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Students Copy

Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Mechanical Energy

PHYSICS

Mechanical Energy

properties of matter.

Matter

Solid

Light Energy

Energy

states

Liquid

Heat Energy

Wave Energy

forms

Electrical Energy

Gas

Nuclear Energy

Chemical Energy

Properties of

Matter

Relationship

with

matter

Relationship

with

energy

Properties of

Energy

in the fields of

Mechanics

Properties

of matter

Wave

Heat

Electronics

Electricity &

Electromagnetism

Light

Atomic Physics

& Nuclear

JB 2010

Physics Module Form 4

Students Copy

Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

1.2

PHYSICAL QUANTITIES

Base quantity

1

A physical quantity is ..

A base quantity is a physical quantity which cannot be defined in terms of other physical

quantities.

Study the following picture and list the physical quantities that can be measured.

The list of physical quantities :

1. .

2. .

3. .

4. .

5. .

6. .

7. .

8. .

Base quantity

Symbol

S.I. Unit

Length

Mass

Time

Current

Temperature

6

Two quantities that have also identified as basic quantity. There are :

..

JB 2010

Physics Module Form 4

Students Copy

Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Standard Form

1

Some physical quantities have extremely small magnitudes. Write the following

a. Radius of the earth = 6 370 000 m =.

b. Mass of an electron = 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 911 kg =...

c. Size of a particle = 0.000 03 m =

b. Diameter of an atom = 0.000 000 072 m = ...

c. Wavelength of light = 0.000 000 55 m = ..

Prefixes

1. Prefixes are usually used to ...

2. It will be written

3. The list of prefixes :

12

10

Tera (T)

109

Giga (G)

106

Mega (M)

10-3

Deka (da)

desi (d)

centi (s)

mili (m)

10-6

micro ()

10-9

nano (n)

10-12

pico (p)

10 3

10

1

10

10-10

10

10-2

Eg :

1 Tm = .

3.6 mA = .

How to change the unit ;

Eg :

1. Mega to nano

2. Tera to micro

3. piko to Mega

4. Some physical quantities have extremely large magnitudes. These extremely large and

small values can be written in standard form or using standard prefixes. Write the

quantities in standard prefixes:

a. Frequency of radio wave = 91 000 000 Hz = .

b. Diameter of the earth = 12 800 000 m =

JB 2010

Physics Module Form 4

Students Copy

Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

c. Distance between the moon and the earth = 383 000 000 m =

d. Mass of the earth = 6 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg =

Derived quantities

1

A derived quantity is .

Derived

quantity

Formula

Derived unit

Name of

derived unit

area

m x m = m2

volume

m x m x m = m3

density

velocity

momentum

Acceleration

Force

pressure

mass

volume

displacement

time

density

velocity

acceleration

change in velocity

time

pressure

work

power

kinetic energy

K.E

kg m s-2

Newton (N)

Kg ms-2

Joule (J)

work

time

1

mass velocity 2

2

potential

energy

charge

voltage

force

area

weight

power

kg m s-1

voltage

work

charge

Ampere second

(As)

Coulomb (C)

J C-1

Volt (v)

Physics Module Form 4

Students Copy

Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Derived

quantity

resistance

Formula

resistance

voltage

current

Derived unit

Name of

derived unit

v A-1

Ohm ()

Note that the physical quantities such as width, thickness, height, distance, displacement,

perimeter, radius and diameter are equivalent to length.

1.3

1

Scalar quantities are

Examples :

Examples :

Study the following description of events carefully and then decide which events require

magnitude, direction or both to specify them.

Description of events

Magnitude

0

1. The temperature in the room is 25 C

2. The location of Ayer Hitam is 60 km to the northwest of Johor Bahru

Direction

4. A car is travelling at 80 km h-1 from Johor Bahru

to Kuala Lumpur

1.4

MEASUREMENTS

1

Measuring instrument

Measuring tape

Meter rule

Vernier caliper

Micrometer screw gauge

Range of measurement

5

Physics Module Form 4

Students Copy

Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

4.1 Ammeter : ..

incorret reading

correct

1

2

3

1

2

3

0

4 reading

0

pointer

pointer

mirror

mirror

Right position of eye (eye are in a line perpendicular to the plane of

the scale)

wrong position of eye

water

4.3 Ruler :

wrong

10

11

right

12

wrong

13

14

15

Reading = cm

A venier calliper is used to measure :

a. b. .

c. d. .

A vernier calliper gives readings to an accuracy of .... cm.

inside jaws

Vernier

scale1

cm

0

4 Main scale

SKALA

UTAMA

outside jaws

10

Main scale in cm

0

10

Vernier scale

is = . cm

6

Physics Module Form 4

Students Copy

Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Main scale

= .

1 2 3 4 5

cm

6 7 8 9 10

vernier scale which is

coincides with any part of

the main scale

Vernier scale = ..

Final reading = ..

0

10

A micrometer screw gauge is used to measure :

a.

b. .

c.

One complete turn of the thimble

(50 division) moves the spindle by

0.50 mm.

Division of thimble

= ..

= ..

A accuracy of micrometer

screw gauge = ..

Sleeve scale :

Thimble scale : .

Total reading : ..

Example :

Sleeve scale :

Thimble scale : .

Total reading : ...

4.6 Some others measuring instruments :

Physics Module Form 4

Students Copy

Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

..

..

Hands-on activity 1.1 on page 1 of the practical book to learn more about choosing

appropriate instruments.

Exercise: Vernier Callipers And Micrometer Screw Gauge

1. Write down the readings shown by the following

(a)

(b)

Answer: 4.27 cm..

(c)

0

(d)

1

0

5

1

10

Physics Module Form 4

Students Copy

Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

2. (a) The following diagram shows the scale of a vernier calliper when the jaws are closed.

1

10

(b).

The following diagram shows the scale of the same vernier calliper when there are

40 pieces of cardboard between the jaws.

5

Reading shown

10

= 5.64.cm

3.

Write

(a)

(b)

40

35

10

35

30

Answer: .

Answer:..

(c)

(d)

25

20

15

Answer:

Answer:.

20

0

9

Physics Module Form 4

Students Copy

Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

45

0

20

15

Reading shown

= 6.67..mm

5. Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges.

(a)

(b)

0

40

35

10

35

30

Answer: 6.88 mm

Answer: ..12.32 mm

(c)

(d)

25

20

20

15

Answer:4.71 mm

Answer: 9.17 mm

6. (a) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

0

0

45

5

0

10

20

Physics Module Form 4

Students Copy

Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

15

Reading shown

= .6.67..mm

Accuracy and consistency in measurements.

1. Accuracy :

2. Consistency :

3. Sensitivity :

target

..

target

.. ..

Hands-on activity 1.2 on page 2 of the practical book to determine the sensitivity of

some measuring instruments.

Errors in measurements

2. In other word, it is a matter of

3. This is because

4. Two main types of errors:

4.1

Occurs due to :

a)

b)

c)

11

Physics Module Form 4

Students Copy

Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Examples :

a)

b)

c)

Absolute error :

.

.

Example :

Parallax error :

cm

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

cm

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Zero error =

Zero error =

Correct reading = observed reading zero error

Positive zero error

Horizontal

reference

Horizontal

3 divisions

above

reference

2 divisions below

horizontal reference

horizontal reference

Zero error =

Zero error =

4.2 ..

Occurs due to

a)

12

Physics Module Form 4

Students Copy

Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

b)

c)

Example :

a) ..

b) ..

.....................................................................................................................

1.5

SCIENCETIFIC INVESTIGATION

Steps

1

Making

observation

Drawing

inferences

Identifying

and controlling

variables

Formulating a

hypothesis

Conducting

experiments

Explanation

Situation : A few children are playing on a different length of swing in a

playground. It is found that the time of oscillation for each swing is different.

Steps

1

Inference

13

JB 2010

Physics Module Form 4

Students Copy

Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

2 Hypothesis

3

Aim

Variables

List of

apparatus and

materials

Arrangement of

the apparatus

Procedures

14

Physics Module Form 4

Students Copy

Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Tabulate the

data

Analyse the

data

10 Discussion

11 Conclusion

Precautions :

1. Oscillation time is measured when the pendulum attained a steady

state.

2. Time for 10 oscillations is repeated twice to increase accuracy.

3. Discussion (refer to given questions)

The period increases when the length of the pendulum increases.

Hypothesis accepted.

Reinforcement Chapter 1

Part A :Objective Question

2. Which of the following is a derived

quantity?

A Length

B Mass

C Temperature D Voltage

quantity?

A Weight

B Energy

C Velocity

D Mass

15

Physics Module Form 4

Students Copy

Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

unit?

A Newton

C ampere

B mikro, mili, senti, desi

C mili, mikro, desi, senti

D desi, mikro, mili, senti

B kilogram

D second

cannot be derived?

A Electric current B Power

C Momentum

D Force

A basic quantities

B scalar quantities

C derived quantities

D vector quantities

not derived from the basic physical

quantity of length?

A Electric charge B Density

C Velocity

D Volume

correct conversion of units?

A 24 mm3 =2.4 x 10-6 m3

B 300 mm3=3.0 x 10-7 m3

C 800 mm3=8.0 x 10-2 m3

D 1 000 mm3=1.0 x 10-4 m3

time t and another physical quantity k

is related by the equation v - u = kt.

The unit for k is

A m s-1

B m-1 s

-2

C ms

D m2 s-2

is the shortest ?

A 3.45 x 103 m

B 3.45 x 104 cm

C 3.45 x 107 mm

D 3.45 x 1012 m

smallest magnitude?

A megametre

B centimetre

C kilometre

D mikrometre

waves at a frequency of 92.8 MHz in

the north region. What is the frequency

of the radio wave in Hz?

A 9.28 x 104

B 9.28 x 105

7

C 9.28 x 10

D 9.28 x 1010

A 4.328 x 10-9 m B 4.328 x 10-6 m

C 4.328 x 106 m D 4.328 x 109 m

9. Which of the following measurements

is the longest?

A 1.2 x 10-5 cm B 120 x 10-4 dm

C 0.12 mm

D 1.2 x 10-11 km

for time, t. The length of the line, s is

given by the equation s

What is its diameter in cm?

A 2.5 x 10-2

B 2.5 x 10-4

-6

C 2.5 x 10

D 2.5 x 10-8

1 2

gt . The

2

SI unit of g is

A m2 s2

B m s-2

-1

C s

D s-2 m

Part B : Structure Question

arranged in ascending order?

1. A car moves with an average speed of 75 km h-1 from town P to town Q in 2 hours as

shown in Figure 1. By using this information, you may calculate the distance between the

two towns.

P

Q

16

Physics Module Form 4

Students Copy

Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Figure 1

(a) (i) Based on the statements given, state two basic quantities and their respective

SI units.

1 . m to standard form.

5 x 10-3

Table 1

(d) Power is defined as the rate of change of work done. Derive the unit for power in

terms of its basic units.

(e) Calculate the volume of a wooden block with dimension of 7 cm, 5 cm breadth and 12

cm height in m3 and convert its value in standard form.

17

Physics Module Form 4

Students Copy

Chapter 1 : Introduction To Physics

_________________________________________________________________________________________

Figure 2

(a) (i) Name component X. ...

(ii) What is the function of X? .

(b) Table 2 shows three current readings obtained by three students.

Table 2

(i) Did all the students use the ammeter in Figure2? ...

(ii) Explain your answer in (b)(i).

3. Figure 3 shows the meniscus of water in a measuring cylinder K, L, and M are three eye

positions while measuring the volume of the water.

(a) (i) Which of the eye positions is

correct while

taking the reading of the volume of

water?

.

Figure 3

(b) The

water in the measuring cylinder is

replaced

with 30 cm3 of mercury.

(i) In

Figure 4, draw the meniscus of the

mercury in the measuring cylinder.

Figure 4

(ii) Explain why the shape of the meniscus of mercury is as drawn in (b)(i).

18

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