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Original Title: Chapter 24

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(Hi) c o t e :

1. Angle

I f a straight line O A rotates about the point ' O ' called

r-e vertex from its initial position to the new position O A ' .

Then the angle A O A ' , denoted as Z A O A ' , is formed. The

aigle may be positive or negative depending up on their

rotation. I f the straight line rotates in anticlockwise direction

i positive angle is formed and i f it rotates in clockwise direc-on a negative angle is formed. A n angle is measured in

:egree ().

1 Quadrants

Let X ' O X and Y O Y ' be two lines perpendicular to

:h other. The point ' O ' is called the origin, the line X ' O X is

lied X axis and Y O Y ' is called the Y axis. These two lines

ide the plane into 4 parts. Each part is called a Q U A D W T . The part X O Y , Y O X ' , X ' O Y ' and Y ' O X are respecs\y known as 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th quadrants.

Angle of Elevation

I f an object A ' is above the horizontal line O A we

ave to move our eyes in upward direction through an angle

KOA' then the angle A O A ' is called the angle of elevation.

I. Angle of Depression

I f an object O is below the horizontal line A ' O ' and

*e are standing on the point A ' then we have to move our

i>es in downward direction through an angle O ' A ' O . This

ingle O ' A ' O is called the angle of depression.

5. Trigonometric Ratio

(iv) t a n 0 =

tan0

sin 9

cos 6

COS0

(v) cot9 =

'

sin 9

(vi) cos 9 + s i n 9 = 1

2

(vii) 1 + t a n 9 = s e c 9

2

4- Ratio/Angle(9)-+

sine

0

0

cos 6

1.

tan 6

sec 9

30

1

2

s

2

1

2

73

2

cosec6

cote

45

1

&

1

V2

1

J5

42

1

CO

60

S

2

1

2

s

' ''2''

2 ^L

s

1

90"

1

0

00 -

CO

Rule 1

Problems Based on Pythagoras Theorem

Phythagoras Theorem => h

=p

+b

: : the sides BC, A C , and A B be a, b and c respectively. Then

AC

1) The ratio

perpendicular

hypotenuse

BC

base

a

= = cosS

2) The ratio

hypotenuse

3) The ratio

AC

- perpendicular _ b _

(i) c o s e c 0 =

b

.

= = sm6

1

sin0

base

Illustrative Example

Ex:

The father watches his son flying a kite from a distance o f 80 metres. The kite is at a height o f 150 metres

directly above the son. H o w far is the kite from the

father?

Soln:

(ii) sec 9 =

COS0

624

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

to be 60. Find the height o f the flagpost.

Soln:

In

AABD

tan 60 =

AB

BD

BD

(FKf=(FSf {SKf

+

I*9

.-. FK = V ( l 5 0 ) + ( 8 0 )

2

mm

....(i)

AB

tan 4 5 = BD + DC

= 170 metres.

+ 30 = x

Exercise

1.

o f 3 k m . The kite is at a height o f 4 k m directly above the

,

7lm

have

the required height o f the flagpost

30 x tan 4 5 x tan 60

tan 6 0 - t a n 4 5

30x^3x1

Answers

VJ-l

2.a

30V3

7 1 m.

0.732

Rule 2

9, to 9

which stands on a horizontal plane, at a point on this plane

he finds the angle of elevation of the top of the flagpost to

2

be 9, . On walking x units towards the tower he finds

corresponding

0.732

Quicker Method: A p p l y i n g the above theorem, we

o f 10 metres. The kite is at a height o f 24 metres directly

above the son. H o w far is the kite from the father?

a) 26 m

b)28m

c)25m

d) Data inadequate

l.a

V3"

a) 5 k m

b) 1 k m

c) 7 k m

d) None o f these

2.

30V3

= 30

the

metres.

2

given a s ' t ' sec then speed o f the man can be calculated b y the formula given below.

2

x tan 9, t a n 0 ,

(H) of the flagpost is given by

tan9

-tan0,

units and

.tan 9,

tan0, - t a n 0

t a n 9 - tan 9,

Ex:

m/sec

2

30 to 60 w h e n a man walks towards it. I f the height

units.

travelled b y man.

Soln:

r-f

the distance travelled by m a n

10V3 V J - ^ =

VJx-L

Illustrative Example

Ex:

stands on a horizontal plane; at a point on this plane

he finds the angle o f elevation o f the top o f the

flagpost to be 45. O n w a l k i n g 30 metres towards the

tower he finds the corresponding angle o f elevation

= 20 metres.

Exercise

1.

to 6 0 when a man walks 20 m towards it. What is the

height o f the lamppost?

MATHS

625

a)8.66m

b)10m

c) 17.32m

d)20m

A man is watching from the top o f a tower a boat speeding away from the tower. The boat makes an angle o f

depression o f 45 with the man's eye when at a distance

of 60 metres from the tower. After 5 seconds, the angle

of depression becomes 3 0 . What is the approximate

speed o f the boat, assuming it is running in still water?

[SBI Associates P O E x a m , 1999]

a)32km/hr b ) 4 2 k m / h r c)38km/hr d ) 3 6 k m / h r

A man stands at a point P and marks an angle o f 30 with

the top o f the tower. He moves some distance towards

tower and makes an angle o f 6 0 with the top o f the

tower. What is the distance between the base o f the

tower and the point P?

[ B S R B Hyderabad P O Exam, 1999]

a) 12 units

op& units

c) 4^/3 units

d) Data inadequate

that the two ships are sailing towards it in the same

direction. The angles o f depression o f the ships as observed from the helicopter are 6 0 and 4 5 respectively.

Find the distance between the two ships,

a) 407.2 m

b)510m

c) 507.2 m d) Data inadequate

I f the elevation o f the sun changed from 3 0 to 60, then

the difference between the lengths o f shadows o f a pole

15 m high, made at these two positions is

.

a) 7.5 m

b)15m

15

d ) ^ m

c) 10V3

above the ground as observed from two consecutive

stones 1 km apart are 4 5 and 6 0 . The height o f the

aeroplane above the ground in k m is

.

A/3+1

a)

km

b)

3 + V3

km

9.

I f from the top o f a tower 50 m high, the angles o f depression o f two objects due north o f the tower are respectively 6 0 and 4 5 , then the approximate distance between the objects is

.

a) 11m

b)21m

c)31m

d)41m

10. Two persons standing on the same side o f a tower measure the angles o f elevation o f the top o f the tower as

30 and 4 5 . I f the height o f the tower is 30 m, the distance between the two persons is approximately

a) 52 m

b)26m

c)82m

d)22m

11. I f from the top o f a c l i f f 100 m high, the angles o f depressions o f two ships out at sea are 6 0 and 3 0 , then the

distance between the ships is approximately.

a)173m

b)346m

c)57.6m

d) 115.3 m

12. The angles o f depression o f two ships from the top o f

the light house are 4 5 and 3 0 towards east. I f the ships

are 100 m apart, then the height o f the light house is

50

a)

7I7r

d)V3+lkm

b)5m

10V3

c) r - m

a) yja + b

b)

V3^1

d)50(V3+l)m

13.

to be 60 m longer when the sun's attitude is 30 than

when it is 4 5 . The height o f the tower is

.

a) 81.96 m

b) 51.96 m

c) 21.96 m d) None o f these

14. Two observers are stationed due north o f a tower at a

distance o f 10 m from each other. The elevation o f the

tower observed by them are 30 and 4 5 respectively.

The height o f the tower is

.

a)5m

b)8.66m

c)13.66m

d)10m

15. A boat being rowed away from a c l i f f 150 m high. A t the

top o f the c l i f f the angle o f depression o f the boat

changes from 6 0 to 4 5 in 2 minutes. The speed o f the

boat is

.

b)1.9km/hr

c)2.4km/hr

d)3km/hr

20 x tan 60 x tan 30

. c;

tan 6 0 - t a n 30

20VJ

d)

distant a and b (a > b) from its foot and in the same

straight line from it are 3 0 and 6 0 . Then the height o f

the tower is

(a-bp/3

Answers

that B lies between A and C and A B = 10 m. I f the angles

of elevation o f the top o f a vertical tower at C are respectively 3 0 and 60 as seen from A and B , then the height

of the tower is

a) 5V3 m

c)5o(V3-l)m

a)2km/hr

c)3 + 7 3 k m

50

20 m

>D

= 10V3 =17.32 m

2

626

2. a;

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

5c;

.xx tan 3 0

Hint: 60 =

Hint:

tan 4 5 - t a n 3 0

60 x 1

or,

X :

15 =

60 m

xm

x x tan 60 x tan 3 0

tan 6 0 - t a n 3 0

s.

tan 6 0 - t a n 30

.'. x = 15 x

6 0 x 0 . 7 3 2 metres

tan 60 x tan 3 0

,

60x0.732x18

.

,

.-. reqd speed =

= 31.62 32 km/hr

5x5

3.d;

= 15

A/3 x

V3-- l =^

l

tan 6 0 - t a n 4 5

"+

C

1 km

?

lxlxV3

height o f the tower are given. Hence, required distance cannot be found.

4. c; Hint:

A

- \i

+ \+

km

+\

10 x tan 60 tan 3 0

7. a; Hint: Height

tan 6 0 - t a n 3 0

1200 m

xm

1200 =

10m

x t a n 6 0 x tan 4 5

tan 6 0 - t a n 4 5

x = 1200

I x t a n 4 5 x t a n 60

6. b; Hint: Height ( H ) =

xtanG,

tan 9 - tan 8,

1 5

'

tan 6 0 - t a n 4 5

tan 60 x tan 4 5

10xV3x-j== 12

- ^

- 1

5 m

b ;

i n t : Height - ( - )

tan 6 0 - t a n 3 0

q

= 10V3m.

627

200V3

V3

= 100

= 115.3 m

V3x-4= .

V3 J

tan 45 x tan 30

12. d; Hint: Required height ( H ) = 100|

a m

tan 4 5 - t a n 30

tan 6 0 - t a n 4 5

9. b; Hint: Required distance (x) -

tan 60 x tan 4 5

A

100 m

1

100

100!

1

100

VJ-i

V3+1

= 5o(V3+l) m

13. a; Hint:

tan 4 5 x tan 30

A

30 m

60 m

tan 4 5 x tan 30

Required height ( H ) =

tan 4 5 - t a n 30

60x-=xl

1:30

6 0

V3"

= 30(V3-l)*

2 2 m

!__L

" V3-1

tan 60 - t a n 3 0

tan 60 x tan 30

60

A/3+1

VJ-l

V3+1

= 3o(V3+l)

: 3 0 x 2 . 7 3 2 = 81.96 m

100 m

14. c

tan 6 0 - t a n 4 5

15. b; Hint:

tan 6 0 x tan 4 5

xl50

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

628

a) 100m

c) 50V3 m

b)50m

When he sees the flag the angle o f elevation formed is

45. I f the height o f the flagpost is 10 ft, what is the

distance o f the child from the flagpost?

150 m

10

a)

= 63.4

ft

c)10V3ft

d) None o f these

distance o f the child from the flagpost?

km/hr

1000

b) 10

60

X

'

ft

63.4

d)300m

a)24ft

1.9km/hr.

4.

Rule 3

25-\/3

b)48ft

m

c)72ft

d) 24>/3 ft

a) 25 m

H

distance of the child from the flagpost is

t a n

go

c) 25A/3

d) None o f these

elevation o f the top o f a c l i f f is 6 0 . Find the height o f

this cliff.

units.

Illustrative Example

EK

b)75m

45

a ) ^ m

b) 45-^3 m c ) 1 3 5 m

d) None o f these

flagpost. When he sees the flag the angle o f elevation formed is 60. I f the height o f the flagpost is 30 ft,

Answers

Soln:

AB

BC

Detail Method: = tan 6 0

-1/5

or, -V3

H

l.a;

H i n t : 100V3 m

tan 30

3 0

H

30 f t

100 71m

1

.-. H = 1 0 0 V 3 x t a n 3 0 = 100V3x-_L, = 100

or,gC =

^ f

X

x l Q

= 10V3ft

2.b

have

\

the required distance

J _ 3 0 _

tan 60

V 3 x ^ x l O

V3

'

100A/3

4. a

5. b

Rule 4

Theorem: The angles of elevation of top and bottom of a

flag kept on a flagpost from 'x'units

9

2 0

Exercise

1-

3.c

height o f this cliff.

//tan9

given by

tan 9, - t a n 9

1

flag ie x ( t a n 0 , - t a n 9 ) .

2

629

respectively. What is the height o f the flag?

a)2o(V3-l)m

b)45(V3+l)m

c) 45(A/3 - 1 ) m

d) None o f these

Answers

1. b;

Note:

calculate the height o f the flagpost directly by the

formula given below,

Height o f the flagpost = ( x t a n G ) units.

2

Illustrative Example

Ex:

kept on a flagpost from 30 metres distance are 45 and

30 respectively. What is the height o f the flag?

Soln:

72 m

= 72[73-l] = 7 2 x 0 . 7 3 2 = 52.7 m

2.d

3.c

50 m

Rule 5

Theorem: 'x' units of distance from the foot of a cliff on

level ground, the angle of elevation of the top of a cliff b

0 , then the height of the cliff is (x tan 0 ) units.

Illustrative Example

Ex:

angle o f elevation o f the top o f a c l i f f is 30. Find the

height o f this cliff.

Soln: Detail Method: Let the height o f the c l i f f A B be x m .

tan 30 =

BC

In

o r ,5 rC- - - ^

3

30

AABC

A

30

Height o f flag AB = 30 = 30 - 1 0 V J

V3

= 3 0 - 1 7 . 3 2 = 12.68m

Quicker Method: A p p l y i n g the above theorem, we

have

the required height = 3 0 ( t a n 4 5 - t a n 3 0 )

= 30 1 -

300 m

= 12.68 metres.

tan 30 =

AB

BC

300

Exercise

1.

2.

V3

that the angles o f elevation o f the top and the bottom o f

a flagstaff on the building are respectively 6 0 and 4 5 .

The height o f the flagstaff is

.

a) 124.7 m

b) 52.7 m

c) 98.3 m

d) 73.2 m

The angles o f elevation o f top and bottom o f a flag kept

on a flagpost from 10 metres distance are 60 and 30

respectively. What is the height o f the flag?

10

a) 20fi

b)

c) 10^3 m

20

d) j m

have

the required height o f the c l i f f = 300 * tan 30

= 300 x 4 - = 173.20m.

V3

Exercise

1.

3.

on a flagpost from 45 metres distance are 60 and 4 5

elevation o f the sun is 6 0 . Find the height o f the building.

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

630

) 20A/2

b) 20A/3

20

c) ^

m d) Data inadequate

2.c;

2.

m, find the angle o f elevation o f the sun.

a) 30

3.

Hint: 6 = 2A/3xtan0

b)45

c)60

or,

6.

tan 6 :

- ^TJ" - ^

"

1

d)90

3.b;

the wall. Find the length o f the ladder.

a)242

b)3A/2m

4.

c)5m

d) 3^3 m

The angle o f elevation o f the sun is

a) 30

5.

b)45

c)60

3 m

d)90

a) 30

b)45

c)60

4. a;

d)90

fi +3

2

=3A/2 m

Let ZACB

= 0

Let AB=x.

Then, AC =

from its foot is 3 0 . Height o f the tower is

a) 100A/3 m

7.

.-. AC =

shadow o f a pole is equal to its height, is

6.

100

b) ^

m

.

200

c)

sofi

d)

AB

tan 9 =

AC

fix

fix

V3

o f the vertical pole that w i l l cast a shadow o f 30 m is

5. b;

30

a) 3 0 v 3 m

.-. 6 = tan" - J = = 3 0

V3

b)15m

<1)15A/2 m

a )

41

b)50A/3m

c)25m

.-.9 = t a n " 1 = 4 5 -

50

tan G

x

,, , tan0 = - = l

shadow cast by a building 50 m high is

Hint: x=

6. b;

100

Hint: Required height = 100 * tan30 = ^y=" m

7. a;

8. b;

Hint: 50 = x x t a n 3 0

d) 25A/3 m

bends so that the top o f the tree touches the ground

making an angle o f 3 0 w i t h the ground. The distance

from the foot o f the tree to the point where the top touches

the ground is 10 metres. The height o f the tree is

a) l o ( V 3 + l ) im

b) 10A/3 m

or, x

.

9.b:

50

50

tan 30

1/V3

10

Hint:/!C = 10xtan30 = - p , m

A/3

10

c) 1 0 ( A / 3 - l ) m

d )

50A/3 m

fi

Answers

l b ; Hint:

AB =

20 m

10

20

+

IV3J

A/3

631

have

the required height

20

10

30

, tz

= - = + - = r = - 7 = = 10V3 m

V3

V3

V3

n

Rule 6

Theorem: The horizontal distance between two towers is

'x' units. The angle of depression of the first tower when

= 1 6 0 - 5 0 V 3 x t a n 3 0 = 1 6 0 - 5 0 V 3 x 4 = = l 10 m

V3

Exercise

1.

10

__

(i) If the height of the second tower is ' _y, ' units then the

height of the first tower is given by (y, - JC tan 8 ) units.

(ii) If the height of thefirst tower is given as ' y ' units then

2

2.

p >

3.

B

2nd tower

1st t o w e r

Answers

Illustrative Example

Ex:

should throw the stone, so that it hits the fruit is

.

a) 15

b)30

c)45

d)60

The distance between two multi-storeyed buildings is

60 m . The angle o f depression o f the top o f the first

building as seen from the top o f the second building,

which is 150 m high is 30. The height o f the first building is

a) 115.36 m

b) 117.85 m

c) 125.36 m

d) 128.34 m

The heights o f two poles are 80 m and 62.5 m . I f the line

j o i n i n g their tops makes an angle o f 4 5 with the horizontal, then the distance between the poles is

.

a) 17.5 m

b) 56.4 m

c) 12.33 m

d)44m

50i/3 m . The angle o f depression o f the first tower

Lb;

10

4

Hint: 2m = y ~ ~ ^ 7 j

.

t a n e

the height o f the second tower is 160 m, find the height

V3

Soln:

10

3

or, t a n 0 x

3

= - =

or itan0a =' x

3

4

fi

4

50j3~m

Since, A M || PC

150 m

So, in AAPC

tan 30 =

AP

PC

AP

50fi

60 m

.-. A P = 5 0 m

.*. the height o f the other tower

= A B - A P = 160-50= HOm.

Quicker Method: A p p l y i n g the above theorem, we

= 1 5 0 - 2 0 A / 3 =115.36 m m

3.a;

Hint: 62.5= 8 0 - Y t a n 4 5 1

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

632

In

AABP

t a n 6 0 = = -=>x

BP

y

80 m

In

62.5

= yfi

...(>)

ACDP

tan 30 =

CD

DP

120-y

=> xJ3

= 1 2 0 - y ....(ii)

\ J C = 8 0 - 6 2 . 5 = 17.5 m

vVJVJ = 1 2 0 - y

Rule 7

=> 3 y = 1 2 0 - y => y = 3 0 m

of a roadway which is x units wide. At a point of the roadway between the poles, the elevations of the tops of the pole

have

(ii) position

x tan 0

poles

of the point

xtanO, t a n 0

tan 6, + t a n 0

P from

\20xfix~

( i ) height o f the p o l e

^ - = 30V3 mand

3

tan0, + t a n 0

Pfrom

120x

/> =

= 30 m.

fi

Exercise

1.

2.

Illustrative Example

Ex.

Soln:

roadway which is 120 m wide. A t a point on the roadway between the poles, the elevations o f the tops o f

the pole are 60 and 30. Find the heights o f the poles

and the position o f the point.

Detail Method: Let A B and C D be two poles = x m

and P the point on the road.

Let BP = y m; then PD = ( 1 2 0 - y ) m

A

C

each other on either side o f a road, which is 30 m wide.

From a point between them on the road, the angles o f

elevation o f the tops are 3 0 and 60. The height o f each

pole is

.

a)4.33m

b)6.5m

c)13m

d)15m

Two poles o f equal heights stand on either sides o f a

roadway which is 20m wide. A t a point on the roadway

between the poles, the elevations o f the tops o f the pole

are 4 5 and 30. Find the heights o f the poles.

20

a )

V3-1

b) 2o(VJ-l)m

m

c) 10(V3-l) m

3.

d) None o f these

roadway which is 50 m wide. A t a point on the roadway

between the poles, the elevations o f the tops o f the pole

are 6 0 and 45. Find the heights o f the poles,

a) 31.69 m

b) 32.96 m

c) 31.96 m

d) Data inadequate

Answers

30 x tan 30 x tan 60

1. c; Hint: Required height (h) =

tan 60 + t a n 30

633

BC

3000->>

,

- - \

CD

x

.-. ;c = 3 0 0 0 - y

..-(ii)

Combining (i) and ( i i ) we get

tan 4 5 =

3000

=>

SOOO-y

3000x0.732

y = 3000 1 -

J_

= 12.975 m

2.c

* 1268m

1.732

73"

=7.5x1.732

have

13 m

3000 1 - -

tan 60

3.a

Rule 8

tan 45

3000

a 1268m

Exercise

1.

A vertical tower stands on a horizontal plane and is surmounted by a flagstaff o f height 7 m. A t a point on the

plane, the angle o f elevation o f the bottom o f the flagstaff is 3 0 and that o f the top o f the flagstaff is 4 5 . Find

the height o f the tower.

7V3

In this figure, 8! and 8

AC

1-

tan8

a)

2.

tan 8,

Illustrative Example

Lv

Soln:

above another at an instant when the angles o f elevation at the same observing point are 60 and 45 respectively. H o w many metres lower is one than the

other?

Detail M e t h o d : Let A and B be two aeroplanes, A at a

height of3000 m from C and B y m lower than A . Let D

be the point o f observation, then angle A D C = 60

and angle B D C = 4 5

LetDC=xm

In AACD

tan 60 =

AC

3000

CD

3000

x=

....(i)

Again, in A B C D

3.

73"-

m b )

VTI

m c )

V3^T

7V3

m d )

V3"" T

another at an instant when the angles o f elevation at the

same observing point are 60 and 30 respectively. How

many metres lower is one than the other?

a) 1200 m

b) 1000 m

c)800m

d) 1050 m

A n aeroplane when 1000 m high passes vertically above

another at an instant when the angles o f elevation at the

same observing point are 45 and 30 respectively. How

many metres lower is one than the other?

a) 442.6 m

b) 424.6 m

c) 482.6 m

d) 444.6 m

Answers

1. a;

the whole height (ie tower + flagstaff)

P R A C T I C E B O O K ON Q U I C K E R MATHS

634

-7 =

since =

AC

4^-7

-\

= 102x = 90m

17

have

2.b

17

VJ-i

=>AB = ACx~

m

=

_ x 102 = 90 metres.

Vl5 +8

2

3. a

Exercise

Rule 9

1.

ground is 85 m. I f the string makes an angle 8 with the

A

8

when there is no slack in the string?

2.

a) 78.05 m

b)75m

c) 316 m

d) Data inadequate

ground is 25 m. I f the string makes an angle a with the

In this figure, A C = x

4

level ground such that a = , how high is the kite?

tan0 = b

a) 20 m

then,

b)15m

c)24m

d)16m

(0

AB2+

and

4a b

12

level ground such that a = , how high is the kite?

(ii)

BC =

a) 60 m

J a +b

2

b)40m

c)35m

d)25m

Answers

Illustrative Example

Ex:

1. b;

the kite?

Soln:

15

r x 8 5 = 75

Vl5 +8

2

2. a

_ 15

with the level ground such that <X - , how high is

8

15

;

3.a

Rule 10

Theorem: The angles of depression of two ships from

top of a lighthouse are 8,

and

2

8

xtan6, tan8

tan 8, + t a n 8

xtan6

given by

tan8, + t a n 8 ,

So, sin a

IS

17

tan 8, + t a n 2 J

0

In AABC

metres and

the

xtan8.

given by

the

metres.

635

M

120 x tan 30

the required answer

tan 4 5 + t a n 3 0

'20

1 + V3

*,

* 44 metres.

Exercise

1.

Illustrative Example

EK

are 60 and 30. Find the distance between the two boats.

a) 400 m

2.

Soln:

b)250m

c) 200^3 d) 400^3 m

xm

yV

30

4 5

1

a) 2 km

, 3V2

c) km

b) - km

2

d) km

2

;

X

sides are 4 5 and 6 0 . The distance between the two

points in nearest metres is

4 5 ( \

a)60m

b)61m

.

c)62m

d)63m

B

120

120 m

Since M N || PQ

the height o f the light to house is

N A Q = angle A Q B = 4 5

a) 36.6 m

So, the length between B and Q is (120 - y ) m .

b) 73.2m

Answers

In A A B P

tan 30 =

J_

AB

BP

U

y = xfi

c) 136.6m

la;

H i n t 100V3

x tan 6 0 x tan 30

y

....(i)

Again, in AABQ

tan 45 =

120->>

BQ

=> x = 1

izu-y

20-y

(ii)

x =

\20-xfi

x =

120

f tan 6 0 + tan 30

,-. .x = 100V3|

' [ t a n 6 0 x tan 30

44m

1 + V3

Q u i c k e r M e t h o d : A p p l y i n g the above theorem, we

have

= 100A/3

fi_ = 400 m

d)68.3m

636

b;

Hint:

Pf'fdmark)

River Bank

tan P - tan a

y

/itana

units.

(Seetheflgure)-^_

xma

Note:

distance between the building and the tower is giver.

H

by

River Bank

r7 units.

tanp

1 km

Required width (PO)

1 x tan 45 x tan 45

lxlxl

3. d;

i 4 5 4 tan 4 5

Hint: Required dis.zuce (x)

1

gas lcTT)

1+1

II

"tan 4 5 + t a n 6 0

tan 4 5

*40

x tan 6 0

B

Illustrative Example

Ex:

metres, the angles o f elevation o f the top o f a toweare 30 and 45 respectively. Find the height o f the

tower.

Soln:

40 n \

60\

/V

5

' l +VT

120 x tan 4 5

the height o f the tower =

40 * 63 m

4. a;

120

tan 4 5 + t a n 30

1-

tan 4 5 - t a n 30

120x1.732

.732

* 284 metres

fi

Exercise

1.

= 5o(V3-l) =

5 0 x 0 . 7 3 2 = 36.6 m

2.

Rule 11

Thoerem: From the top and bottom of a building of height

h units, the angles of elevation of the top of a tower are a

and P respectively, then the (i) height of the tower is given

by

/?tanp

tan P - tan a

3.

tower makes an angle o f depression o f 6 0 at the base I

a building and angle o f depression o f 4 5 at the top o f

the building, what is the height o f the building? A > :

find the distance between building and tower.

10

a) 12.6m, ^ j m

b) 12.6m, 17.3m

c) 12 m , io-y/3 m

d) Data inadequate

The top o f a 15 metre-high tower makes an angle of elevation o f 6 0 with the bottom o f an electric pole anc x

angle o f elevation o f 3 0 with the top o f the pole. W :m

is the height o f the electric pole?

[SBI Bank P O Exam, 1 fA

a)5m

b)8m

c)10m

d)12m

From the top o f a building 30 m high, the top and bon:

o f a tower are observed to have angles o f depress m

3 0 and 4 5 respectively. The height o f the tower

637

b) 3 o ( V 3 - l ) m

a) 15(l + V3") m

3. d;

1

+ -^Jin

d ) 330!

0 ^ 1 - - ) = - 1;

d)

30

o f a column is 60 and from the top o f the tower which is

25 m high, the angle o f elevation is 30. The height o f the

column is

.

a) 37.5 m

b) 42.5 m

c) 43.3 m

30 m

d) 14.4 m

H is given = 30

Answers

: b; Hint: Here, a = 4 5 and P = 6 0

a = 3 0 and P = 4 5

Now, applying the given rule, we have

45,

60

30 =

/?xtan45

tan 4 5 - t a n 30

H=30m

tan 4 5 - t a n 3 0

.-. h = 30]

h=?

Man 60

25 x tan 6 0

tan 6 0 - t a n 4 5

.. h =

tan 4 5

4. a; Hint: Required height o f the column (H)

3

30

tan 6 0 - t a n 4 5

x 3 0 = 30

12.6 m

tan 6 0

h = height o f the building.

H

=

30

tan 60

= ^

25 m

60

= 10V3 =17.3 m

25V3

- i

c;

Hint: 1 5 =

10^3 = 17.3

"73

/i(tan 6 0 )

\00j3 d)

100

m

a tower is found to be equal to the angle o f depression

o f the foot o f the tower. Find the height o f the tower.

a) 50 m

b)75m

c)60m

d) Data inadequate

3. In a rectangle, i f the angle between a diagonal and a side

is 3 0 and the length o f diagonal is 6 cm, the area o f the

rectangle is

.

15x

_ 15x(tan60-tan30)

tan 6 0

c)

2.

15 m

:.h =

cable o f length 200 m, inclined at 6 0 to the horizontal.

Find the height o f balloon from the ground. Assuming

that there is no slack in the cable.

200

a) 200V3 m b ) ^ = m

tan 6 0 - t a n 3 0

A

= 37.5 m

Miscellaneous

1.

30

75

3-1

found by using the given rule ( i i ) ,

.-. required distance

30

25x3

a) 9 c m

V3

4.

b) 9^3 c m

c)27cm

d)36cm

638

5.

level ground. I f there is no slack in the string, the height

o f the kite is

.

reflection in the lake is 6 0 , then the height o f the clouc

above the lake, is

a) 9 0 V J m

a) 200 m

7.

c)180m

d)45m

elevation and depression o f the top and bottom o f another pillar are 3 0 and 4 5 respectively. The height o f

the second pillar (in metres) is

a

6.

b) 4 5 ^ 3 m

2 0

(f-'>

c)ioV3"

b)io

a )

8.

9.

10.

2V2"

kfi

AB

V3

Then = sin 60 = BC

2

AB

73

' 2 O T T

.

a)304.32

b) 152.16

c)527

d)263.5

A man on a c l i f f observes a fishing trawler at an angle o f

depression o f 30 which is approaching the shore to the

point immediately beneath the observer with a uniform

speed. 6 minutes later, the angle o f depression o f the

trawler is found to be 60. The time taken by the trawler

to reach the shore is

.

i

b) ^3

nun

c) 1.5 min

3 )

b)

2. a;

"I AB=100V3

AB = 25m

p

From B draw

BE1CD

a) 20 m

b) 28.28 m

c) 14.14 m

d)40m

The angle o f elevation o f an aeroplane from a point on

the ground is 45. After 15 second's flight, the elevation

changes to 3 0 . I f the aeroplane is flying at a height o f

height.

cable.

d)

Br^ 2

Let Z E B D = Z A C B = a

Now,

DE

AB

= tana and = tana

DE

AB

= So,DE = A B [ v B E = A C ]

.'. C D = C E + D E = A B + A B = 2 A B = 50 m

3.b;

H i n t : L e t A B C D be the r e c t a n g l e

in whic'r

ZBAC = 3 0 and A C = 6 cm

d) 3 min

mounted on the top o f the tower. I f the angle o f elevation of the top o f the flagstaff as seen from the ground is

45 and the angle o f elevation o f the top o f the tower as

seen from the same place is 6 , then the value o f tan 6 is

12.

1. c;

point on one o f the banks and swims in a straight line

inclined to the bank at 4 5 and reaches the opposite

bank at a point 20 m from the point opposite to the starting point. The breadth o f the river is

.

a) 3 V3

d) None of these

ot/M

k

c

c)30m

Answers

V3

V3

The angles o f elevation o f the top o f a tower from two

points distant 30 m and 40 m on either side from the base

and in the same straight line with it are complementary.

The height o f the tower is

.

a) 34.64 m

b) 69.28 m

c) 23.09 m

d) 11.54 m

Two posts are k metres apart and the height o f one is

double that o f the other. I f from the middle point o f the

line joining their feet, an observer finds the angular elevations o f their tops to be complementary, then the

height (in metres) o f the shorter post is

.

b)

b)500m

AB

AB

5V3

6

c)

''6

d)

~' 5

BC

1

= sin30 = - :

AC

2

BC

BC = 3 cm

639

b;

= 9-^3 c m

string so that

7. a;

Hint: Let

and ZAMB = 9 0 - 6 .

Clearly, C M = M 4 = ^ -

Let C D = A Then, AB = 2A

HK = 9 0 m & ZAHK

= 60

Now,

= t a n ( 9 0 - 0) = cot 0

AM

D

HK

= in60 = ^

m

90

2

>

c = COt 0

=>

4 5 a / 3

4/;

=>COt0 =

m. Let BE1DC

ZDBE

Then,

= 3 0 and ZEBC

....(/)

CD

fo

= tan 0 => tan 0 =

= ZACB = 4 5

CM

Let DE = x Clearly, EC - AB = 20 m

Ah 2h

~r ~r

AC

= cot45 = l

AB

:.h

= \=> AC = 20 m

8.c;

20

= => h =

2V2

metres

o f the swimmer. Then,

.-. BE = AC = 20m

DE

_

1

Now,^ =t a n 3 0 ~ ^

1

=-

20

.-. HeightofpillarCD = 2 0 + x = 2 0 +

20

= -7ym

2o(V3+l)

rj^=

AB = 20 m and ZBAC = 4 5

Hint: Let AB be the tower and C, D be the points o f

observation.

Then, AC = 30 m & AD = 40 m

Now

'

xi

Now, tan 0 =

AB

AC

tan(9O-0) =

or cot 0 =

AB

30

AB

AB

AD

40

IN0W

9. c;

BC

.

" =

AB

s

n 4

...

1

= -7=

V2

5

20xV2

2

BC

=>

1

=

20

~F=

V2

= ] 4 ] 4 m

and let O be the point o f observation and OD be the

horizontal. Draw ACLOD

&

BDIOD.

AB

40

300Qm

AB

1200

640

Let AB = h.

Then, ZDOB = 3 0 ,

ZDOA = 4 5 &AC = BD = 3000 m.

.: = cot 30 = S

DB

=>OD = (3000 x

AC

S) m

OD-OC

Then, BC = h Let O be the observer.

5

Then, ZAOC

= 4 5 and Z/4<3B = 9 .

Now,

'2196

1

) Q

x 60 x 60 I

k m

= cot45 = l

0/4

h + -h

5

/ h r = 527 km/hr

positions o f the fishing trawler.

.-. tan 6 =

04 = - / j

5

12. d;

AB

OA ~ 6 ^ " 6

lake.

C

Let AB = h

AD

Now, r - = c o t 6 0 =

And, = col30

AB

fih

= fi => AC =

f

CD = AC-

JL

AD = fih-

2h

Distance covered in 6 m i n = 611 metres.

,

Now,

2h

= 6u :

:. CD

n

D

A

~^

AB

Now, - ^ - = t a n 3 0 = - = r = > x - 2 0 0 = =

AB

VJ

VJ

6u => h = 3A/3!(

Also,

3V3 w

=

= t a n 6 0 = V3

.

3

x + 200 = (/15)V3

Time taken by trawler to reach A

11. c;

Distance AD

3u

speed

3min.

V3(x-200) =

.-. C5 = 400 m

x + 200

or,

= 400

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