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Composition-Lime(62)-sets quickly,Silica(22)-strength+prolong seting,Alumina(5)-weakness,CaSO4(4)-increase initial

setting,iron Oxide(3)-colour+hardness+strength,magnesia(2)-unsound if high,Sulpher,alkali(1)
Properties1)Strength to masonry,2)binding material,3)Easy workable,4)Resistance to moisture
5)Good Plasticity,6)Early stiffens+heardens
Field tests
1)Color=uniform+grey+light greenish/indicate excess lime+clay or degree of burning
2)Physical Properties=feel smooth + cool + sink + sticky
3)Presence of Lumps
Storage1)Moisture->5%,2)period of storage-air tight containers,no jute bags,3)Piles-Tarpaulins , water proof paper,300 from
wall,900 pasage,4)Quality of cement.5)Removal of cement,6)Storage sheds-water proof construction,small window shut.
1)mortar-plaster,pointing,masonry.2)concrete-floor,roof.3)bridges,dam,tunnels.4)tanks,well,septic tank,5)joints for drain
pipes,6)precast articls,7)foundation , floors,foot path,
1) Acid resistant-quartz+soluble glass,chemical industry,add 0.5% linseed oil to water resistance
2)Blast furnace - Slag(pig iron) obtained from blast furnace+clinkers of cement,less strength early,longer
curing,economical,durable but not in dry zone.
3)Colored - 5-10% coloring substance,chromium oxide-green,cobalt-blue,iron oxide-brown red yellow,manganese di oxideblack,
4)Expanding-expanding medium (sulpho aluminate)added,used for water retaining str,repairing,
5)High alumina-alumina>32%,initial setting in 3.5 hrs-final 5hrs,stand high temparature,evolve heat(resist frost+not used in
mass const),resist acid,sets quickly+attain higher strength in short time,not required to grind fine as setting by chemical
6)hydrophobic-admixtures(acidol) decrease wetting ability,thin film,less strength in initial stage,frost & water resistance
7)low heat - reduced amount of heat,less compresive strength,initial-1hr/final-10 hr
8)Pozzuolana - volcanic powder,resembles surki,attain comp strength with age,resist action of sulphates,less heat in
setting,higher water tightness,imparts plasticity
work ability, cheap,resistance to expansion,high tensile strngth,less resistance to erosion & weathering,
9)Quick setting-added aluminium sulphate+finly grinding,gypsum is reduced,setting starts in 5mnt become hard in 30
mnt,used under static or running water.
10)Rapid hardening-high strangth early,fine grinding,slightly costly,sets rapidly-speedily constn,early removal of form
work,light in wt,not damaged,loaded earlier,short curing period,economic design,
11)white cement-free from coloring oxide,oil fuel instead of coal,more costly,quick drying,high strength,aesthetic value,
Initial setting time can be understood as the time elapsed between the moment the water is added to the cement, to the
time that the paste starts losing its plasticity. This is the time interval for which the cement products remain in plastic
conditions. As such, activities such as mixing, transporting, placing, compacting & finishing should be completed within this
time period.

Final setting time can be understood as the time elapsed between the moment the water is added to the cement, to the
time when the paste has completely lost its plasticity. After placement, compaction & finishing of concrete, it is desirable
that the concrete loses its plasticity in earliest possible time so that it becomes less vulnerable to damages from external
agencies and the paste hardens and can sustain some minor load.
Both the Initial & Final setting points are arbitrary points and these are determined by Vicat needle penetration resistance.
Water-Cement Ratio
The ratio of the amount of water, exclusive of that absorbed by the aggregates, to the amount of cement in a concrete mix.
Expressed either as gallons of water per sack of cement or pounds of water per pound of cement.
Concrete mix designs have water cement ratio parametres to meet.If the ratio of water to cement is too high in a concrete
mix the compressive strength of that particular batch may be compromised.Converseley too little water will not hydrate or
activate the cement in the mix.The amount of water in the raw materials and absorbtion factors for each raw material are
taken into account when determining the actual water cement ratio of concrete.

Nominal mix and design mix of concrete

1)Nominal mixes are those proportioned by the volume of the main ingredients and usually written in order of the
ingredients thus Cement:Sand: Coarse aggregate (stone, chippings). So a 1:3:6 is a nominal mix containing 1 volume of
cement, 3 volumes of sand and 6 volumes of coarse aggregate.
2)Designed mixes on the other hand are specified as a grade the producer of the concrete has to achieve usually in terms
of compressive strength but may include other criteria (size of the stone, minimum amount of cement, flexural strength, air
content etc).
M20 ratio
M20 = 1:1.5:3
Volume = 1+1.5+3=5.5
Total volume ingredients for using =1.57
Volume of broken stone Require = (3/5.5) x 1.57 = 0.856 m3
Volume of sand Require = (1.5/5.5) x 1.57 = 0.471 m3
Volume of cement = (1/5.5) x 1.57 = 0.285 m3
= 0.285 x1440 = 411 kg
For 1m3 of M20 (1:1.5:3)
Broken stone = 0.856 m3
Sand = 0.472 m3
Cement = 8.22 bag
Grade of Cement - Grade refers to the strength of cement at 28 days, when tested as per IS: 4031-1988. If the 28 days
strength is less than 33 N/mm2, it is called 33 Grade Cement. If the 28 days strength is lies between 33 to 43 N/mm2, it is
called 43 Grade Cement. If the 28 days strength is lies between 43 to 53 N/mm2, it is called 53 Grade Cement
Grade of Cement Means minimum compressive strength of cement sandmortar cube at 28 days strength when tested as
per IS standards.
33 grade General Construction like plastering, finishing works etc, where

strenth is not reuired.

43 grade Useful for structural works, precast items etc, Strengthdevelopment is faster than 33 grade.
53 grade Used for multistory buikdings, precast prestressed items,bridges, tall structures. Develops very fast strength
and speeds up construction