ) is also a finite dimensional and dim
Proof
V
W
= dim V dim W.
w1
w2

wn
w1
w2

wn
V
v1
v2
vm

dim V = n + m
so
any v
v
V can be expressed as
1w1
W+ v
vm
n wn
1 w 1+ 2 w 2
= W+(
1 v1
++
++
n wn
= W+(
1w1
++
n wn
)+W+(
= W+(
1 v1
++
m vm
v1
++
(W +
every element of
V
W
)+
(W +
v2
m vm
1 v1
+
1 v1
) ++
++
++
m vm
m vm
(W +
vm
}
Now we will prove that this is L.I.
1
Let
(W+
W+(
v1
)+
1 v 1 + 2 v 2
1 v 1 + 2 v 2
(W+
++
++
v2
) ++
m vm
m vm
)=W
W
(W+
vm
)=W
)
v1
,W+
1 v 1 +
+
m vm
1w1
1w1
++
n wn
+ (
=  =
+
)
2w2
v 1 +
=  =
++
+ (
=  =
=0
{W + v 1 , W + v 2 ,W + v m } is L.I.
Hence
{W +
v1
dim
,W+
V
M
v2
+ W +
vm
} is basis of
= m
= (m + n) n
dim
V
M
vm
=0
w
w
v
v
{ { 1  n , 1  m
n wn
= dim V dim W
********************
V
M
is L.I.}
=0