You are on page 1of 62

LAND

TRANSPORTATION:
HISTORY
Lecture 4

TOUR 161

HISTORY OF L AND TRANSPORTATION

Ancient
Rome

Industrial
Revolution

20th
Century

Recent
Innovations

HISTORY OF L AND TRANSPORTATION

Throughout most of
histor y, transport
relied on animal and
even human power,
traversing dirt tracks

museudantu.org.br

HISTORY OF L AND TRANSPORTATION

One of the earliest


paved road networks
was the Royal Roads
of Ancient Persia
[>500 BC]

It was used primarily


for communication
as well as trade
purposes

HISTORY OF L AND TRANSPORTATION

commons.wikimedia.org

ANCIENT ROME

Ancient Romans
[<500 BC] developed
technology that
made roads
impermeable to
elements

crystalinks.com

ANCIENT ROME

Viae, or roads,
included layers of
earth, stones,
cement, lava, and
other materials

commons.wikimedia.org

ANCIENT ROME

Used primarily for


the expansion and
defense of the
empire
Also used for
communication and
trade

Road network
interconnected 113
provinces [Bailey &
Miller, 1900]
29 military highways
372 major roads
400,000 kilometers

ANCIENT ROME

pixgood.com

ANCIENT ROME

Passports were used


to monitor travelling
civilians
Tolls and taxes were
collected for
construction and
maintenance of viae
kahnhome.org

ANCIENT ROME

Villas, inns, and


hostels provided
accommodation
Led to growth of
towns and cities that
ser ved as way
stations
photographersdirect.com

HISTORY OF L AND TRANSPORTATION

Next wave of
development took
more than a
millennium [1,000
years] after, during
the Industrial
Revolution

Post-Ancient Rome:
Medieval Period was
characterized by
isolation
Renaissance Period was
associated with
maritime exploration

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Invention of
machines during the
1800s
Mass production and
mass consumption
became possible

marandathornburg.wikispaces.net

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Shift in economic
base from agriculture
to manufacturing
Migration of people
from rural to urban
areas

4eme7travelbloggers.blogspot.com

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Global population
exploded as societies
were modernized
and incomes
increased

theactuary.com

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Introduction of coalpowered steam


locomotives led to
development of rail
transport
Trains carried freight
as well as passengers
motordb.net

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Rail transport
became a key feature
of industrialization,
providing
accessibility and
growth to cities and
countries

First intercity route


[Manchester to
Liverpool, UK] in 1830
First transcontinental
route [California to
Iowa, US] in 1869

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Electric railways were


introduced during
the late 1800s
Trams
Light rail

Rapid transit

Used by major cities


to improve mobility
amid growing
populations
London Underground
New York City Subway

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

In the Philippines,
the Compania de los
Tranvias de Filipinas
opened in 1888,
ser ving Manila and
its suburbs

Binondo
Intramuros
Malate
Sampaloc
Tondo
Malabon

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Eventually taken over


by the Manila Electric
Railroad and Light
Company
[MERALCO]

theurbanroamer.com

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

The Ferrocarril de
Manila Dagupan
opened in 1892 in
Tutuban
Followed by a south
line called Bicol
Express
flickr.com

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Now known as the


Philippine National
Railways [PNR],
currently ser ving
Metro Manila and
southern Luzon

commons.wikimedia.org

INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

Locomotives were
also introduced in
the Visayas
Panay
Negros
Cebu

blogofayoungstudent.blogspot.com

20 TH CENTURY

The Ford Model T,


the first massproduced
automobile, or car,
was introduced in
1908

carlustblog.com

20 TH CENTURY

Cars became popular


as they provided
individuals with more
freedom to travel
Not dependent on
routes and schedules

Also became a
symbol of affluence
among the growing
middle class

20 TH CENTURY

The London General


Omnibus Company
[LGOC] B-type, the
first mass-produced
bus, was introduced
in 1910

ltmcollection.org

20 TH CENTURY

Since then, the


automotive industr y
has become one of
the worlds largest,
driving many
national economies

In 2014, 89.5m units


were manufactured
[OICA]
Passenger cars
Light commercial
vehicles
Heavy trucks
Buses and coaches

20 TH CENTURY

commons.wikimedia.org

MA JOR INDUSTRY PL AYERS


OICA , 2014
Top Countries

Total [mil]

1) CHINA

23.8

2) US

11.7

3) JAPAN

9.8

4) GERMANY

5.9

5) SOUTH KOREA

4.5

6) INDIA

3.8

7) MEXICO

3.4

8) BRAZIL

3.1

9) SPAIN

2.4

10) CANADA

2.4

MA JOR INDUSTRY PL AYERS


OICA , 2013
Largest Manufacturers

Country

Total [mil]

JAPAN

10.3

US

9.6

GERMANY

9.4

SOUTH KOREA

7.2

US

6.1

JAPAN

5.0

ITALY / US

4.7

8) Honda

JAPAN

4.3

9) Suzuki

JAPAN

2.8

FRANCE

2.8

1) Toyota
2) General Motors
3) Volkswagen
4) Hyundai
5) Ford
6) Nissan
7) Fiat / Chrysler

10) Peugeot

20 TH CENTURY

Also the 5 th biggest


export in terms of
revenue [UNWTO,
2015], producing a
multiplier effect to
other industries

Fuels [ranked 1 st in
exports]
Tourism [ranked 4 th in
exports]

20 TH CENTURY

Post-World War 2,
cheaper diesel
locomotives replaced
the more expensive
steam engines

skyscrapercity.com

20 TH CENTURY

Lower operating and


maintenance costs
Economies of scale
Manual labor
Automated systems
Source of power

However, it
exacerbated the
growing air pollution
problem in
industrialized
societies

20 TH CENTURY

During the latter half


of the centur y, highspeed trains [>250
kph] were introduced
Japans Shinkansen
Frances TGV

vehiclehi.com

20 TH CENTURY

Ran primarily on
electricity
Nuclear power

Some used magnetic


levitation [maglev]
instead of wheels

youtube.com

20 TH CENTURY

Provided an
alternative to diesel
for long-distance
travel between cities
Previous electric
services only operated
short distances within
cities
energy.gov

20 TH CENTURY

commons.wikimedia.org

20 TH CENTURY

commons.wikimedia.org

HISTORY OF L AND TRANSPORTATION

The tremendous
development of land
transport over the
past 200 years has
produced massive
socio-economic
benefits

However, it has also


caused serious socioenvironmental
problems, especially
road transport

HISTORY OF L AND TRANSPORTATION

Carbon Emissions
Air Pollution
Climate Change

Traffic Congestion

HISTORY OF L AND TRANSPORTATION

OECD

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]

Eco-friendly
models
Shift in
lifestyles

Public &
shared
transport

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]
Eco-friendly models

More energy-efficient
Usually dont emit
pollutants
Fewer carbon emissions
when they do

ELECTRIC VEHICLES

Still depend on power


plants
Batteries are limited

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]

greenpeace.org

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]
Eco-friendly models

Need less fuel


Use electric motors and
batteries
More efficient at low
speeds

Better gas mileage

HYBRID VEHICLES

Also use gasoline


engines
More efficient at high
speeds

Higher initial cost

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]

commons.wikimedia.org

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]
Eco-friendly models
Dont run on petroleum
Compressed natural gas
[CNG]
Ethanol plant materials
Biodiesel vegetable oils
and animal fats
Propane [liquefied
petroleum gas or LPG]
Hydrogen-powered fuel
cells

ALTERNATIVE FUEL
VEHICLES [AFVs]

Some still produce


pollution and
greenhouse gases

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]

pcij.org

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]
Public & shared transpor t

MASS TRANSIT & INTERCITY


PASSENGER RAIL

Alternative to road
transpor t

Fewer stops

No traffic congestion

Faster than cars and buses


More passengers per
vehicle
More energy-efficient

Less noise and air


pollution

Lesser accessibility

Higher initial costs

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]

commons.wikimedia.org

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]
Public & shared transpor t

Less fuel per passenger


Reduce traffic
congestion
Some have dedicated
lanes
Faster commute

BUSES

Less comfor table

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]

cities-today.com

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]
Public & shared transpor t

Ideal for shor t-term use


Owner
Generates revenue
Less maintenance costs

Borrower
More convenient

CAR SHARING

Unregulated

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]

startups.fm

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]
Public & shared transpor t

Splits fuel costs


Cheaper commute

Cuts emissions per


person

CARPOOLING

Schedule coordination

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]
Shift in lifestyles

Cheaper to buy and


maintain
Take less space
More flexible during rush
hour

More energy-efficient
Doesnt add to pollution

BIKING

Exposure to elements

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]

happeninginhighlandpark.com

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]
Shift in lifestyles

Benefits health
Lowers blood pressure
Maintains good cholesterol
levels

More energy-efficient

WALKING

Takes longer

RECENT INNOVATIONS AND


ALTERNATIVES [MCGRATH, 2012]

spacing.ca

greenmeupscottyca.wordpress.com

CASE STUDY:
SINGAPORE