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# ENCE710

## (LRFD Art. 6.10.10)

In the negative flexure regions, shear connectors shall be provided where the
longitudinal reinforcement is considered to be a part of the composite section.

Otherwise, shear connectors need not be provided in negative flexure regions, but
additional connectors shall be placed in the region of the points of permanent load
contraflexure.

n AC =
(1)

(2)

Ar f sr
Zr

nZ r
Vsr

## (LRFD Eq. 6.10.10.1.2-1)

Zr = d2 5.5 d2/2;

Qr = sc Qn

P
Qr

n=

(a)

P = Pp2 + FP2

## (LRFD Eq. 6.10.10.4.2-1)

where
Pp = min . of

Fp = Pp

0.85 f cbs t s
(LRFD Eq. 6.10.10.4.2 - 2)

Lp
R

P = PT2 + FT2

where

PT = Pp + Pn
Pn = min . of

0.45 f cbs t s

## (LRFD Eq. 6.10.10.4.2 - 7 )

(LRFD Eq. 6.10.10.4.2 - 8)
FT = PT

(b)

Ln
R

## (LRFD Eq. 6.10.10.4.2-9)

Shear Resistance, Qn

Qn

= 0.5 Asc

f c Ec Asc Fu

Qn

f c Ec

## Design Step 5.1 - Design Shear Connectors

Since the steel girder has been designed as a composite section,
shear connectors must be provided at the interface between the
concrete deck slab and the steel section to resist the interface shear.
For continuous composite bridges, shear connectors are normally
provided throughout the length of the bridge. In the negative flexure
region, since the longitudinal reinforcement is considered to be a part
of the composite section, shear connectors must be provided.

S6.10.7.4.1

## Studs or channels may be used as shear connectors. For this design

example, stud shear connectors are being used throughout the length
of the bridge. The shear connectors must permit a thorough
compaction of the concrete to ensure that their entire surfaces are in
contact with the concrete. In addition, the shear connectors must be
capable of resisting both horizontal and vertical movement between
the concrete and the steel.

S6.10.7.4.1a

A B C

7/8"

6"

3"

8"

## The following figure shows the stud shear connector proportions, as

well as the location of the stud head within the concrete deck.

5"
(Typ.)
14"

## Shear Connector Embedment

Flexure Region
A
B
C
Positive
2.875" 3.125" 5.375"
Intermediate
2.25"
3.75"
4.75"
Negative
1.00
5.00
3.50
Table 5-1 Shear Connector Embedment

5-2

## Shear Connector Layout

It is common to use several stud shear connectors per
transverse row along the top flange of the girder. The
number of shear connectors per transverse row will
depend on the top flange width. Refer to S6.10.7.4.1c
for transverse spacing requirements.

## Shear Connector Length

The stud shear connector length is commonly set such
that its head is located near the middle of the deck
slab. Refer to S6.10.7.4.1d for shear connector
embedment requirements.
The ratio of the height to the diameter of a stud shear connector must
not be less than 4.0. For this design example, the ratio is computed
based on the dimensions presented in Figure 5-1, as follows:

S6.10.7.4.1a

Heightstud = 6.0 in
Diameterstud = 0.875 in
Heightstud
Diameterstud

= 6.86

OK

## The pitch of the shear connectors must be determined to satisfy the

fatigue limit state as specified in S6.10.7.4.2 and S6.10.7.4.3, as
applicable. The resulting number of shear connectors must not be
less than the number required to satisfy the strength limit states as
specified in S6.10.7.4.4.
The pitch, p, of the shear connectors must satisfy the following
equation:
p

n Zr I
Vsr Q

## The parameters I and Q are based on the short-term composite

section and are determined using the deck within the effective flange
width.

5-3

S6.10.7.4.1b

n = 3

4

I = 66340.3 in

S6.10.3.1.1b

## ( 8.0 in) ( 103.0 in)

Q =
( 62.375 in 50.765 in)
8

Q = 1195.8 in

## In the positive flexure region, the maximum fatigue live load

shear range is located at the abutment. The factored value is
computed as follows:
Vsr = 0.75 ( 41.45 K + 5.18 K)
Vsr = 34.97 K
(see live load analysis computer run)
2

Zr = d

5.5 d
2

N = 82125000

S6.10.7.4.2
(see Design Step 3.14 at location
of maximum positive flexure)

= 0.626
d = 0.875 in
5.5 d
2

d = 0.48
Therefore,
p =

n Zr I
Vsr Q

Zr = 2.11 K
p = 10.04 in

5-4

= 2.11

S6.6.1.2.5

n = 3

## In the negative flexure region, the parameters I and Q may

be determined using the reinforcement within the effective
flange width for negative moment, unless the concrete slab
is considered to be fully effective for negative moment in
computing the longitudinal range of stress, as permitted in
S6.6.1.2.1. For this design example, I and Q are assumed
to be computed considering the concrete slab to be fully
effective.
4

I = 130196.1 in

SC6.10.7.4.1b

## ( 8.0 in) ( 103.0 in)

Q =
( 64.250 in 46.702 in)
8

Q = 1807.4 in

## Vsr = 0.75 ( 0.00 K + 46.53 K)

Vsr = 34.90 K
(see Table 3-1 and live load analysis computer run)
5.5 d
Zr = d
2
2

Zr = 2.11 K
p =

n Zr I
Vsr Q

S6.10.7.4.2
(see previous computation)
p = 13.07 in

## Therefore, based on the above pitch computations to satisfy the

fatigue limit state, use the following pitch throughout the entire girder
length:
p = 10 in

5-5

## Shear Connector Pitch

The shear connector pitch does not necessarily have
to be the same throughout the entire length of the
girder. Many girder designs use a variable pitch, and
this can be economically beneficial.
However, for this design example, the required pitch
for fatigue does not vary significantly over the length of
the bridge. Therefore, a constant shear connector
pitch of 10 inches will be used.
In addition, the shear connectors must satisfy the following pitch
requirements:
p 24 in

S6.10.7.4.1b

OK

p 6d
d = 0.875 in

6 d = 5.25 in

OK

## For transverse spacing, the shear connectors must be placed

transversely across the top flange of the steel section and may be
spaced at regular or variable intervals.

S6.10.7.4.1c

Stud shear connectors must not be closer than 4.0 stud diameters
center-to-center transverse to the longitudinal axis of the supporting
member.
4 d = 3.50 in
Spacingtransverse = 5.0 in

## (see Figure 5-1)

OK

In addition, the clear distance between the edge of the top flange and
the edge of the nearest shear connector must not be less than 1.0
inch.
Distanceclear =

14in
d
(see Figure 5-1)
5in
2
2

Distanceclear = 1.56 in

OK

The clear depth of concrete cover over the tops of the shear
connectors should not be less than 2.0 inches, and shear connectors
should penetrate at least 2.0 inches into the deck. Based on the
shear connector penetration information presented in Table 5-1, both
of these requirements are satisfied.
5-6

S6.10.7.4.1d

For the strength limit state, the factored resistance of the shear
connectors, Qr, is computed as follows:

S6.10.7.4.4

Qr = sc Qn

S6.10.7.4.4a

sc = 0.85

S6.5.4.2

## The nominal shear resistance of one stud shear connector

embedded in a concrete slab is computed as follows:

S6.10.7.4.4c

2

Asc =

d
4

Asc = 0.601 in

S5.4.2.1

Ec = 3834 ksi

S5.4.2.4

Fu = 60.0 ksi

S6.4.4

## 0.5 0.601 4.0 3834 = 37.21 K

0.601 60.0 = 36.06 K
Therefore,

Qn = 36.06 K

Qr = sc Qn
Therefore,

Qr = 30.65 K

## The number of shear connectors provided between the section of

maximum positive moment and each adjacent point of 0.0 moment
or between each adjacent point of 0.0 moment and the centerline of
an interior support must not be less than the following:
n =

S6.10.7.4.4a

Vh
Qr

The total horizontal shear force, Vh, between the point of maximum
positive moment and each adjacent point of 0.0 moment is equal to
the lesser of the following:
Vh = 0.85 f' c b ts
or
Vh = Fyw D tw + Fyt bt tt + Fyc bf tf

5-7

S6.10.7.4.4b

where

b = 103.0 in

ts = 8.0 in

Fyw = 50 ksi

D = 54 in

tw = 0.50 in

Fyt = 50 ksi

bt = 14 in

tt = 0.875 in

Fyc = 50 ksi

bf = 14 in

tf = 0.625 in

S5.4.2.1

STable 6.4.1-1

STable 6.4.1-1

STable 6.4.1-1

## 0.85 f' c b ts = 2802 K

Fyw D tw + Fyt bt tt + Fyc bf tf = 2400 K
Therefore,

Vh = 2400 K

## Therefore, the number of shear connectors provided between the

section of maximum positive moment and each adjacent point of
0.0 moment must not be less than the following:
n =

Vh
Qr

n = 78.3
The distance between the end of the girder and the location of
maximum positive moment is approximately equal to:
L = 48.0 ft

## Similarly the distance between the section of the maximum positive

equal to:
L = 83.6 ft 48.0 ft

L = 35.6 ft
5-8

S6.10.7.4.4a

## Using a pitch of 10 inches, as previously computed for the fatigue

limit state, and using the minimum length computed above, the
number of shear connectors provided is as follows:

n = 3

L 12

in
ft

L = 35.6 ft

p = 10 in

n = 128.2

OK

## For continuous span composite sections, the total horizontal shear

force, Vh, between each adjacent point of 0.0 moment and the
centerline of an interior support is equal to the following:

S6.10.7.4.4b

Vh = Ar Fyr
2

where

Ar = 12.772 in

Fyr = 60 ksi

## (see Design Step 3.1)

Vh = Ar Fyr
Vh = 766 K
Therefore, the number of shear connectors provided between each
adjacent point of 0.0 moment and the centerline of an interior
support must not be less than the following:
Vh
n =
Qr
n = 25.0
centerline of the interior support is approximately equal to:
L = 120 ft 83.6 ft

## (see Table 3-7)

L = 36.4 ft
Using a pitch of 10 inches, as previously computed for the fatigue
limit state, the number of shear connectors provided is as follows:

n = 3

L 12

n = 131.0

in
ft

p = 10 in
OK

5-9

S6.10.7.4.4a

Therefore, using a pitch of 10 inches for each row, with three stud
shear connectors per row, throughout the entire length of the girder
satisfies both the fatigue limit state requirements of S6.10.7.4.1 and
S6.10.7.4.2 and the strength limit state requirements of S6.10.7.4.4.
Therefore, use a shear stud spacing as illustrated in the following
figure.
144 Spaces @ 10" = 120'-0"
(3 Stud Shear Connectors Per Row)

CL Bearing Abutment

CL Pier

## Design Step 5.2 - Design Bearing Stiffeners

Bearing stiffeners are required to resist the bearing reactions and
other concentrated loads, either in the final state or during
construction.
For plate girders, bearing stiffeners are required to be placed on the
webs at all bearing locations and at all locations supporting