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Patent Scenario

Running head: Patent Scenario

Patent Scenario
Patrick F Bigler
BIOL301

Patent Scenario
Abstract

Patent Scenario

This document is to answer the required questions from the professor for the patent
scenario assignment.Patent Scenario
Question 1:
The components of a physical examination consist of five main steps. Before beginning
the five main steps, a physician should conduct the first step in diagnosis which is gathering
information about the patients medical history as well as their history of symptoms. The
physician should make sure they include questions that include their biological background as
well as their lifestyle choices because disorders can relate to a patients biological and lifestyle
background.
After gathering information on the patients symptoms, history and asking a multitude of
questions pertaining to a patients biological background and lifestyle choices, the physician
would begin the physical examination. The first step to a physical examination should be looking
for any visual signs of disease. Examples of what a physician would be looking for includes:
how they carry themselves, if they are aware of their surroundings, abnormal coloring of the
skin, body language, their ability to move around and responses to the environment.
Next, the physician would check a patients breathing and heart rate, temperature and
blood pressure which all correlate to the patients vital signs. The physician then accesses their
prior knowledge of what the range should be and if it is abnormal. When the physician is done
checking the patients vital signs, he or she moves on to the following component which is a
procedure called auscultation (Katcher, 2015). When a physician conducts auscultation, they
listen to a patients heart, lungs, and bowel movement because the difference between a heathy
and unhealthy heartbeat sound different when there is damage to a valve.

Patent Scenario

Furthermore, a physician would use the procedure percussion by tapping on the chest
and abdomen to look for a certain sound that becomes apparent when there is nothing wrong,
unless there is unwanted air or fluid present, the sound is different (Katcher, 2015). Sometimes, a
doctor will tap on orientation lines to figure out the lung size and how much is affected by a
possible disease but this is not very common.
Lastly, a physician will conduct palpation which is a when the fingers push on different
areas of the body to find certain regions and organs inside the regions. When a doctor pushes on
the different organs, he or she can figure out if it is irritated, has an abnormal feeling or size,
which leads to figuring out if an organ could potentially have something wrong.
Overall, a physical examination begins with a collection of data based on a patients
history and symptoms and has five main steps. The five main steps are observing, taking vital
signs, conducting auscultation, percussion, and palpation. These steps have various aspects to
them that detect and determine the possibility of something being wrong with the patient. These
five steps help narrow down the potential disease or disorder in the patient and help a physician
with the diagnoses process before conducting further procedures.

Question 2:
A medical provider can take or measure blood pressure with either an automatic machine
or manual machine. When measuring with a manual machine, it begins with a cuff wrapped
around a persons upper arm. This cuff has an inflatable bag made of rubber that inflates over the
brachial artery. The cuff that is used to put around a persons arm is fabric, rubber and Velcro that
lets it be adjustable. The cuff is attached by tubing to a manometer that shows the amount of
pressure on the artery. When enough air pressure is pumped into the cuff so the artery is closed,

Patent Scenario

then the air pressure is released by opening the thumb valve. When the pressure in the cuff is
equal to the pressure in the artery, the artery opens and the blood begins to return to the part of
the artery that was closed (Pulse and Blood Pressure Procedures, 1993). When blood is back in
the artery, a pulse sound begins. The sounds are heard through a stethoscope that is put on the
brachial pulse point. The sound keeps going while the cuff is deflating and then gets too quiet to
hear. When the medical professional hears the first pulse sound, the systolic blood pressure is
apparent. When the last sound is heard, it is the diastolic blood pressure. The arterial blood
pressure is the force exerted by the blood on the wall of a blood vessel as the heart pumps
(Pulse and Blood Pressure Procedures, 1993). The systolic blood pressure (top number) is the
force when the heart is contracting and the diastolic blood pressure (bottom number) is the force
when the heart is relaxed. The top number is always higher than the bottom number. Mr. Smiths
blood pressure was 160/100 and according to American Heart Association, the AHA
recommendation healthy blood pressure for men age 60 is less than 150 over 90. Mr. Smiths
blood pressure is in the High Blood Pressure (hypertension) stage 2 category. He is above the
normal range for men at age 60.
Question 3.
The potassium (K+) test measures how much potassium is in the blood. Having abnormal
K+ levels can potentially indicate the presence of a disease. Many diseases have symptoms that
are not visible or noticeable by the patient which is why this test is performed. Testing was likely
ordered because of Mr. Smiths abnormally high blood pressure. K+ testing is often performed in
the presence of hypertension because it can often indicate that something else might be wrong
Question 4.

Patent Scenario

The potassium (K+) levels are lower than the typical range. Having a low potassium level
can indicate the patient could one or several additional conditions. The most easily remedied
condition being that the patient is simply not eating enough foods that contain potassium. But it
can also be caused by Cushing syndrome, diuretics, Hyperaldosteronism, renal artery stenosis,
and more.
Normal Ranges

K+
Hb
Hct
Platelet Count
HCO3
Urinary K+
Blood Glucose
Serum Aldosterone
24 hour Urinary Aldosterone
Renin
ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic

Mr. Smith
2.6 mmol/L
7.3 g/dl
20.4%
20x10 /L
38 mmol/l
70 mmol/L/24 hr
460 mg/dl
1 ng/dl
8.4 mcg/24 hr
2.1 ng/ml/hr
1082 pg/ml

13.8 to 18.2 g/dL


45-52%
150-400x109/L
22-26 mmol/L
25-120 mmol/L/24 hr
64.8-104.4 mg/dL
2-9 ng/dl
2.3-21.0 mcg/24 hr
0.65-5.0 ng/ml/hr
9-46 pg/ml

Level Value
Below Normal
Below Normal
Below Normal
Below Normal
Above Normal
Normal Range
Above Normal
Below Normal
Normal Range
Normal Range
Above Normal

Hormone)
Cortisol

155.5 microg/dL

0-25 microg/dL

Above Normal

3.8-4.9mmol/L

Question 5
Mr. Smith underwent two different imaging procedures, a Magnetic Resonance Imaging
(MRI) and the Computed Tomography (CT) scan. Each of these procedures uses a different
method to see inside the body. Both the MRI and CT scan can produce very detailed 3D images
from the body. The CT scan is more similar to traditional X-Ray technology than the MRI. A CT
scanner will use x-rays to detect certain types of tissue. CT scanners are very good at producing
imaging from dense tissues in the body such as bone, and cancerous masses. A downside to CT
scanning is that it does introduce a fairly large dosage of radiation to patients. CT scanning
should not be repeated often due to this danger.

Patent Scenario

A MRI scan however creates an image from what is essentially a giant electro magnet. The
sensors on the MRI detect a special dye that is typically injected into the subject. While an MRI
typically does not have the image fidelity that a CT scan has it is much better at producing
images from soft tissues from the GI tract or the brain. MRI scans have no documented
complications in patients and are very safe.
Mr. Smiths MRI scan results did reveal cancer in his osseous tissue and the CT scan showed an
obstruction in his intestine. The obstruction appears to be caused by his enlarged adrenal glands.

Question6.
HypertensionwasdetectedwhilecheckingMr.Smithsbloodpressure.Hypertensionis
causedbyhavinghighbloodpressure.Thehighbloodpressureiscausedbyaheartpumping
bloodtoofastintoarteriesthataretoonarrowforthepressurebeingapplied.Hypertensioncan
leadtofurtherhealthcomplications,particularlyheartdiseaseandevenstrokeorheartattack.
Thehighbloodpressuredamagesbloodvessels.Thebestwaytoimaginethisistothinkabout
whatwouldhappenifyoutriedtohookuparegulargardenhosetoafirehydrant.Theresulting
pressurewouldlikelybefartoomuchforthegardenhosetohandleanditwouldendup
rupturing.Whilethisisanextremeexampletheprincipleisthesame.

Conclusion
Thisdocumenthasfulfilleditsrequiredpurposeofansweringthesixquestions.

Patent Scenario

References
Filler, A. (n.d.). The History, Development and Impact of Computed Imaging in Neurological
Diagnosis and Neurosurgery: CT, MRI, and DTI. Retrieved April 12, 2015, from
https://ispub.com/IJNS/7/1/12184#sthash.16HaPl2Z.dpbs
Katcher, H. (2015). Steps in Diagnosis. In Module One Commentary (p. 16).
Laboratory Reference. (n.d.). Retrieved April 12, 2015, from
http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/EXAM/LABREF.html
Potassium test: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. (2013, May 5). Retrieved April 12,
2015, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003484.htm
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2014, September 6). High blood pressure (hypertension). Retrieved April 12,
2015, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/high-bloodpressure/basics/definition/con-20019580
Pulse and Blood Pressure Procedures. (1993, July 1). Retrieved April 11, 2015, from http://
www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nhanes/nhanes3/cdrom/nchs/manuals/pressure
Understanding Blood Pressure Readings. (2015, March 11). Retrieved April 11, 2015, from
http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/HighBloodPressure/
AboutHighBloodPressure/Understanding-Blood-PressureReadings_UCM_301764_Article.jsp