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INTRODUCTION

In the recent past, wireless controlled vehicles had been extensively used in a lot of areas like
unmanned rescue missions, military usage for unmanned combat and many others. But the major
disadvantage of these wireless unmanned robots is that they typically make use of RF circuits for
maneuver and control. Essentially RF circuits suffer from a lot of drawbacks such as limited
frequency range i.e. working range, and limited control. To overcome such problems associated
with RF control, few papers have been written, describing methods which make use of the GSM
network and the DTMF function of a cell phone to control the robotic vehicle. This paper
although uses the same principle technology of the GSM network and the DTMF based mobile
phone . In Cell phone Robot project, we need two mobile phones. The mobile controlled robot
is controlled by a mobile phone that makes a call to the another mobile phone attached to the
robot. In the course of a call, if any button is pressed, a tone corresponding to the button pressed
is heard at the other end of the call. This tone is called Dual Tone Multiple-Frequency (DTMF)
tone. The robot perceives this DTMF tone with the help of the phone stacked on the robot. The
received tone is processed by the microcontroller with the help of a decoder IC. The
microcontroller then transmits the signal to the motor driver ICs to operate the motors. Since this
robot is controlled by dialing a call so we can also call it as DTMF controlled robot.

1.2 OBJECTIVE
In manufacturing industries pick and place robots was ivented to be used as hardware o solving
and accomplishing most of the task that cannot be done by human being and also to be faster and
pinch the production time.

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LITERATURE SURVEY
2.1 HISTORY
In 1898, Nikola Tesla built the first propeller driven radio controlled boat, which can be regarded
as the original prototype of all modern day uninhabited aerial vehicles and precision guided
weapons. Records state that it is the first among all remotely controlled vehicles in air, land or
sea. It was powered by lead-acid batteries and an electric drive motor. The vessel was designed
in such a way that it could be maneuvered alongside a target using instructions received from a
wireless remote-control transmitter. Once in its position, a command would be sent to detonate
an explosive charge contained within the boats forward compartment. The weapons guidance
system introduced a secure communications link between the pilots controller and the surface
running torpedo in an effort to assure that control could be maintained even in the presence of
electronic counter measures. Wireless controlled unmanned vehicles which are used nowadays
typically use RF circuits for motion and control. But RF circuits suffer from the disadvantage of
limited working range which results in limited control. As RF circuits follows LOS (Line of
sight) approach, it fails miserably in NLOS (Non-Line of Sight) conditions involving obstacles
and barriers. To overcome these, one method was proposed by Awab Farikh et al, (2010) [1]
which typically makes use of the DTMF technology along with a microcontroller based circuit
for maneuver and control of these unmanned robotic vehicles. Similarly, Ashish Yadav et al,
(2012) [2] also proposed the construction of an unmanned vehicle which could be especially
used for ground combat using a similar technology. Recently, Sabuj Das Gupta et al (2013) [3]
discussed in detail about how the method described in [1] could be implemented using a
microcontroller by providing the necessary circuit details and the software code.

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3.1 PROPOSED METHODOLOGY

Here the robot is controlled by the mobile phone that makes the call to the mobile phone
attached to the robot.

During the course of the call, if any button is pressed, control corresponding to the button
pressed is heard at the other end of the call. This unique tone is received by the mobile
on the robot, and is decoded with the help of the CM8870 IC.

The received tone is then processed by the Atmega8 microcontroller into its equivalent
binary digit, according to which it is pre-programmed to take a decision for any given
input and outputs its decision to the motor driver, in order to drive the motors forward,
backward or for rotatory motion.

The mobile that makes a call to the mobile phone kept in the robot acts as a remote. So
this simple robotic project does not require the construction of receiver and transmitter
units.

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3.2 PROPOSED COMPONENTS


ATMEGA8L MICROCONTROLLER:

FIG:3.1 ATMEGA8L
A microcontroller (sometimes abbreviated C or uC) is a small computer on a single integrated
circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals.

Program memory in the form of NOR flash or OTP ROM is also often included on chip,
as well as a typically small amount of RAM. Microcontrollers are designed for embedded
applications, in contrast to the microprocessors used in personal computers or other

general purpose applications.


ATMega8L 8PU is a 28 Pin 8kb 8 bit Atmel AVR Microcontroller 131 Powerful

Instructions Most Single Clock Cycle Execution 512 Bytes EEPROM 1K Bytes.
It is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller which is based on the AVR RISC

architecture.
I/O and Packages
23 Programmable I/O Lines
28-lead PDIP, 32-lead TQFP, and 32-pad QFN/MLF
Operating Voltages
5.5V (ATmega8L)
4.5 5.5V (ATmega8)
Speed Grades
0 8 MHz (ATmega8L)

3.2.2. DTMF Decoder


DTMF generation is a composite audio signals of two tones between the frequency of
697Hz and 1633Hz. The DTMF keypad is arranged such that each row will have its own
unique tone frequency and also each column will have its own unique tone. Below is a

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representation of the typical DTMF keypad and the associated row/column frequencies.
By pressing a key, for example pressing key 5, will generate a dual tone consisting of 770
Hz for the low Group, and 1336 Hz of the high group.

FIG 3.2:DTMF KEYPAD


Then it is decoded using MT8870 C which is DTMF decoder . hence in this way device
identify the instruction and work accordingly .

3.2.3LM7805 VOLTAGEREGULATOR

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It has 5V Regulated output voltage.


Input voltage range:5V-18V
The voltage circuit may have fluctuation and would not give fixed output.
Pin1-input , Pin2-gnd , Pin3-output

3.2.4Power Supply
The basic step in the designing of any system is to design the power supply required for that
system. The steps involved in the designing of the power supply are as follows, 1) Determine the
total current that the system sinks from the supply. 2) Determine the voltage rating required for
the different components.

FIG 3.3: POWER SUPPLY


3.2.5 MOTOR DRIVER (L293D)

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The current supplied by the PIC is not sufficient to drive the motors and thus,
we have to use a motor driver for driving the motors. Here we are using
L298N which is a Quadruple Half-H Driver. The L283N is designed to provide
bidirectional drive currents of up to 600-mA at voltages from 4.5 V to 36 V.
Both devices are designed to drive inductive loads such as relays, solenoids,
dc and bipolar stepping motors, as well as other high-current/high-voltage
loads in positive-supply applications. All inputs are TTL compatible.
Specifications: 1. Driver can drive two motors at a time. 2. It outputs a
current of 600mA.

FIG 3.4: L293D


MOTORS
For our application we are going to use the DC motors. As they are having
the high torque so these are the choice for the picking application.

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3.3 METHODOLGY FLOW CHART

FIG:3.5 METHODOLOGY FLOW CHART

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3.4 BLOCK DIAGRAM

FIG:3.6 BLOCK DIAGRAM

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3.5 PCB LAYOUT

FIG:3.7 PCB LAYOUT of MICROCONTROLLER section

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FIG:3.8 PCB LAYOUT OF MOTOR DRIVER SECTION


3.6 ACTUAL PHOTOGRAPH OF PROJECT

FIG:3.9 ACTUAL PHOTOGRAPH

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3.7 WORKING
1. Initially Robot is at a rest position, i.e. state when all motors are stopped and no object is
picked or placed.
2. Once the power supply is turned on, microcontroller will wait for signal from DTMF
decoder which is connected to a mobile phone.
3. User can send various instructions to the robot by dialing a call to the mobile phone
which is connected to Robot.
4. When microcontroller gets signal to pick the object, it moves gripper motor in say
clockwise direction for a fixed time.
5. When user gives command to move arm in Up direction then vertical motor moves in
clockwise direction due to which whole arm moves towards or away from picking object.
6. Once user realizes that object is picked then he/she can give command to close the grip.
Then gripper motor stops to hold the object by closing jaw.
7. User can give command to move arm in UP direction and now vertical motor is started in
say clockwise direction. This motor also, is on for particular fixed time instant.
8. Now user can give command to move the Robot in forward or reverse direction.
9. Depending on command wheel motor is moved in forward or opposite (here
anticlockwise) direction till the time it reaches the placing platform.
10. As it reaches placing platform, user can give command sequence to release object the
motor M1 stops and M2 is switched ON in opposite (here anticlockwise) direction till it
releases object properly on desired place.

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3.8 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM


ATmega8L

DTMF DECODR
CIRCUIT
(Diagram A)

vcc
gnd

7
8
24

2
3
4
5

27

13
12
11
10

26
25

L293D

6
11
12
13

FIG 3.10: CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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3.9 CODING
/*****************************************************
This program was produced by the
CodeWizardAVR V1.24.8d Professional
Automatic Program Generator
Copyright 1998-2006 Pavel Haiduc, HP InfoTech s.r.l.
http://www.hpinfotech.com
Project :
Version :
Date

: 4/30/2015

Author : F4CG
Company : F4CG
Comments:
Chip type

: ATmega8L

Program type

: Application

Clock frequency

: 1.000000 MHz

Memory model

: Small

External SRAM size : 0


Data Stack size

: 256

*****************************************************/
#include <mega8.h>
#include <delay.h>
// Declare your global variables here
void main(void)
{
// Declare your local variables here
// Input/Output Ports initialization

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// Port B initialization
// Func7=Out Func6=Out Func5=Out Func4=Out Func3=Out Func2=Out Func1=Out
Func0=Out
// State7=0 State6=0 State5=0 State4=0 State3=0 State2=0 State1=0 State0=0
PORTB=0x00;
DDRB=0x00;
// Port C initialization
// Func6=In Func5=In Func4=In Func3=In Func2=In Func1=In Func0=In
// State6=T State5=T State4=T State3=T State2=T State1=T State0=T
PORTC=0x00;
DDRC=0x00;
// Port D initialization
// Func7=In Func6=In Func5=In Func4=In Func3=In Func2=In Func1=In Func0=In
// State7=T State6=T State5=T State4=T State3=T State2=T State1=T State0=T
PORTD=0x00;
DDRD=0x00;
// Timer/Counter 0 initialization
// Clock source: System Clock
// Clock value: Timer 0 Stopped
// Timer/Counter 2 initialization
// Clock source: System Clock
// Clock value: Timer 2 Stopped
// Mode: Normal top=FFh
// OC2 output: Disconnected
ASSR=0x00;
TCCR2=0x00;
TCNT2=0x00;
OCR2=0x00;

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// External Interrupt(s) initialization


// INT0: Off
// INT1: Off
MCUCR=0x00;
// Timer(s)/Counter(s) Interrupt(s) initialization
TIMSK=0x00;
// Analog Comparator initialization
// Analog Comparator: Off
// Analog Comparator Input Capture by Timer/Counter 1: Off
ACSR=0x80;
SFIOR=0x00;
while (1)
{if(PIND.0==0 && PIND.1==1 && PIND.2==0 && PIND.3==0)//FORWARD
{
PORTB.1=1,PORTB.2=0,PORTB.3=1,PORTB.4=0;
PORTC.0=0,PORTC.1=0,PORTC.2=0,PORTC.3=0;
}
else if(PIND.0==0 && PIND.1==0 && PIND.2==0 && PIND.3==1)//REVERSE
{
PORTB.1=0,PORTB.2=1,PORTB.3=0,PORTB.4=1;
PORTC.0=0,PORTC.1=0,PORTC.2=0,PORTC.3=0;
}
else if(PIND.0==0 && PIND.1==1 && PIND.2==1 && PIND.3==0)//RIGHT
{
PORTB.1=0,PORTB.2=0,PORTB.3=1,PORTB.4=0;
PORTC.0=0,PORTC.1=0,PORTC.2=0,PORTC.3=0;
}

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else if(PIND.0==0 && PIND.1==0 && PIND.2==1 && PIND.3==0)//LEFT


{
PORTB.1=1,PORTB.2=0,PORTB.3=0,PORTB.4=0;
PORTC.0=0,PORTC.1=0,PORTC.2=0,PORTC.3=0;
}

else if(PIND.0==1 && PIND.1==0 && PIND.2==0 && PIND.3==0)//hand down


{
PORTC.0=1,PORTC.1=0,PORTC.2=0,PORTC.3=0;
PORTB.1=0,PORTB.2=0,PORTB.3=0,PORTB.4=0;
}
else if(PIND.0==1 && PIND.0==1 && PIND.2==0 && PIND.3==0)//hand UP
{
PORTC.0=0,PORTC.1=1,PORTC.2=0,PORTC.3=0;
PORTB.1=0,PORTB.2=0,PORTB.3=0,PORTB.4=0;
}
else if(PIND.0==1 && PIND.1==1 && PIND.2==1 && PIND.3==0)//hand CLOSE
{
PORTC.0=0,PORTC.1=0,PORTC.2=1,PORTC.3=0;
PORTB.1=0,PORTB.2=0,PORTB.3=0,PORTB.4=0;
}
else if(PIND.0==1 && PIND.1==0 && PIND.2==0 && PIND.3==1)//hand CLOSE
{
PORTC.0=0,PORTC.1=0,PORTC.2=0,PORTC.3=1;
PORTB.1=0,PORTB.2=0,PORTB.3=0,PORTB.4=0;
}
else if(PIND.0==1 && PIND.1==0 && PIND.2==1 && PIND.3==0)//STOP
{
PORTB.1=0,PORTB.2=0,PORTB.3=0,PORTB.4=0;
PORTC.0=0,PORTC.1=0,PORTC.2=0,PORTC.3=0;
}
};

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SUMMMARY AND RESULT ANALYSIS


4.1 SUMMARY
This robot is used for pick the object in one place and place that objects in required places. Some
industrial works are harmful for humans this robot is mainly used for reduce the risk process and
consuming time and avoid labors. Human are tired for hard work such as assembly line, material
handling etc. this robot does all those things it mainly reduces the manual work our robot is
designed at low cost as well as high efficient one.
This project is to give the way for providing bigger effective robot forindustrial applications.

4.2 RESULT ANALYSIS


Finally main parameters of developed system are as follows :1.
2.
3.
4.

The system is compact , user friendly and portable .


Low power consumption facility.
Large range .
This project is easy to use.
5. This project can be used in Industries, Home, Office, Shops.

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CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK


6.1 CONCLUSION
The report contains a very different mix of studies varying from software to hardware. This is an
autonomous robot arm with a three dimensional reach which could automatically detect and pick
an object. Then it could place it in a destination and change the orientation as specified by the
user.

6.2 FUTURE WORK

We can provide voice feedback system.


We can add camera and sensors to this project.

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REFERENCES
Books

Embeded C

Applied Electronics by S.Chand

Internet

www.engineersgarage.com

www.circuitstoday.com

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