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J AIR CONDITIONING 1

AIR CONDITIONING

CONTENTS
page page

AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . 4 REFRIGERANT OIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9


AIR CONDITIONING PERFORMANCE TESTS . . 5 SERVICE PRECAUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
GENERAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS FOR R134A
REFRIGERANT LEAK TESTING, DISCHARGING, SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
EVACUATING AND CHARGING . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

GENERAL INFORMATION

A/C COMPONENTS EXPANSION VALVE—The expansion valve is lo-


COMPRESSOR—The SD-709 Compressor is used cated in the engine compartment on XJ vehicles. On
on all models. The compressor compresses the low- YJ vehicles it is located behind the A/C housing. Its
pressure refrigerant vapor from the evaporator into a function is to meter refrigerant into the evaporator in
high pressure, high temperature vapor. The compres- accordance with cooling requirements.
sor is serviced as an assembly only. EVAPORATOR COIL—The coil is located in the
CLUTCH PULLEY AND COIL—They are A/C housing. Its function is to remove heat and de-
mounted on the compressor and providing a way to humidify the air before it enters the vehicle.
drive the compressor. The compressor clutch and coil FIN SENSING CYCLING CLUTCH SWITCH—
are the only serviced parts on the SD-709 compres- The switch is attached to the evaporator coil. This
sor. When the compressor is not in operation, the switch prevents condensate water on the evaporator
pulley free wheels on the clutch hub bearing. When coil from freezing. It does this by cycling the com-
the coil is energized the clutch plate is magnetically pressor clutch on and off. This switch is used on XJ
engaged with the pulley and turns the compressor only
shaft. THERMOSTAT—The thermostat is located in the
CONDENSER—The condenser is located in front evaporator housing. Its function is to cycle the com-
of the engine radiator. Its function is to cool the hot pressor clutch to control temperature. The thermo-
high pressure refrigerant gas. This causes it to con- stat is used on the YJ only.
dense into high pressure liquid refrigerant. REFRIGERANT LINES—The lines are used to
FILTER-DRIER—The drier is used to remove con- carry the refrigerant between the various system
taminates and traces of moisture from the refriger- components.
ant system. SERVICE PORTS—The high pressure service
SIGHT-GLASS—The sight glass is located on top port is located on the discharge line near the com-
of the filter drier. It is used as a diagnostic tool to ob- pressor. The low pressure service port is located on
serve refrigerant flow. the suction line near the compressor. The compressor
LOW-PRESSURE HIGH-PRESSURE CUT-OFF no longer uses service valves.
SWITCH—The switch is located on the filter drier After servicing the refrigerant system, always in-
and is wired in series with compressor clutch. When stall service port caps.
the pressure drops down to 193 kPa (28 psi) the
switch interrupts the power to the compressor clutch. REFRIGERANT
When the pressure increases above 3100 to 3375 kPa The vehicles use a new type of refrigerant called
(450 to 490 psi) the switch interrupts the power to R-134a. It is a non-toxic, non-flammable, clear color-
the compressor clutch. less liquified gas.
HIGH PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE—The valve R-134a refrigerant is not compatible with R-12 re-
is located on the filter drier. The valve is used to pre- frigerant in an air conditioning system. A small
vent excessive pressure up build of 3445 to 4135 amount of R-12 in a R-134a system will cause com-
kPag (500 to 600 psi) and above. This will prevent pressor failure, refrigerant oil sludge or poor A/C per-
damage to the compressor and other system compo- formance.
nents.
2 AIR CONDITIONING J

New service ports are used to ensure that the sys- the operating instructions provided with the equip-
tem is not accidentally filled with the wrong refriger- ment for proper operation.
ant.
Due to the different characteristics of R-134a it re- REFRIGERANT OIL
quires all new service procedures. Refer to Refriger- R-134a refrigerant requires a special type of com-
ant Service Procedures in this section before making pressor oil. The system uses polyalklene glycol syn-
any repairs to the air conditioning system. thetic wax-free refrigerant oil SP-20 PAG. No other
Chrysler Corporation recommends that a oil should be used.
R-134a refrigerant Recovery/Recycling Station R-12 compressor oil can not be mixed with the
that meets SAE standard J2210 be used. Refer to R-134a compressor oil. They ARE NOT compatible.
J AIR CONDITIONING 3

WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS FOR R134A SYSTEM

WARNING: AVOID BREATHING A/C REFRIGERANT WARNING: R-134A SERVICE EQUIPMENT OR VEHI-
AND LUBRICANT VAPOR OR MIST. EXPOSURE MAY CLE A/C SYSTEM SHOULD NOT BE PRESSURE
IRRITATE EYES, NOSE AND/OR THROAT. WEAR TESTED OR LEAK TESTED WITH COMPRESSED
EYE PROTECTION WHEN SERVICING THE AIR AIR. SOME MIXTURES OF AIR AND R-134A HAVE
CONDITIONING REFRIGERANT SYSTEM. SERIOUS BEEN SHOWN TO BE COMBUSTIBLE AT ELEVATED
EYE INJURY CAN RESULT FROM EYE CONTACT PRESSURES. THESE MIXTURES ARE POTENTIALLY
WITH REFRIGERANT. IF EYE CONTACT IS MADE, DANGEROUS AND MAY RESULT IN FIRE OR EX-
SEEK MEDICAL ATTENTION IMMEDIATELY. PLOSION CAUSING INJURY OR PROPERTY DAM-
AGE.
WARNING: DO NOT EXPOSE REFRIGERANT TO
OPEN FLAME. POISONOUS GAS IS CREATED CAUTION: Liquid refrigerant is corrosive to metal
WHEN REFRIGERANT IS BURNED. AN ELEC- surfaces. Follow the operating instructions supplied
TRONIC LEAK DETECTOR IS RECOMMENDED.
with equipment being used.

WARNING: IF ACCIDENTAL SYSTEM DISCHARGE


CAUTION: Never add R-12 to a system designed to
OCCURS, VENTILATE THE WORK AREA BEFORE
use R-134a. Damage to the system will result.
RESUMING SERVICE. LARGE AMOUNTS OF RE-
FRIGERANT RELEASED IN A CLOSED WORK AREA
WILL DISPLACE THE OXYGEN AND CAUSE SUFFO- CAUTION: R-12 compressor oil can not be mixed
CATION. with the R-134a compressor oil. They ARE NOT
compatible.
WARNING: THE EVAPORATION RATE OF R-134A
REFRIGERANT AT AVERAGE TEMPERATURE AND CAUTION: DO NOT use R-12 equipment or parts on
ALTITUDE IS EXTREMELY HIGH. AS A RESULT,
the R-134a system. Damage to the system will re-
ANYTHING THAT COMES IN CONTACT WITH THE
sult.
REFRIGERANT WILL FREEZE. ALWAYS PROTECT
SKIN OR DELICATE OBJECTS FROM DIRECT CON-
TACT WITH REFRIGERANT.
SERVICE PRECAUTIONS

Never open or loosen a connection before discharg- When installing a refrigerant line avoid sharp
ing the system refrigerant. bends. Position the line away from the exhaust or
The A/C system must always be evacuated before any sharp edges which may chafe the line.
charging. Tighten fittings only to the specified torque. The
DO NOT open a refrigerant system or uncap a re- aluminum fittings used in the A/C system will not
placement component unless it is as close as possible tolerate over tightening.
to room temperature. This will prevent condensation When disconnecting a fitting use a wrench on both
from forming inside of a component which is cooler halves of the fitting. This will prevent twisting of the
than the surrounding air. refrigerant lines or tubes.
Before disconnecting a component from the system, Refrigerant oil will absorb moisture from the atmo-
clean the outside of the fittings thoroughly. sphere if left uncapped. DO NOT open an oil con-
Immediately after disconnecting a component from tainer until ready to use and install the cap
the system, seal the open fittings with a cap or plug. immediately after using. Store the oil only in a clean
Before connecting an open fitting always insall a moisture-free container.
new seal/gasket. Coat the fitting and seal with clean Keep service tools and the work area clean. Con-
refrigerant oil before connecting. tamination of A/C system through careless work hab-
DO NOT remove the sealing caps from a replace- its must be avoided.
ment component until ready to install.
4 AIR CONDITIONING J

AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT

WARNING: EYE PROTECTION MUST BE USED


WHEN SERVICING AN AIR CONDITIONING REFRIG-
ERANT SYSTEM. TURN OFF (ROTATE CLOCKWISE)
ALL VALVES ON THE EQUIPMENT BEING USED
BEFORE PROCEEDING WITH THIS OPERATION.
PERSONNEL INJURY CAN RESULT.

When servicing an air conditioning system, a


R-134a Charging Station and a Recovery/Recycling
Station is required. These devices must meet SAE
standard J2210. Refer to the operating instructions
provided with the equipment for proper operation.
A manifold gauge set (Fig. 1) must also be used
with the Charging and or Recovery/Recycling Station.
The service hoses on the gauge set uses a Quick-Dis-
connect coupler. The coupler has a knob on top which
is used to engage and disengage the sharder valve in
the service port.

MANIFOLD GAUGE SET CONNECTIONS


CAUTION: DO NOT use an R-12 manifold gauge set
on an R-134a system. The refrigerants are not com- Fig. 1 Manifold Gauge Set
patible and system damage will result.
CONNECTION
(1) Remove the service port cap.
CENTER GAUGE HOSE (2) Check all valves on the equipment being used
The center hose is YELLOW or WHITE with to verify they are closed.
BLACK STRIP. It is used to recover, evacuate and (3) Attach the Quick-Disconnect coupler to the ser-
charge the refrigerant system. When the low or high vice port and turn knob clockwise to depress sharder
pressure gauge valves on the manifold gauge set are valve.
opened, the refrigerant in the system will escape
through this hose. DISCONNECT
This hose attaches to the Recovery/Recycling sta- (1) Turn coupler knob counter clockwise to release
tion. Refer to the Recovery/Recycling station Opera- sharder valve.
tors Manual for proper procedures. (2) Remove the coupler.
(3) Install the service port cap.
LOW PRESSURE GAUGE HOSE
The low pressure hose is BLUE with BLACK
STRIP. The low pressure port is located on the suc-
tion line.

HIGH PRESSURE GAUGE HOSE


The high pressure hose is RED with BLACK
STRIP. The high pressure port is located on the dis-
charge line.
J AIR CONDITIONING 5

AIR CONDITIONING PERFORMANCE TESTS

Humidity has an improtant bearing on the tempra- (5) Insert a thermometer in the left center A/C out-
ture of the air delivered to the vehicle’s interior. It is let. Operate the engine for 5 minutes. The A/C clutch
important to understand the effect humidity has on may cycle depending on ambient temperatures.
the performance of the system. When humidity is (6) After 5 minutes note the discharge air temper-
high, the evaporator has to perform a double duty. It ature. If the clutch cycles, take the reading before
must lower the air temperature and the temperature the clutch disengages.
of the moisture carried in the air. Condensing the (7) Open the hood and disconnect vacuum line go-
moisture in the air transfers heat energy into the ing to the heater water control valve. Observe the
evaporator fins and tubing. This reduces the amount valve arm for movement as the line is disconnected.
of heat the evaporator can absorb from the air. High If it does not move repair vacuum circuit. Plug the
humidity greatly reduces the evaporator’s ability to vacuum line to prevent leakage.
lower the temperature of the air. (8) Operate the A/C for 2 more minutes and take
Evaporator capacity used to reduce the amount of the discharge air temperature reading again. On XJ
moisture in the air is not wasted. Wringing some of vehicles if the temperature increased by more than
the moisture out of the air entering the vehicle adds 2°C (5°F) check the blend air door cable for correct
to the comfort of the passengers. However, an owner operation.
may expect too much from their air conditioning sys- (9) Compare the discharge air temperature to the
tem on humid days. A performance test is the best A/C Performance (Temperature and Pressure) Chart.
way to determine whether or not the system is per- If discharge air temperature is high, refer to Refrig-
forming up to standard. This test also provides valu- erant Leak Testing and Refrigerant System Diagno-
able clues to the possible cause of trouble. sis Chart.
(10) Compare the compressor discharge and suc-
PERFORMANCE TEST tion pressures to the A/C Performance (Temperature
Air temperature in test room must be 21°C (70°F) and Pressure) Chart. If the discharge or suction pres-
minimum for this test. sure is not normal, check the operation of the refrig-
(1) Connect a Tachometer and manifold gauge set. erant system, referring to Refrigerant System
(2) Set A/C controls to Max A/C, temperature lever Diagnosis Chart.
on full cool and blower on high. The following charts have been developed for quick
(3) Start engine and adjust idle to 1,000 RPM with reference.
A/C clutch engaged.
(4) Engine should be warmed up with doors, win-
dows and hood closed.

YJ PERFORMANCE TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE CHART


6 AIR CONDITIONING J

XJ PERFORMANCE TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE CHART

PRESSURE DIAGNOSIS
J AIR CONDITIONING 7

PERFORMANCE DIAGNOSIS
8 AIR CONDITIONING J

REFRIGERANT LEAK TESTING, DISCHARGING, EVACUATING AND CHARGING

LEAK TESTING REFRIGERANT If the A/C system has been open to the atmosphere,
it must be evacuated before the system can be
WARNING: REVIEW WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS IN charged. Moisture and air mixed with refrigerant will
GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION OF THIS raise the compressor head pressure above acceptable
GROUP BEFORE LEAK TESTING. operating levels. This will reduce the performance of
the air conditioner and damage the compressor. Mois-
If A/C system is not cooling properly, determine if ture will boil at near room temperature when ex-
system is fully charged. Refer to Refrigerant System posed to vacuum. To evacuate the refrigerant system
Diagnosis Chart. If the system is empty evacuate the use following procedure:
A/C system and charge system with 0.283 kPa (0.6 (1) Connect a suitable charging station and mani-
lbs. or 10 oz.) R-134a refrigerant. Refer to Charging fold gauge set to the vehicle.
Refrigerant System for instructions. To detect a leak (2) Open the low and high side valves and start
in the system, perform the following procedures. vacuum pump. When suction gauge reads 88 kPag
(1) Position the vehicle in a wind free work area. (26 in. Hg) vacuum or greater, close all valves and
This will aid in detecting small leaks. turn off vacuum pump. If system fails to reach spec-
(2) Bring A/C system up to operating temperature ified vacuum, the system has a leak that must be
and pressure. This is done by allowing the engine to corrected. If system maintains the specified vacuum
run with the A/C on for 5 to 7 minutes. for 30 minutes, start the vacuum pump. Then open
(3) Open hood 5 minutes prior to leak test. This the suction and discharge valves and evacuate an ad-
will dissipate any accumulated refrigerant in the en- ditional 10 minutes.
gine compartment. (3) Close all valves. Turn off and disconnect the
(4) With the engine not running, use an R-134a vacuum pump.
Electronic Leak Detector and search for leaks. Move The system is now ready to be charged with refrig-
probe slowly along the bottom side of lines and fit- erant.
tings, because R-134a is heavier than air. Fittings,
lines, or components that appear to be oily usually CHARGING REFRIGERANT SYSTEM
indicates a refrigerant leak.
(5) To inspect the evaporator core for leaks. Set the WARNING: REVIEW WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS IN
blower at low speed and the selector in PANEL and GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION OF THIS
RECIRC mode check for leaks at CENTER panel ou- GROUP BEFORE CHARGING SYSTEM.
lets.
After the system has been tested for leaks and
DISCHARGING REFRIGERANT SYSTEM evacuated, a refrigerant charge can be injected into
the system. Refer to refrigerant capacities for proper
WARNING: REVIEW WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS IN amount of refrigerant charge.
GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION OF THIS The most accurate method of charging is to com-
GROUP BEFORE DISCHARGING SYSTEM. pletely evacuate the system. Then charge the system
using a Recovery/Recycling Station approved for
R-134a refrigrant is a hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) R-134a refrigerant. Refer to the operating instruc-
that does not contain chlorine. R-134a refrigerant Re- tions provided with the equipment for proper opera-
covery/Recycling Station that meets SAE standard tion.
J2210 must be used to discharge the refrigerant sys-
tem. Refer to the operating instructions provided CAUTION: Do not over charge refrigerant system.
with the equipment for proper operation. This will cause excessive compressor head pres-
sure and can cause noise and system failure.
EVACUATING REFRIGERANT SYSTEM
WARNING: REVIEW WARNINGS AND CAUTIONS IN REFRIGERANT CHARGE CAPACITY
GENERAL INFORMATION SECTION OF THIS The R-134a system charge capacity is 0.9 kPag (32
GROUP BEFORE EVACUATING SYSTEM. oz.) for XJ and YJ vehicles.
J AIR CONDITIONING 9

REFRIGERANT OIL

It is important to have the correct amount of oil in Add an additional 28 grams (1 fluid oz.) of
the A/C system. This will ensure proper lubrication of compressor oil to the system when a receiver-
the compressor. Too little oil will result in damage to drier, condenser or evaporator core is replaced.
the compressor. Too much oil will reduce the cooling
capacity of the system. OIL LEVEL
The oil used in the SD-709 compressor is a poly- When an A/C system is assembled at the factory,
alkylene glycol synthetic oil SP-20 PAG. This is a all components (except the compressor) are refriger-
wax-free refrigerant oil. Only refrigerant oil of the ant oil free. After the system has been charged and
same type should be used to service the system. Do operated, the oil in the compressor is dispersed
not use any other oil. The oil container should be through the system. The evaporator, condenser and
kept tightly capped until it is ready for use and then compressor will retain a significant amount of oil (re-
capped after use to prevent contamination. Refriger- fer to the Refrigerant Oil Capacities Chart).
ant oil will quickly absorb any moisture it comes in When a component is replaced, the specified
contact with. amount of refrigerant oil must be added. When the
It will not be necessary to check oil level in the compressor is replaced, the oil must be drained from
compressor or to add oil unless there has been an oil
the replaced compressor and measured. Drain all the
loss. This may be due to a rupture or leak from a
oil from the new compressor. Add back into the new
line, shaft seal, evaporator or condenser. Oil loss at a
compressor the amount of oil that was drained out of
leak point will be evident by the presence of a wet,
the old compressor.
shiny surface around the leak.