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A Computer Numerical Control (CNC) system is a Numerical Control system

wherein a dedicated stored program computer is used to perform some or all the basic NC
functions in accordance with control programs stored in the read write memory of the
computer. The CNC machines are mainly utilized for batch production. The advantages
of CNC are: (1) High accuracy and repeatability (2) Less material handling (3) High
flexibility for design changes (4) Reduced toolings (5) Better machine utilization (6) Less
scrap and rework. The accuracy of CNC machines depend upon the (1) Quality of the
drive motors (2) Quality of the ball screws.
The equipment for each axis of CNC machines consist of a mechanical device that
performs the motion, a drive motor that supplies the power for the axis and a ball screw
that transfers the power from the drive motor to the mechanical device. Rotation of the
ball screw makes motion of the mechanical device possible. The drive motor is the link
between the ball screw and the CNC control. Also called a servomotor, it allows
extremely precise rotation.

The machines, which are available in CNC Shop, are the following:

(1) DECKEL FP2A (VERTICAL SPINDLE MILLING MACHINE)

(2) DECKEL FP4AT (VERTICAL SPINDLE MILLING MACHINE)

(3) DECKEL MAHO MH600C (HORIZONTAL SPINDLE MILLING


MACHINE)
(4) HARDINGE CONQUEST T42 CNC LATHE

(5) HARDINGE SUPERSLANT CNC LATHE

(6) HMT KTM 1000 CNC HORIZONTAL MACHINING CENTRE

(7) MIKRON UCP 710 5 – AXIS MACHINE

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DECKEL FP2A

Technical Data
Working Range
X – axis (Longitudinal) - 300 mm
Y – axis (Transverse) - 300 mm
Z – axis (Vertical) - 350 mm
Quill stroke (Vertical) - 60 mm
Control System
Fagor CNC 8025GP Control
Main Drive
Pole changing 3-phase brake motor for clockwise/counterclockwise rotation
Power rating - 1.6 / 2 KW
No. of spindle speeds - 21
Range of spindle speeds - 31.5 to 3150 rpm
Speed progression factor - 1.25
Spindle taper - ST ISO 40 (M16)
Tools clamped mechanically and unclamped by hydraulic force.
Table Slide
Max load on table slide - Appr. 600 kg
Universal Table
FP2A is supplied with a universal table. The table top of the universal table can be
rotated through 360° manually. The table can be tilted about the A and B axes (only by
40°) by means of a ratchet tool.

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DECKEL FP4AT

Technical Data
X – axis (Longitudinal) - 560 mm
Y – axis (Transverse) - 500 mm
Z – axis (Vertical) - 450 mm
Control System
Dialogue 11 Control
Main Drive
Pole changing 3-phase brake motor for clockwise/counterclockwise rotation
Power rating - 2.0 / 4.0 KW
Change Speed Transmission
No. of spindle speeds - 21
Range of spindle speeds - 40 to 4000 rpm
Speed progression factor - 1.25
Tool Changer for Vertical Spindle
Tool dia max, with all stations occupied - 80 mm
Both adjacent locations free - 100 mm
Max tool length from spindle nose - 300 mm
No of tools - 20
Spindle taper - ST ISO No 40 (M16) [Std
Taper No 40 with metric
draw–in thread, 16 mm dia]
Table Slide
Max load on table slide - 800 kg

The applications of the machine include machining of workpiece of high weight.

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DECKEL MAHO MH600 C
(Horizontal Spindle Milling Machine with Vertical Spindle Attachment)

Technical Data
Traversing Range
X – axis - 600 mm
Y – axis - 450 mm
Z – axis - 450 mm
Control System
Philips CNC 532 Control
Work Spindle
Tool mounting - ISO 40
Spindle Speeds and Feed Rates
Work spindle speeds, directly programmable - 20 to 6300 rpm
Feed rates, directly programmable along X, Y, Z axes - 1 to 6000 mm/min
Tool Change and Tool Magazine
Magazine stations - 30
Tool shank - ISO 40
Tool dia max, with all stations occupied - 130 mm
Both adjacent locations free - 80 mm
Max tool length (from spindle nose) - 250 mm
Max tool weight - 10 kg
Electrical
Voltage - 380 V for 3 phase
Frequency - 50 Hz

The NC rotary table can be used for program controlled table rotation.

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HARDINGE CONQUEST T42 CNC LATHE

Specifications
Control system - GE Fanuc 18T
Spindle run out - 1 micron
Max capacity - Dia 220 mm
Distance between centres - 400 mm
No of turret -1
No of tools on turret - 12
Live tools -6
Spindle indexing - 2 1/2°
Controllable axes - 2 (X and Z axes)
Machine cost - 54 lakhs

The standard Conquest machines have a 12 station turret top plate. The special feature
of this machine is Live Tooling. It is designed to perform machining such as milling,
drilling and tapping on work piece locations not parallel or not in line with the spindle
centerline. Programming the live tooling is accomplished by means of five special M
Codes used for standard machining.

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HARDINGE SUPERSLANT CNC LATHE

Specifications
Control system - GE Fanuc 6T
Spindle run out - 0.5 micron
Max capacity - Dia 220 mm
Distance between centres - 400 mm
No. of turrets -2
No. of tools on each turret -8
Live tools - 4 (in top turret)
Controllable axes - 4 (X and Z axes in 2 turrets)
Additional features - Part catcher conveyor for
chip removal (scrap type)
Machine cost - 36 lakhs

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MIKRON UCP 710 5 – AXIS MACHINE

Technical Data
Distance of Traverse
X – axis - 800 mm
Y – axis - 650 mm
Z – axis - 500 mm
Control
Heidenhain iTNC 530
Spindle Version 12000 rpm
Spindle speed - 50 to 12000 rpm
Power - 16 KW at 44% CD,
12 KW at 100% CD
Lubrication - Grease
Max tool projection
Upto 1000 rpm - 350 mm
Upto 4000 rpm - 250 mm
Upto 10000 rpm - 200 mm
Tool Changer TC 30
Magazine positions - 30 with firm position coding
Tool retention - ISO 40
Tool diameter - φ90 mm if completely
occupied and φ140 mm if
partially occupied
Max tool length - 300 mm without taper
Max tool weight - 8 kg
Max weight of all tools - 180 kg in the drum magazine
Tool change time - Appr. 9 seconds

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The machine is designed as a travelling slide machine. All three linear movements are
executed with the tool. The three axes unit consists of a cross – slide for the X movement,
transverse slide for Y movement and the spindle slide for Z movement. The three basic
axes X, Y, Z are driven by maintenance free AC servomotors via ballscrews, which
provide an outstanding feed performance.
The machine is equipped with an NC rotary tilt table with digitally controlled drives
in the shape of the fourth and fifth axes. The axes can be traversed individually or
simultaneously. In addition, both axes can be clamped hydraulically in any position and
independently of each other. Clamping takes place by means of the hydraulic unit of the
machine. Both axes are driven by AC motor. In the tool magazine, the tools are kept in
position by means of spring loaded jaws.

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HMT – KTM 1000 CNC HORIZONTAL MACHINING CENTRE

Specifications
Range of Axes Travel
Longitudinal – X axis (Table) - 1750 mm
Vertical – Y axis (Spindle) - 1300 mm
Depth – Z axis (Column) - 1000 mm
B – axis - 360° (continuous)
Control System
Siemens 840D
Feed Rates
Linear axes – X, Y, Z axes - 1 to 7000 mm/min
Rotary axis - 1440° / min
Spindle
Drive - 15 KW (20 HP) AC motor
Speeds - 10 to 3600 rpm
Tapping speed range - 20 to 1000 rpm
Nose - ISO 45 taper
Draw bolt - Spring clamped, hydraulically
unclamped
Automatic Tool Changer and Magazine
Capacity - 60 tool storage
Tool weight - 15 kg max
Tool length - 400 mm
Tool size - 90 mm dia max (160 mm dia
max with adjacent pockets
empty)

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Table
Overall table work surface - 1000 x 1000 mm square
rounded to 1250 mm dia
Max overall table load - 1800 kg
Accuracy
Positioning of linear axes - ± 0.009 over full travel
Repeatability of all linear axes - ± 0.005
Rotary axes positioning - 4 seconds of arc accuracy
Rotary axes repeatability - ± 5 seconds
Weight of machine - 19 tonnes appr

HMT KTM 1000 CNC machining center is a CNC controlled horizontal


spindle machining centre, which consists basically of the following units –
1. Machine
2. Control Unit
3. Hydraulic Power Supply

The machine offers three perpendicular axes motions together with a rotary
fourth axis, pallet shuttle, automatic tool selection for 60 tool magazine and an automatic
tool changer. The X axis motion is provided by the motion of the table. The Y axis
motion is provided by the vertical motion of the spindle head perpendicular to the spindle
axis. The Z axis motion is provided by the horizontal motion of the column parallel to the
spindle axis. The machine control unit is a specially designed Siemens 840D CNC
equipped with a feedback capable of controlling the four axes motions of the machine.
The table rotating in both directions and having its axis of rotation parallel to Y axis
constitutes the B axis.

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CNC PROGRAMMING

A part program is an ordered set of instructions, which define slide and spindle
motion as well as auxiliary functions. These functions are written in a part language
consisting of a series of data blocks. Each data block contains adequate in formations for
the machine tool to perform one or more machine functions. The basic unit for part
program is the Block. Normally one line or block information represents one describable
operation or several describable operations that are independent of each other.
The block and the program have the following configuration:
N0000 G00 X00.0 Y000.0 M00 S00 T00 ;
Sequence Preparatory Dimension Misc. Spindle Tool End of
Number: Function word function Function Function Block

G Codes for GE FANUC 18 – T Control System


G00 – Positioning - This command generates linear motion on one or axes (X, Y or Z
axes) from current position to programmed end points at a rate determined by the %
Rapid Override switch.
G01 – Linear Interpolation - This command generates linear motion on one or more axes
(X, Y or Z axes) from the current position to the programmed end points at a rate
specified by a feedrate command in the same block or by an active feedrate from a
preceding block.
G02 – Clockwise Arc Interpolation - This command is used with I and K words (arc
centre offset) or R word (radius) to provide the necessary qualifying dimensions of the
arc. The path is traced by the tool for clockwise arc.
G03 – Counterclockwise Arc Interpolation - This command is used with I and K words
(arc centre offset) or R word (radius) to provide the necessary qualifying dimensions of
the arc. The path is traced by the tool for counterclockwise arc.
G04 – Dwell - The dwell command must be programmed with X, U or P word to specify
the duration of the dwell in seconds. It does not generate axis motion. E.g. :- G04 X2.5,

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G04 U2.5, G04 P2500 (P word gives dwell duration in milliseconds, since decimal point
programming cannot be used with P word).
G20 – Inch Data Input - Inch mode allows the programmer to program in inch units.
G21 – Metric Data Input - Metric mode allows the programmer to program in metric
units.
G40 – Cancel TNRC – The TNRC cancel command, when programmed in a block by
itself, cancels tool compensation.
Other G codes that are most commonly used are:
G41 – TNRC – Workpiece right of tool
G42 – TNRC – Workpiece left of tool
G65 – Macro call
G70 – Automatic finishing cycle
G71 – Automatic rough turning cycle
G72 – Automatic rough facing cycle
G73 – Automatic rough pattern repeat cycle
G74 – Automatic drilling cycle
G76 – Automatic threading cycle
G80 – Cancel face machining cycle
G81 – Single pass face drilling cycle
G84 – Face tapping cycle
G98 – Inches / Millimeters per minute feedrate
G99 – Inches / Millimeters per revolution feed rate

M Codes
M00 – Program Stop - The program stop function stops the program, stops the spindle
and turns the coolant off. This function can be used for gauging and end – for – ending
the workpiece.
M01 – Optional Stop - This function performs the same function as M00, if the optional
stop push button on the control panel has been activated before the block containing the
M01 is read by the control. This function is useful when it is necessary to gauge the
workpiece during setup.

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M02 – End of Program - The end of program function indicates the end of program and
is usually found in the last block programmed
M03 – Main Spindle Forward - The main spindle forward command causes the spindle
to run in the forward direction at the programmed spindle speed (S word).
M04 – Main Spindle Reverse - The main spindle reverse command causes the spindle to
run in the reverse direction at the programmed spindle speed (S word).
M08 – Coolant On - The coolant on command turns the coolant pump on.
M09 – Coolant Off - The coolant off command turns the coolant pump off.
M30 – End of Program - The end of program command indicates the end of a program
and is usually found in the last block programmed. It stops the spindle, turns the coolant
off and rewinds the program to its beginning.
M98 – Subprogram Call - The subprogram call must be in the main part program block,
which activates a subprogram. It is programmed with a P word, which specifies a
subprogram number.
G Codes (FAGOR AUTOMATION)
G00 – Positioning (M)
G01 – Linear interpolation
G02 – Clockwise circular helical interpolation (M)
G03 - Counterclockwise circular helical interpolation (M)
G04 – Dwell, duration programmed by means of K word
G05 – Round corner (M)
G06 – Circular interpolation with absolute centre coordinates
G40 – Cancellation of radius compensation (M)
G41 – Left hand radius compensation (M)
G42 – Right hand radius compensation (M)
G43 – Length compensation (M)
G44 – Cancellation of length compensation (M)
G70 – Programming in inches (M)
G71 – Programming in millimeters (M)
G81 – Drilling canned cycle (M)
G82 – Drilling canned cycle with dwell (M)

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G83 – Deep drilling canned cycle (M)
G90 – Programming with absolute coordinates (M)
G91 – Programming with incremental coordinates (M)
G94 – Feedrate F in mm/min (inches/min) (M)
G95 – Feedrate F in mm/rev (inches/rev) (M)
(M) – Modal
Modal means that once the G functions have been programmed, they remain active
until cancelled by another G function, which is incompatible.

General Program Format


Beginning of Program
% Stop code (EOR)
O------- Letter ‘O’ and the program number
G20 or G21 Inch or metric mode

Beginning of Operation
N----- (-----) Sequence search number and
message
G97 S1000 M13 or M14 1000 rpm and spindle direction
T-------- Index to tool station and call offset
X----- Z------ Move tool to activate tool offset

If using CSS
G50 S----- Max rpm limit
G96 S----- Surface feet (meters)/ Mt speed

If using TNRC
G01 G41 or G42 X---- Z---- F100 TNRC, Non–cutting move reqd
RPM feedrate
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
G01 G99 X---- Z---- F----- Machine part, inches (mm) / rev
feed
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
X----- (and / or) Z----- Clear part by 3 times the tool tip dia
M98 P1 or M98 P2 Call safe OD or ID, end subprogram
M01 Operation stop

Program Ending
M30 Rewind program – stop machine
% Stop code
Bar Job

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Use the repeat mode push button on the operator’s panel.

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