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Height and Distance

itroduction

(Hi) c o t e :

1. Angle
I f a straight line O A rotates about the point ' O ' called
r-e vertex from its initial position to the new position O A ' .
Then the angle A O A ' , denoted as Z A O A ' , is formed. The
aigle may be positive or negative depending up on their
rotation. I f the straight line rotates in anticlockwise direction
i positive angle is formed and i f it rotates in clockwise direc-on a negative angle is formed. A n angle is measured in
:egree ().
1 Quadrants
Let X ' O X and Y O Y ' be two lines perpendicular to
:h other. The point ' O ' is called the origin, the line X ' O X is
lied X axis and Y O Y ' is called the Y axis. These two lines
ide the plane into 4 parts. Each part is called a Q U A D W T . The part X O Y , Y O X ' , X ' O Y ' and Y ' O X are respecs\y known as 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants.
Angle of Elevation
I f an object A ' is above the horizontal line O A we
ave to move our eyes in upward direction through an angle
KOA' then the angle A O A ' is called the angle of elevation.
I. Angle of Depression
I f an object O is below the horizontal line A ' O ' and
*e are standing on the point A ' then we have to move our
i>es in downward direction through an angle O ' A ' O . This
ingle O ' A ' O is called the angle of depression.
5. Trigonometric Ratio

(iv) t a n 0 =

tan0

sin 9
cos 6

COS0

(v) cot9 =
'
sin 9

(vi) cos 9 + s i n 9 = 1
2

(vii) 1 + t a n 9 = s e c 9
2

(viii) cot 9 + 1 = cosec 9

6. Values of the trigonometric ratios for some useful angles

4- Ratio/Angle(9)-+
sine

0
0

cos 6

1.

tan 6

sec 9

30
1
2
s
2
1

2
73
2

cosec6
cote

45
1
&
1
V2
1
J5
42
1

CO

60
S
2
1
2
s
' ''2''

2 ^L
s
1

90"
1
0
00 -

CO

Rule 1
Problems Based on Pythagoras Theorem
Phythagoras Theorem => h

=p

+b

(see the figure)

Let A B C be a right angled triangle. Also let the length


: : the sides BC, A C , and A B be a, b and c respectively. Then
AC
1) The ratio

perpendicular
hypotenuse

BC

base

a
= = cosS

2) The ratio
hypotenuse

3) The ratio

AC
- perpendicular _ b _

\nd also remember that


(i) c o s e c 0 =

b
.
= = sm6

1
sin0

base

Illustrative Example
Ex:

The father watches his son flying a kite from a distance o f 80 metres. The kite is at a height o f 150 metres
directly above the son. H o w far is the kite from the
father?

Soln:

Distance o f the kite from the father = FK

(ii) sec 9 =

COS0

624

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS
to be 60. Find the height o f the flagpost.
Soln:

Detail Method: A B = height o f flagpost = x m


In

AABD

tan 60 =

AB
BD

BD

(FKf=(FSf {SKf
+

I*9

[From the above theorem]


.-. FK = V ( l 5 0 ) + ( 8 0 )
2

mm

....(i)

AB
tan 4 5 = BD + DC

= 170 metres.

+ 30 = x

Exercise
1.

The father watches his son f l y i n g a kite from a distance


o f 3 k m . The kite is at a height o f 4 k m directly above the

,
7lm

have
the required height o f the flagpost
30 x tan 4 5 x tan 60
tan 6 0 - t a n 4 5
30x^3x1

Answers

VJ-l

2.a

30V3

7 1 m.

0.732

Note: 1. The angle o f elevation o f a lamppost changes from

Rule 2

9, to 9

Theorem: A man wishes to find the height of a flagpost


which stands on a horizontal plane, at a point on this plane
he finds the angle of elevation of the top of the flagpost to

when a man walks towards it. I f the height

o f the lamppost is H metres, then the distance trav7 / ( t a n 9 - tan 9 ^


2

elled by man is given by


be 9, . On walking x units towards the tower he finds
corresponding

0.732
Quicker Method: A p p l y i n g the above theorem, we

The father watches his son f l y i n g a kite from a distance


o f 10 metres. The kite is at a height o f 24 metres directly
above the son. H o w far is the kite from the father?
a) 26 m
b)28m
c)25m
d) Data inadequate

l.a

V3"

son. H o w far is the kite from the father?


a) 5 k m
b) 1 k m
c) 7 k m
d) None o f these
2.

30V3

= 30

the

tan 9,. tan 9

metres.
2

2. I f the time for w h i c h man walks towards lamppost is


given a s ' t ' sec then speed o f the man can be calculated b y the formula given below.

angle of elevation to be 9 * Then the height


2

x tan 9, t a n 0 ,
(H) of the flagpost is given by

tan9

-tan0,

units and

the value of DB (See the figure given below) is given by


.tan 9,
tan0, - t a n 0

t a n 9 - tan 9,

tan 9,. tan 9

Speed o f the man =


Ex:

m/sec
2

The angle o f elevation o f a lamppost changes from


30 to 60 w h e n a man walks towards it. I f the height

units.

o f the lamppost is l oV3

metres, find the distance

travelled b y man.
Soln:

A p p l y i n g the above theorem, we have


r-f
the distance travelled by m a n

10V3 V J - ^ =
VJx-L

Illustrative Example
Ex:

A man wishes to find the height o f a flagpost w h i c h


stands on a horizontal plane; at a point on this plane
he finds the angle o f elevation o f the top o f the
flagpost to be 45. O n w a l k i n g 30 metres towards the
tower he finds the corresponding angle o f elevation

= 20 metres.

Exercise
1.

The angle o f elevation o f a lamppost changes from 30"


to 6 0 when a man walks 20 m towards it. What is the
height o f the lamppost?

MATHS

Height and Distance

625

a)8.66m
b)10m
c) 17.32m
d)20m
A man is watching from the top o f a tower a boat speeding away from the tower. The boat makes an angle o f
depression o f 45 with the man's eye when at a distance
of 60 metres from the tower. After 5 seconds, the angle
of depression becomes 3 0 . What is the approximate
speed o f the boat, assuming it is running in still water?
[SBI Associates P O E x a m , 1999]
a)32km/hr b ) 4 2 k m / h r c)38km/hr d ) 3 6 k m / h r
A man stands at a point P and marks an angle o f 30 with
the top o f the tower. He moves some distance towards
tower and makes an angle o f 6 0 with the top o f the
tower. What is the distance between the base o f the
tower and the point P?
[ B S R B Hyderabad P O Exam, 1999]
a) 12 units
op& units
c) 4^/3 units

d) Data inadequate

The pilot o f a helicopter, at an altitude o f 1200 m finds


that the two ships are sailing towards it in the same
direction. The angles o f depression o f the ships as observed from the helicopter are 6 0 and 4 5 respectively.
Find the distance between the two ships,
a) 407.2 m
b)510m
c) 507.2 m d) Data inadequate
I f the elevation o f the sun changed from 3 0 to 60, then
the difference between the lengths o f shadows o f a pole
15 m high, made at these two positions is
.
a) 7.5 m

b)15m

15
d ) ^ m

c) 10V3

The angles o f elevation o f an aeroplane flying vertically


above the ground as observed from two consecutive
stones 1 km apart are 4 5 and 6 0 . The height o f the
aeroplane above the ground in k m is
.
A/3+1
a)

km

b)

3 + V3

km

9.

I f from the top o f a tower 50 m high, the angles o f depression o f two objects due north o f the tower are respectively 6 0 and 4 5 , then the approximate distance between the objects is
.
a) 11m
b)21m
c)31m
d)41m
10. Two persons standing on the same side o f a tower measure the angles o f elevation o f the top o f the tower as
30 and 4 5 . I f the height o f the tower is 30 m, the distance between the two persons is approximately
a) 52 m
b)26m
c)82m
d)22m
11. I f from the top o f a c l i f f 100 m high, the angles o f depressions o f two ships out at sea are 6 0 and 3 0 , then the
distance between the ships is approximately.
a)173m
b)346m
c)57.6m
d) 115.3 m
12. The angles o f depression o f two ships from the top o f
the light house are 4 5 and 3 0 towards east. I f the ships
are 100 m apart, then the height o f the light house is

50
a)

7I7r

d)V3+lkm

b)5m

10V3
c) r - m

a) yja + b

b)

V3^1

d)50(V3+l)m

13.

The shadow o f a tower standing on a level plane is found


to be 60 m longer when the sun's attitude is 30 than
when it is 4 5 . The height o f the tower is
.
a) 81.96 m
b) 51.96 m
c) 21.96 m d) None o f these
14. Two observers are stationed due north o f a tower at a
distance o f 10 m from each other. The elevation o f the
tower observed by them are 30 and 4 5 respectively.
The height o f the tower is
.
a)5m
b)8.66m
c)13.66m
d)10m
15. A boat being rowed away from a c l i f f 150 m high. A t the
top o f the c l i f f the angle o f depression o f the boat
changes from 6 0 to 4 5 in 2 minutes. The speed o f the
boat is
.
b)1.9km/hr

c)2.4km/hr

d)3km/hr

20 x tan 60 x tan 30
. c;

Hint: Required answer =

tan 6 0 - t a n 30

20VJ
d)

I f the angles o f elevation o f a tower from two points


distant a and b (a > b) from its foot and in the same
straight line from it are 3 0 and 6 0 . Then the height o f
the tower is
(a-bp/3

Answers

A, B, C are three collinear points on the ground such


that B lies between A and C and A B = 10 m. I f the angles
of elevation o f the top o f a vertical tower at C are respectively 3 0 and 60 as seen from A and B , then the height
of the tower is

a) 5V3 m

c)5o(V3-l)m

a)2km/hr
c)3 + 7 3 k m

50

20 m

>D

= 10V3 =17.32 m
2

626

2. a;

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS
5c;

.xx tan 3 0

Hint: 60 =

Hint:

tan 4 5 - t a n 3 0

60 x 1
or,

X :

15 =

60 m

xm

x x tan 60 x tan 3 0
tan 6 0 - t a n 3 0

s.

tan 6 0 - t a n 30

.'. x = 15 x

6 0 x 0 . 7 3 2 metres

tan 60 x tan 3 0

,
60x0.732x18
.
,
.-. reqd speed =
= 31.62 32 km/hr
5x5
3.d;

= 15

A/3 x

V3-- l =^
l

H i n t : Here we use the f o r m u l a B D (ie C B ) =

tan 6 0 - t a n 4 5

"+
C

1 km

?
lxlxV3

Here neither the value o f C B nor the values o f x and


height o f the tower are given. Hence, required distance cannot be found.
4. c; Hint:
A

- \i

+ \+

km

+\
10 x tan 60 tan 3 0

7. a; Hint: Height

tan 6 0 - t a n 3 0

1200 m

xm
1200 =

10m

x t a n 6 0 x tan 4 5
tan 6 0 - t a n 4 5

x = 1200

I x t a n 4 5 x t a n 60

6. b; Hint: Height ( H ) =

xtanG,
tan 9 - tan 8,

1 5

'

tan 6 0 - t a n 4 5
tan 60 x tan 4 5

10xV3x-j== 12

- ^

- 1

5 m

= 1200 - 400V3 = (l 200 - 400 x 1.732) = 507.2 m

b ;

i n t : Height - ( - )

tan 6 0 - t a n 3 0
q

= 10V3m.

627

Height and Distance

200V3

V3

= 100

= 115.3 m

V3x-4= .

V3 J
tan 45 x tan 30
12. d; Hint: Required height ( H ) = 100|
a m

tan 4 5 - t a n 30

tan 6 0 - t a n 4 5
9. b; Hint: Required distance (x) -

tan 60 x tan 4 5
A

100 m
1
100

100!
1

100

VJ-i

V3+1

= 5o(V3+l) m

13. a; Hint:

10. d; Hint: Required distance =

tan 4 5 x tan 30
A

30 m
60 m
tan 4 5 x tan 30
Required height ( H ) =

tan 4 5 - t a n 30

60x-=xl

1:30

6 0

V3"

= 30(V3-l)*

11. d; Hint: Required distance (x) = 100|

2 2 m

!__L

" V3-1

tan 60 - t a n 3 0
tan 60 x tan 30

60

A/3+1

VJ-l

V3+1

= 3o(V3+l)

: 3 0 x 2 . 7 3 2 = 81.96 m
100 m

14. c
tan 6 0 - t a n 4 5
15. b; Hint:

tan 6 0 x tan 4 5

xl50

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

628

a) 100m

c) 50V3 m

b)50m

A small boy is standing at some distance from a flagpost.


When he sees the flag the angle o f elevation formed is
45. I f the height o f the flagpost is 10 ft, what is the
distance o f the child from the flagpost?

150 m

10
a)
= 63.4

.-. speed o f the b o a t

ft

c)10V3ft

d) None o f these

30. I f the height o f the flagpost is 24^/3 ft. what is the


distance o f the child from the flagpost?

km/hr

1000

b) 10

When he sees the flag the angle o f elevation formed is

60
X

'
ft

A small boy is standing at some distance from a flagpost.

distance covered in 2 minutes = 63.4 m


63.4

d)300m

a)24ft

1.9km/hr.
4.

Rule 3

25-\/3

b)48ft
m

c)72ft

d) 24>/3 ft

from the foot o f a c l i f f on level ground, the

Theorem: A small boy is standing at some distance from a

angle o f elevation o f the top o f a c l i f f is 3 0 . Find the

flagpost. When he sees theflag the angle of elevation formed

height o f this cliff.

is 9 . If the height of the flagpost is 'H' units, then the

a) 25 m

H
distance of the child from the flagpost is

t a n

go

c) 25A/3

d) None o f these

45 m from the foot o f a c l i f f on level ground, the angle o f


elevation o f the top o f a c l i f f is 6 0 . Find the height o f
this cliff.

units.

Illustrative Example
EK

b)75m

45
a ) ^ m

A small boy is standing at some distance from a

b) 45-^3 m c ) 1 3 5 m

d) None o f these

flagpost. When he sees the flag the angle o f elevation formed is 60. I f the height o f the flagpost is 30 ft,

Answers

what is the distance o f the child from the flagpost?


Soln:

AB
BC
Detail Method: = tan 6 0
-1/5
or, -V3

H
l.a;

H i n t : 100V3 m

tan 30

3 0

H
30 f t
100 71m
1
.-. H = 1 0 0 V 3 x t a n 3 0 = 100V3x-_L, = 100
or,gC =

^ f
X

x l Q

= 10V3ft

2.b

Quicker Method: A p p l y i n g the above theorem, we


have
\
the required distance
J _ 3 0 _
tan 60

V 3 x ^ x l O

V3

'

100A/3

4. a

5. b

Rule 4
Theorem: The angles of elevation of top and bottom of a
flag kept on a flagpost from 'x'units
9

2 0

distance are 8 , and

respectively. Then (i) the height of the flag is given by

[x(tan9| - t a n 9 ) ] units and (ii) the height of the flagpost is

Exercise
1-

3.c

from the foot o f a c l i f f on level ground, the

angle o f elevation o f the top o f a c l i f f is 3 0 . Find the


height o f this cliff.

//tan9
given by

tan 9, - t a n 9

units, where h = height of the


1

flag ie x ( t a n 0 , - t a n 9 ) .
2

629

Height and Distance


respectively. What is the height o f the flag?
a)2o(V3-l)m

b)45(V3+l)m

c) 45(A/3 - 1 ) m

d) None o f these

Answers
1. b;
Note:

Hint: Required height = 72(tan 6 0 - tan 4 5 )

I f the height o f the flag is not given then, we can


calculate the height o f the flagpost directly by the
formula given below,
Height o f the flagpost = ( x t a n G ) units.
2

Illustrative Example
Ex:

The angles o f elevation o f top and bottom o f a flag


kept on a flagpost from 30 metres distance are 45 and
30 respectively. What is the height o f the flag?

Soln:

72 m

= 72[73-l] = 7 2 x 0 . 7 3 2 = 52.7 m
2.d

3.c

50 m

Detail Method: tan 4 5

Rule 5
Theorem: 'x' units of distance from the foot of a cliff on
level ground, the angle of elevation of the top of a cliff b
0 , then the height of the cliff is (x tan 0 ) units.

Illustrative Example
Ex:

300 m from the foot o f a c l i f f on level ground, the


angle o f elevation o f the top o f a c l i f f is 30. Find the
height o f this cliff.
Soln: Detail Method: Let the height o f the c l i f f A B be x m .
tan 30 =

BC

In

o r ,5 rC- - - ^
3

30

AABC
A

30
Height o f flag AB = 30 = 30 - 1 0 V J
V3
= 3 0 - 1 7 . 3 2 = 12.68m
Quicker Method: A p p l y i n g the above theorem, we
have
the required height = 3 0 ( t a n 4 5 - t a n 3 0 )
= 30 1 -

300 m

= 12.68 metres.

tan 30 =

AB
BC

300

Exercise
1.

2.

.-. x = ^ = 100V3 =173.20w


V3

A n observer standing 72 m away from a building notices


that the angles o f elevation o f the top and the bottom o f
a flagstaff on the building are respectively 6 0 and 4 5 .
The height o f the flagstaff is
.
a) 124.7 m
b) 52.7 m
c) 98.3 m
d) 73.2 m
The angles o f elevation o f top and bottom o f a flag kept
on a flagpost from 10 metres distance are 60 and 30
respectively. What is the height o f the flag?
10
a) 20fi

b)

c) 10^3 m

20
d) j m

Quicker Method: A p p l y i n g the above theorem, we


have
the required height o f the c l i f f = 300 * tan 30
= 300 x 4 - = 173.20m.
V3

Exercise
1.

3.

The angles o f elevation o f top and bottom o f a flag kept


on a flagpost from 45 metres distance are 60 and 4 5

The shadow of a building is 20 m long when the angle o f


elevation o f the sun is 6 0 . Find the height o f the building.

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

630

) 20A/2

b) 20A/3

20
c) ^
m d) Data inadequate

Required height ( H ) = 20 * t a n 6 0 - 20A/3 m


2.c;

2.

I f a vertical pole 6 m high has a shadow o f length 2 A/3


m, find the angle o f elevation o f the sun.
a) 30

3.

Hint: 6 = 2A/3xtan0

b)45

c)60

or,

6.
tan 6 :
- ^TJ" - ^

"

.-. 9 = tan" A/3 = 6 0


1

d)90

A ladder leaning against a vertical wall makes an angle

3.b;

Hint: ,45 = 3 tan 4 5 = 3m

o f 45 with the ground. The foot o f the ladder is 3 m from


the wall. Find the length o f the ladder.

a)242

b)3A/2m

4.

c)5m

d) 3^3 m

The ratio o f the length o f a rod and its shadow is 1 : fi


The angle o f elevation o f the sun is
a) 30

5.

b)45

c)60

3 m

d)90

a) 30

b)45

c)60

4. a;

d)90

fi +3
2

=3A/2 m

Hint: Let A B be the rod and A C be its shadow.


Let ZACB

= 0

Let AB=x.

Then, AC =

The angle o f elevation o f a tower from a distance 100 m


from its foot is 3 0 . Height o f the tower is

a) 100A/3 m
7.

.-. AC =

The angle o f elevation o f a moon when the length o f the


shadow o f a pole is equal to its height, is

6.

100
b) ^
m

.
200

c)

sofi

d)

AB

tan 9 =

AC

fix

fix

V3

The altitude o f the sun at any instant is 6 0 . The height


o f the vertical pole that w i l l cast a shadow o f 30 m is

5. b;

30
a) 3 0 v 3 m

.-. 6 = tan" - J = = 3 0
V3

b)15m

<1)15A/2 m

a )

41

b)50A/3m

c)25m

.-.9 = t a n " 1 = 4 5 -

50

tan G

x
,, , tan0 = - = l

When the sun is 3 0 above the horizontal, the length o f


shadow cast by a building 50 m high is

Hint: x=

6. b;

100
Hint: Required height = 100 * tan30 = ^y=" m

7. a;

Hint: Required height = 3 0 x t a n 6 0 = 30A/3 m

8. b;

Hint: 50 = x x t a n 3 0

d) 25A/3 m

A straight tree breaks due to storm and the broken part


bends so that the top o f the tree touches the ground
making an angle o f 3 0 w i t h the ground. The distance
from the foot o f the tree to the point where the top touches
the ground is 10 metres. The height o f the tree is
a) l o ( V 3 + l ) im

b) 10A/3 m

or, x

.
9.b:

50

50

tan 30

1/V3

10
Hint:/!C = 10xtan30 = - p , m
A/3

10
c) 1 0 ( A / 3 - l ) m

d )

50A/3 m

fi

Answers
l b ; Hint:

AB =
20 m

10

20

+
IV3J

A/3

Height and Distance

631
have
the required height

.-. height o f the tree = A B ( A D ) + A C


20
10
30
, tz
= - = + - = r = - 7 = = 10V3 m
V3
V3
V3
n

Rule 6
Theorem: The horizontal distance between two towers is
'x' units. The angle of depression of the first tower when

= 1 6 0 - 5 0 V 3 x t a n 3 0 = 1 6 0 - 5 0 V 3 x 4 = = l 10 m
V3

Exercise
1.

A person o f height 2 m wants to get a fruit which is on a

10

seen from the top of the second tower is 0 .

__

pole o f h e i g h t m . I f h e stands at a distance o f ^

(i) If the height of the second tower is ' _y, ' units then the
height of the first tower is given by (y, - JC tan 8 ) units.
(ii) If the height of thefirst tower is given as ' y ' units then
2

the height of the second tower is given by ( y + x tan 0 ) .

2.

p >
3.

B
2nd tower

1st t o w e r

Answers

Illustrative Example
Ex:

from the foot o f the pole, then the angle at which he


should throw the stone, so that it hits the fruit is
.
a) 15
b)30
c)45
d)60
The distance between two multi-storeyed buildings is
60 m . The angle o f depression o f the top o f the first
building as seen from the top o f the second building,
which is 150 m high is 30. The height o f the first building is
a) 115.36 m
b) 117.85 m
c) 125.36 m
d) 128.34 m
The heights o f two poles are 80 m and 62.5 m . I f the line
j o i n i n g their tops makes an angle o f 4 5 with the horizontal, then the distance between the poles is
.
a) 17.5 m
b) 56.4 m
c) 12.33 m
d)44m

The h o r i z o n t a l distance between t w o towers is


50i/3 m . The angle o f depression o f the first tower

Lb;

10
4
Hint: 2m = y ~ ~ ^ 7 j

.
t a n e

when seen from the top o f the second tower is 30. I f


the height o f the second tower is 160 m, find the height

V3

o f the first tower.


Soln:

10
3

or, t a n 0 x
3

Detail Method: Let A B be the tower 160m high.


= - =
or itan0a =' x
3
4
fi
4

50j3~m

Let C D be another tower o f height x m


Since, A M || PC
150 m

.-. angle M A C = angle A C P = 30


So, in AAPC
tan 30 =

AP

PC

AP
50fi

60 m

.-. A P = 5 0 m
.*. the height o f the other tower
= A B - A P = 160-50= HOm.
Quicker Method: A p p l y i n g the above theorem, we

Height o f the first building (h) = 150 - 60 tan 3 0


= 1 5 0 - 2 0 A / 3 =115.36 m m
3.a;

Hint: 62.5= 8 0 - Y t a n 4 5 1

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

632

In

AABP

t a n 6 0 = = -=>x
BP
y
80 m

In

62.5

= yfi

...(>)

ACDP

tan 30 =

CD
DP

120-y

=> xJ3

= 1 2 0 - y ....(ii)

Combining equations ( i ) and ( i i ) , we get

\ J C = 8 0 - 6 2 . 5 = 17.5 m

vVJVJ = 1 2 0 - y

Rule 7

=> 3 y = 1 2 0 - y => y = 3 0 m

Theorem: Two poles of equal heights stand on either sides


of a roadway which is x units wide. At a point of the roadway between the poles, the elevations of the tops of the pole

Quicker Method: A p p l y i n g the above theorem, we

are 6 , and Q , then the

have

So, from equation (i), x = y VJ = 30\/3 * 52m

(i) heights of the


(ii) position
x tan 0

poles

of the point

xtanO, t a n 0

tan 6, + t a n 0

P from

\20xfix~

units and the


( i ) height o f the p o l e

B (see the figure)

^ - = 30V3 mand
3

tan0, + t a n 0

units, and the position of the point

Pfrom

120x
/> =

= 30 m.

(ii) position o f the point P from B

fi
Exercise
1.

Here, AB = CD = Height of the poles.

2.

Illustrative Example
Ex.

Soln:

Two poles o f equal heights stand on either sides o f a


roadway which is 120 m wide. A t a point on the roadway between the poles, the elevations o f the tops o f
the pole are 60 and 30. Find the heights o f the poles
and the position o f the point.
Detail Method: Let A B and C D be two poles = x m
and P the point on the road.
Let BP = y m; then PD = ( 1 2 0 - y ) m
A
C

Two poles o f equal heights are standing opposite to


each other on either side o f a road, which is 30 m wide.
From a point between them on the road, the angles o f
elevation o f the tops are 3 0 and 60. The height o f each
pole is
.
a)4.33m
b)6.5m
c)13m
d)15m
Two poles o f equal heights stand on either sides o f a
roadway which is 20m wide. A t a point on the roadway
between the poles, the elevations o f the tops o f the pole
are 4 5 and 30. Find the heights o f the poles.
20
a )

V3-1

b) 2o(VJ-l)m
m

c) 10(V3-l) m
3.

d) None o f these

Two poles o f equal heights stand on either sides o f a


roadway which is 50 m wide. A t a point on the roadway
between the poles, the elevations o f the tops o f the pole
are 6 0 and 45. Find the heights o f the poles,
a) 31.69 m
b) 32.96 m
c) 31.96 m

d) Data inadequate

Answers
30 x tan 30 x tan 60
1. c; Hint: Required height (h) =

tan 60 + t a n 30

633

Height and Distance


BC

3000->>
,
- - \
CD
x
.-. ;c = 3 0 0 0 - y
..-(ii)
Combining (i) and ( i i ) we get
tan 4 5 =

3000

=>

SOOO-y

3000x0.732

y = 3000 1 -

J_

= 12.975 m
2.c

* 1268m

1.732

73"

Q u i c k e r M e t h o d : A p p l y i n g the above formula, we

=7.5x1.732

have
13 m

the required answer

3000 1 - -

tan 60

3.a

Rule 8

tan 45

3000

a 1268m

Consider the following figure,

Exercise

1.

A vertical tower stands on a horizontal plane and is surmounted by a flagstaff o f height 7 m. A t a point on the
plane, the angle o f elevation o f the bottom o f the flagstaff is 3 0 and that o f the top o f the flagstaff is 4 5 . Find
the height o f the tower.

7V3
In this figure, 8! and 8

To find A B we have following formula,


AC

1-

tan8

a)

are given. A C is given.


2.

tan 8,

Illustrative Example
Lv

Soln:

A n aeroplane when 3000 m high passes vertically


above another at an instant when the angles o f elevation at the same observing point are 60 and 45 respectively. H o w many metres lower is one than the
other?
Detail M e t h o d : Let A and B be two aeroplanes, A at a
height of3000 m from C and B y m lower than A . Let D
be the point o f observation, then angle A D C = 60
and angle B D C = 4 5
LetDC=xm
In AACD
tan 60 =

AC

3000

CD
3000
x=

....(i)

Again, in A B C D

3.

73"-

m b )

VTI

m c )

V3^T

7V3
m d )

V3"" T

A n aeroplane when 1500 m high passes vertically above


another at an instant when the angles o f elevation at the
same observing point are 60 and 30 respectively. How
many metres lower is one than the other?
a) 1200 m
b) 1000 m
c)800m
d) 1050 m
A n aeroplane when 1000 m high passes vertically above
another at an instant when the angles o f elevation at the
same observing point are 45 and 30 respectively. How
many metres lower is one than the other?
a) 442.6 m
b) 424.6 m
c) 482.6 m
d) 444.6 m

Answers
1. a;

H i n t : A p p l y i n g the given rule, we have


the whole height (ie tower + flagstaff)

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

634

.-. height o f the tower (h) =

-7 =

since =
AC

4^-7

-\

= 102x = 90m
17

have

2.b

17

Quicker M e t h o d : A p p l y i n g the above formula we

VJ-i

=>AB = ACx~

the required answer =


m

=
_ x 102 = 90 metres.
Vl5 +8
2

3. a

Exercise

Rule 9

1.

The length o f a string between a kite and a point on the


ground is 85 m. I f the string makes an angle 8 with the

See the following figure


A

level ground such that tan 8 = , how high is the kite,


8
when there is no slack in the string?

2.

a) 78.05 m

b)75m

c) 316 m

d) Data inadequate

The length o f a string between a kite and a point on the


ground is 25 m. I f the string makes an angle a with the

In this figure, A C = x

4
level ground such that a = , how high is the kite?

tan0 = b

a) 20 m

then,

b)15m

c)24m

d)16m

The length o f a string between a kite and a point on the


(0

AB2+

ground is 65 m. I f the string makes an angle a with the

and

4a b

12
level ground such that a = , how high is the kite?
(ii)

BC =

a) 60 m

J a +b
2

b)40m

c)35m

d)25m

Answers
Illustrative Example
Ex:

The length o f a string between a kite and a point on

1. b;

Hint: Required answer

the ground is 102 m. I f the string makes an angle a

the kite?
Soln:

Detail Method: C is the point on the ground and the


15

r x 8 5 = 75

Vl5 +8
2

2. a
_ 15
with the level ground such that <X - , how high is
8

15
;

3.a

Rule 10
Theorem: The angles of depression of two ships from
top of a lighthouse are 8,

and

8 . If the ships are 'x'


2

metres apart, then the

length o f the string C A = 102 m and a


8

(i) height of the lighthouse is given by

xtan6, tan8

tan 8, + t a n 8

(ii) distance ofship at Pfrom thefoot of the lighthouse is


xtan6
given by

tan8, + t a n 8 ,

(Hi) distance of ship at Qfrom


So, sin a

IS

17

tan 8, + t a n 2 J
0

In AABC

metres and

the

the foot of lighthouse is

xtan8.
given by

the

metres.

635

Height and Distance


M

120 x tan 30
the required answer

tan 4 5 + t a n 3 0
'20
1 + V3

*,
* 44 metres.

Exercise
1.

From the top o f a c l i f f ] 00\/3

high the angles o f de-

pression o f two boats which are due south o f observer

Illustrative Example
EK

are 60 and 30. Find the distance between the two boats.

The angles o f depression o f two ships from the top o f

a) 400 m

a lighthouse are 4 5 and 30. I f the ships are 120 m


2.

apart, find the height o f the lighthouse.


Soln:

b)250m

c) 200^3 d) 400^3 m

A landmark on a river bank is observed from two points

Detail M e t h o d : Let A B , the height o f the lighthouse =

A and B on the opposite bank o f the river. The lines o f

xm

sight make equal angles ( 4 5 ) with the bank o f the river.

yV

30

I f A B = 1 k m , then the width o f the river is

4 5

1
a) 2 km

, 3V2
c) km

b) - km
2

d) km
2
;

The angles o f elevation o f the top o f a tower 40 m high


X

from t w o points on the level ground on its opposite


sides are 4 5 and 6 0 . The distance between the two
points in nearest metres is
4 5 ( \

a)60m

b)61m

.
c)62m

d)63m

Two boats approach a light house in mid-sea from oppo-

B
120
120 m

site directions. The angles o f elevation o f the top o f the

Since M N || PQ

light house from the t w o boats are 3 0 and 4 5 respec-

.-. angle M A P = angle A P B == 3 0 and angle

tively. I f the distance between the two boats is 100 m,


the height o f the light to house is

N A Q = angle A Q B = 4 5

a) 36.6 m

Let the length between P and B be y m.


So, the length between B and Q is (120 - y ) m .

b) 73.2m

Answers

In A A B P
tan 30 =

J_

AB

BP
U

y = xfi

c) 136.6m

la;

H i n t 100V3

x tan 6 0 x tan 30

y
....(i)

Again, in AABQ
tan 45 =
120->>

BQ
=> x = 1
izu-y
20-y

(ii)

Combining equations (i) and ( i i ) , we get


x =

\20-xfi

or, x(l + V3")=120

x =

120

f tan 6 0 + tan 30
,-. .x = 100V3|
' [ t a n 6 0 x tan 30

44m

1 + V3
Q u i c k e r M e t h o d : A p p l y i n g the above theorem, we
have

= 100A/3

fi_ = 400 m

d)68.3m

PRACTICE BOOK ON QUICKER MATHS

636
b;

Hint:
Pf'fdmark)

River Bank

and the tower is given by

tan P - tan a

units and (Hi) RM


y

/itana
units.

(Seetheflgure)-^_

xma

Note:

I f height o f the tower is given as ' H ' units, then the


distance between the building and the tower is giver.
H
by

River Bank

r7 units.
tanp

1 km
Required width (PO)

1 x tan 45 x tan 45

lxlxl

3. d;

i 4 5 4 tan 4 5
Hint: Required dis.zuce (x)

1
gas lcTT)

1+1

II

"tan 4 5 + t a n 6 0
tan 4 5

*40

x tan 6 0
B

Illustrative Example
Ex:

From the top and bottom o f a building o f height 11'.


metres, the angles o f elevation o f the top o f a toweare 30 and 45 respectively. Find the height o f the
tower.

Soln:

A p p l y i n g the above theorem, we have

40 n \
60\

/V
5

' l +VT

120 x tan 4 5
the height o f the tower =

40 * 63 m

100 x tan 4 5 x tan 30


4. a;

Hint: Required height ( h )

120

tan 4 5 + t a n 30
1-

tan 4 5 - t a n 30

120x1.732
.732

* 284 metres

fi

Exercise
1.

= 5o(V3-l) =

5 0 x 0 . 7 3 2 = 36.6 m

2.

Rule 11
Thoerem: From the top and bottom of a building of height
h units, the angles of elevation of the top of a tower are a
and P respectively, then the (i) height of the tower is given
by

/?tanp

tan P - tan a

units, (ii) distance between the building

3.

A tower is 30 m high. A n observer from the top o f tr*


tower makes an angle o f depression o f 6 0 at the base I
a building and angle o f depression o f 4 5 at the top o f
the building, what is the height o f the building? A > :
find the distance between building and tower.
10
a) 12.6m, ^ j m

b) 12.6m, 17.3m

c) 12 m , io-y/3 m

d) Data inadequate

The top o f a 15 metre-high tower makes an angle of elevation o f 6 0 with the bottom o f an electric pole anc x
angle o f elevation o f 3 0 with the top o f the pole. W :m
is the height o f the electric pole?
[SBI Bank P O Exam, 1 fA
a)5m
b)8m
c)10m
d)12m
From the top o f a building 30 m high, the top and bon:
o f a tower are observed to have angles o f depress m
3 0 and 4 5 respectively. The height o f the tower

637

Height and Distance

b) 3 o ( V 3 - l ) m

a) 15(l + V3") m

3. d;

1
+ -^Jin

d ) 330!
0 ^ 1 - - ) = - 1;
d)

H i n t : Here, we have to find h = ?


30

From the foot o f a tower the angle o f elevation o f the top


o f a column is 60 and from the top o f the tower which is
25 m high, the angle o f elevation is 30. The height o f the
column is
.
a) 37.5 m

b) 42.5 m

c) 43.3 m

30 m

d) 14.4 m
H is given = 30

Answers
: b; Hint: Here, a = 4 5 and P = 6 0

a = 3 0 and P = 4 5
Now, applying the given rule, we have

45,
60

30 =

/?xtan45
tan 4 5 - t a n 30

H=30m
tan 4 5 - t a n 3 0

.-. h = 30]

h=?

Man 60

25 x tan 6 0

tan 6 0 - t a n 4 5

.. h =

tan 4 5
4. a; Hint: Required height o f the column (H)

N o w applying the given rule,


3

30

" tan 6 0 - tan 30

tan 6 0 - t a n 4 5

x 3 0 = 30

12.6 m

tan 6 0
h = height o f the building.
H

Distance between the building and the tower


=

30

tan 60

= ^

25 m

60

[See Note o f the given rule]

= 10V3 =17.3 m

25V3

- i
c;

Hint: 1 5 =

10^3 = 17.3

"73

/i(tan 6 0 )

\00j3 d)

100
m

From the top o f a c l i f f 25 m high the angle o f elevation o f


a tower is found to be equal to the angle o f depression
o f the foot o f the tower. Find the height o f the tower.
a) 50 m
b)75m
c)60m
d) Data inadequate
3. In a rectangle, i f the angle between a diagonal and a side
is 3 0 and the length o f diagonal is 6 cm, the area o f the
rectangle is
.

15x
_ 15x(tan60-tan30)
tan 6 0

c)

2.
15 m

:.h =

A balloon is connected to a meteorological station by a


cable o f length 200 m, inclined at 6 0 to the horizontal.
Find the height o f balloon from the ground. Assuming
that there is no slack in the cable.
200
a) 200V3 m b ) ^ = m

tan 6 0 - t a n 3 0
A

= 37.5 m

Miscellaneous
1.

30

75

3-1

Note: The distance between building and tower can also be


found by using the given rule ( i i ) ,
.-. required distance
30

25x3

a) 9 c m

V3

4.

b) 9^3 c m

c)27cm

d)36cm

The length o f a string between a kite and a point on the

PRACTICE BOOK ON QUICKER MATHS

638

5.

ground is 90 m. The string makes an angle of 60 with the


level ground. I f there is no slack in the string, the height
o f the kite is
.

above a lake is 3 0 and the angle o f depression o f its


reflection in the lake is 6 0 , then the height o f the clouc
above the lake, is

a) 9 0 V J m

a) 200 m

7.

c)180m

d)45m

From the top o f a pillar o f height 20 m, the angles o f


elevation and depression o f the top and bottom o f another pillar are 3 0 and 4 5 respectively. The height o f
the second pillar (in metres) is
a

6.

b) 4 5 ^ 3 m

2 0

(f-'>

c)ioV3"

b)io

a )

8.

9.

10.

2V2"

kfi

Then, BC = 200 m and Z A C B = 60


AB
V3
Then = sin 60 = BC
2
AB
73
' 2 O T T

3000 m, the speed o f the plane in km per hour is


.
a)304.32
b) 152.16
c)527
d)263.5
A man on a c l i f f observes a fishing trawler at an angle o f
depression o f 30 which is approaching the shore to the
point immediately beneath the observer with a uniform
speed. 6 minutes later, the angle o f depression o f the
trawler is found to be 60. The time taken by the trawler
to reach the shore is
.
i

b) ^3

nun

c) 1.5 min

3 )

b)

2. a;

"I AB=100V3

Hint: Let A B be the c l i f f and C D be the tower. Then


AB = 25m
p
From B draw
BE1CD

a) 20 m
b) 28.28 m
c) 14.14 m
d)40m
The angle o f elevation o f an aeroplane from a point on
the ground is 45. After 15 second's flight, the elevation
changes to 3 0 . I f the aeroplane is flying at a height o f

Hint: Let B be the balloon and A B be the vertica:


height.

Let C be the meteorological station and CB be the


cable.

d)

Br^ 2

Let Z E B D = Z A C B = a

Now,

DE
AB
= tana and = tana

DE
AB
= So,DE = A B [ v B E = A C ]
.'. C D = C E + D E = A B + A B = 2 A B = 50 m
3.b;

H i n t : L e t A B C D be the r e c t a n g l e

in whic'r

ZBAC = 3 0 and A C = 6 cm

d) 3 min

11. A flagstaff o f height (1/5) o f the height o f a tower is


mounted on the top o f the tower. I f the angle o f elevation of the top o f the flagstaff as seen from the ground is
45 and the angle o f elevation o f the top o f the tower as
seen from the same place is 6 , then the value o f tan 6 is

12.

1. c;

The banks o f a river are parallel. A swimmer starts from a


point on one o f the banks and swims in a straight line
inclined to the bank at 4 5 and reaches the opposite
bank at a point 20 m from the point opposite to the starting point. The breadth o f the river is
.

a) 3 V3

d) None of these

ot/M

k
c

c)30m

Answers

V3
V3
The angles o f elevation o f the top o f a tower from two
points distant 30 m and 40 m on either side from the base
and in the same straight line with it are complementary.
The height o f the tower is
.
a) 34.64 m
b) 69.28 m
c) 23.09 m
d) 11.54 m
Two posts are k metres apart and the height o f one is
double that o f the other. I f from the middle point o f the
line joining their feet, an observer finds the angular elevations o f their tops to be complementary, then the
height (in metres) o f the shorter post is
.
b)

b)500m

AB

AB

5V3
6

c)
''6

d)
~' 5

I f the angle o f elevation o f a cloud from a point 200 m

BC

1
= sin30 = - :
AC
2

BC
BC = 3 cm

eight and Distance

639

.-. Area o f the rectangle = ABxBC


b;

= 9-^3 c m

or, AB = Vl200 = 2 o V 3 =(20xl.732)m = 34.64m

Hint: Let K be the position o f the kite and HK be the


string so that

7. a;

Hint: Let

and C D be the two posts such that AB =

2 CD. Let M be the midpoint o f CA. Let ZCMD = 9

and ZAMB = 9 0 - 6 .

Clearly, C M = M 4 = ^ -
Let C D = A Then, AB = 2A
HK = 9 0 m & ZAHK

= 60
Now,

= t a n ( 9 0 - 0) = cot 0
AM
D


HK

= in60 = ^

m
90
2

* Height o f the kite = 4 5 ^ 3

>

c = COt 0

=>

4 5 a / 3

4/;

=>COt0 =

Hint: Let AB and CD be two pillars in which AB = 20


m. Let BE1DC
ZDBE

Then,

= 3 0 and ZEBC

....(/)

CD

fo
= tan 0 => tan 0 =

= ZACB = 4 5

CM

Let DE = x Clearly, EC - AB = 20 m

Ah 2h
~r ~r

M u l t i p l y i n g (/') and (/'/'), we get

AC

= cot45 = l
AB

:.h

= \=> AC = 20 m

8.c;

20

= => h =

2V2

metres

Hint: Let A be the starting point and B, the end point


o f the swimmer. Then,

.-. BE = AC = 20m

DE
_
1
Now,^ =t a n 3 0 ~ ^

1
=-

20
.-. HeightofpillarCD = 2 0 + x = 2 0 +

20
= -7ym

2o(V3+l)

rj^=

AB = 20 m and ZBAC = 4 5
Hint: Let AB be the tower and C, D be the points o f
observation.
Then, AC = 30 m & AD = 40 m

Now
'

Let ZACB = 0 Then, ZADB = 9 0 - 0

xi

Now, tan 0 =

AB

AC

tan(9O-0) =

or cot 0 =

AB
30

AB

AB

AD

40

IN0W

9. c;

BC
.
" =
AB
s

n 4

...
1
= -7=
V2
5

20xV2
2

BC
=>

1
=

20

~F=

V2

= ] 4 ] 4 m

Hint: Let A and B be the two positions o f the plane


and let O be the point o f observation and OD be the
horizontal. Draw ACLOD

&

BDIOD.

AB
40

300Qm
AB

.'. tan 9 x cot 0 =

1200

PRACTICE BOOK ON QUICKER MATHS

640

Let AB = h.

Then, ZDOB = 3 0 ,
ZDOA = 4 5 &AC = BD = 3000 m.
.: = cot 30 = S
DB

=>OD = (3000 x

= cot 4 5 = 1 => OC = 3000


AC

S) m

Distance covered in 15 sec = AB = CD =

OD-OC
Then, BC = h Let O be the observer.
5

= (3000V3 - 3000) M = 2196 m

Then, ZAOC

= 4 5 and Z/4<3B = 9 .

.-. Speed o f the plane


Now,
'2196

1
) Q

x 60 x 60 I

k m

= cot45 = l

0/4
h + -h
5

/ h r = 527 km/hr

10. d; Hint: Let AB be the c l i f f and C and D be the two


positions o f the fishing trawler.

.-. tan 6 =
04 = - / j
5
12. d;

AB

OA ~ 6 ^ " 6

Hint: Let C be the cloud and C ' b e its reflection in th


lake.
C

Then, ZACB = 3 0 and ZADB = 60


Let AB = h
AD
Now, r - = c o t 6 0 =

And, = col30
AB

fih

= fi => AC =

f
CD = AC-

JL

AD = fih-

2h

Let u m/min be the uniform speed o f the trawler.


Distance covered in 6 m i n = 611 metres.

,
Now,

2h

= 6u :

:. CD

n
D

A
~^

AB
Now, - ^ - = t a n 3 0 = - = r = > x - 2 0 0 = =
AB
VJ
VJ

6u => h = 3A/3!(
Also,

3V3 w
=

= t a n 6 0 = V3

.
3

x + 200 = (/15)V3
Time taken by trawler to reach A

11. c;

Distance AD

3u

speed

3min.

Hint: Let AB be the tower and BC the flagstaff.

V3(x-200) =
.-. C5 = 400 m

x + 200
or,

= 400