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a)igneous (plutonic,hypabyssal,volcanic)(granite-dolerite-basalt)
b)sedimentary (Residual deposits,sedimentary-suspension,chemical-evaporate,organic)(gravel,sand
stone,lime stone,gypsum)
c)metamorphic (thermal,cataclastic-directed pressure,dynamo thermal,plutonic-uniform pressure)
a)Stratified(sedimentary), b) Unstratified (igneous) c) Foliated (split in definite direction-metamorphic)
a)Silicious (granite,quartzites), b) Argillaceous (slates,laterites) c) calcareous (lime stone,marbel)
With Regards,
Sonali Das

Uses of stones
1) Structure-foundation to roof
2) Face work-massive appearance
3)Paving4)Basic material-cement concrete,murum,
5)ballast for railways
6) Flux in blast furnace
Natural Bed.
a distinct plane along which stones can split up,sedimentary stone was deposited,direction to be
perpendicular to the pressure,pouring water,resist chisel.
Arches-radially, unsupported Cornice string course- vertically , walls - horizontally.
Qualities of Good Building Stone
1) Crushing Strength > 100 N/mm2 , 2) Appearance-decent,light colored stone,3)Durability,4)Facility
to dressing-economic but oppose to strength,5)Fracture-sharp,even,bright,6)Hardness(coefficient)road work>17,poor<14,7)Percentage wear-attrition test<3%(good),8)Resistance to fireargillaceous,9)Seasoning-soft due to quarry sap,easy to work,6-12mnths,10)specific gravity >
2.7,11)texture-compact fine crystalline str,12)Toughness index-impact test,not tough <13,moderately
tough 13-19,high > 19,13)Water absorption-after 24 hrs <0.6 %,14)weathering
Dressing of Stonecheap labour , shorting for diff work, easy transportation,natural bed made prominent,easily dressed
for quarry sap
1)Axed finish-granite
2)Boasted-non continuous parallel mark
3)chisel draughted margins-obtain uniform joints,
5)Dragged-soft stone surface rubbed by drag
6)Furrowed-margin sunk 20mm ,central portion 15 mm projected,10mm wide grooves,
7)Moulded-desired shape by hand or machine
8)hammer dressed
9)plain-smooth by saw or chisel
11)Punched machine-depression using punch
12)reticulated,13)rubbed,14)Scabbling finish,15)tooled , 16)Quarry faced,17)Sunk-in from of
grooves,chamfer,inclined surface,Vermiculated-Worm eaten
Causes of decay1)alternate dry wet,2)Frost,3)Impurities in atmosphere,4)living organisms,5)Movement of
chemicals.6)Nature of mortar, 7)Rain water 8)Temperature variation,9)Vegetable growth,10)Wind
Remedy of Decay
1)Compact siliceous stones,2)External rendering-plastering,3)Joints- filled,4)Natural Bed-5)Qualities
of stone,6)Seasoned Stone,7)Size of stone-large,8)Washing with water,
does not allow moisture-develop objectionable color-should resist effect of atmosphere-easily
penetrate-economical-noncorrosive & harmless-effective for time-easy application
1)coal tar,2)linseed oil-raw& boiled-lasts long,makes dark,3)Paint,4)Paraffin-alone or dissolved with
naptha,5)Solution of alumn & soap-0.75N:0.5N+water,6)Solution of baryta-solution of Ba(OH)
With Regards,
Sonali Das