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Society of

PetroleumEngineers

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1

SPE 49225
A Generalized

Material Balance Equation for Coal Seam Gas Reservoirs

G. Penuela, SPE, U. Industrial de Santander; A. Ordonez, SPE, U. Industrial de Santander, and A. Bejarano, SPE,
Instituto Colombian del Petroleo - ECOPETROL

Copyright 199S, Society of Petroleum Enginaers, lnc


rhis paper was prepar~ for presenlatiti al the 1998 SPE Annual Te*nical
Exhibtion held in New Orleans, Louisiana, 27-30 September 199a

inappropriate for CSG reservoirs due to the large inte_m_al


surface area contained within the coal seam. This area allows
many potential sorption sites exist and large quantities of gas
can be adsorbed.
King3 presented the development of two material balance
equations using the traditional assumptions associated with the
material balance approach and including the effects of
adsorbed gas. One of these equations is appropriated for
estimating gas in-place, but an additional assumption of
equilibrium between the free and adsorbed gas
phases is
-.
required. This equation has the form

Conference and

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have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to
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tiowledgment
of where snd by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.0,
M S33S36, RichardaM, TX 7W83-3835, U.S.A, fax 01 -972-952.943S.

Abstract

During the Iast few years, research has been done on


generalized material balance equations for conventional oil
and gas reservoirs in order to improve the reservoir
performance analysis. However, those equations are
inappropriate for coal seam gas (CSG) reservoirs. To address
this limitation, a generalized material balance equation
(GMBE) for CSG reservoirs was developed. This work is
based on a mathematical development and the straight-line
method, published previously md widespread used for
conventional reservoirs.
Three validation examples of the proposed equation were
designed. They show the new equation has the following
advantages: (1) it is applicable to CSG reservoirs in saturated,
equilibrium, and undersaturated conditions, (2) it is applicable
to any type of coalbed without restriction on especial diffusion
constant values, (3) existent equations are particular cases of
the generalized equation evaluated under certain restrictions,
and (4) its reorganization is analogous to the popular straightline method for conventional reservoirs.

(1 - ~.,)

Vba

Gp =

-1

pi + RTCE,

Zi

Zsc Tsc

P,, T

[1 - C+(Pi - P~Q - SW)P

..(1)

R TCE

4,

-=

==1

where

Swi[l+ C.

5.615 (We- BwWp)


(Pi - P)] +

&

3.=
[(-

C,@i:

i)]-

Vb,
--()

In the present work, the above equation has been called


conventional material balance equation (CMBE) for CSG.
me second expression proposed by King is a less
restrictive equation that is useful for making fiture reservoir
predictions, It can be obtained by considering a gas resorption
term, Gd. This equation has the form

Introduction

material balance technique is one of fundamental methods


used to analyze the reservoir performance, to determine the
original gas-in-place, and to make future reservoir predictions.
Schilthuis, in 1936, was among the first to formulate and
apply material balances. Later, Walsh2presented a generalized
approach for oil-and-gas conventional reservoirs, However,
the assumption of non-reactive gas-rock makes the use of
traditional equations for conventional gas reservoirs
The

(l-Sw,)Pi

Gp =

Vb,

z,

+ Zsc Tsc

P,. T

+Gd..(3)

[1 C$(Pi-P)](l

621

9P
z

G. PENUELA, A. ORDONEZ, A. BEJARANO

md
or

SPE 49225

Gd = Vb, (GI, - GI) ....... . . . ..... . . ..............................(4)

GJ = V~,Da~(Glt

Generalized Material Balance Equation for Coal


Seam Gas Reservoirs

V~)e-D
-r)dr .....................(5)

In the mathematical development of the GMBE for CSG


reservoirs, the following assumptions were used
1. The reservoir is an isothermal system.
2. The reservoir is comprised OEat most, three components:
coal seam, water, and surface-gas.
3. The reservoir is comprised of, at most, three phases: coal
seam, water (aqueous), and gas.
4. The surface gas component exists only in the coal- and
gas- phases. This assumption allows for adsorbed gas.
5. The water component exists only in the water phase and
does not partition into either the coal or gas phases.
6. The coaI component exists only in the coal phase.
7. The water- and rock- phases are compressible. This
assumption implies the reservoir pore volume is function
of pressure.
8. The reservoir pressure is uniform throughout the
reservoir; i.e., no pressure gradients exist vertically or
horizontally.
9. The reservoir fluids are in thermodynamic equilibrium.
10, Water may enter the reservoir; i.e., water influx may
occur.
11< Water and surface-gas components may be produced
andlor injected.
12! The porosity and initial water saturation are uniform
throughout the reservoir.
Considering adequate volume balances, the GMBE for
CSG, whose development is explained in the Appendix, can
be written as

equations
are good
the aforementioned
Although
approximations, they do not help us analyze different
reservoir conditions in which a CSG reservoir may be found
or can undergo throughout its productive life. Therefore,
based on a generalized material balance equation for
conventional reservoirs,2 a GMBE for CSG reservoirs was
developed.
Behavior of a Coal Seam Gas Reservoir

Coal seam gas reservoirs are unconventional gas reservoirs,


where natural gas, comprised and predominantly compound of
methane (95-98?%), exists as a monomolecular layer in near
liquid-like state, adsorbed on the internal surfaces of the coaI
matrix.
Most natural occurrences of coalbed methane gas are in
coal seams that are submerged in aquifers. The gas resorption
mechanism is controlled by the hydrostatic head of the
aquifer. As water is pumped from the seam at a well bore, the
pressure (head) is reduced and methane released. Once this
gas is desorbed from the matrix, it diffises to the cleat system
and flows to the producing well according to Darcys law 5
(Fig. 1).
Coal seam gas reservoirs may be found in three possible
initial states (Fig. 2): 6 (A) Equilibrium, (B) saturated, and (C)
undersaturated conditions. In the tower portion of Fig. 2, a
Langmuir isotherm is shown. Point A, equilibrium state,
occurs when the amount of adsorbed gas is equal to the
amount given by the isotherm. A pressure drop in the cleat
system causes gas to desorb from the micropore surfaces and
to difise into the macropores. As production continues, a free
gas phase wilI be formed in the cleats. Point B represents the
saturated state. It is similar to the equilibrium state in terms of
adsorbed voIume; however, free gas is present in the cleat
system. As production continues, the reservoir is retained in
the saturated condition. The third possibility, described as
Point C, is the existence of undersaturated condition. In a
coalbed reservoir described as point C, the amount of gas
adsorbed onto the coal is less than the amount depicted by the
isotherm at reservoir pressure and temperature. In this case, no
gas can be produced until its critical resorption pressure has
been reached. As water production continues, and pressure
decreases over the course of time, the reservoir enters into the
saturated condition.
The upper portion of Fig. 2 shows gas saturation in the
secondary-porosity system (fracture system) for the
abovementioned cases. For cases A and C, there is no initial
free gas; hence, gas saturation is marked as zero. For case B,
the gas phase saturation is larger than zero.

Gp Bg = GY Bg,
+G

a
(,1
~Bg

(VE, V~)e-Da(-r)dr

+5.615 [We + (WY Wp) B,,]


Straight-Line
Equation

Method of the Material Balance

The straight-line method requires the plotting of a variable


group vs. another variable group, with the variable group
selection depending on the mechanism of production under
which the reservoir is producing. The sequence of the plotted
points and the shape of the resulting plot are the most
important aspects of this method of solution of material
balance equations.8

622

SPE 49225

A GENERALIZED

MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION

In 1963, Havlena and Odeh8 developed the popular straightline method for oil reservoirs. Walsh
et al.9 0 presented a
general straight-line method for estimating reserves of the oiland gas- reservoirs without restriction on reservoir fluid
compositions. The results of their work were summarized in a
set of companion papers. The first one9 presents the
mathematical development and discusses applications to
initially-undersaturated, volumetric reservoirs. The second
discusses applications to initially-saturated and nonvohzmetric reservoirs.

AW

Vbz
[1
~iZsc Tsc ~-y
Pi
Zi
Psc T

= 5.615[W,

....................................(7)

where in the general case, the modified z-factor is defined by


...............(8)
*=

F=

[l-C+(Pi-P)~;-Fw)+zJ~

Da

Eg, = ~Bxj(V~,

~~)~-m(-r)dr

V~l - V,)e-&

-)dr

.
:(y)pi[_:).(15

.......................................(9)

Examples
Modeling of a CSG Reservoir, The proposed GMBE has the

same properties of linearization like its conventional reservoir


counterpart; i.e., it can be conveniently rewritten in order to
model a CSG reservoir pending upon different initial
conditions in which the reservoir may be found.
Initially Saturated CSG Reservoirs. Eq. 9 can be rewritten
as

(Fi:w)=G(2)+G2i
................................(16)

..................................................(lo)

GyBa

@
+~(C~+C.)(Pi-P)+-

where G is the adsorbed gas originally in the coal seam, and


G~i is the free gas originally in the secondary-porosity system
to standard conditions. ~g, expresses the desorbed and
adsorbed gas expansion with the consecutive pressure
depIetion, Egz represents the gas expansion in the fracture
system, F is the net gas withdrawal (net production), and AW
is the net increase in the reservoir water volume.
F,
Egi , Eg~ and A W are defined by
GpBg

........................(13)

Straight-line Method of the GMBE for CSG Reservoirs.


The GMBE rearranged conveniently has the following form

F=

WP)B.]

......................................................(l4)

GEg+AW

Da
Eg = ~BgJ(

GEg1+G2iEg2+AW

WY-

where F is the net gas withdrawal (net production) and G


is the adsorbed initial gas in-place in the coal seam. ~g
represents the desorbed gas expansion in the fracture system.
This term can be written as

One drawback in the application of this approach to estimate


the gas in-place is Vb2 appears in both the material balance
equation and the definition ofz*. To solve this complication, a
graphical and an iterative procedure were proposed.3

F=

+(

Eq. 9 is appropriated, especially such as it is given, for


initially-saturated reservoirs (Swl<l ).
However, in the most cases, during a time it is necessary
dewatered the coalbed in order to produce gas from it. These
reservoirs, in an undersaturated state (Swi 1), have an initial
reservoir pressure Pi>Pd . The initially-equilibrium reservoir
can be understood like a particular case of the undersaturated
reservoirs because their fracture system is 100/0 saturated
with water upon discovery (Swi=1).
The GMBE adjusted to initially-undersaturated and
equilibrium reservoirs is defined as

Straight-line Method of the CMBE for CSG Reservoirs


The CMBE for CSG reservoirs can be written as3

Gp =

FOR COAL SEAM GAS RESERVOIRS

...................(1 1)

Apf(F;:w)vs)vs
(%)
hOuldresutinastraight
line being G the slope and G2i the y-intercept (Fig. 3).
Znitially Undersaturated CSG Reservoirs. Eq, 14 can be
expressed as

623

SPE 49225

G. PENUELA, A. ORDONEZ, A. BEJARANO

Initial water volume in the

tolume of water phase in the

~ AW = G Eg ......................................................(l7)
A plot of (~ A JV)vs.(Eg) should result in a straight line
going through the origin with G being the slope (Fig. 4).,
Initially

Equilibrium

CSG

=
fracture system

pressure condition

Cases

of the GMBE

for CSG

Ei::z:)

Finally, rearranging Eq. 6 afier applying the


aforementioned conditions and definitions, Eq. 3 is obtained.
Kings First Equation.3 In his first equation, King
considered a material balance over the primaryporosityinatural fracture system. This approach is a particular
case of Eq. 3, assuming equilibrium between free and
adsorbed gas phases, This equilibrium occurs afier the
reservoiriwell undergoes long shut-in periods, whenever
reservoir pressure is uniform throughout the reservoir and
constant over the course of time (no-dependent time), and
when the reservoir has a large diffusion coefficient (high
natural fracture density that allows gas to difise very fast).
The latter situation can be considered with Eq, 22. This
equation can be integrated easily by assuming reservoir
pressure is constant over any time period. 112This assumption
implies that in the same time period VE is also constant. Eq.
22 becomes

fiservoirs.

Mainly, two material balance equations have been proposed


for CSG reservoirs.3 These equations are particular cases of
GMBE evaluated under certain restrictions.
Kings Second Equation3. Restricting Eq. 6 to the
following conditions
GY = O (NOgas injection)
WY= O (No water injection)
C., = O (I~oring bulk compressibility)
Then, substituting the following definitions

-~w)

G2 = vb,@ /(1

-._...-.,..., ...............................(IS)

Bgl
G =

V6, v..,

Gd = V6,

..............................................................(l9)
Psc

Bg=~

Because the

Reservoirs.

fracture system is 100% saturated with water upon discovery


(Swl=l), initially-equilibrium reservoirs can be modeled using
Eq. 17.

Particular

fracture system to new

)[

(V&, -

~~)(1-e-Da) .............................(24)

and taking into account large diffusion coefficient (and/or


long shut-in periods), 1 } 0, desorbed gas is

............................................... . . . ..(20]

Tsc

e
5.615
&(l+C.(Pi

(W
E, #

%=

WBW)

-P))+

1C+(P, P)

Gd =

.......(21)

Vb,

( ~E,

V~)

..................................-._...-..(25)

The adsorption isotherm in term of lb-mole/fi3


Psc
C~ = V~

Gd

~b,~a

](?E,

~E)e-na

-r)~r

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..(22)

............................... ... .... ....=.(26)


Zsc R Tsc

GIi =

V~, = V~(P,)

Substitution of Eqs. 25 and 26 into Eq. 3 gives the Kings first


equation for CSG reservoirs assuming equilibrium between
the free and adsorbed gas phases.
Conventional Gas Reservoirs. In the development of the
material balance equation for conventional gas reservoirs the
assumption of non-reactive gas-rock is generally done (the
effect of adsorbed gas are not included). Restricting Eq. 6 with
the following conditions:

............., ............................... . . . . . . (23)

where Eq. 21 was obtained by defining a material balance


on water phase over the secondary-porosity system and

solving for SW

G = O (No initially adsorbed gas).


C.,, t, w = O (Neglecting compressibilities).

624

SPE 49225

A GENERALIZED

MATERIAL BAUNCE

EQUATION FOR COAL SEAM GAS RESERVOIRS

straight-line method in reservoirs that need a period of


dewatering.

GY= ~Y = O(For the sake of brevity)


The GMBE for CSG reservoirs is reduced to the equation
for conventional gas reservoirs13(dry-gas reservoirs)
Gp =

G2i(Bg

B.,)+

5.615

(We

WpBw)

Nomenclature
Bg = gas FVF, ft31scf
BO = injected gas FVF, ft3/scf
Bw = water FVF, bbl/STB
C; = bulk compressibility, Lt2/m, psi
Cw . water compressibility, Ltz/m, ps~
c+= porosity compressibility, Lt2/m,psi-[
Da = diffusion constant, days-i
g~ = gas in the secondary-porosity to reservoir
conditions, L3, ft3
G= adsorbed gas originally in the coal seam to standard
condition, L3, scf
desorbed
gas, L3, scf
Gd =
produced
gas, L3, scf
Gp =
G] = gas in the primary-porosity, scf /fi3
Gy = injected gas, L3, scf
G2 = gas in the secondary-porosity, L3, scf
G2i = initial gas in the secondary-porosity, L3, scf
P= pressure, m/Lt2, psia
Pd = critical resorption pressure, m/Lt2, psia
Pi = initial reservoir pressure, m/Lt2, psia
P~~ = pressure to standard conditions, m/Lt2, psia
R= universal gas constant, mL2/t2T,10.73 psia-ft3/(lbm
moles- R)
average water saturation, fraction
initial water saturation, fraction
time, t, days
reservoir temperature, T, R
temperature to standard condition, T, R
bulk volume of the secondary-porosity system, L3,
fi3
VE = volumetric adsorption isotherm, scf/ft3
we. water influx, L3, bbl
Wy = injected water, L3, STB
Wp= produced water, L3, STB
z= gas compressibility factor, dimensionless
*_ adjusted gas compressibility factor, dimensionless
z
#= porosity, dimensionless, fraction
~i= initial porosity, dimensionless, fraction

.....(27)

Bg

Practical Application. To validate the results of using the


proposed equation to calculate the original gas in-place, a
practical example was designed using sorption and production
data obtahed from literature (Table 1, Fig. 5).
The example models a production well in an initially
equilibrium CSG reservoir. The initial reservoir pressure was
479.7 psia, and the well has produced for three years. Fig. 5
shows the cumulative gas and water production as well as the
reservoir pressure decline curve.
Applying Eqs. 10, 13, 14, and 15, Fig. 6 was prepared. It
shows that the straight line was obtained. From the slope, the
original gas in-place was 360 MMscf that is a close value to
which King obtained using his equation. The initial non-linear
form can be related to the dewatering period.
To solve the convolution intergral in Eq. 13, a simple
method was employed, or a numerial evaluation with cubic
spline integration coupled with fast convolution techniques
can be used,T
One adventage of proposed GMBE is that a method of
stimating water encroachment can be developed and applied
in similar way as Havlena and Odehs did.
Conclusions

A generalized material balance equation (GMBE) for coal


seam gas (CSG) reservoirs was presented; it is useful for
estimating both the original gas-in-place and future reservoir
performance.
Three examples were proposed which show the new
equation has the following advantages:
1. It is simple.
2. It is applicable to CSG reservoirs in saturated,
equilibrium, and undersaturated conditions.
3. It is applicable to any type of coalbed without restriction
on especial diffusion constant values.
4. Existent equations are particular cases of the generalized
equation evaluated under certain restrictions.
5. Its reorganization is analogous to the popular straightline method for conventional reservoirs.
6. It is adaptable to include the effects of different
production mechanisms such as water influx and gas injection.
7. It is an improved approach to study, understand and
analyze of gas non-conventional reservoirs, and it is an
innovative way to teach reservoir engineering.
In the work presented herein, it was found that gas
resorption and diffision evidently affect the efficacy of the

Acknowledgments

We thank Universidad Industrial de Santander for permission


to present this work, and Instituto Colombian del Petr61eo
(ICP-ECOPETROL) for the information and encouragement
to develop it. We also thank J.P. Seidle for his helpful
comments.
References

1. Schilthuis, R.J.: Active Oil and Reservoir Energy, Trans.,


AIME, 148(1936)33-52.

625

G. PENUELA, A. ORDONEZ,

SPE 49225

A. BEJARANO

-.
2. Walsh,

M,p,:

*A Gen~rali~ed

Approach

to Reservoir

Material

VoIume offree gas phase in

Vp=

BalanceCalculations,J Can.Pet. Tech. (Jan. 1995).


3. King, G.R.: Material Balance Techniques for Coal Seam and
Devonian

Shale Gas Reservoirs

With Limited

+ (Volume of water phase)

the secondary porosity system )

Water Influx,
Vp= [G2 B.]+ 5.61 5((W) - Wp)Bw+ We)+ VPS.(l + C.(P, - P))

SPEM (Feb. 1993) 67-72.


4. MetcaIfe, R.S. et al.: Review of Research Efforts in Coalbed
Methane Recovery, paper sPE 2~025 presented at the 199 I
SPE Asia - Pacific Conference, Perth, Western Australi~ Nov.
4-7.
J.E., Koenig, R. A., and Schraufnagel, R. A.:
5. McElhiney,
Evaluation of Coaibed-Methane
Reserves Involves Different
Techniques, Oil & Gus J. (Oct. 30, 1989)
6. Kohler, T.E. and Ertekin, T.: Modeling of Undersaturated Coal
Seam Gas Reservoir. paper SPE 29578 presented at the 1995
SPE Rocky Mountain RegionalLow-permeability
Reservoirs
Symposium, Denver, March 20-22.
7, Ordofiez, A. and Peftuela, G.: Desarrollo y Linealizaci6n de
una Ecuaci6n de Balance de Materials
Generalizada
para
Yacimientos de Gas Asociado al Carbon, proyecto de Grade,
Escuela de Ingenieria de Petr61eos, Universidad Industrial de
Santander, Bucaramanga, SS., ColombiA 1996.
8. Havlen& D. and Odeh, AS.: The Material Balance as an
Equation of a Straight Line: JPT (Aug. 1963) 896-900; Trans.,
AlME, 228.
R.: The New
!3, Walsh, M. P., Ansah, J., and Raghavan,
GeneTaIized Material Balance as an Equation of a Straight Line:
Part 1. - Applications
to Undersaturated
and Volumetric
Reservoirs. paper SPE 27684 presented at the 1994 SPE
Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference, Midland,
March 16-i8.
10. Walsh, M:P., Ansah, J., and Raghavan, R.: The New
Generalized-Material Balance as an Equation of a Straight Line:
Part 2. - Applications
to Saturated and Non-volumetric
Reservoirs, paper SPE 27728 presented at the 1994 SPE
Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference, MidIand,
March 16-18.
11. King, G. R., Ertekin, T,, and Schwerer, F. C.: Numerical
Simulation
of the Transient
Behavior
of Coal Seam
Degasification Wells, SPEFE (April 1986) 165-83: Trans.,
AIME,281.
12. King, G,R, and Ertekin, T.: State-of-the-Art Modeling for
Unconventional Gas Recovery, .SPEFE (March 1991) 63~71.
13. Ikoku, C.U: hatural Gas Reservoir Engineering, John Wiley &
Sons Inc., New York City (1984) 6.
14. Almisned, O.A. and Thrasher, R. L.: Simulation of Coalbed
Methane Enhanced Recovery Using Gas Potential and a New
Saturation Equation, paper 9560 lNTERGAS95, May 15-19.

-1

Variation of the water

Variation of the initial

volume by injection,
production

water volume by

and influx

pressure variation

................................................................ . . . .....(A-1]

A material balance on the gas component m the fracture


system (see Fig. A-2) demands
gz

Bx = G2tBg+

G2

GYBgY+

G~Bg

GpBg ......(A-2)

Initial gas in secondary-porosity volume is given by


~,

Vb,

$/

(1 S,,,) .......................................--.(A-3)
Bg,

The net variation of gas in the primary-porosity system3


(Cd) is

~~ =

V6*DUf(fi;t H;)e-u)d~)d~ ................(A-4)


o

Litefature14shows the following porosity equation

~G1-c*(Pi-P)+Cm
$,

(~)pi(l-;)...A-

For the sake of simplicity and brevity, Cm R O can be


assumed. Then Eq. A-5 becomes
=1-c$(~i-~)

.............................................(A-6)

+,

which is traditionally used in material balance.

Appendix -- Derivation of GMB-E for CSG reservoim.


This appendix derives the generalized material balance

Defining conveniently

equation (~MBE for CSG) and expresses it as an equatiun of


a straight line.
Fig. A-1 presents the CSG components involved in the
material balance which are taken into account during algebraic
development of this appendix. Based on 12 proposed
assumptions, a volume balance in the secondary-porosity
system demands

F = GpBg
AW =

GyBgy .................................................(A.~)

5.615[W, + (Wy -Wp)Bw] .........................(A-8)

Da

Eg, = ~Bg~(V~i

.,

626

V~)e-&(-)cc

.................(A-9)

SPE 49225

A GENERALIZED

Eg2=B*

G =

Bgl
VE,

Vb,

MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION

(c+-1c&wl)(Pi-P) .,,,,(A lo)


(1-SW])
)

FOR COAL SEAM GAS RESERVOIRS

GpBg = GYB@+ G ~
[

..........................................................(A.ll)

+Vbz

Substituting Eqs. A-2 through A-11 into A-1, a linear


expression can be obtained in the following form
F=

GE8,

i- G21EgI

+ AW

.................................(A-12)

~Bg(Vc,

[(

(Ct + C#w,)(Pi - P)
(1 - SW,)

.(A-l 6)

5,615[W.+ (WY WP)B.]

+5.61$W. + ( Wy- WP)B.]

VE)e-h(-r)dr

+G2t Bg - Bg, 1+5.61 5(W,

- P)+

pBg=GB

or substituting back Eqs. A-7, A-8, A-9, and A-10 into A-

{J

Vfi)e-&(-)dr

Substituting Eq. A-11 into A- 16 and rearranging yields

12

GpBg = GyB@+

C.)(PI

@(C++

Bg](Vfi

which can be written as


(A-13)
F=

)]

+ ( WY - WP)B.)

GEg+AW

..................+..................4............(A.l8)

by defining conveniently

If Cm is not ignored, the above expression can be put into


the form

GPB. = GyBg, + G ~

Bg~( Vfi - VE)e-h(-)dr


o

~ Da

...........................(19)9)
Bg\( VE,- VE)e-ti(-) dr
o

If Cm is not ignored, the above approach becomes

4
Eg = Z(C+
+ C.)(Pi- P) +
;(~)p[l-~)(A20)
+5.6 15[Fv.+ (WY- WP)jw]
InitiaI1y Undersaturated Reservoirs. Eq. A- 13 is the GMBE
for CSG that can be used (such as it is presented) in initiallysaturated reservoirs (Swl<1). Nevertheless, in order to apply it
to an initially-undersaturated reservoir (Swl=1), it was
rearranged. Substituting Eq. A-3 into A-13 yields

GpBg=GyB& + G

~Bg
[J

V~I4(1 Sw,)Bg
+[

B@

~bz

S1 Metric Conversion
bbl

#(l S.,)
Bm

L+vb,#(c,+ CJWI)(P,
- P)

Bg/

Factom

1,589873

ft X3.048
ft3 ~ 2.8~~ $85
F (F-32)/1.8
lbrn X4.535924
R W1.8
psi x 6.894757
psi-f x 1.450377

(Vfi - V~)e-&(-r)dr
o

(A-15)

Coflversioh factor is exact.

+5.615[W, + ( WY WP)BW]
Applying the definition of initially-undersaturated
reservoir; i.e., aIl initial gas at P>Pd is totally adsorbed in the
coal seam (SW{==
1), Eq. A-15 becomes

627

E-oq = ~3
E-01 = m
E-02 = m3
c
E-Of = kg
K
E+OO= kPa
E-01 * kPa-f

G. PENUELA, A. ORDONEZ,

SPE 49225

A. BEJARANO

Petrophysical
and
sorption
TABLE
1
properties of the initially undersaturated
CSG
Reservoir
Value
Propertiy

0.01
6.0

Rock compressibility, psi-f


Bulk compressibility, psi-l

7.5xI0-6

0.0
62.4

3.2xI0-6

psi-l

0.0
0.0

Water Influx
Water injection
Initial pressure,

1,000

Depth, ft
Initial porosity, fraction
Thickness, ft

Water density, lbm/ft3


Water compressibility,

/.

479.7

psia

Initial saturation, fraction


Temperature,
oR

1.0

530.0

16.04
Molecular weight of gas, Ibmflbm-mole
Critical pressure, psia
673.1
Critical temperature, oF
-115.78
**
Z-Factor
0.0
Gas injection
167.5
Langmuir pressure constant, psia
479.7
Resorption pressure, psia
18.6
Langmuir volume constant, SCF/ft3
Diffusion constant, days-l
0.0432
.F.. .I .ne L-ractors
. . .
,,
. .Dy liall
. .,, ana,.,YarDorougn
<
u
were calculated
correlation.

Fluid flow in the natural


fracture Network

Fig. lMethane

transport (after Ref 11).

u
g

30 -

u
C.-1
~ 20
f
0

~-Aw
Eg\

()4
!

3
~o
O

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

G2i

Pressure ~sia]
Fig. 2-Possible

initial states for a CSG Reservoir

*
(5)
g2

(after

Egl

Ref 6).
Fig. 3-Straight
Reservoirs.

628

line obtained for initially saturated CSG

SPE 49225

A GENERALIZED

MATERIAL BALANCE EQUATION

FOR COAL SEAM GAS RESERVOIRS

(F-AW)
G

(EQ -

Fig. Qtraight
line obtained for initially undersaturated
CSG Reservoirs.

-.=L.

,,.
i

~fer

--- -----
Fig. 1-A-CSG
balance.

components

involved

material

-=prosity
! Gas volum in the mnday
~system
(fiaeture system)

~2

Fig. 5-Production

in the

----GH-

12M

data from a single-well CSG Reservoir.

.----

40E+06
~
1

3.0E+06
&

y
k

-...

We
II

G
2.0E+06

Fig. 2-AVolume
system.

1.0E+06

O.OE+OO

Fig. 6-Straight
line obtained using the GMBE
initially equilibrium CSG Reservoir.

in an

629

balance

in

the

secondary-porosity

.-