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# Abstract.

The following experiment is mostly been used to determine the modulus of rigidity
for a material. In this experiment, we use mild steel rod as the material and take all the
measurement before apply it to the machine. The data obtain from the machine are the torque
and the angle of twist. The shear stress and shear strain were calculated by the data obtain
thus the modulus of rigidity can be determine. The modulus of rigidity that we obtain from
this experiment is 63.5 GPa. Theoretical value for modulus of rigidity is 77 GPa, so, the
percentage error is 17.53%. it can be conclude that this experiment is sensitive therefore need
a lot of focus to avoid any type of error.

1. Abstract ..I
3. Introduction.1
4.

INTRODUCTION:

## Mechanics of materials or strength of materials is the study of behavior of solid

objects subject to stresses and strains. One of the phenomenon is torsion which is the twisting
of an object due to an applied torque. The study of torsion is important to avoid failure of a
machine or machine elements thus cause a bigger incident. For instances drive shaft, axles
and drills is subjected to torsion in services. Moreover structural applications such bridges,
car bodies, airplane fuselages and boat are randomly subject to torsion. Therefore the study of
torsion can provide the material adequate strength to withstand the torque. The study of
torsion allows engineer to determine the maximum shear stress or shear strain of the material
use respect to its dimension. Every type of material use have their own modulus of rigidity, G
which is defined as the ratio of shear stress to the displacement per unit sample length (shear
strain). Therefore to find the modulus rigidity is by finding the shear stress and shear strain
by the experiment of torsion test below.

## Figure 1: Torsion test.

OBJECTIVE:
2. To determine the types of fracture surface under pure torque.
3. To validate the data between experimental and theoretical value.
THEORY:
Torsion test is to determine the modulus of rigidity. The experimental value of
modulus of rigidity will be compare to the theoretical value. However, from the torsion test
machine, we can only obtain angle of twist, and torque, T. Therefore, for material such
mild steel, the elastic behavior is linear, and so Hookes law for shear can be written as
=G

: shear stress.

G: modulus of rigidity.
: shear strain.
Modulus of rigidity also can be define as the slope of the line

graph.

## Figure 2: shear strain graph.

Shear stress happen when force is subjected on the object over a surface area which is parallel
to the force direction. It also can be define by the equation:
=

Tc
J

## T: Torque on the material (obtain from the torsion test machine)

c: the radius of the material.

Where J:

J = c4
2
Shear stress produced a shear strain expressed as
=

c
L

: shear strain
: angle of twist