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Test File

By M. Dennis Goode
to accompany
The Cell: A Molecular Approach, Fourth Edition
(Website Quizzes and Problems by Robert Mcgehee and Brian Storrie)

Chapter 11: Bioenergetics and Metabolism: Mitochondria,


Chloroplasts, and Peroxisomes
Mitochondria
Multiple Choice
1. Which of the following is most true of mitochondria?
a. They produce most of the ATP derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates and fatty
acid.
b. They produce most of the ATP derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates.
c. They produce about half of the ATP derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates.
d. They produce about 10% of the ATP derived from the breakdown of carbohydrates.
2. Mitochondrial and chloroplast proteins are synthesized on
a. ER ribosomes.
b. free cytosolic ribosomes.
c. organellar ribosomes.
d. Both b and c
3. Which of the following contain their own genomes?
a. Mitochondria, but not chloroplasts and peroxisomes
b. Chloroplasts, but not mitochondria and peroxisomes
c. Mitochondria and chloroplasts, but not peroxisomes
d. Mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes
4. The infoldings of the inner mitochondrial membrane are called
a. cisternae.
b. cristae.
c. laminae.
d. lacunae.
5. The inner compartment of mitochondria is called the
a. stroma.

b. intermembrane space.
c. inner membrane space.
d. matrix.
6. What product of glycolysis is transported into the mitochondria?
a. Acetate as acetyl CoA
b. Pyruvate
c. Ethanol
d. Lactic acid
7. The citric acid cycle consists of the incorporation of _______ and its oxidation to
produce _______.
a. pyruvate; CO2, NADH, and FADH2
b. acetate from acetyl CoA; CO2, NADH, and FADH2
c. pyruvate; CO2
d. acetate; CO2
8. Most small molecules are permeable across
a. both mitochondrial membranes.
b. the inner, but not the outer, mitochondrial membrane.
c. the outer, but not the inner, mitochondrial membrane.
d. neither mitochondrial membrane.
9. The outer mitochondrial membrane contains
a. a lower concentration of proteins than the inner membrane.
b. an active transporter for pyruvate.
c. proton transporters.
d. an active transporter for ATP.
10. Mitochondria contain
a. no genes of their own.
b. genes for mitochondrial proteins.
c. genes for mitochondrial proteins and rRNAs.
d. genes for mitochondrial proteins, rRNAs, and tRNAs.
11. The mitochondrial outer membrane contains a channel composed of the protein
a. claudin.
b. porin.
c. channelin.
d. connexin.
12. The inner mitochondrial membrane contains proteins that
a. synthesize ATP.
b. pump protons.
c. transport pyruvate and fatty acids.
d. All of the above

13. The process by which mitochondria are thought to have arisen during evolution is
called
a. symbiosis.
b. phagocytosis.
c. endosymbiosis.
d. autophagocytosis
14. The mitochondrial genomes usually consist of
a. a single linear DNA molecule.
b. several linear DNA molecules.
c. circular DNA molecules.
d. None of the abovemitochondria do not have a genome.
15. The organisms most similar to mitochondria are
a. progenotes.
b. -proteobacteria.
c. cyanobacteria.
d. purple sulfur bacteria.
16. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited by means of
a. Mendelian genetics.
b. random assortment.
c. paternal transmission.
d. maternal transmission.
17. In what way does the mitochondrial genetic code differ from the universal genetic
code?
a. Some codons code for different amino acids.
b. Some codons code for different stop codons.
c. The wobble rules are different.
d. All of the above
18. Which of the following is a mitochondrial disease?
a. Lou Gehrigs disease
b. Lebers hereditary optic neuropathy
c. Crohns disease
d. I-cell disease
19. Most mitochondrial proteins are synthesized on
a. mitochondrial ribosomes from nuclear mRNAs.
b. cytoplasmic ribosomes; they are imported cotranslationally as they are being
synthesized.
c. cytoplasmic ribosomes; they are imported after they are completely synthesized.
d. mitochondrial ribosomes from mitochondrial mRNAs.

20. Mitochondrial targeting presequences usually consist of a


a. hydrophobic helix.
b. hydrophobic random chain.
c. negatively charged helix.
d. positively charged helix.
21. Where are most mitochondrial phospholipids synthesized?
a. Mitochondrial inner membrane
b. Mitochondrial matrix
c. ER
d. Golgi apparatus
22. Import of mitochondrial proteins from the cytoplasm requires
a. ATP.
b. a proton electrochemical gradient across the inner membrane.
c. a potassium electrochemical gradient across the inner membrane.
d. ATP and a proton gradient across the inner membrane.
23. The proteins encoded by the human mitochondrial genome function in
a. mitochondrial ribosomes.
b. mitochondrial DNA polymerases.
c. respiratory complexes and oxidative phosphorylation.
d. Both a and c
24. Tim and Tom are
a. twin brothers with the same mitochondrial disease.
b. chaperones.
c. protein translocators in mitochondrial membranes.
d. pores in the outer mitochondrial membrane.
25. The mitochondrial protein presequence is cleaved off by a protease called
a. signal peptidase.
b. presequence protease.
c. ubiquitin-targeted protease.
d. matrix-processing protease.
26. Mitochondrial inner membrane transmembrane proteins are inserted into the inner
membrane
a. directly from the matrix into the lipid bilayer.
b. through Tim.
c. through Tim and Tom.
d. through a transporter called Oxa1.
True/False

27. All mitochondria use the universal genetic code.


28. Most mitochondrial proteins are coded for by the mitochondrial genome.
29. Some proteins destined for the intermembrane space are first imported into the matrix
compartment.
30. Proteins are imported into mitochondria in their fully folded state.
31. Mitochondria lacking mitochondrial DNA are soon unable to make ATP by oxidative
phosphorylation.
32. Mitochondrial phospholipids are delivered to mitochondria by phospholipid transfer
proteins.
33. A mitochondrial matrix protein is unfolded before transport across the mitochondrial
membrane by an Hsp70 chaperone protein.
34. Mitochondria contain 10002000 proteins.

The Mechanism of Oxidative Phosphorylation


Multiple Choice
35. The free energy transferred by two electrons from NADH to O2 through the electron
transport chain is _______ kcal/mol.
a. +52.5
b. 52.5
c. +7.5
d. 7.5
36. When the electrons from reduced cofactors are transferred to oxygen in mitochondria,
the process is coupled to the formation of _______ molecules of ATP.
a. 2
b. 1012
c. 2224
d. 3234
37. Electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation are performed by protein complexes
in the mitochondrial
a. outer membrane.
b. intermembrane space.
c. inner membrane.
d. matrix.

38. Coenzyme Q carries electrons from complex _______ to complex _______.


a. I; II
b. II; III
c. I; III
d. III; IV
39. Peter Mitchell received the Nobel Prize in 1978 for his revolutionary hypothesis of
oxidative phosphorylation called the _______ hypothesis.
a. chemiosmotic
b. substrate-level phosphorylation
c. ATP synthase
d. endosymbiotic
Fill in the Blank
40. In mitochondria, a cyclic set of biochemical reactions called the _______ cycle starts
when a four-carbon sugar combines with _______ to produce _______.
41. One turn of the cycle produces two reduced cofactors, _______ and _______, and the
carbons are oxidized to two molecules of _______.
42. The reduced cofactors transfer their electrons to O2 to produce H2O via a set of four
membrane-bound complexes collectively called the _______. These complexes pump
_______ across the _______ membrane.
43. The _______ produced by this process drives a flow of these ions through a complex
of proteins called _______ to produce ATP from ADP and Pi.
Short Answer
44-48. Where in typical eukaryotic cells do each of the following processes or events
occur? (Be specific if the process or event occurs in only one part of an organelle. If you
are not sure, give the location of the enzymes that catalyze the process.)
44. Glycolysis
45. The citric acid cycle
46. Oxidative phosphorylation of ATP
47. Synthesis of mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs
48. ATP export to the cytosol via the ATP/ADP exchange transporter

49. In which location does cytochrome c carry electrons from complex III to complex
IV?
50. Oxidation of one molecule of NADH leads to the synthesis of how many molecules
of ATP?
51. Where does the energy for phosphate transfer across the mitochondrial inner
membrane to the matrix come from?
52. How does ATP synthesis in oxidative phosphorylation differ from ATP synthesis in
glycolysis?

Chloroplasts and Other Plastids


Multiple Choice
53. Chloroplasts differ from mitochondria in that chloroplasts
a. do not generate ATP.
b. did not originate by endosymbiosis.
c. do not replicate by division.
d. synthesize their own amino acids and fatty acids.
54. Chloroplasts are similar to mitochondria in that both
a. have a porous outer membrane.
b. generate ATP by a chemiosmotic mechanism across the inner membrane.
c. require specific transporters across the inner membrane.
d. All of the above
d. Both a and c
55. Carotenoids are stored in
a. chloroplasts.
b. chromoplasts.
c. amyloplasts.
d. carotoplasts.
56. Thylakoids are often arranged in stacks called
a. dictyosomes.
b. quanta.
c. grana.
d. plastids.
57. The chloroplast genome contains
a. about 20 genes.
b. about 150 genes.
c. about 1500 genes.

d. no genes; chloroplasts do not have genes.


58. Chloroplast tRNAs translate
a. all mRNA codons according to the universal code.
b. all the amino acids according to the universal code but have different stop codons.
c. some codons as amino acids that differ from the universal code but use the same stop
codons.
d. some codons as amino acids that differ from the universal code and use some different
stop codons.
59. Most chloroplast proteins are synthesized on
a. free ribosomes in the cytosol.
b. RER membranes in the cytoplasm.
c. ribosomes bound to the outer chloroplast membrane.
d. ribosomes in the chloroplast stroma.
60. Proteins incorporated into the thylakoid lumen are synthesized
a. in the thylakoid lumen.
b. in the stroma and transported across the thylakoid membrane.
c. on the outer chloroplast membrane and incorporated across the thylakoid membrane
because of its hydrophobic signal sequence.
d. in the cytosol, imported into the stroma, and transported across the thylakoid
membrane because of its second (hydrophobic) signal sequence.
61. Chloroplasts synthesize
a. sugars.
b. amino acids.
c. lipids.
d. All of the above
62. All plastids, including chloroplasts, develop from
a. protoplastids.
b. proplastids.
c. etioplasts.
d. elaioplasts.
63. The most abundant protein on Earth is
a. cytochrome c.
b. rubisco.
c. ATP synthase.
d. tubulin.
64. An etioplast is a plastid that
a. stores starch.
b. stores lipid.
c. is arrested in chloroplast development by lack of light.

d. stores pigment.
65. The transport of proteins across the outer and inner chloroplast membranes occurs
through complexes called
a. Tim and Tom.
b. Tic and Toc.
c. Sec and Tat.
d. import complexes.

Photosynthesis
Multiple Choice
66. The light-dependent generation of ATP in photosynthesis occurs in the
a. stroma.
b. inner membrane.
c. thylakoid membrane.
d. thylakoid lumen.
67. The dark reactions occur in the
a. outer membrane.
b. inner membrane.
c. thylakoid membrane.
d. stroma.
68. The equivalent of coenzyme Q (CoQ) in photosynthetic electron transport is
a. cytochrome c.
b. plastocyanin.
c. plastoquinone.
d. QA.
69. ATP is synthesized in photosynthesis by which of the following means?
a. Light energy stored by chlorophyll of photosystem I is directly transferred to ATP
synthase, which uses the energy to synthesize ATP.
b. Light energy absorbed by photosystems I and II generate energetic electrons that cause
the cytochrome bf complex to pump protons across the thylakoid membrane; these
protons drive ATP synthase to synthesize ATP.
c. Light energy absorbed by photosystems I and II generate energetic electrons that cause
the cytochrome bf complex to pump protons across the inner chloroplast membrane; these
protons drive ATP synthase to synthesize ATP.
d. Light energy is used to synthesize glucose, which is then metabolized to produce ATP.

Peroxisomes

Multiple Choice
70. The function of peroxisomes is to
a. oxidize certain organic molecules and degrade the H2O2 produced by these reactions.
b. reduce certain organic molecules using H2O2.
c. produce hydrogen peroxide for cells.
d. degrade old organelles.
71. Peroxisomes contain the enzyme _______, which breaks down H2O2 into H2O and
oxygen.
a. peroxidase
b. catalase
c. peroxigen
d. plasmalogen
72. Most peroxisomal proteins are synthesized on
a. free ribosomes in the cytosol.
b. RER membranes in the cytoplasm.
c. ribosomes bound to the outer peroxisome membrane.
d. ribosomes inside the peroxisome.
73. The human disease caused by mutations in the proteins required for import of
functional proteins into peroxisomes is called
a. Turners syndrome.
b. Zellweger syndrome.
c. I-cell disease.
d. Lou Gehrigs disease.
74. Plant peroxisomes convert fatty acids to sugars and other carbohydrates via
a. plasmalogen.
b. the glyoxylate cycle.
c. the Calvin cycle.
d. the glycolate cycle.
75. New peroxisomes form by
a. budding from the Golgi apparatus.
b. budding from preexisting peroxisomes.
c. assembly de novo from proteins synthesized in the cytosol.
d. fusion of vesicles from the ER and growth and division of preexisting peroxisomes.

Website Multiple Choice Quiz


1. Mitochondria differ from other organelles such as lysosomes and the Golgi apparatus
in that they
a. contain enzymes specific to their function.

b. contain their own genomes.


c. do not contain proteins that are imported from the cytosol.
d. are not membrane-bounded.
2. Human diseases caused by mutations in mitochondrial genomes
a. are inherited from both parents.
b. are inherited from the father.
c. are inherited from the mother.
d. do not exist because the mutation is always complemented by the normal gene copy in
the nucleus.
3. The human mitochondrial genome encodes only 22 tRNAs. This limited array of
tRNAs can read the 64 possible triplet codons through extreme wobble in base pairing at
the third codon position and the use of a(n) _______ genetic code.
a. chloroplast-mitochondrial-specific
b. nonuniversal
c. peroxisomal-mitochondrial-specific
d. universal
4. Assuming that human mitochondria contain 10002000 different polypeptides,
approximately what percent of the mitochondrial proteome is encoded by mitochondrial
DNA?
a. 1%
b. 5%
c. 10%
d. 50%
5. Which of the following is not involved in protein transport into mitochondria?
a. A positively charged sequence of about 2035 amino acids located at the N-terminus
b. The Tom complex
c. The proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane
d. Vesicular transport
6. Which of the following is not a protein translocon found in the mitochondrial inner or
outer membrane?
a. Oxa1
b. Tim23
c. Tom40
d. Toc75
7. Where do the phospholipids in mitochondrial membranes originate?
a. In the ER
b. The intermembrane space
c. The cytosolic side of the outer membrane
d. The lumenal side of the inner membrane

8. What is the major site of energy production in the form of ATP in human cells?
a. The mitochondrial matrix
b. The cytoplasm
c. The outer mitochondrial membrane
d. The inner mitochondrial membrane
9. The role of cytochrome c in the electron transport chain is to
a. transfer electrons from complex III to complex IV.
b. transfer the electrons to molecular oxygen.
c. transfer electrons from complex I to complex III.
d. couple the passage of protons down the gradient to ATP production.
10. The electrochemical gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane drives the
import of all of the following except
a. ADP.
b. phosphate.
c. cytochrome c.
d. protons.
11. The ATP synthases of mitochondria and chloroplasts are examples of _______
proteins in which polypeptide rotation provides a mechanical coupling to ATP synthesis
a. motor
b. Na+-K+ ATPase
c. proton pump
d. symport
12. In terms of its role in the generation of metabolic energy, the inner membrane in
mitochondria is equivalent to which of the following in chloroplasts?
a. The inner membrane
b. The thylakoid membrane
c. The outer membrane
d. The stroma
13. Chloroplast genomes contain approximately how many genes?
a. 40
b. 80,000100,000
c. None
d. 150
14. _______ different translocon systems are used for protein import from the chloroplast
stroma into the thylakoid lumen or membrane.
a. Two
b. Three
c. Five
d. Ten

15. The carotenoids, which give many plants their yellow, orange, and red colors, are
located in
a. vacuoles.
b. chromoplasts.
c. leucoplasts.
d. etioplasts.
16. Light is captured by _______ different photosystems associated with the thylakoid
membranes of chloroplasts.
a. 2
b. 3
c. 5
d. 10
17. Each photocenter in a chloroplast consists of hundreds of antenna pigment molecules
that absorb light and transfer energy to a reaction center
a. carotenoid.
b. chlorophyll.
c. cytochrome bf.
d. plastoquinone.
18. The difference between the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane
and the proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts is that
a. the first creates an electrochemical gradient, while the second is largely just a chemical
gradient.
b. there is no proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane. Magnesium ions create the
gradient instead.
c. it is generated by an electron transport system in the first case, but not the second.
d. it drives the synthesis of ATP in the first case but not in the second.
19. Peroxisomes are involved all of the following reactions except
a. biosynthesis of the amino acid lysine.
b. biosynthesis of the enzyme catalase, which breaks down hydrogen peroxide.
c. biosynthesis of lipids.
d. oxidative reactions leading to the production of hydrogen peroxide.
20. Zellweger syndrome is caused by a defect in
a. mitochondrial protein import.
b. the electron transport system in mitochondria.
c. protein import into peroxisomes.
d. the synthesis of peroxisomal proteins.

Website Multiple Choice Quiz


1. b

2. c
3. b
4. a
5. d
6. d
7. a
8. d
9. a
10. c
11. a
12. b
13. d
14. b
15. b
16. a
17. b
18. a
19. b
20. c