INTRODUCTION………………………………………………………… ………………………. 3


PRINT MEDIA……………………………………………………………………… …………….. 5

TYPES OF PRINT MEDIA……………………………………………………………………… 6

ELECTRONIC MEDIA AND ITS TYPES……………………………………………………. 8

OUTDOOR ADVERTISING MEDIA……………………………………………………….. 9

TYPES OF OUTDOOR ADVERTISING……………………………………………………. 10





Public Relations (PR) are the practice of managing the communication between an organization and its publics. Public relations gains an organization or individual exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that provide a third-party endorsement and do not direct payment. Common activities include speaking at conferences, working with the media, crisis communications, social media engagement and employee communication. It is something that is not tangible; this is what sets it apart from advertising. PR can be used to build rapport with employees, customers, investors, voters, or the general public. Almost any organization that has a stake in how it is portrayed in the public arena employs some level of public relations. There are a number of related disciplines falling under the banner of Corporate Communications, such as Analyst Relations, Media Relations, Investor Relations, Internal Communications and Labour Relations. There are many areas of public relations, but the most recognized are financial public relations, product public relations, and crisis public relations. • • • Financial public relations deal with providing information mainly to business reporters. Product public relations deal with gaining publicity for a particular product or service through PR tactics rather than using advertising. Crisis public relations deal with responding to negative accusations or information.

Public relations include ongoing activities to ensure the organization has a strong public image. Public relations activities include helping the public to understand the organization and its products. Similar to effective advertising and promotions, effective public relations often depends on designing and implementing a well-designed public relations plan. The plan often includes description of what you want to convey to whom, how you plan to convey it, which is responsible for various activities and by when, and how much money is budgeted to fund these activities. Similar to advertising and promotions, a media plan and calendar can be very useful, which specifies what media methods that are used and when. Often, public relations are conducted through the media, that is, newspapers, television, magazines, etc. Publicity is mention in the media. Organizations usually have little control over the message in the media, at least, not as much as they do in advertising. Regarding publicity, reporters and writers decide what will be said.

Mass media are media, which can be used to communicate and interact with a large number of audiences. Be it the pictorial messages of the early ages, or the high-technology media that are available today, one thing that we all agree upon, is that mass media are an inseparable part of our lives. Entertainment and media always go hand in hand, but in addition to the entertainment, mass media also remain to be an effective medium for communication, dissemination of information, advertising, marketing and in general, for expressing and sharing views, opinions and ideas. Mass media is a double-edged sword which means that there are positive effects of media as well as negative influences of media. Here are some of the different types of mass media:

PRINT MEDIA: The print media includes newspapers, magazines, brochures, newsletters, books and even leaflets and pamphlets. Visual media like photography can also be mentioned under this sub-head, since photography is an important mass media, which communicates via visual representations. Although, it is said that the electronic or new media have replaced the print media, there exists a majority of audiences who prefer the print media for various communication purposes. Public and event organizing can also be considered as a form of mass media. ELECTRONIC MEDIA: For many people, it is impossible to imagine a life without their television sets, be it the daily news dose or even the soap operas. This mass media includes television and radio. This category also includes electronic media like movies, CDs and DVDs as well as the new hottest electronic gadgets.

NEW-AGE MEDIA: With the advent of new technologies like Internet, we are now enjoying the benefits of high technology mass media, which is not only faster than the old-school mass media, but also has a widespread range. Mobile phones, computers and Internet are often referred to as the new-age media. Internet has opened up several new opportunities for mass communication which include email, websites, blogging, Internet tv and many other mass media which are booming today.

The print media is considered to be one of the most flourishing medium of communication today. This medium is also particularly very popular to reach the target audience for advertisers. The different types of print media give a plethora of options for people to reach a varied bracket of users. So, be it newspapers or magazines, every medium has its particular advantages, a thing which should be considered to be of utmost importance by all advertisers and clients. However, print media also has its own disadvantages. Here, we shall take a quick look at the advantages and disadvantages of print media.

Advantages of Print Media:
1) Different types of print media (newspapers and magazines) have a loyal readership. This can be very useful for advertisers as compared to advertising on the Internet. 2) If you are targeting a particular geographical area, you can do so with ease through print media. For example, a local newspaper would be a best medium to advertise about a new shopping complex. 3) You can choose the size of the advertisement space. This will help you to plan the budget of the expenses to be incurred while advertising. 4) Certain forms of print media have a very loyal fans following in terms of readers. This would guarantee you added readership. 5) Magazines and newspapers are always in the eye amongst public. Magazines are read for a period of a month, which brings more attention to an advertisement. 6) You can even advertise through brochures or leaflets depending upon your target audience. If the information is in detail, a brochure can prove to be an apt option. A leaflet in that case, would be useful for a brief message.

Disadvantages of Print Media:
1) The cost incurred can sometimes be expensive considering the medium you choose. 2) The shelf life of any particular print medium is limited. Newspapers for example, are amongst the public eye only for a day. 3) This medium may not always give you a wide reach. Internet, on the other hand, can target a global audience. 4) There is a limitation in terms of the kind of people who may actually read your message. The particular newspaper may not actually be

accessible every time to your target group, which means, your message may be missed! The Internet on the other hand, can be accessed from anywhere. 5) You may have to plan months in advance to advertise in print media. It does not offer you flexibility when you are faced with a tight deadline. 6) Advertisements may get lost in all the clutter of editorial and ads by competitors.

Newspapers are one of the traditional mediums used by businesses, both big and small alike, to advertise their businesses Advantages 1) Allows you to reach a huge number of people in a given geographic area 2) You have the flexibility in deciding the ad size and placement within the newspaper 3) Your ad can be as large as necessary to communicate as much of a story as you care to tell 4) Exposure to your ad is not limited; readers can go back to your message again and again if so desired. 5) Free help in creating and producing ad copy is usually available 6) Quick turn-around helps your ad reflect the changing market conditions. The ad you decide to run today can be in your customers' hands in one to two days. Disadvantages 1) Ad space can be expensive 2) Your ad has to compete against the clutter of other advertisers, including the giants ads run by supermarkets and department stores as well as the ads of your competitors 3) Poor photo reproduction limits creativity 4) Newspapers are a price-oriented medium; most ads are for sales 5) Expect your ad to have a short shelf life, as newspapers are usually read once and then discarded. 6) You may be paying to send your message to a lot of people who will probably never be in the market to buy from you. 7) Newspapers are a highly visible medium, so your competitors can quickly react to your prices 8) With the increasing popularity of the Internet, newspapers face declining readership and market penetration. A growing number of readers now skip the print version of the newspaper (and hence the print ads) and instead read the online version of the publication.

Magazines are a more focused, albeit more expensive, alternative to newspaper advertising. This medium allows you to reach highly targeted audiences. Advantages 1) Allows for better targeting of audience, as you can choose magazine publications that cater to your specific audience or whose editorial content specializes in topics of interest to your audience.

2) High reader involvement means that more attention will be paid to your advertisement 3) Better quality paper permits better colour reproduction and full-colour ads 4) The smaller page (generally 8 ½ by 11 inches) permits even small ads to stand out. Disadvantages 1) Long lead times mean that you have to make plans weeks or months in advance 2) The slower lead time heightens the risk of your ad getting overtaken by events 3) There is limited flexibility in terms of ad placement and format. 4) Space and ad layout costs are higher

In its simple meaning, a newsletter is a form of advertising that is sent periodically. It is a regularly distributed publication that is mostly about one main topic, and is of interest to its subscribers. Newsletters are delivered via email. Newsletters are normally used by owners of the websites to communicate and advertise themselves to their readers or subscribers. Advantages 1) Newsletters help you to promote your business. Basically a newsletter motivates customers to buy from you. 2) A general newsletter contains articles and an appropriate vision and mission of the business. This information helps customers to understand your business. 3) Newsletters are an effective communication tool. Creative newsletters can be appreciated by the clients and hence increase the communication between businesses and clients. 4) As mentioned above, a newsletter is a cost effective tool, but it can be used as a source of income by putting advertisements in it. Disadvantages 1) To receive a newsletter client must provide their email address, which in some cases people reluctant to do so fearing that their email address could be passed to other organizations, resulting hundreds of junk emails. 2) In some cases a newsletter may not be received by the recipient. Reasons for this could be the spam filters used by many people. So a newsletter might not get through to those who have subscribed because is rejected as spam.

Brochures give detailed information about the product. These are mainly

distributed at events or even at the main outlet when a consumer needs to read in detail about the product. Advantages
1) You have total control over what is said and how it is said. 2) You control where your brochure is placed as well as who gets it.

3) Brochures are flexible as you can choose the type of printing, paper and size to fit your budget and marketing needs.


1) Distribution of brochures to a small target audience is economical but the cost would be prohibitive when used to target a mass audience. Other types of advertising and promotional material and media may be more economical for reaching a large audience. 2) If there is a change in information related to your business, the brochure will become outdated resulting in waste of money.

Electronic media are media that use electronics or electromechanical energy for the end user (audience) to access the content. This is in contrast to static media (mainly print media), which are most often created electronically, but don't require electronics to be accessed by the end user in the printed form. The primary electronic media sources familiar to the general public are better known as video recordings, audio recordings, multimedia presentations, slide presentations, CD-ROM and Online Content. Most new media are in the form of digital media. However, electronic media may be in either analog or digital format.

Advantages 1) Radio is a universal medium enjoyed by people at one time or another during the day, at home, at work, and even in the car. 2) The vast array of radio program formats offers to efficiently target your advertising dollars to narrowly defined segments of consumers most likely to respond to your offer. 3) Gives your business personality through the creation of campaigns using sounds and voices 4) Free creative help is often available 5) Rates can generally be negotiated 6) During the past ten years, radio rates have seen less inflation than those for other media Disadvantages 1) Because radio listeners are spread over many stations, you may have to advertise simultaneously on several stations to reach your target audience 2) Listeners cannot go back to your ads to go over important points 3) Ads are an interruption in the entertainment. Because of this, a radio ad may require multiple exposure to break through the listener's "tune-out" factor and ensure message retention 4) Radio is a background medium. Most listeners are doing something else while listening, which means that your ad has to work hard to get their attention.


1) Television permits you to reach large numbers of people on a national or regional level in a short period of time 2) Independent stations and cable offer new opportunities to pinpoint local audiences 3) Television being an image-building and visual medium, it offers the ability to convey your message with sight, sound and motion Disadvantages 1) Message is temporary, and may require multiple exposures for ad to rise above clutter. 2) Ads on network affiliates are concentrated in local news broadcasts and station breaks 3) Preferred ad times are often sold out far in advance 4) Limited length of exposure, as most ads are only thirty seconds long or less, which limits the amount of information you can communicate 5) Relatively expensive in terms of creative, production and airtime costs

Outdoor advertising reaches its audience as an element of the environment. Unlike newspaper, radio or TV, it doesn't have to be invited into the home. And it doesn't provide entertainment to sustain its audience. Advantages: 1) Since it is in the public domain, Outdoor Advertising assuredly reaches its audience. People can't "switch it off" or "throw it out." People are exposed to it whether they like it or not. In this sense, outdoor advertising truly has a "captured audience." 2) Its messages work on the advertising principle of "frequency." Since most messages stay in the same place for a period of a month or more, people who drive by or walk past see the same message a number of times. 3) Particular locations can be acquired for certain purposes. A billboard located a block in front of your business can direct people to your showroom. Or you can reach rural areas efficiently by placing a billboard in each small town. 4) Outdoor advertising is an excellent adjunct to other types of advertising you are doing. In fact, it is most effective when coupled with other media. Disadvantages 1) Outdoor advertising is a glance medium. At best, it only draws 2-3 seconds of a reader's time. 2) Messages must be brief to fit in that 2-3 second time frame. Ninetyfive percent of the time, either the message or the audience is in motion. 3) The nature of the way you have to buy outdoor advertising (usually a three month commitment) is not conducive to a very short, week-long campaign.

Billboard is a sheet of paper on which the advertising message is written and pasted on the cardboard or a wooden plank. They can be conveniently displayed on a wall or on an electronic pole. Advantages 1) Big, splashy messages attract attention. Using this medium you must be short and to the point. 2) Your ad has impact. Technology is allowing for more and more innovations like talking, moving, smoking, changing and twinkling billboards. Hot air balloons, blow-ups, flags, banners and other eyecatching devices are an option, too. You can even hire "rolling billboards" on the back of a truck that drives a route you choose to make sure your billboard is seen by the right audience numerous times. 3) Your ad reaches lots of people, many of whom see it repeatedly as they travel regular routes. Disadvantages 1) It's hard to reach a specific audience. You might be able to target a neighbourhood, but can't be more specific than that. 2) Your creativity is inhibited by space limitations. 3) It's hard to measure its effectiveness. 4) Your ad may become weathered or vandalized. 5) Costs can be quite reasonable for a billboard that you want to leave up for a sustained amount of time. However, innovative adaptations can become quite expensive.

They are extensively used in cities for communication the advertising message. The cost of maintaining the electric signs is very high. Neon sign is one example of electric display. They are more attractive as compared to posters during evening and night times.

Sky advertising is a recent addition in the field of outdoor advertising. It may take the form of balloons or sky-banners. The outcome of skywriting cannot be evaluated and it has only reminder value.


In this, a man hangs one poster on each side and moves slowly on the busy streets of a city. The man is called sandwichaman as he is sandwiched between the two boards. There is advertising message on these boards. This is a cheap method of advertising and can be used only in local market. It is the oldest form of outdoor advertising and is gradually disappearing due to overcrowding of streets.

This is a recently developed form of outdoor advertising. In transit or transport advertising vehicles such as buses, trains, trams and cars are used for communication advertising message. The local trains of Railways, BEST buses and ST buses are examples of transport advertising. Transit advertising can be of three types: • • • Car cards Stickers Station displays

Trade Shows and Fairs are arranged by trade associations and other agencies for the benefit of manufactures and traders. In such fairs stalls are provided on rental basis were the manufacturers and traders can advertise and sell their products through their stalls.

The house journal is an in-house magazine for private circulation only. The word house means trading establishment and organ means medium of communicating information or opinion. The house journal is published in order to keep the employee, customer, shareholder, investors informed. It serves as a useful and common platform to convey the views of the management.

A public address or "PA" system is an electronic amplification system with a mixer, amplifier and loudspeakers, used to reinforce a given sound, e.g., a person making a speech, a DJ playing pre-recorded music, and distributing the sound throughout a venue or building. Simple PA systems are often used in small venues such as school auditoriums, churches, and small bars. PA systems with a larger number of speakers are widely used in institutional and commercial buildings, to read announcements or declare states of emergency. Intercom systems, which are often used in schools, also have microphones in each room so that the occupants can reply to the central office.

A picture taken by a camera is known as a photograph. They represent illustration of life and make the subject more believable. A photograph effectively conveys written or a spoken message in a few minutes in an interesting and fascinating manner. The system of photography constitutes the following: screen, contact, matt, glossy, contrasts, double weights, paper of single weight, whole plate etc. Elements like creativity and imagination are also present in photography.

Public affairs are a term used to describe an organisation’s relationship with stakeholders. These are individuals or groups with an interest in the organisation's affairs, such as MPs, civil servants, shareholders, customers, clients, trade associations, think tanks, business groups, unions and the media. Public affairs practitioners engage stakeholders in order to explain the organisation's policies, provide statistical and factual information and to lobby on issues which could impact upon the organisation's ability to operate successfully. Their work combines government relations, media communications, issue management, corporate and social responsibility information dissemination and strategic communications advice. They aim to

influence public policy, build and maintain a strong reputation and find a common ground with these stakeholders.

A teleconference is a telephone or video meeting between participants in two or more locations. Teleconferences are similar to telephone calls, but they can expand discussion to more than two people. Using teleconferencing in a planning process, members of a group can all participate in a conference with agency staff people. Teleconferencing uses communications network technology to connect participants’ voices. In many cases, speaker telephones are used for conference calls among the participants. A two-way radio system can also be used. In some remote areas, satellite enhancement of connections is desirable. Video conferencing can transmit pictures as well as voices through video cameras and computer modems. Video conferencing technology is developing rapidly, capitalizing on the increasingly powerful capabilities of computers and telecommunications networks. Video conferencing centres and equipment are available for rent in many locations. Teleconferencing provides broader access to public meetings, as well as widening the reach of public involvement. It gives additional opportunities for participants to relate to agency staff and to each other while discussing issues and concerns from physically separate locations. It enables people in many different locations to receive information first-hand and simultaneously.

A pamphlet is an unbound booklet (that is, without a hard cover or binding). It may consist of a single sheet of paper that is printed on both sides and folded in half, in thirds, or in fourths (called a leaflet), or it may consist of a few pages that are folded in half and stapled at the crease to make a simple book. In order to count as a pamphlet, UNESCO requires a publication (other than a periodical) to have "at least 5 but not more than 48 pages exclusive of the cover pages" a longer item is a book.

Outsourcing means obtaining goods and services by contract from an outside source. The following are the reasons why outsourcing is undertaken:
1) To free the management from day to day operations. 2) To have accessibility to the world class capabilities. 3) To redirect resources from non-core activities towards activities that

has greater return in servicing the customers. 4) To enjoy lower cost due to economies of scale. 5) To minimize business risks and acquire innovative ideas. 6) To increase flexibility in order to meet changing business conditions. 7) To improve credibility and image by associating with superior providers. 8) To focus on broader business issues while having details taken over by outside expert.











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