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You are on page 1of 18

after you have read Chapter 10 and the instructor notes

for Unit 1 on the web. You will need to repeatedly click

on your mouse or space bar to progress through the

information.

University of Connecticut

Storrs, CT 06269-3007

dsiegle@uconn.edu

and graphed the results.

that Shoe Size

the graph.

As we continued to plot foot lengths, a

8

pattern would begin to emerge.

7

6

5

4

Your next

mouse

3

click will

2

display a

1

new

4

9 10 11 12 13 14

screen.

a bar graph and plot that person on the graph.

9 10 11 12 13 14

screen.

that Shoe Size

Notice how there are more people (n=6) with a 10 inch right foot

than any other length. Notice also how as the length becomes

larger or smaller, there are fewer and fewer people with that

measurement. This is a characteristics of many variables that

we measure. There is a tendency to have most measurements

in the middle, and fewer as we approach the high and low

extremes.

If we were to connect the top of each bar, we

8

would create a frequency polygon.

7

6

5

4

Your next

mouse

3

click will

2

display a

1

new

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

4

9 10 11 12 13 14

that Shoe Size

You will notice that if we smooth the lines, our data almost

creates a bell shaped curve.

You will notice that if we smooth the lines, our data almost

creates a bell shaped curve.

8

7

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5

4

3

2

1

4

9 10 11 12 13 14

Your next

mouse

click will

display a

new

screen.

that Shoe Size

Normal Curve.

9

8

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6

5

4

3

2

1

12 13 14

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Points on a Quiz

Number of Students

bar graph within it.

The

Nowmean,

lets look

mode,

at quiz

andscores

median

forwill

51 all

students.

fall on the same

value in a normal distribution.

12

13 13

12+13+13+14+14+14+14+15+15+15+15+15+15+16+16+16+16+16+16+16+16+

17+17+17+17+17+17+17+17+17+18+18+18+18+18+18+18+18+19+19+19+19+

14 14 14 14

19+ 19+20+20+20+20+ 21+21+22 = 867

15 15 15 15 15 15

12, 13, 13, 14, 14, 14, 14, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 15, 16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 16, 17, 17, 17, 17, 17, 17, 17, 17, 17, 18, 18, 18, 18, 18, 18, 18, 18, 19, 19, 19, 19, 19, 19, 20, 2

20, 20, 21, 21, 22

867 / 51 = 17

16 16 16 16 16 16 16 16

17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17

18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18

19 19 19 19 19 19

21 21

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

22

12 13 14

15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

Points on a Quiz

Number of Students

20 20 20 20

shaped) are a family of

distributions that have the

same general shape. They

are symmetric (the left side is

an exact mirror of the right

side) with scores more

concentrated in the middle

than in the tails. Examples of

normal distributions are

shown to the right. Notice

that they differ in how spread

out they are. The area under

each curve is the same.

The height (ordinate) of a normal curve is defined as:

where is the mean and is the standard deviation, is

the constant 3.14159, and e is the base of natural

logarithms and is equal to 2.718282.

x can take on any value from -infinity to +infinity.

click will display a

new screen.

needed for EPSY341. It is

provided for your

information only.

deviations from the mean (less than -3 or greater than +3).

your subjects will fall within one standard deviation of the

mean.

Approximately 95% of your subjects will fall within two

standard deviations of the mean.

deviations of the mean.

students have z-scores between 1.5 and 2.5. To do this, use the Area Under the

Normal Curve Calculator at http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/z_table.html.

Enter 2.5 in the top box

and click on Compute

Area. The system

displays the area below a

z-score of 2.5 in the lower

box (in this case .9938)

If .9938 is below z = 2.5 and .9332 is below z = 1.5, then the area between 1.5 and 2.5

must be .9939 - .9332, which is .0606 or 6.06%. Therefore, 6% of our subjects would

have z-scores between 1.5 and 2.5.

Your next mouse click will display a new screen.

box and click on Compute

Area. The system

displays the area below a

z-score of 1.5 in the lower

box (in this case .9332)

The mean and standard deviation are useful ways to describe a set of

scores. If the scores are grouped closely together, they will have a smaller

standard deviation than if they are spread farther apart.

Same Means

Different Standard Deviations

Different Means

Same Standard Deviations

Different Means

Different Standard Deviations

z-score

-3

-2

-1

T-score

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

IQ-score

65

70

85

100

115

130

145

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

SAT-score

Your

next

mouse

click will

display

a new

screen.

When you have a subjects raw score, you can use the mean and

standard deviation to calculate his or her standardized score if the

distribution of scores is normal. Standardized scores are useful

when comparing a students performance across different tests, or

when comparing students with each other. Your assignment for this

unit involves calculating and using standardized scores.

varies from distribution to distribution. On one math test, a

standard deviation may be 7 points. If the mean were 45, then

we would know that 68% of the students scored from 38 to 52.

31

38

On another test, a

standard deviation may

equal 5 points. If the mean

were 45, then 68% of the

students would score from

40 to 50 points.

45

52

59

Points on Math Test

30

35

63

40

45

50

55

Points on a Different Test

60

24

Your

next

mouse

click will

display

a new

screen.

the scores are high, the distributions is not normal, but

negatively (left) skewed.

Skew refers to the tail of the distribution.

8

7

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5

4

3

2

1

4

9 10 11 12 13 14

Your

next

mouse

click will

display

a new

screen.

that Shoe Size

Because the tail is on the negative (left) side of the graph, the

distribution has a negative (left) skew.

normal, but positively (right) skewed.

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

4

9 10 11 12 13 14

Your

next

mouse

click will

display

a new

screen.

that Shoe Size

the distribution has a positive (right) skew.

characteristics of the normal curve (distribution). For

example, 68% of the subjects do not fall within one

standard deviation above or below the mean. The

mean, mode, and median do not fall on the same score.

The mode will still be represented by the highest point

of the distribution, but the mean will be toward the side

with the tail and the median will fall between the mode

and mean.

Your

n

ea n

m dia

e

m de

o

m

e

od

m ian

ed

m an

e

m

next

mouse

click will

display

a new

screen.

Storrs, CT 06269-3007

dsiegle@uconn.edu

University of Connecticut

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