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# PHYSICS 211L

Transformers
Date: March 6, 2009

Section: 5

## Instructor: Lamis Zaidouny

PART I:
Adjust Vp to 1V (peak-to-peak) for every configuration.
Using the two 400-turn coils, record the secondary voltages (peak-to-peak) when:
a)

Back-to-back
are closest:

Vs: 0.075 V

are 1 cm apart:

Vs: 0.04 V

are 5 cm apart :

Vs: 0 V

90o

Vs: 0 V

180o

Vs: 0.075 V

Vs: 1.02 V

b)

## Comment on the effect of

a) distance
While positioning the coils back to back, we find that the distance and the
secondary coil voltage are inversely proportional where as the distance between the
two coils increases from 0 to 1 cm to 5 cm, the secondary voltage decreases from 92
mV to 56 mV to 10 mV. This decrease in the voltage is due to the fact that what
causes the voltage in the second coil is the varying flux caused by the primary coil.
Consequently, as the distance increase the magnetic field lines are more dispersed and
their effect is spread over a wider sphere; therefore, the flux that is received by the
secondary coil decreases therefore the magnitude of the induced emf decreases.
Also we must not ignore the effect of the coils orientation as we see that the
emf is greatest (0.075 V) when the angle is 180 or 0 between the coils and zero when
the angle is 90. This is due to the formula = B A cos(): the flux is maximum when
cos() =1 i.e. when = 0 or 180. Therefore, when the flux is zero we have no emf
induced in the secondary coil and when its maximum we have maximum range of
variation and thus maximum emf in secondary coil.
b) the core
When an iron core (ferromagnetic material) is placed between the
coils, the secondary voltage increased from 75 mV to 1.02 V. This is because the
atoms of the iron core have unpaired electrons, possessing permanent magnetic
moments with their spin magnetism not naturally cancelled. This allows these
materials to be easily magnetized having internal magnetic domains that can be
aligned and this will enhance the strength the magnetic field and allow the
concentration of the field lines in the region between the coils, this will increase the
flux and thus the emf causing the increase in secondary voltage.
PART II:
Adjust Vp to 1V (peak-to-peak) for each configuration.
Using the two 400-turn coils, find the greatest-linkage configuration below and
circle it .

A) Vs: 40 mV

D)Vs: 720

B)Vs: 320 mV

E)Vs: 360

C)Vs: 600 mV

F)Vs: 1250 mV

Which configuration is the most efficient? Why? (Hint: Draw field lines)
The last configuration is the most efficient one with the highest
secondary voltage (1250 mV). This is because this configuration has
:
-

## The minimum separation distance between the coils that is 0

and here they are the closest to each other and this contribute
to a larger secondary emf.
The angle between the coils is 0, leading to maximum flux and
thus to maximum voltage.
The coils are enclosed in ferromagnetic material that is the ion
core, this will also help increase the magnetic flux
concentration and the induced secondary emf.
This configuration allows for the best advantageous
arrangement of the magnetic field lines that allow the
maximum to be received by the secondary coil. This will
increase the magnitude of the secondary voltage.

PART III:
a) Adjust Vp to about 1V p-p for every configuration, using the DMM.
Record the secondary voltages of the following step up/down transformers.

prim-sec

Vp

Vs

Vs / Vp

Ns / Np

(Vs/Vp)/(Ns /Np)

400-200

1.02

0.42

0.412

0.5

0.824

400-400

1.02

0.86

0.843

0.843

400-800

1.12

2.07

1.848

0.924

400-1600

0.21

0.66

3.142

0.786

400-3200

1.12

8.41

7.51

0.939

Theoretically, all the magnetic field lines that leave the primary coil
pass through the secondary coil, so the flux linkage is nearly perfect
d
d
s p s p
dt
dt
in a well-designed transformer. Thus,
d p
d
V
N
Vs N s s and V p N p
s s (Vs/Vp)/(N s /Np) 1
dt
dt
Vp N p
And since
If we calculate the rms error on the final ratio we get :

## (Vs/Vp)/(Ns /Np) = 0.864 0.029

Therefore the theoretical value doesnt fall in the range of the experimental value
[0.835, 0.893]; therefore, there is a possibility of systematic and random errors. In
addition to these errors in measurement, there is the fact that flux is not perfectly
transmitted between the two coils.
b) Adjust Ip to about 10 mA for every configuration, using the DMM.
Record the secondary current in the following step up/down transformers.

prim-sec

Ip

Is

Is / I p

Np / Ns

(Is/Ip)/(Np /Ns)

400-200

10

18.7

1.87

0.935

400-400

9.8

9.4

0.96

0.96

400-800

10

5.1

0.51

0.5

1.02

400-1600

9.9

2.4

0.24

0.25

0.96

400-3200

9.7

1.3

0.13

0.125

1.04

Theoretically, a well-designed transformer approaches ideal
behavior when the power output of the primary coil = power input
of the secondary coil (conservation of power). Therefore,
Vp
Np
I
I
V p I p Vs I s s
s
(Is/Ip)/(N p /Ns) 1
I p Vs
Ip
Ns
If we calculate the rms error on the final ratio we get :
(Vs/Vp)/(Ns /Np) = 0.983 0.020
Therefore the theoretical value s in the range of the experimental value [0.981,1.003];
therefore, we can say that our measurements are to a great extents accurate, and the
errors where minimal and most probably slight random errors.

## Part IV. DC input

Apply DC voltage across the primary coil.
Vp: 0.53 V(use DMM)
Vs: 0.003 V (DMM set to read AC) Vs: 0 V(DMM set to DC)
When a DC voltage is applied through the primary coil, the current
remains constant and thus the magnetic field it creates is also
constant, so the flux through the coil is constant.
d

0 0
dt
.
Thus, the voltage across the secondary coil = 0 V.
Therefore, when we had AC current in the primary coil, the variation causes a
variation of flux that induces an emf in secondary coil as we observe in the first case.
However, in case of DC we have previously shown that the absence of variation
causes the absence of induced emf and we observed on the DMM set to DC a zero
value.
As for the DMM set to AC, we observe a very slight voltage (0.003 V). This is
probably due to the fact that the DC supplied is not perfectly DC but admits some
slight variation that induces a slight emf in the secondary coil.