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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)

Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org


Volume 4, Issue 2, March-April 2015

ISSN 2278-6856

Intelligence Techniques for e-government


applications
HANAA. M. SAID1, MOHAMED HAMDY2, RANIA El GOHARY 3 and ABDEL-BADEEH
M. SALEM 4
1

Faculty of Computing & Information Science Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, EGYPTE

Faculty of Computing & Information Science Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, EGYPTE

Faculty of Computing & Information Science Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, EGYPTE

Faculty of Computing & Information Science Ain Shams University, Abbassia, Cairo, EGYPTE

Abstract
This paper introduces intelligence security strategy
approaches. The successful implementation of the egovernment depends on the viable security. E-government
security is considered one of the crucial factors for achieving
an advanced stage of e-government. In this research we
focused on several techniques, algorithms, approaches and
different areas of data mining technique models in Cyber
Security from different perspectives, to establish a
classification and comparison of various types of Intrusion
Detection and Countermeasures in E-government of this
researches, Intelligent Technique Approaches categorization
that reflect the important criteria of the data mining models.
It summarizes various Intelligent Data analyses and presents
an Intelligent Data Analysis of Cairo Cleaning and
Beautification Agency; establishing such a classification
impacts deeply guiding data mining applications towards
better operations and performance. Moreover how data
mining can help in detection and prevention of these attacks.
Information security violations such as access control
violations as well as a discussion of various threats are
presented. Finally we present a comparative analysis between
selected models to improve security.

Keywords: E-government, Cyber Security models,


Intrusion detection (ID), Penetration testing, Neural
Networks, Fuzzy Logic, Genetic algorithm

1. INTRODUCTION
The field of Artificial Intelligence has found many
applications in the operation of power systems. These
applications range from Expert Systems to assist with
network fault diagnosis and rectification to Artificial
Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic to provide models for
complex non-linear control problems.
Intrusion detection (ID) has become a critical Component
of network administration due to the vast number of
attacks persistently threaten our computers. Traditional
intrusion detection systems are limited and do not provide
a complete solution for the problem. Security is an
important issue for the future of the cyberspace; due to
access of malicious data in internet and in system security
that controls real time data and leads to huge dimensional
problems, so a data pre-processing is necessary. Attacks
against the computer infrastructures are becoming an

Volume 4, Issue 2, March April 2015

increasingly serious problem. Hacking is the act of


breaking into another system with or without the owners
knowledge. Intruders have promoted themselves and
invented innovative tools that support various types of
network attacks. Hence, effective methods for intrusion
detection (ID) have become an insisting need to protect
our computers from intruders. In general, there are two
types of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS); misuse
detection systems and anomaly detection systems [1, 2,
and 3].
Over the past few years, there has been tremendous
increase in the cyber threats due to penetration of new
technologies within the global economy as it involves
heavy usage/dependency of the Internet to carry out
businesses for personal/business/governmental sectors.
E-government- can be defined as the use of information
and communication technologies, and particularly the
internet, as a tool to achieve better government (OECD,
2003), Electronic Government constitutes the Public
Administration that uses Information technology in order
to convert its Internal and External relations (United
Nations, 2008).
Applying Data Mining (DM) techniques on network
traffic data is a promising solution that helps in
developing better intrusion detection systems. Data
mining is defined as the identification of interesting
structure in data, where structure designates Patterns,
statistical or predictive models of the data, and
relationships among parts of the data (Fayyad &
Uthurusamy, 2002) [4,5] . We used different algorithms to
extract the valuable data. Data mining is important tool to
transform the data from large quantities of data through
using pattern matching. Data mining has many
applications in security including national security,
terrorist activities and cyber security. However, the
usefulness of this data is negligible if meaningful
information or Knowledge cannot be extracted from it.
Data mining, otherwise known as knowledge discovery,
attempts to answer this need. In contrast to standard
Statistical methods, data mining techniques search for
interesting information without demanding a priori
hypotheses. Finding links between data fields, Use
regression to predict future values of data and Model
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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 4, Issue 2, March-April 2015
sequential patterns in the data that may indicate revealing
trends (Tam and Kiang, 1992; Chu & Widjaja, 1994) [6].
Cyber security involves protecting information by
preventing, detecting, and responding to attacks. Cyber
security also referred to as information technology
security, whose main focus is protection of computers,
networks, programs and data from unauthorized access,
change or destruction. The
real cyberspace that is
available on the internet. It is very difficult, to conduct on
them the assessment of quality. That can be accepted for
the extent of securing it. It can be expressed for this real
cyberspace as if the series of the minor cyberspaces. The
importance of inferring process of the reference measure
in the form of procedural assessment is to improve the
knowledge and helping in the decision making for the egovernment services. A series of the standards are built
on the application of data mining methods specifically
represented as "Frequencies", "decision tress model",
"Logistic regression", "association rules model", " Neural
Networks Model", "Hierarchical Clustering" and
'Bayesian network' for making reference measurements, to
measure the extent of securing the data, and the provided
services.
A penetration test is an in-depth information risk analysis
practiced to assess the security of the systems from a
hackers perspective. Penetration Testing and Web
Application testing service simulate a hacker or an
attacker like environment to conduct the exercise so as to
match the hackers thought process. Penetration testing
can be done by both the Internet and local area network
depending on the placement and operational usage of the
system such as: Web Application Penetration Test
(Application discovery, Data Mining, Cryptography,
Database Listener and Business Logic Testing) [13].
For the above mentioned reasons, we formed intelligent
approach for securing the data that consists of penetration
test that includes (DM-ID), the results of intelligent
approach and penetration testing are used to find out
security defects and to patch them before it will be too
late. This brings testers to adopt automatic tools widely, as
it is demonstrated by the continuous release of platforms
finalized to automate this process, discovering gaps in
compliance, finding defects now before somebody else
does, verifying secure configurations, testing new
technology and reporting problems to management.
Collaborative processes oriented on large data sets are
presented [14].
Also, we will compare the effectiveness of various types of
techniques and algorithms of different technologies
researches. These help in choosing between several
alternatives take of decision making. This paper imparts
numbers of applications for the data mining
methodologies in cyber security. It have been developed
and deployed to protect computer systems against network
attacks, we discuss various types of variety of techniques,
approaches and different areas of data mining technique
models in cyber security from "different perspectives Egovernment", describing how data mining helps in
detection and prevention of these attacks. Finally Results

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applied on the site of "Cairo Cleaning and Beautification


Agency" governorate in Egypt www.ccba.gov.eg; it is one
of the important cyberspaces in the frame of the
mechanism for the e-government services, and its effect
on both the citizens, the investors and on the government,
this cyberspace is related with several electronic sites.
Combinations of different intelligent system approaches to
form hybrid intelligent systems continue to find new
applications. Security must be addressed in the phase of
planning and designing of E- government System,
Management process is needed to assess security control,
where management allows departments and agencies to
maintain and measure the extent of data security
depending on the mechanism of revealing the security
weak points .Revealing the weak points is done by using a
series of standards built on the application of machine
learning methods specifically Using the Neural Networks
Model, and intelligent data analysis. All these techniques
are useful in monitoring and measuring the extent of the
secured data and the provided services.
The fuzzy set theory was introduced by Zadeh [25]. Fuzzy
logic is a multi-value logic which permits intermediate
values to be defined between conventional ones like
true/false, low/high, good/bad etc. In a classical set theory,
an element may either belong to set or not. In fuzzy set
theory, an element has a degree of membership. A degree
of membership function can be described as an interval [0,
1].
This paper introduces Intelligent Approaches for Securing
the Data, these approaches are based on intrusion
detection, analysis and monitoring, in order to form
penetration test that helps decision makers to take the
right decision for facing the threats and control system
operations.
The strategies of " Frequencies", "decision tress model",
"Logistic regression", "association rules model", " Neural
Networks Model", "Hierarchical Clustering" and
'Bayesian network" will be utilized in forming data
mining intrusion detector (DM-ID), this in turn will be
used in forming penetration test that will monitor,
measure and test of the audit data and events. Taking into
account that, each module will work independently to
detect intrusions in the network traffic data.
This paper may be useful tool that enables the
governorate to find the major points for managing the
effective government services , type of the data to be
used , type of data that has been moved in a proper way ,
what are the terms or the requirements that are used in
the data organizing , arranging the knowledge from the
view of the priority and importance performance for
discovering them , compiling the processes based on the
followed standards.
This paper consists of 4 sections; the first section is the
introduction as we are able to get huge information about
the literature survey. For assessing the security of the
cyberspace, the second section Comparative Intelligent
Technique Approaches for E-government Security of
securing the data when introducing the strategic
information for the different rendered services through the
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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 4, Issue 2, March-April 2015
minor cyber service. Moreover the concentrates on the
means of research and measurements that are used and
suggested and how to use them are presented in the
section 3.Also presenting the discussions about the
different results, finally in section 4 we summarized and
concluded the future work.
2. RELATED WORK
Data mining techniques have been successfully applied to
various private sector industries in marketing, financial
services, and health care. Governments are using data
mining for improving service delivery, analyzing
scientific information, managing human resources,
detecting fraud, and detecting criminal and terrorist
activities. However, literature is scarce regarding the
application of data mining to a project oriented
environment. Generally, the purpose of this paper is to
show how data mining concepts may be applied in a
project oriented environment. It will examine the so called
project success framework and show how data mining
may be utilized at particular stages to increase the chances
of delivering successful projects that will have the
intended impact on the corporate business strategies of
private and public sector organizations.
data mining has evolved in a wide variety of directions,
ranging from complexity control of algorithms to the
development of applications for many domains, such as
counter terrorism, medical diagnosing, marketing and so
on (Antonie, Zaane & Coman, 2001; Bach, 2003; Bank,
Min Tjoa & Stolba, 2006; Bhattacharyya, 1999; Choenni,
2000; Wang & Han, 2000). The extraction of econometric
models, however, has received relatively little attention in
the field of data mining.
An econometric model is a model that specifies the
statistical relationship that is believed to hold between its
variables. These models play a central role in many fields
of research and become increasingly important in
forecasting tools. For example, in finance, stock prices
may be expressed in terms of other stock prices and
macro-economic variables, such as industrial production
and interest rates (Cheung & Ng, 1998; Nasseh & Strauss,
2000; Pesaran & Timmermann, 2000). Another example,
within government forecasting, is the modelling of
recorded crime, which may be expressed in terms of
demographic and macro-economic variables, such as the
number of young males and unemployment (Deadman,
2003; Greenberg, 2001; Hale & Sabbagh, 1991). Two
common econometric models are the linear regression
model and the cointegrated model.
Cyber security is not a single problem in e-government,
but rather it is a group of highly different problems
involving different sets of threats. Fuzzy Rule based
system for cyber security is a system that consists of a rule
depository and a mechanism for accessing and running
the rules. The depository is usually constructed with a
collection of related rule sets. The aim of this study is to
develop a fuzzy rule based technical indicator for cyber
security with the use of an expert system which is named
FRBCES (Fuzzy Rule Based Cyber Expert System). Rule
based systems employ fuzzy rule to automate complex

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processes. Common cyber threats assumed for cyber


experts are used as linguistic variables in this paper.
We persistent computer security vulnerabilities may
expose the governments critical infrastructure and
governments network systems to cyber attack by
terrorists, possibly affecting the economy or other areas of
the national security at large [12]. Furnel and Warren [13]
discussed the problems posed by cyber terrorists. They
considered the nature of the responses necessary to protect
the future security of society. By the rising threat of cyber
attacks, some researchers tried to describe cyber threat and
made attempts for finding a solution to their studies [14][17] this show in figer1.
So far, many studies have been done on cyber security, but
these are mostly focused on prevention of cyber intrusion,
[18]-[21], effects of cyber attacks or on different machine
learning applications [5],[6],[8]-[10]. Although there are
some studies using fuzzy rules [22]-[24], fuzzy expert
systems effectiveness are totally different analysis. In this
paper, apart existing literature, a new approach has been
developed to prevent cyber attacks using a fuzzy expert
system. The proposed fuzzy expert system in this study
gives valuable information to system administrators to
improve the achievement of the cyber security. This work
contributes to the system in a general manner and it can
be adapted to different cyber security scenarios.

Figer1: E -government application


Table 1 Distribution of articles according to data
mining and its applications of e-government

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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 4, Issue 2, March-April 2015

Volume 4, Issue 2, March April 2015

ISSN 2278-6856

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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 4, Issue 2, March-April 2015

Volume 4, Issue 2, March April 2015

ISSN 2278-6856

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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 4, Issue 2, March-April 2015

Volume 4, Issue 2, March April 2015

ISSN 2278-6856

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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 4, Issue 2, March-April 2015
Hong Yu et al. [17] performed comparative study on data
mining for individual credit risk evaluation. The
researcher found that credit risk is referred to as the risk
of loss when a debtor does not fulfil his debt contract and
it is of natural interest with respect to practitioners in
banks as well as to organizers.
Ji Dan et al. [18] performed synthesized data mining
algorithm based on clustering and decision tree. At
present, they have accumulated abundant agriculture
information data for the vast territory and diversity of crop
resources. However, we just can visit a small quantity of
data for lack of useful tools.
Mohamed El far et al. [19] compared between data
mining algorithms: "Close+, Apriori and CHARM" and
K-means classification algorithm and applying them on
3D object indexing. Three-dimensional models are more
and more used in applications in which the necessity to
visualize realistic objects is felt (CAD/CAO, medical
simulations, games, virtual reality etc.).
Wangjie Sun et al. [20] implemented an advanced design
of data mining algorithms. In order to save the computer
data effectively, we should not only check the integrity for
the data, but also we have to check storage system to
recover data in a timely manner to reduce losses to a
minimum, to prevent the recover fails when the fault
occurred. S.P.Latha [20] presents algorithm for efficient
data mining. Over the years, a variety of algorithms for
finding frequent item sets in very large transaction
databases have been developed. Data mining algorithms
are used extensively to analyze business, commerce,
scientific, engineering, and security data and dramatically
improve the effectiveness of applications in areas such as
marketing, predictive modeling, life sciences, information
retrieval, and engineering.
In April 2007, Estonia suffered a major cyber-attack,
after which Estonia contributed in securing cyber space
worldwide. According to Joak AAVIKSOO, Minister of
education and Research of Estonia, they analyzed weak
points in their infrastructure [58]. As per their conclusions
their law enforcements, border line do not hold in
cyberspace [58], most of the infrastructure is not under
single body and 80% of web infrastructure is in private
hands [58].
In 2008, Estonia formulated a National Cyber Security
Strategy. The objective of National Cyber Security
Strategy is to ensure cyber security and help private
sectors to develop highly secured standards [21]. In
Malaysian primary schools, cyber bullying and hacking
are the major occurring crimes [66]. There is an Adaptive
Information Security Model that was developed to lessen
the gap between what we can do and control ICT [36].
There are five critical systems that ensure the highly
secured and prospered network [36]. Forty-one41 internet
crimes have been analyzed [36]. The analyses show that
victims were missing in these five security tests [36].
A penetration test on internet service provider was
conducted in Sweden [37]. In Burma just before countrys
first national elections in twenty years, the internet was
shutdown [31]. Offenders usually use public places to

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commit crimes which hides their identity and where there


is no effective legislation. Internet gave birth to terrorist
propaganda. Radicalization can be done using internet.
MIS configuration of websites causes search engines to
penetrate into website and causes illegal access to data
[66]. Search engines need to obey some rules to disallow,
some folders, files and images [66].
Halfond et al [23], [24] presented a technique for
penetration testing, which involves static and dynamic
analysis to increase the efficiency of the information
gathering and response analysis phase. The author
implemented static and dynamic analysis to improve
penetration testing. To discover the input vector, the static
analysis technique of automatic response that analyzes the
dynamic analysis technique is used. The main objective of
dynamic analysis is to find error while running the
program. To test the effectiveness of these techniques, an
experiment was conducted for static and dynamic analysis
based penetration testing on nine web applications [23].
Halfond et al [24], developed Amnesia (Analysis for
Monitoring and Neutralizing SQL Injection Attack). The
authors proposed a model based technique that combines
the static and dynamic analyses. In this paper the tool first
identifies hotspot, where SQL queries are issued to
database engines. Non-deterministic finite automata are
used at each hot spot to develop query model (2009).
Xiong et al [9], [10] presented an approach of model
driven framework that integrates the software
development life cycle phases with penetration testing
process, so vulnerability can be easily detected and testing
can be done repeatedly by the expert personnel, to test the
cost effectiveness, systematic and fully integrated into
systematic and fully integrated into a security oriented
software development life cycle, security experts are still
required to maintain knowledge. The test cases are
derived from models.
Stepien et al [6] presented an approach to penetration
testing inherent to penetration testing of web application,
the approach consists of TTCN-3 languages inherent
features. Also, it derives the functional test cases and has
taken an example of a malicious bank website. This paper
described a message sequence diagram of a malicious
bank website to show the XSS attacks. It generates the
functional test cases.
Pietraszek et al [26],[27] presented an approach of Taint
based technique in which the authors modified PHP
interpreter to track taint information at the character level,
context sensitive analysis is used in this technique to reject
SQL queries if an entrusted input has been used to create
certain types of SQL tokens. The advantages of this
approach are that they require modifications to the run
time environment, which decreases the portability.
Arkin, Stender and McGraw (Arkin, B. et al 2005)
[28] investigated the importance of the subject from the
software pen-testers perspective, concentrating on where
the role of the tester lies when flaws are assessed during
software development. Within the software development
life cycle, Arkin et al. suggest without proper and timely
Assessment, organizations ...often find that their
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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 4, Issue 2, March-April 2015
software suffers from systemic faults both at the design
and implementation levels (Arkin, B. et al, 2005). The
same can be said for the network security of organization;
without proper and rigorous assessment, the network
design of an organization will lead to unknown flaws
inherent in the network implementation. The same can be
said for the network security of organization.
Pierce, Jones and Warren (Pierce, J. et al, 2007) [29] in
their paper provided a conceptual model and taxonomy for
penetration testing and professional ethics. They described
how integrity of the professional pen tester may be
achieved by ...avoiding conflicts of interest, the provision
of false positives and false negatives and finally do the
legally binding testers of their ethical obligations in [their]
contract This is certainly noteworthy and should be
expected of an individual working with potentially
sensitive information; however, this appears more of a
personal ethical code of conduct than something that
can be enforced and assessed. Pierce et al (Pierce, J. et al,
2007) also discussed the provision by universities
...toward offering security testing courses.
McRue ( McRue, A., 2006) , [30] Commented on the
"first U.K. University to offer a dedicated degree course in
hacking "This has certainly shown an emerging trend in
the educational sector for penetration testing courses;
however these tend to be degree classifications and not
necessarily an industry recognized Certification standard.
The literature review shows that data mining is key
ingredient in the solution to information security
problems. The author in [31] discusses the development of
data mining and its application areas. Soft computing
framework data mining is presented in paper [32] where
soft computing approaches like fuzzy logic, neural
network are discussed. Data mining provides a number of
algorithms that can help detect and avoid security attacks
[33].The author in [34] presents a survey on various data
mining techniques for intrusion detection wherein the
types of intrusion attacks like network and host based are
also summarized. One of the intrusion detection
techniques known as anomaly detection has been
discussed in details [35]. Paper [36] specifies the
measurement criteria for intrusion detection. Fraud
detection is another area of focus as the number of online
transactions is rising exponentially. Various types of
frauds like computer fraud are given in [37] with the
respective techniques to overcome the situation. A number
of methods are proposed for privacy preserving through
data mining in [38], for example K-Anonymity. In paper
[39], author talks about the sensitivity of data which may
risk an individuals privacy. This data can be general data,
user specific or authentication data. Peter in [40] specifies
aspects of cloud computing and the top cloud computing
companies with their respective key features. The cloud
security issues have been addressed via a trusted third
party in [41]. Data mining techniques can also be used for
the analysis of various firewall policy rules [42]. Security
framework for mobile cloud computing is proposed in
[43]. In [44], the authors have identified the following
types of attacks which are major threats to cloud

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implementation denial of service attack, Cross virtual


machine side-channel attack, malicious insiders attack,
Attacks targeting shared memory, and Phishing attack.
Table 1 briefs the review of variety of work done in the
area of cloud computing security with the help of data
mining techniques. Paper [15] details the need of mobile
cloud computing. As the mobiles are getting cheaper with
the availability of internet facility, a mobile can also be
considered as an entity in a cloud.
Malicious insiders attack, Attacks targeting shared
memory, and Phishing attack. Table 1 briefs the review of
variety of work done in the area cloud computing security
with the help of data mining techniques. Paper [15] details
the need of E-governments cloud computing. The Egovernments are getting with the availability of internet
facility, the E-governments can also be considered as an
entity in a cloud.
Currently, many data mining and knowledge discovery
frameworks and data classification for everyone and
different usage such as the Real-time (On line)
Environment for Knowledge Analysis RTDMM [1] , other
Xiong Deng et al, AKDT [9], other Olivier Thonnard et al
, DMCS [10] , other Bhavani M.Thuraisingham, APSO
[11], other Sandeep Rana et al, SCDI [12], other
Chandola DI et al ,ITICS [13]] , other Kutoma
Wakunuma ET AL , GPLCA [14] , Other Ap Jian Zhang1
ET etc[55].
These Frameworks provide a set of methods and
algorithms that help in better utilization of available data
and information to users; including methods and
algorithms for data analysis, cluster analysis, genetic
algorithms, nearest neighbor, data visualization,
regression analysis, Decision trees, Predictive analysis,
text mining, cyber security, world wide web , semantic
web Data mining argent, and amplification approach etc.
Intrusion detection (ID) is the process of monitoring and
analyzing the data and events occurring in a computer
and/or network system in order to detect attacks,
vulnerabilities and other security problems, Figure 2
below shows a traditional framework in government
decision making, for improving the efficiency of service
delivery. [15].

Figure 2: traditional framework for ID

3. Proposals
From above mentioned studies and according to the
several advantages of (DM approaches and "Penetration
testing") for E-government intrusion detection, we suggest
that a combination of both approaches can help in
developing a new generation of high performance IDS. In
comparison to traditional IDS (Fig.3), IDS based on DM
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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 4, Issue 2, March-April 2015
and "Penetration testing" is generally more precise and
requires far less manual processing and input from human
experts.
In this paper we used the application of Minor cyber
Cairo
Cleaning
and
Beautification
Agency
(www.ccba.gove.eg) in Egypt. The following describes our
applications of different techniques in the minor cyber
space's which is the cyberspace for the authority of
cleaning and beautifying Cairo, in the Arab Republic of
Egypt (www.ccba.gov.eg) to Analysis the extent of the
sufficiency for the suggested reasoning to measure the
extent of securing data for the cyberspace.
We formed "intelligent approach" for securing the data
that consists of penetration test that includes ("Mining
Audit Data for Automated Models for Intrusion Detection"
(MADAM ID); for evaluating the security state of a
system or network by simulating an attack from a
malicious source. This process involves identification and
exploitation of vulnerabilities in real world scenario which
may exist in the systems due to improper configuration,
known or unknown weaknesses in hardware or software
systems, operational weaknesses or loopholes in deployed
safeguards.
We will use strategy of inferring and analyzing the data,
searching for them in the cyberspace by one of the
technology tools (data mining), through the cyberspace,
enabling fighting terrorism to limit the harms in
advance by making the relief arrangements from the
view of comprehensive security and through the analysis
of the results for the data survey as it depends on using
the models of test to assess the extent of the correctness
and safety of the data identifying the standards of test
that can exceed the limitations of the available data ,
such as using the proposed model in the Figure 3"
To test the extent of the data correctness for the
cyberspace, and that the infrastructure of the propped
model of cyberspace for "the Cairo Cleaning and
Beautification Agency", a model will be built in steps
represented in 2 states as follows:
The first stage ("Frequencies", "Association rules",
"decision trees" and "hybrid of auto regression") [20],
[72], [73].
The second (" Neural Networks Model"," Hierarchical
Clustering" and 'Bayesian network") to enable the
decision maker to know interact with the features of the
value traits. And the data extraction tools will be adapted
with data mining [74], [75], and [76].
Penetration testing was among the first activities
performed when security concerns were raised many years
ago [3]. The basic process used in penetration testing is
simple: attempt to compromise the security of the
mechanism undergoing the test. In earlier years, computer
networked operating systems, with their access control
mechanism, were the most suitable components for
penetration testing, because O.S. is the core component of
the machine, so it is more exposed to security threats [3].
The earliest penetration testing processes were highly and
manually intensive, while later automatic processes started
to be clearly utilized for cost reduction [3].We need to

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determine how the attacker is most likely to go about


attacking a network or an application. Locating areas of
weakness in network or application defenses, determines
how an attacker could exploit weaknesses, Locating
resources that could be accessed, altered, or destroyed,
determine whether the attack was detected, determine
what the attack footprint looks like and making
recommendations.
Other benefits of feature selection are: improving the
prediction of ID models, providing faster and costeffective ID models, providing better understanding and
virtualization of the generated intrusions.

Figure 3: The proposed IDS model based on DM and


penetration testing
Figure 3 shows the proposed "IDS "model based on "DM"
and "penetration test ". The system is composed of the
following units:
Computer network sensors: collect audit data and
network traffic events and transmit these data to ID
units.
DM-ID unit: contains different modules that employ
various DM algorithms and techniques (e.g.,
Frequencies, decision tree model, logistic regression
algorithms, neural networks model, Bayesian network
model etc.). Each module works independently to
detect intrusions in the network traffic data.
Penetration test unit: deploys penetration test to
detect intrusions in the network audit data.
Collect detected intrusions unit: collects detected
intrusions from DM and penetration testing units.
Virtualization unit: help monitor and visualize the
results of penetration test units.
Managerial decision maker: analyzes intrusion
results, evaluates system performance, takes decisions
on detected intrusions, checks for negatives and
positive results, controls system operation, generates a
performance
report
and
decides
if
any
changes/updates are needed.
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Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 4, Issue 2, March-April 2015
(Analysis of the results)
Finally we can find that the cyberspace needs to be
improved, its efficiency needs to be enhanced and
necessary arrangements should be taken to raise the
efficiency of security. As the data is exposed to violations
at the rate of 92,308 we can find that were achieved by
high rate (timeliness= 94 % & integrity = 92.3 %
&objectivity = 91.7 % & availability=% 96), we find that
the feedback value was achieved at the medium rate.
Table 4: Report of the proposed procedure modeling
We conclude that the maximum number of the frequencies
identified to set the accuracy of data is less probability
(verifiability) for occurrence 0.309. It's clear in table 4.
(Refer to Hanaa. M et al., 2012),[20],[72],[73],[74],[75].

Table 4: Report of the proposed procedure modeling

4. Evaluation
To improve the framework, we have to take into
consideration the previous challenges, many of these
challenges cannot be solved by technology alone, but they
require understanding the collective social dynamics as
roots of problems and key to their solutions.
The basic difference between the current study and the
previously mentioned studies can be summarized in that
the current study is applied on certain minor cyber in
Egypt, "Cairo Cleaning and Beautification Agency".
Another difference is represented in "penetration test
model" as a collective approach that gathered all strategies
(Frequencies, Association rules, decision trees, hybrid of
auto regression, Bayesian network and Neural Networks
Model). The previous studies used one of these strategies
but there is no study that used two strategies together.
This make the current study different in its methodology
for treating with security of data.

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ISSN 2278-6856

However, the above mentioned table (4) which shows the


outputs of the previous function of assessment was of
several values. Each case can be diagnosed correctly
according to the standardized shape. However, in practice,
it was not preferred to see100% accuracy, but you can use
the assistant analysis in identification if the model of
accurate and acceptable application of the cyberspace
actually, or that there is no other type of function or of
sins nor linear that can apply , however with the set of
different data , it is possible for the results to be easily
different. Thus, it is always worthy of trial, with full set of
choice.
From all the above mentioned we found the
following facts:
Data mining predict assist in: Identifying patterns of
criminal or terrorist behavior, Identifying emerging
criminal or terror threats, predicting future criminal
or terrorist actions, Prioritizing intelligence and
exploiting criminal/ terror threat vulnerabilities
Penetration test necessary for E-government.
Penetration test also can be used as an important and
useful indicator in security measurement. Egovernment needs to new technology in order to be
able to follow the new challenges that may face the
cyberspace, in addition to identification of security
threats.
Finally there are many reasons that make
cyberspace needs for penetration test, these
reasons can be summarized as follows:
Determination of the effectiveness of the security controls
and adjusting their appropriate locations, determination
the points of weakness and strength in cyberspace security
system, determination of the sufficiency of the current
controls in cyberspace security system and determination
of the threats against the organization's information;
We believe that the development of such a framework is
mainly an exercise of measurement, simply because in
order to evaluate, compare, predict and control effectively,
measurements are required. Thus our current research
efforts concentrate on the development of an eGovernment security system, able to face the challenges
that confront e-Government software project.
Data mining involves the use of sophisticated data
analysis tools to discover previously unknown, valid
patterns and relationships in large data sets. Data mining
consists of more than collecting and managing data; it
also includes analysis and prediction. The application of
patterns, relationships, and rules to searches, whether
these are derived through data mining, observation,
intelligence, or theoretical models.
The security of information in computer-based
systems and networks continues to be a major
concern to researchers. The work in intrusion
detection techniques and methodologies which has
been a major focus of information security-related
research in the past two decades is certain to
continue. The area of intrusion detection is
continuing to evolve. While a number
of
methodologies and tools have been designed to assist
Page 15

International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 4, Issue 2, March-April 2015
in the identification of intruders, no definable
standard has been developed which could serve as
the basis for a deployable intrusion detection tool.
However, as the processing capabilities of computer
systems improve and the innovative approaches to
intrusion detection continue to be developed, the
creation of an effective intrusion detection standard
is inevitable.

5. Conclusions
This paper has been conducted a comparison between
different data mining frameworks as Penetration test for
classification purposes, it presented an overview of the
techniques that had been utilized for the detection of
attacks against computer systems, and a survey of the
experiences of those most affected by intrusion detection
technology.
This paper provides the review of literature on how data
mining techniques and related algorithms can play a vital
role in ensuring information security in an E-government.
We have also reviewed some of the significant techniques
which hold the promise of effectively protecting computer
systems. It is obvious that our national security apparatus
is driven by a reactive focus on the crime or terror
incidents. However, the crime incidents or terror attacks
are merely the end products of a complex set of criminal
or terror activities.
Also, it shows general vision for how to utilize intelligent
approaches for securing the data in E-government
information systems through measuring the extent of
securing the extraction of the required data on electronic
site, and becoming able to fight the cyber terrorism, as we
depended on using a set of models to measure the extent
of the correctness and security of the data.
The data mining of data security data (e.g., related to
police operations) could enable the discovery of systemic
inefficiency in connection to security response, crime
incidence analysis and prevention efforts. Data mining
could help provide explanation of crime and terror. The
data mining techniques however could mine the historical
data and extract hidden predictive information which
could prove the initial assumption that it will face
numerous problems.
However data mining can be a valuable tool in the hands
of the decision makers aiming to predict the internal and
external environment, adjust accordingly and hence to
make more rational decisions.
Also included are ways to achieve sustainability for this
critical E governance project and so safeguard our
national critical data from digital terror and fraud. This
paper initiates concepts relating to the establishment of an
effective framework for data management of digital
evidence. The current intelligent approach is very useful
technique for building strategies that measure the extent
of securing data in order to improve the management
performance, through the filtration of data. Also the
suggested technique could become an important tool for
the government and intelligence agencies in the decisionmaking and monitoring potential international terrorist
threats.

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ISSN 2278-6856

In the future we will complete and follow up the research


in this field through using search in data to be an active
way in decision making. It is expected that there will be
several challenges related to operation and development of
cyberspace system. In future also the penetration test can
be an effective tool that will help in testing the security of
the data, especially if it is developed according to dynamic
and automated aspects. Many future directions can be
explored in this still young field. For example, more visual
and intuitive criminal and intelligence investigation
techniques can be developed for crime pattern and
network visualization.
Finally the resulting system can become an important tool
for government and intelligence agencies in decision
making and monitoring of real-time potential
international terror threats present in blog conversations
and the blogosphere.

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AND
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ISSN 2278-6856 (IJETTCS, http://www.ijettcs.org)
Id: IJETTCS-2014-12-01-74, Volume 3, Issue 6,
Impact Factor 3.258 [ ISRAJIF], pp. 085-091, 2014.

AUTHOR
Hanaa Mohamed Said is general
manger
OF
Information
&
Computer Center at Cairo Cleaning
&
Beautification
Authorized,
Egypt. Eng Hanaa Mohamed Said
is responsible for Supervision of all
administration tasks for five departments as follows: The
Center of information, Eng Hanaa Mohamed Said got
B.SC. in
communications Engineering, Faculty of
Engineering, Helwan University, Graduation 1987, Dept :
Telecommunications & Electronic, Project: Design of
Microprocessor, Eng Hanaa Mohamed Said got a diploma
of computer science from Ain Shams university with very
good , Eng Hanaa Mohamed Said got a Master degree of
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International Journal of Emerging Trends & Technology in Computer Science (IJETTCS)


Web Site: www.ijettcs.org Email: editor@ijettcs.org
Volume 4, Issue 2, March-April 2015
science in Information Systems college of computing &
information Technology In jolly 2011 Grade: "Excellent"
From Arab Academy For Science, Technology &
Maritime Transport Eng Hanaa Mohamed Said on her
way to take PHD from Faculty of computer science at Ain
Shames University Faculty of Computing & Information
Science Information Systems Department .
Dr.Rania
Elgohary
is
an
assistance professor at the Faculty
of Computer and Information
Sciences, Ain Shams University,
Cairo, Egypt. Rania Elgohary got
B.SC. in Accounting and Foreign
Trade, Faculty of Commerce and
Business Administration, Helwan University, Cairo,
Egypt, also B.SC complementary in computer science
from Faculty of Computer and Information Sciences, Ain
Shams University, Cairo, Egypt, and Rania Elgohary got a
Masters degree from Ain Shams University, Egypt in
computer and information sciences, Information Systems
Department, on Titled: Deliberation Process Mechanisms
for Software Development. Dr Rania got a PhD degree
from University of Ain Shams, Cairo, Egypt. Dr. Rania
Elgohary is known and well recognized authority in the
domain of Development and the applications of software
engineering. Her research interests include software
engineering, E-Business, stock Market Exchange,
surveillance systems and information security.

ISSN 2278-6856

learning technologies. He has published around 300


papers in refereed journals and conference proceedings in
these areas. He has been involved in more than 300
conferences and workshops as a plenary speaker, member
of International Program Committees, workshop/invited
session organizer and Session Chair. He is author and coauthor of 15 Books in English and Arabic Languages. He
is the Editor-in-Chief of the International Journal of BioMedical Informatics and e-Health (IJBMIeH), Egyptian
Computer Science Journal (ECSJ), Associate Editor of
International Journal of Applications of Fuzzy Sets and
Artificial Intelligence (IJAFSAI).

Dr. Mohamed hamdy is assistant


Professor with more than 14 years
experience years in both Research
and Teaching in many fields of
Computer Networks and Computer
Science in general. He gets this
experience in leading universities in MENA and Europe.
BSc and MSc degrees in Computer Science at Ain Shams
University in Egypt formed a solid background and a set
of Research and Teaching skills. During my PhD at the
University of Jena in Germany, and for about five years,
he has conducted a set of highly ranked and reputed
research groups in several occasions.He acquired high
managerial skills as working on the top IT strategic
management at Ain Shams University as director for a
large enterprise network like Ain Shams University
Network. He managed to provide several strategic vision
and solutions for many challenges in this job.
Prof. Dr. Abdel-Badeeh M
Salem He is a Professor of
Computer Science since 1989 at
Faculty
of
Computer
and
Information Sciences, Ain Shams
University, Cairo, Egypt. He is a
professor emeritus since October 2007. He was a Director
of Scientific Computing Center at Ain Shams University
(1984-1990). His research includes intelligent computing,
expert systems, biomedical informatics, and intelligent e-

Volume 4, Issue 2, March April 2015

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