MBE

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SPE-49225-MS

MBE

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Society of

PetroleumEngineers

~

1

SPE 49225

A Generalized

G. Penuela, SPE, U. Industrial de Santander; A. Ordonez, SPE, U. Industrial de Santander, and A. Bejarano, SPE,

Instituto Colombian del Petroleo - ECOPETROL

rhis paper was prepar~ for presenlatiti al the 1998 SPE Annual Te*nical

Exhibtion held in New Orleans, Louisiana, 27-30 September 199a

surface area contained within the coal seam. This area allows

many potential sorption sites exist and large quantities of gas

can be adsorbed.

King3 presented the development of two material balance

equations using the traditional assumptions associated with the

material balance approach and including the effects of

adsorbed gas. One of these equations is appropriated for

estimating gas in-place, but an additional assumption of

equilibrium between the free and adsorbed gas

phases is

-.

required. This equation has the form

Conference and

This papr was selecfed for presentation by an SPE Prcgram Committee following review of

information mntained in an abstract submitted by the author(s), Contents of the papr, as

~sented,

have not been reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to

wrmcfion by the aufior(s). The material, as presented, does not ne~ssanly

reflect any

posfton of the Smiaty of Petroleum Engineers, ifs offrcars, or members, Papers presented at

SPE mee~s

are subjd to publication raviaw by Editorial Commdtees of the Society of

Petroleum Engineers. Electronic repmd~on,

distribution, or storage of any pad of this pa~r

for rnmmercial pu~ses

without the written mnsent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is

prohibited. Permission to reprduc.e in print is resbicted to an abstract of not more than 300

words; illustrafons may not be ~ied.

The abstract must mntain

mnspicuous

tiowledgment

of where snd by whom the paper was presented. Write Librarian, SPE, P.0,

M S33S36, RichardaM, TX 7W83-3835, U.S.A, fax 01 -972-952.943S.

Abstract

generalized material balance equations for conventional oil

and gas reservoirs in order to improve the reservoir

performance analysis. However, those equations are

inappropriate for coal seam gas (CSG) reservoirs. To address

this limitation, a generalized material balance equation

(GMBE) for CSG reservoirs was developed. This work is

based on a mathematical development and the straight-line

method, published previously md widespread used for

conventional reservoirs.

Three validation examples of the proposed equation were

designed. They show the new equation has the following

advantages: (1) it is applicable to CSG reservoirs in saturated,

equilibrium, and undersaturated conditions, (2) it is applicable

to any type of coalbed without restriction on especial diffusion

constant values, (3) existent equations are particular cases of

the generalized equation evaluated under certain restrictions,

and (4) its reorganization is analogous to the popular straightline method for conventional reservoirs.

(1 - ~.,)

Vba

Gp =

-1

pi + RTCE,

Zi

Zsc Tsc

P,, T

..(1)

R TCE

4,

-=

==1

where

Swi[l+ C.

(Pi - P)] +

&

3.=

[(-

C,@i:

i)]-

Vb,

--()

conventional material balance equation (CMBE) for CSG.

me second expression proposed by King is a less

restrictive equation that is useful for making fiture reservoir

predictions, It can be obtained by considering a gas resorption

term, Gd. This equation has the form

Introduction

used to analyze the reservoir performance, to determine the

original gas-in-place, and to make future reservoir predictions.

Schilthuis, in 1936, was among the first to formulate and

apply material balances. Later, Walsh2presented a generalized

approach for oil-and-gas conventional reservoirs, However,

the assumption of non-reactive gas-rock makes the use of

traditional equations for conventional gas reservoirs

The

(l-Sw,)Pi

Gp =

Vb,

z,

+ Zsc Tsc

P,. T

+Gd..(3)

[1 C$(Pi-P)](l

621

9P

z

md

or

SPE 49225

GJ = V~,Da~(Glt

Seam Gas Reservoirs

V~)e-D

-r)dr .....................(5)

reservoirs, the following assumptions were used

1. The reservoir is an isothermal system.

2. The reservoir is comprised OEat most, three components:

coal seam, water, and surface-gas.

3. The reservoir is comprised of, at most, three phases: coal

seam, water (aqueous), and gas.

4. The surface gas component exists only in the coal- and

gas- phases. This assumption allows for adsorbed gas.

5. The water component exists only in the water phase and

does not partition into either the coal or gas phases.

6. The coaI component exists only in the coal phase.

7. The water- and rock- phases are compressible. This

assumption implies the reservoir pore volume is function

of pressure.

8. The reservoir pressure is uniform throughout the

reservoir; i.e., no pressure gradients exist vertically or

horizontally.

9. The reservoir fluids are in thermodynamic equilibrium.

10, Water may enter the reservoir; i.e., water influx may

occur.

11< Water and surface-gas components may be produced

andlor injected.

12! The porosity and initial water saturation are uniform

throughout the reservoir.

Considering adequate volume balances, the GMBE for

CSG, whose development is explained in the Appendix, can

be written as

equations

are good

the aforementioned

Although

approximations, they do not help us analyze different

reservoir conditions in which a CSG reservoir may be found

or can undergo throughout its productive life. Therefore,

based on a generalized material balance equation for

conventional reservoirs,2 a GMBE for CSG reservoirs was

developed.

Behavior of a Coal Seam Gas Reservoir

where natural gas, comprised and predominantly compound of

methane (95-98?%), exists as a monomolecular layer in near

liquid-like state, adsorbed on the internal surfaces of the coaI

matrix.

Most natural occurrences of coalbed methane gas are in

coal seams that are submerged in aquifers. The gas resorption

mechanism is controlled by the hydrostatic head of the

aquifer. As water is pumped from the seam at a well bore, the

pressure (head) is reduced and methane released. Once this

gas is desorbed from the matrix, it diffises to the cleat system

and flows to the producing well according to Darcys law 5

(Fig. 1).

Coal seam gas reservoirs may be found in three possible

initial states (Fig. 2): 6 (A) Equilibrium, (B) saturated, and (C)

undersaturated conditions. In the tower portion of Fig. 2, a

Langmuir isotherm is shown. Point A, equilibrium state,

occurs when the amount of adsorbed gas is equal to the

amount given by the isotherm. A pressure drop in the cleat

system causes gas to desorb from the micropore surfaces and

to difise into the macropores. As production continues, a free

gas phase wilI be formed in the cleats. Point B represents the

saturated state. It is similar to the equilibrium state in terms of

adsorbed voIume; however, free gas is present in the cleat

system. As production continues, the reservoir is retained in

the saturated condition. The third possibility, described as

Point C, is the existence of undersaturated condition. In a

coalbed reservoir described as point C, the amount of gas

adsorbed onto the coal is less than the amount depicted by the

isotherm at reservoir pressure and temperature. In this case, no

gas can be produced until its critical resorption pressure has

been reached. As water production continues, and pressure

decreases over the course of time, the reservoir enters into the

saturated condition.

The upper portion of Fig. 2 shows gas saturation in the

secondary-porosity system (fracture system) for the

abovementioned cases. For cases A and C, there is no initial

free gas; hence, gas saturation is marked as zero. For case B,

the gas phase saturation is larger than zero.

Gp Bg = GY Bg,

+G

a

(,1

~Bg

(VE, V~)e-Da(-r)dr

Straight-Line

Equation

group vs. another variable group, with the variable group

selection depending on the mechanism of production under

which the reservoir is producing. The sequence of the plotted

points and the shape of the resulting plot are the most

important aspects of this method of solution of material

balance equations.8

622

SPE 49225

A GENERALIZED

In 1963, Havlena and Odeh8 developed the popular straightline method for oil reservoirs. Walsh

et al.9 0 presented a

general straight-line method for estimating reserves of the oiland gas- reservoirs without restriction on reservoir fluid

compositions. The results of their work were summarized in a

set of companion papers. The first one9 presents the

mathematical development and discusses applications to

initially-undersaturated, volumetric reservoirs. The second

discusses applications to initially-saturated and nonvohzmetric reservoirs.

AW

Vbz

[1

~iZsc Tsc ~-y

Pi

Zi

Psc T

= 5.615[W,

....................................(7)

...............(8)

*=

F=

[l-C+(Pi-P)~;-Fw)+zJ~

Da

Eg, = ~Bxj(V~,

~~)~-m(-r)dr

V~l - V,)e-&

-)dr

.

:(y)pi[_:).(15

.......................................(9)

Examples

Modeling of a CSG Reservoir, The proposed GMBE has the

counterpart; i.e., it can be conveniently rewritten in order to

model a CSG reservoir pending upon different initial

conditions in which the reservoir may be found.

Initially Saturated CSG Reservoirs. Eq. 9 can be rewritten

as

(Fi:w)=G(2)+G2i

................................(16)

..................................................(lo)

GyBa

@

+~(C~+C.)(Pi-P)+-

G~i is the free gas originally in the secondary-porosity system

to standard conditions. ~g, expresses the desorbed and

adsorbed gas expansion with the consecutive pressure

depIetion, Egz represents the gas expansion in the fracture

system, F is the net gas withdrawal (net production), and AW

is the net increase in the reservoir water volume.

F,

Egi , Eg~ and A W are defined by

GpBg

........................(13)

The GMBE rearranged conveniently has the following form

F=

WP)B.]

......................................................(l4)

GEg+AW

Da

Eg = ~BgJ(

GEg1+G2iEg2+AW

WY-

is the adsorbed initial gas in-place in the coal seam. ~g

represents the desorbed gas expansion in the fracture system.

This term can be written as

the gas in-place is Vb2 appears in both the material balance

equation and the definition ofz*. To solve this complication, a

graphical and an iterative procedure were proposed.3

F=

+(

initially-saturated reservoirs (Swl<l ).

However, in the most cases, during a time it is necessary

dewatered the coalbed in order to produce gas from it. These

reservoirs, in an undersaturated state (Swi 1), have an initial

reservoir pressure Pi>Pd . The initially-equilibrium reservoir

can be understood like a particular case of the undersaturated

reservoirs because their fracture system is 100/0 saturated

with water upon discovery (Swi=1).

The GMBE adjusted to initially-undersaturated and

equilibrium reservoirs is defined as

The CMBE for CSG reservoirs can be written as3

Gp =

...................(1 1)

Apf(F;:w)vs)vs

(%)

hOuldresutinastraight

line being G the slope and G2i the y-intercept (Fig. 3).

Znitially Undersaturated CSG Reservoirs. Eq, 14 can be

expressed as

623

SPE 49225

~ AW = G Eg ......................................................(l7)

A plot of (~ A JV)vs.(Eg) should result in a straight line

going through the origin with G being the slope (Fig. 4).,

Initially

Equilibrium

CSG

=

fracture system

pressure condition

Cases

of the GMBE

for CSG

Ei::z:)

aforementioned conditions and definitions, Eq. 3 is obtained.

Kings First Equation.3 In his first equation, King

considered a material balance over the primaryporosityinatural fracture system. This approach is a particular

case of Eq. 3, assuming equilibrium between free and

adsorbed gas phases, This equilibrium occurs afier the

reservoiriwell undergoes long shut-in periods, whenever

reservoir pressure is uniform throughout the reservoir and

constant over the course of time (no-dependent time), and

when the reservoir has a large diffusion coefficient (high

natural fracture density that allows gas to difise very fast).

The latter situation can be considered with Eq, 22. This

equation can be integrated easily by assuming reservoir

pressure is constant over any time period. 112This assumption

implies that in the same time period VE is also constant. Eq.

22 becomes

fiservoirs.

for CSG reservoirs.3 These equations are particular cases of

GMBE evaluated under certain restrictions.

Kings Second Equation3. Restricting Eq. 6 to the

following conditions

GY = O (NOgas injection)

WY= O (No water injection)

C., = O (I~oring bulk compressibility)

Then, substituting the following definitions

-~w)

G2 = vb,@ /(1

-._...-.,..., ...............................(IS)

Bgl

G =

V6, v..,

Gd = V6,

..............................................................(l9)

Psc

Bg=~

Because the

Reservoirs.

(Swl=l), initially-equilibrium reservoirs can be modeled using

Eq. 17.

Particular

)[

(V&, -

~~)(1-e-Da) .............................(24)

long shut-in periods), 1 } 0, desorbed gas is

............................................... . . . ..(20]

Tsc

e

5.615

&(l+C.(Pi

(W

E, #

%=

WBW)

-P))+

1C+(P, P)

Gd =

.......(21)

Vb,

( ~E,

V~)

..................................-._...-..(25)

Psc

C~ = V~

Gd

~b,~a

](?E,

~E)e-na

-r)~r

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..(22)

Zsc R Tsc

GIi =

V~, = V~(P,)

equation for CSG reservoirs assuming equilibrium between

the free and adsorbed gas phases.

Conventional Gas Reservoirs. In the development of the

material balance equation for conventional gas reservoirs the

assumption of non-reactive gas-rock is generally done (the

effect of adsorbed gas are not included). Restricting Eq. 6 with

the following conditions:

on water phase over the secondary-porosity system and

solving for SW

C.,, t, w = O (Neglecting compressibilities).

624

SPE 49225

A GENERALIZED

MATERIAL BAUNCE

dewatering.

The GMBE for CSG reservoirs is reduced to the equation

for conventional gas reservoirs13(dry-gas reservoirs)

Gp =

G2i(Bg

B.,)+

5.615

(We

WpBw)

Nomenclature

Bg = gas FVF, ft31scf

BO = injected gas FVF, ft3/scf

Bw = water FVF, bbl/STB

C; = bulk compressibility, Lt2/m, psi

Cw . water compressibility, Ltz/m, ps~

c+= porosity compressibility, Lt2/m,psi-[

Da = diffusion constant, days-i

g~ = gas in the secondary-porosity to reservoir

conditions, L3, ft3

G= adsorbed gas originally in the coal seam to standard

condition, L3, scf

desorbed

gas, L3, scf

Gd =

produced

gas, L3, scf

Gp =

G] = gas in the primary-porosity, scf /fi3

Gy = injected gas, L3, scf

G2 = gas in the secondary-porosity, L3, scf

G2i = initial gas in the secondary-porosity, L3, scf

P= pressure, m/Lt2, psia

Pd = critical resorption pressure, m/Lt2, psia

Pi = initial reservoir pressure, m/Lt2, psia

P~~ = pressure to standard conditions, m/Lt2, psia

R= universal gas constant, mL2/t2T,10.73 psia-ft3/(lbm

moles- R)

average water saturation, fraction

initial water saturation, fraction

time, t, days

reservoir temperature, T, R

temperature to standard condition, T, R

bulk volume of the secondary-porosity system, L3,

fi3

VE = volumetric adsorption isotherm, scf/ft3

we. water influx, L3, bbl

Wy = injected water, L3, STB

Wp= produced water, L3, STB

z= gas compressibility factor, dimensionless

*_ adjusted gas compressibility factor, dimensionless

z

#= porosity, dimensionless, fraction

~i= initial porosity, dimensionless, fraction

.....(27)

Bg

proposed equation to calculate the original gas in-place, a

practical example was designed using sorption and production

data obtahed from literature (Table 1, Fig. 5).

The example models a production well in an initially

equilibrium CSG reservoir. The initial reservoir pressure was

479.7 psia, and the well has produced for three years. Fig. 5

shows the cumulative gas and water production as well as the

reservoir pressure decline curve.

Applying Eqs. 10, 13, 14, and 15, Fig. 6 was prepared. It

shows that the straight line was obtained. From the slope, the

original gas in-place was 360 MMscf that is a close value to

which King obtained using his equation. The initial non-linear

form can be related to the dewatering period.

To solve the convolution intergral in Eq. 13, a simple

method was employed, or a numerial evaluation with cubic

spline integration coupled with fast convolution techniques

can be used,T

One adventage of proposed GMBE is that a method of

stimating water encroachment can be developed and applied

in similar way as Havlena and Odehs did.

Conclusions

seam gas (CSG) reservoirs was presented; it is useful for

estimating both the original gas-in-place and future reservoir

performance.

Three examples were proposed which show the new

equation has the following advantages:

1. It is simple.

2. It is applicable to CSG reservoirs in saturated,

equilibrium, and undersaturated conditions.

3. It is applicable to any type of coalbed without restriction

on especial diffusion constant values.

4. Existent equations are particular cases of the generalized

equation evaluated under certain restrictions.

5. Its reorganization is analogous to the popular straightline method for conventional reservoirs.

6. It is adaptable to include the effects of different

production mechanisms such as water influx and gas injection.

7. It is an improved approach to study, understand and

analyze of gas non-conventional reservoirs, and it is an

innovative way to teach reservoir engineering.

In the work presented herein, it was found that gas

resorption and diffision evidently affect the efficacy of the

Acknowledgments

to present this work, and Instituto Colombian del Petr61eo

(ICP-ECOPETROL) for the information and encouragement

to develop it. We also thank J.P. Seidle for his helpful

comments.

References

AIME, 148(1936)33-52.

625

G. PENUELA, A. ORDONEZ,

SPE 49225

A. BEJARANO

-.

2. Walsh,

M,p,:

*A Gen~rali~ed

Approach

to Reservoir

Material

Vp=

3. King, G.R.: Material Balance Techniques for Coal Seam and

Devonian

With Limited

Water Influx,

Vp= [G2 B.]+ 5.61 5((W) - Wp)Bw+ We)+ VPS.(l + C.(P, - P))

4. MetcaIfe, R.S. et al.: Review of Research Efforts in Coalbed

Methane Recovery, paper sPE 2~025 presented at the 199 I

SPE Asia - Pacific Conference, Perth, Western Australi~ Nov.

4-7.

J.E., Koenig, R. A., and Schraufnagel, R. A.:

5. McElhiney,

Evaluation of Coaibed-Methane

Reserves Involves Different

Techniques, Oil & Gus J. (Oct. 30, 1989)

6. Kohler, T.E. and Ertekin, T.: Modeling of Undersaturated Coal

Seam Gas Reservoir. paper SPE 29578 presented at the 1995

SPE Rocky Mountain RegionalLow-permeability

Reservoirs

Symposium, Denver, March 20-22.

7, Ordofiez, A. and Peftuela, G.: Desarrollo y Linealizaci6n de

una Ecuaci6n de Balance de Materials

Generalizada

para

Yacimientos de Gas Asociado al Carbon, proyecto de Grade,

Escuela de Ingenieria de Petr61eos, Universidad Industrial de

Santander, Bucaramanga, SS., ColombiA 1996.

8. Havlen& D. and Odeh, AS.: The Material Balance as an

Equation of a Straight Line: JPT (Aug. 1963) 896-900; Trans.,

AlME, 228.

R.: The New

!3, Walsh, M. P., Ansah, J., and Raghavan,

GeneTaIized Material Balance as an Equation of a Straight Line:

Part 1. - Applications

to Undersaturated

and Volumetric

Reservoirs. paper SPE 27684 presented at the 1994 SPE

Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference, Midland,

March 16-i8.

10. Walsh, M:P., Ansah, J., and Raghavan, R.: The New

Generalized-Material Balance as an Equation of a Straight Line:

Part 2. - Applications

to Saturated and Non-volumetric

Reservoirs, paper SPE 27728 presented at the 1994 SPE

Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference, MidIand,

March 16-18.

11. King, G. R., Ertekin, T,, and Schwerer, F. C.: Numerical

Simulation

of the Transient

Behavior

of Coal Seam

Degasification Wells, SPEFE (April 1986) 165-83: Trans.,

AIME,281.

12. King, G,R, and Ertekin, T.: State-of-the-Art Modeling for

Unconventional Gas Recovery, .SPEFE (March 1991) 63~71.

13. Ikoku, C.U: hatural Gas Reservoir Engineering, John Wiley &

Sons Inc., New York City (1984) 6.

14. Almisned, O.A. and Thrasher, R. L.: Simulation of Coalbed

Methane Enhanced Recovery Using Gas Potential and a New

Saturation Equation, paper 9560 lNTERGAS95, May 15-19.

-1

volume by injection,

production

water volume by

and influx

pressure variation

................................................................ . . . .....(A-1]

system (see Fig. A-2) demands

gz

Bx = G2tBg+

G2

GYBgY+

G~Bg

GpBg ......(A-2)

~,

Vb,

$/

(1 S,,,) .......................................--.(A-3)

Bg,

(Cd) is

~~ =

o

~G1-c*(Pi-P)+Cm

$,

(~)pi(l-;)...A-

assumed. Then Eq. A-5 becomes

=1-c$(~i-~)

.............................................(A-6)

+,

This appendix derives the generalized material balance

Defining conveniently

a straight line.

Fig. A-1 presents the CSG components involved in the

material balance which are taken into account during algebraic

development of this appendix. Based on 12 proposed

assumptions, a volume balance in the secondary-porosity

system demands

F = GpBg

AW =

GyBgy .................................................(A.~)

Da

Eg, = ~Bg~(V~i

.,

626

V~)e-&(-)cc

.................(A-9)

SPE 49225

A GENERALIZED

Eg2=B*

G =

Bgl

VE,

Vb,

(1-SW])

)

GpBg = GYB@+ G ~

[

..........................................................(A.ll)

+Vbz

expression can be obtained in the following form

F=

GE8,

i- G21EgI

+ AW

.................................(A-12)

~Bg(Vc,

[(

(Ct + C#w,)(Pi - P)

(1 - SW,)

.(A-l 6)

VE)e-h(-r)dr

- P)+

pBg=GB

{J

Vfi)e-&(-)dr

12

GpBg = GyB@+

C.)(PI

@(C++

Bg](Vfi

(A-13)

F=

)]

+ ( WY - WP)B.)

GEg+AW

..................+..................4............(A.l8)

by defining conveniently

the form

GPB. = GyBg, + G ~

o

~ Da

...........................(19)9)

Bg\( VE,- VE)e-ti(-) dr

o

4

Eg = Z(C+

+ C.)(Pi- P) +

;(~)p[l-~)(A20)

+5.6 15[Fv.+ (WY- WP)jw]

InitiaI1y Undersaturated Reservoirs. Eq. A- 13 is the GMBE

for CSG that can be used (such as it is presented) in initiallysaturated reservoirs (Swl<1). Nevertheless, in order to apply it

to an initially-undersaturated reservoir (Swl=1), it was

rearranged. Substituting Eq. A-3 into A-13 yields

GpBg=GyB& + G

~Bg

[J

V~I4(1 Sw,)Bg

+[

B@

~bz

S1 Metric Conversion

bbl

#(l S.,)

Bm

L+vb,#(c,+ CJWI)(P,

- P)

Bg/

Factom

1,589873

ft X3.048

ft3 ~ 2.8~~ $85

F (F-32)/1.8

lbrn X4.535924

R W1.8

psi x 6.894757

psi-f x 1.450377

(Vfi - V~)e-&(-r)dr

o

(A-15)

+5.615[W, + ( WY WP)BW]

Applying the definition of initially-undersaturated

reservoir; i.e., aIl initial gas at P>Pd is totally adsorbed in the

coal seam (SW{==

1), Eq. A-15 becomes

627

E-oq = ~3

E-01 = m

E-02 = m3

c

E-Of = kg

K

E+OO= kPa

E-01 * kPa-f

G. PENUELA, A. ORDONEZ,

SPE 49225

A. BEJARANO

Petrophysical

and

sorption

TABLE

1

properties of the initially undersaturated

CSG

Reservoir

Value

Propertiy

0.01

6.0

Bulk compressibility, psi-l

7.5xI0-6

0.0

62.4

3.2xI0-6

psi-l

0.0

0.0

Water Influx

Water injection

Initial pressure,

1,000

Depth, ft

Initial porosity, fraction

Thickness, ft

Water compressibility,

/.

479.7

psia

Temperature,

oR

1.0

530.0

16.04

Molecular weight of gas, Ibmflbm-mole

Critical pressure, psia

673.1

Critical temperature, oF

-115.78

**

Z-Factor

0.0

Gas injection

167.5

Langmuir pressure constant, psia

479.7

Resorption pressure, psia

18.6

Langmuir volume constant, SCF/ft3

Diffusion constant, days-l

0.0432

.F.. .I .ne L-ractors

. . .

,,

. .Dy liall

. .,, ana,.,YarDorougn

<

u

were calculated

correlation.

fracture Network

Fig. lMethane

u

g

30 -

u

C.-1

~ 20

f

0

~-Aw

Eg\

()4

!

3

~o

O

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

G2i

Pressure ~sia]

Fig. 2-Possible

*

(5)

g2

(after

Egl

Ref 6).

Fig. 3-Straight

Reservoirs.

628

SPE 49225

A GENERALIZED

(F-AW)

G

(EQ -

Fig. Qtraight

line obtained for initially undersaturated

CSG Reservoirs.

-.=L.

,,.

i

~fer

--- -----

Fig. 1-A-CSG

balance.

components

involved

material

-=prosity

! Gas volum in the mnday

~system

(fiaeture system)

~2

Fig. 5-Production

in the

----GH-

12M

.----

40E+06

~

1

3.0E+06

&

y

k

-...

We

II

G

2.0E+06

Fig. 2-AVolume

system.

1.0E+06

O.OE+OO

Fig. 6-Straight

line obtained using the GMBE

initially equilibrium CSG Reservoir.

in an

629

balance

in

the

secondary-porosity

.-

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