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Unit I, II & III PERSIAN chart

Politics
PERSIAN Chart - Political
Unit 1
(Diana Lopez)
Chapter 1: Before
History
- Cities in Neolithic
villages extended their
claims to authority over
their hinter lands to
ensure adequate food
supplies
Chapter 2: Early
Societies in Southwest
Asia and the IndoEuropean Migrations
- E stablishment of
governmental institutions
to provide order and
stability and to resolve
disputes
- institutions evolved into
hereditary kinships
- Sumerian government
were assemblies of
prominent men who made
decisions on behalf of the
whole community
-rulers were Monarchs
- Hammarabi's Code: lex
talionis "law of retaliation"
- Assyrians relied on
administrative techniques
pioneered by Babylonian
predecessors
Chapter 3: Early African
Societies and the Bantu
Migrations
- political authority
represented in the
absolute ruler
- t he pharaoh in Egypt
and the King in the region
of Kush (Nubia)
- Egyptian Imperialism in
2nd millenium BCE : New
Kingdom worked to extend

for review Chapters 1-22

Unit 2
(Celeste Garcia)
Persia:
Had a unique government
called the Achaemenid
Administration which
balance the government
by being equal
By having the Achaemenid
Administration it made
Persia one of the most
powerful empire and
established central
administration
China:
Had dynasties in which a
family stays in power for
some generations
Much of the political
implications were based
on moral values as
Confucianism, Daoism,
and Legalism.
That created an imperial
and centralized
government.
India:
India's politics were based
mostly on religion as
Buddhism and Hinduism
Most of the rulers kept
India with a tight and
organized bureaucracy.
Persia, China, and India
implemented policies
which established a
bureaucratic
administration for each
society.

ersia: Had a unique


government called the

Unit 3
(Albert Eng)
Chapter 13
New Byzantine
capital of
Constantinople
built to maintain
watch over Sasanid
Empire and
Germanic people
Cesaropapism is a
policy initiated by
Constantine, where
the emperor is a
secular ruler that
also participates in
religious affairs
Justinians Code
systematized
Roman law and was
issued in the
Corpus iuris civilis
(Body of the Civil
Law) (527-565 CE)
In the 8th century,
Byzantine society
reorganized under
the theme
system, which
placed a province
under the
supervision of a
general
Chapter 14
After toppling the
Sasanid Dynasty,
Muslim
conquerors
adopted Persian
techniques of
government to
administer lands
Abu Bakr was
selected by
Muhammads

Egyptian authority beyond


Nile Valley
- Nubia: Hierarchical
society
Chapter 4: Early
Societies in South Asia
- No evidence of Harappan
political system
- Regional states with
kingship ( rajas ) as the
most common form of
government
- suggestion that Harappa
and Mohenjo-daro served
as centers of political
authority since they had
city walls
- power transferred
through inheritance
- councils of elders:
principal source of
authority
- Brahman(priests) had
most power
Chapter 5: Early
Societies in East Asia
- hereditary monarchy
during Xia Dynasty
- decentralized
administration in Zhou
- belief in the principle
that the emperor was
granted the power to rule
through "the mandate of
heaven"
- emperor(known as the
son of heaven) served as
a crucial link between the
heavenly powers and the
people on earth
Chapter 6: Early
Societies in the
Americas and Oceania
Americas
- Built elaborate
ceremonial centers that
reflected both a complex
religion and a powerful
political authority

Achaemenid
Administration which
balance the government
by being equal
By having the Achaemenid
Administration it made
Persia one of the most
powerful empire and
established central
administration
China: Had dynasties in
which a family stays in
power for some
generations
Much of the political
implications were based
on moral values as
Confucianism, Daoism,
and Legalism.
That created an imperial
and centralized
government.
India:
India's politics were based
mostly on religion as
Buddhism and Hinduism
Most of the rulers kept
India with a tight and
organized bureaucracy.
Persia, China, and India
implemented policies
which established a
bureaucratic
administration for each
society.

advisors to serve as
a caliph (deputy)
The Umayyad
Dynasty (661-750
CE) was established
after Alis
assassination and
depended on the
conquered people to give
power to the authority.
Umayyad decline
after caliphs
became alienated in
the early 8th
century
The Abbasid
Empire (750-1258
CE) was established
after Abu al-Abbas
defeated the
Umayyad forces.
The Abbasids
contented
themselves to
administer the
empire they already
had rather than
conquering.
The dynasty fell by
the Mongols in 1258
CE
Chapter 15
The Sui Dynasty
(589-618 CE) was
founded by Yang
Jian after the Han
dynasty
Yang Jian imposed
a tight political rule
over China to build
a strong,
centralized
government
Dynasty ended
after emperors
assassination
Tang Dynasty
(618-907 CE) was

Oceania
- hierarchical chiefdoms
-leadership passed from
chief to eldest son and
near relatives constituted
local aristocracy

founded by Tang
Taizong after the
Sui Dynasty
Tang Taizong
(627-649) built a
capital at Changan
and created an era
of stability,
although he was a
ruthless ruler
The equal-field
system ensured
that people will
receive equal land
distribution to
prevent a decline
like the Han
Government
officials were
recruited through
ones performance
on the civil service
tests
Dynasty declined
due to careless
leadership
Chapter 16
King Harshas
rule (606-648 CE)
temporarily
restored unified rule
in northern India
after fall of Gupta
dynasty
Harshas Kingdom
declined because
there were too
many local rulers
that have already
established
authority
Madmud of
Ghazni, leader of
the Turks in
Afghanistan, led 17
raiding expeditions
into India (10011027)

Madmuds
successors
established The
Sultanate of Delhi
(1206-1526 CE) to
control access from
the Punjab to the
Ganges valley
No permanent
bureaucracy or
administrative
structure within the
Sultanate of Delhi
The Chola
Kingdom (8501267 CE) was one
of two kingdoms
that was located in
the southern part of
India
The Kingdom of
Vijayanagar
(1336-1565 CE) was
established by the
two brothers,
Harihara and
Bukka, after they
rejected Islam to
return to Hinduism
Chapter 17
Odoacer, a
Germanic general
disposed the last of
the western Roman
emperors (476 CE)
Germanic
Successor States
(600 CE),
Visigoths: Spain
Franks: France
Lombards: Italy
Angles/Saxons:
Britain
The Frankish
Empire survived
for only a short time
since they oversaw
the development of

decentralized
political institutions
Clovis (481-511
CE) was a Frankish
leader who led
Frankish forces on
campaigns wiped
out last of Roman
authority in Gaul
The Carolingians
is named after
Charles Martel
(Charles the
Hammer), even
though he never
ruled as their king
Charlemagne
(768-814 CE) was
Charles Martels
grandson - Frankish
society reached
high point under
Charlemagnes rule
Missi Dominici
(envoys of the lord
ruler) was a group
of imperial officials
that travels every
year to all local
jurisdictions to
review accounts of
the local authorities
The reign of Louis
the Pious (814840),
Charlemagnes only
surviving son, only
succeeded in
keeping the
Carolingian empire
together
Carolingian empire
declined
immediately after
Louiss death and
divide into three
sections
Feudalism is a

type of political
system present in
early medieval
Europe that
involved the
organizing
territories to
maintain order in
the absence of
effective central
authorities.
(Bernardo Calderon)
Chapter 18
"Khan"=Ruler
Nomadic peoples military had men on
horsebacks and
arrows which was
an advantage in
war.
1055 Saljuq Turks
leader Tughril Beg
recognized as
sultan by Abbasid
Caliph
1071 Saljuqs
defeated Byzantine
Army at Manzikert
1453 Ottoman Turks
captured Byzantine
Capital at
Constantinople
Ghaznavid Turks
first raid sites in
N.India for plunder,
later asserted
authority over
Punjab, Gujarat,
and Bengal
Mahmud of Ghazni
burned buddhist
and hindu
monasteries,
encouraged
conversion to Islam
1206, Temujin was
given the title
Chinggis Khan, by

the Mongols
Established capital
at Karakorum
Mongol Conquest of
China began in
1211, by 1220
Mongols had total
control over
N.China. 1215
Khanbaliq became
the mongol Capital
of China. Later the
Mongols captured
Persia.
4 Khanates=
Khanate of
Chagatai, Khanate
of the Golden
Horde, Khanate of
the Great Khan,
Ilkhante of Persia
Tamerlane created
his own empire
Ottoman created
empire and
captured
Constantinople
Chapter 19
Kinship groups in
early Sub Saharan
Africa
1000 CE, kinship
groups started
facing challenges,
and created
Chiefdoms
Kingdom of Kongo,
most tightly
centralized out of
other Bantu
Kingdoms
Koumbi-Saleh
capital of the
Kingdom of
Ghana,participated
and really wealthy
with the Gold Trade.
Sundiata reined

1230-1255, found
the Mali Empire
Mali Empire
participated in the
Gold Trade
Mansa Musa,
famous pilgrimage
to Mecca, threw
gold on the
caravan, shortly
after bankrupted
empire
Swahili City-States
traded across the
Indian Ocean, on
the East African
coast.
Kindom of Axum in
Ethiopia,
Christianity popular
religion
Chapter 20
Otto of Saxony,
crowned the Holy
Roman Emperor by
Pope John XII in
962,
1066 Duke William
of Normandy
conquered England
Always conflict
between the Pope
and the Emperor,
battle for power
Gregory VII
excommunicated
Henry IV
Frederick
Barbarossa reigned
1152-1190, wanted
power over the
pope.
Capetain France Nobles elected
Hugh Capet, later
the monarchy
became more
powerful

Christians later
recommended
Sicily, reconquista
of Spain, took a
long period of time
Crusades to
conquer the Holy
land, but some
went of course, and
strayed away from
the idea
Chapter 21
Toltecs settled at
Tula, High point 950
- 1150, irrigated
maize, beans,
peppers, tomatoes,
chiles, cotton.
Mexia/Aztecs,
capital at
Tenochtitlan,
alliances with
Texcoco and
Tlacopan and
created the Aztec
Empire. Traded with
conquered peoples.
Mexica religion
really played a huge
role in politics,
example are Human
Sacrifices.
Kingdom of
Chucuito dominated
around Lake
Titicaca, Chimu
Kingdom dominated
Peruvian coast
Inca Empire, capital
at Cuzco. Pachacuti
had arranged
military campaigns
to expand empire.
Inca Administrative
system, administers
relied on Quipu to
remind them of
their responsibilities

Chapter 22
1240s and 1250s
sent people to try
and convert Mongol
Khans to
Christianity.
1287 Mongol Ilkhan
of Persia planned to
invade SW Asia and
capture Jerusalem.
1100 to 1500 Sufi
Missionaries for
conversion to Islam
in their conquered
lands.

Economics
1 Unit 1: The Early Complex Societies, 3500-500 BCE
a Before History
i Hunting and gathering economy = no wealth and social standing based on wealth
ii Permanent settlements agriculture specialization of labor wealth
1 Pottery, metalworking, textile production
iii Cities marketplace brisk trade and economic integration in larger scale
b Early Societies in Southwest Asia and the Indo-European Migrations
i Congregate in cities, work at other tasks than agriculture specialize in bronze, iron,
wheel , shipbuilding
1 Long-distance trade with Anatolia, Arabia, Lebanon, Egypt, Afghanistan, India
c Early African Societies and the bantu Migrations
i Complex, city based societies expand stock of human skills
1 Bronze, iron, etc.
ii Specialized labor and the invention of efficient transportation tech development of
trade networks
1 Nile river, donkey caravans, cataracts
2 Long distance trade with Nubia and Egypt, Mesopotamia, Lebanon, East Africa
d Early Societies in South Asia
i Domestic and foreign trade
1 Ships in Arabian Sea, land over Iranian plateau
a Wealth from trade and specialization of labor
ii Caste system related to urbanization and increasing economic complexity
iii A productive agricultural econ complex society in Indus river Valley
e Early Society in East Asia
i Artisans and craftsmen trade in China
ii Trade networks between China, southwest Asia, India, Central Asia, Mesopotamia
1 Mariners trade with oar-propelled vessels
iii Agriculture foundation for large-scale social organization
f Early Societies in the Americas and Oceania

i Dependent on agriculture surplus support pop specialized labor


ii Olmecs: agriculture trade in jade and obsidian
iii Maya long distance trade influence all of Mesoamerica
1 Teotihuacan merchants trade all over, artisans specialize
2 Cacao beans = currency
iv Trade and exchange networks integrated the highlands, central valleys, coastal
regions
v Oceania hunting and gathering agriculture
1 New Guinea develop agriculture
2 Lapita: econ based on agriculture and animal herding
The Formation of Classical Societies
a Long distance trade
i Encouraged economic integration within the societies since their various regions
came to depend on one another for agricultural products and manufactured items
ii Led to establishment of regular commerce
iii Volume of trade increased when classical empires pacified large stretches of Eurasian
landmass
iv Common enough to establish Silk roads that linked China to Europe
b Trade networks of the Hellenistic Era
i Seleucid control land routes linking Bactria
ii Ptolemies maintain land routes and paid attention to sea lanes and maritime trade
iii Monsoon system
1 Trade in Indian Ocean Basin
a Levy taxes wealth
iv Spices, pepper, cosmetics, gems, pearls travel by caravan and ship to Hellenistic
cities and ports
v Wine, olive oil, art, jewelry o Persia and Bactria
c Silk Roads
i Overland Trade Routes
1 From China to the Roman Empire
ii Sea Lane sand maritime Trade
1 Linked the east Asian seaboard to the mainland and the islands of southeast
Asia
iii Trade Goods
1 Silk and spices traveled west
2 Horses, wool, olive oil, gold, silver, bronze, and more traveled east
d Persia
i Agriculture = foundation
1 Prosperity of realm, standardized coins, good trade routes (Persian Royal
Road)
e Rome
i Agriculture = foundation
ii Commercial agriculture economic specialization and integration of empire
(latifundia)
The Postclassical Era, 500 1000 CE
a Rapid economic growth
i Long distance trade increased
ii Manufacturers produce for export than local consumption
iii Agriculture increases devotion to trade and manufacturing
1 China, India, Mediterranean textiles, ceramics, metal goods
iv Trade and manufacturing invention and innovation
b The Commonwealth of Byzantium
i Constantinople center of trade
1 Commercial links with central Asia, Russia, Scandinavia, northern Europe,
Mediterranean
2 Bezant standard currency for Mediterranean basin
3 Control of trade and levying of custom duties on merchandise wealth
4 Banks and partnerships with merchants
c Expansive Realm of Islam
i Trade over revived silk roads networks

1 Camels and caravans


2 Maritime trade in Red Sea, Persian Gulf, Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean
ii Banks lend money and served as brokers and exchanged different currencies
1 Sakk leters of credit
iii Improved transportation, expanded banking services, refined techniques of business
organization increased long distance trade
The Resurgence of Empire in east Asia
i Agricultural, technological, industrial, commercials developments economic
powerhouse
1 Porcelain, iron and steel metallurgy, gunpowder, printing, naval technology
(larger ships, compass)
ii Increased agricultural production, improved transportation systems, population
growth, urbanization, industrial production stimulate economy
1 Flying cash, promissory notes
2 Paper money
India and the Indian Ocean Basin
i Internal trade certain regions specialize in a certain product
ii Use of shows and junks trade across the Indian Ocean
iii India the natural site for emporia nand warehouses
1 Principal clearinghouse
iv Volume of trade increased specialized production of commodities for the
commercial market
The Foundations of Christian Society of Christian Society in Western Europe
i Heavy plows agriculture (rural society)
ii Mediterranean trade maritime trade but not as prominent as others
iii Norse merchant-mariners trade in Scandinavia, northern Europe, Abbasid empire,
eastern Europe
Nomadic Empires and Eurasian Integration
i Northern and central Asia weak agricultural productivity
1 Nomadic peoples domesticated animals
2 If a land was depleted, the tribe would move on
3 Agriculture was possible only at oases
4 Produced limited pottery, leather goods, iron weapons, and tools
ii Mongols ensured secure and safe trade routes
States and Societies of Sub-Saharan Africa
i Introduction of bananas and sugarcane boomed population
ii Gold in Mali traded for salt in the north
iii Domestication of camels improved trade routes and increased speed of
communication
iv Swahili city-states specialized in maritime trade
v Slave trade prominent in Africa
Western Europe during the High Middle Ages
i Serfs worked on nobles land
1 With the heavy plow, fewer serfs were needed
ii New crops came with time
iii Horse collars and heavy plows reduced the need for serfs
iv Domestication of sheep made wool and fertile land
v Agricultural productivity increased with population
The Americas and Oceania
i Chinampas prominent in Lake Texcoco
1 Rich, fertile muck dredged from lake
2 Mexica chinampas were plots of land used for agriculture
ii Aztecs grew maize, beans, squashes, tomatoes, peppers, and chilies
1 Trade between triple alliance
2 Trade in Aztec Empire fueled by merchants
iii Incan trade controlled by government
iv Polynesian trade across distant islands traded mostly foodstuffs
Reaching Out: Cross-Cultural Interactions
i Food crops spread throughout Eurasia
ii Many Indian Ocean trade routes

iii strengthened societies in western Europe had grown and had stimulated taxes
iv Slave trade between North America, Europe, and Africa
v Gunpowder traded through Europe ended age of castles

Religion: Unit 1 (Ch.6-12)

Ch.1
-Religion was not prominent until the settlement of villages and towns
-Venus figurines were an indication of interest in fertility
-The Natural world influenced Neolithic religion
-Paleolithic communities honored, maybe even worshiped, Venus figurines in
hopes of ensuring fertility
-Neolithic villages shared same interest in fertility but they had other deities that
were associated with the cycle of life, death, and regeneration
Ch.2
-Epic of Gilgamesh-Creation story, originated in Mesopotamia
-Surrounding area affected how they thought of their gods
-Mesopotamians lives in fear of their gods
-Monotheistic Jews emerged
-Early Hebrews recognized the same gods as the Mesopotamians (ex. The nature
spirits that resided in rocks, trees, and mountains)
-Moses embraced monotheism and taught them that there was only one god,
Yahweh. Moses claimed that Mesopotamian deities were impostors.
-Yahweh= omnipotent creator of the universe
Ch.3
-Mummification prominent in Egypt
-Egyptians strongly believed in life after death
-Polytheistic religion
-Belief that deities played a prominent role in the world
-Principal gods in Egypt were Amon and Re
-Amon was associated with the sun, creation, fertility and reproductive forces
while Re was a sun god. Eventually both gods were combined.
- Egyptians believed that ruling elites would survive the grave

Chapter 4: Early Societies in South Asia


- Harappan relgion reflects strong concern for fertility.
-Gods associtated w/ creation and procreation.
-Brahmins (priests) are the highest class in Varna (Inidan caste system).

-Rig Veda contains Aryan values.


-Chief diety: Indra.
-Upanishads: contains a blend of Aryan and Dravidian values.
-Brahman: Universal Soul.
Chater 5: Early Society in East Asia
-Mandate of Heaven.
-Emerged from Zhou.
-Veneration of ancestors.
-Oracle bones.
Chapter 6: Early Societies in the Americas and Oceania
-Cermonial centers: monumental pyrimids, temples, and palaces.
-At San Lorenzo for example.
-Olmec heads.
-Mayan priests had knowledge of calendar and maintained knowledge of writing,
astronomy, and mathematics.
-Solar year= 365.242 days.
-Ritual year= 260 days.
-Mayans: bloodletting rituals.
-Mayan ball game.
-South America:
-Chavin Cult.
-Oceania:
-Public ritual observances.
-Military skilled chiefs cooperated with other peoples including priests.
Religion: Unit Two (Chapter 7-12)
-Zoroastrianism:
-The founder was Zarathustra (7th 6th century BCE) and was a prophet of Ahura
Mazda, the supreme
- Avesta: holy scriptures written by the Magi.
-Magi were the priest, who kept a calendar, and taught the values.
-Gathas were hymns in honor of various deities and religion preserved in here.
-Not strict in monotheism: Ahura Mazda (wise lord) was in cosmic conflict with the
evil spirit Angra Mainyu (destructive spirit).
-good words, good thoughts good deeds
-Influenced Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.
(China had many creations of new ideas because of their time in turmoil. One example
would be the Mandate of Heaven. )
-Confucianism:
-teachings and sayings of Confucius found in the Analects.
-did not focus on religion, but ethical values like be respectful and moral.
-focus on the runnings of government: government officials should be both well
educated and extraordinarily conscientious ("junzi").
-Honored their ancestors.
Daoism:
-Founder: Laozi (developed 6th century BCE)
-the Way; the way of nature/cosmos.
-human beings should tailor their behavior to its passive and yielding nature.
-retreat from politics and administration.

Legalism:
-unified China during the Period of Warring States (403-221 BCE).
-good agriculture and military leads to human flourishing.
Jainism:
-Vardhamana Mahavira (7th ce BCE) was known as Jina or the conqueror.
-practiced ahimsa, non-violence to other living things and their souls.
-Did not recognize social classes, but almost impossible to follow.
Buddhism:
-Founder: Siddhartha Gautama (Northern India in 3rd century BCE)
-Spread to Bactria and Ceylon and successful in attracting merchants as converts.
-Belief in achieving Nirvana through the Eightfold Path
-Four Noble Truths is the core of the Buddhas doctrine
-Mahayana Buddhism was the evolved version of Buddhism.
Hinduism:
-Founded 1500-500 BCE in India
- Was Polytheistic
-Belief in a caste system which caused social segregation (Brahmins at the top, then
Kshatriyas, followed by Vaishyas, and lastly, Shudras)
-Belief that dharma, artha, and kama would help attain moksha.
-Merchants travelling along the silk roads helped spread Hinduism in South East Asia
-Books like The Epics and Bhagavad Gita were popular.
-Hinduism dominated the peoples lives as seen by Women and the social classes.
Greek:
-Hellenistic religion with many myths on gods with supernatural powers.
-Zeus was the paramount ruler of the gods.
-Many cults forming that influenced society. Cult of Dionysus, Cult of Demeter
- Religion was popular in dramas.
-More Philosophical thinking.
Roman:
-Many deities and used some ideas from different societies.
-Had gods and goddess for anything of importance in the society.
-Some examples of minor religions:
Stocism: Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 BCE) help spread stoicism.
-clearly reflected the political and social conditions of the Hellenistic period.
Mithraism: Mirthras was a god of the sun in Zoroastrian mythology.
-soldiers used him as a god of strength and many temples appeared in the empire.
-Cult of Isis: -Dedicated to Anatolian mother goddess Cybele, the Egyptian Isis.
Judaism:
-Dissolution of Jewish Kingdom of David and Solomon in 10th century BCE.
-Yahweh was their only God and was in constant conflict with the emperors.
- 3rd and 1st century CE, Jews in Palestine mounted several rebellions against Seleucid
and Roman over Lords. Roman forces defeated the rebels in the Jewish War of 66 to 70
CE.
-Christianity:
--Jesus of Nazareth, a charismatic Jewish teacher, also known as the savior.
- Executed by the Romans in 30s CE. and believed to rose again. Christ: anointed one.
-Paul of Tarsus spread Christianity while traveling.
-The New Testament was created by many writings put together.
-In 380 CE, Theodosius proclaimed Christianity as the official religion in the Roman
empire.
-Christian leaders instituted a hierarchy of Church officials.

-all religions were spread by the trade routes.


-Religions changed to fit the needs of the people.
Ch 15, 16, 18, 21 religion expert Richard Manjarres.

CH15 religion in the empire in the east


Confucian and Daoist traditions did not disappear but made way for Mahayana
Buddhism.
Confucianism, Daoism, and cults that honored family ancestors were the most popular
cultural alternatives.
Confucian tradition suffered a loss of credibility after the fall of the Han. Some Chinese
thought of the Buddhists as economically harmful or an inferior creed. There was some
hostility to Buddhism and Zoroastrians as long as persecutions.
Buddhism was the most popular religion in all of East Asia.
CH16 Religion in India and the Indian ocean basin
Conquerors brought Islam to sind. Muslim Merchants took their faith to coastal regions in
both northern and southern India.
Migration and Invasions of Turkish-speaking peoples from central Asia also brought Islam.
Malmut of Ghazni mounted raiding expeditions to India and destroyed many sites
associated with Hindu and Buddhism.
Khmers turned to Buddhism during 12th and 13th century.
CH18 Nomadic empires and Eurasian integration
Early nomadic religions revolved around shamans.
Many Turkish peoples became attracted to the religious and cultural traditions they
encountered when trading with peoples of settled societies.
Many Turks had converted to Buddhism, Nestorian, Christianity or Manichaeism.
Some Turkish invaders encouraged conversion to Islam and repressed Buddhism and
Hinduism.
The Mongols were usually confined to their shamanistic religion.
CH21 Religion in the Americas and Oceania
Mexica had a priestly class that ranked among the Mexica elite.
The priests received special education in calendric studies and ritual lore.
Some religious traditions of the Mexica dated from the time of the olmes.
Kept a complex calendar based on a solar year off 365 days and a ritual year of 260
days.
Mexica absorbed the religious beliefs common to Mesoamerica.

Mexica had two principal gods, Tezatlopoca, and Quetzalcoatl.


Mexica practiced ritual bloodletting as they believed that the flowing of blood set the
earth in motion. Mexica warriors took Huitzilopochtli as their patron deity in the early
years of the fourteenth century.
Inca cult had a cult of the sun, whom they called Inti. Viracocha as the creator of the
world.
Oceanic peoples made religious observations to ensure continuing supplies.

SOCIAL
Unit I

Unit II

From equal to patriarchal societies


Began to have social distinctions through accumulating land
-Began to have hierarchy
Harrapans were matriarchal (women were in charge, no wars)
In a social class, all have specific jobs.

It becomes more patriarchal


ex: In India, the Mahabrata showed women as emotional & weak victims
Wealthy women received education
Sparta was an exception: Respected women and gave them equal rights for giving birth to warriors.
Ban Zhou emphasized the humility, obedience, and devotion
A dangerously growing gap between rich & poor
Bureaucrats began to displace warriors
Unit III
Native North Americans were matriarchal
Africa had equality
Trade based on societies forming
ex. Swahili city coasts
Mongols had a fluid social class
Swahili city-states also fluid society

INTELLECTUAL
Unit One
Education was based on religion and administration
Priests and upper classes thinkers
Children learned through parents' occupation homeschooling
Neolithic development of fires and stone tools agriculture develops
Development of writing: cuneiform and hieroglyphics
Advanced mathematics, sciences, literary works scribes literate, exp. Homo-sapiens
Basic knowledge of architecture ex: ziggurats, ect.
Law books
Unit Two

Greece had schools of philosophy


Philosophers/ thinkers: Confucius, Shang Yang, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Schools of thought Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism, Buddhism
Advancements in mathematics, literature, science, medicine, astronomy, and religion religious
doctrine and ceremonies
Standardized scripts
Roads with stations for trade, transport, and communication
Advanced forms of architecture religious temples and shrines, Roman forums
Knowledge of monsoon patterns monsoon patterns
Civil service exam China
Bureaucracy of merit, enforced by Confucius
Establishment of a democracy and republic
Unit Three
Saints set up schools Saint Scholastica
Europe is not have much complex architecture
Western Europe have advanced technology in agriculture horse collars, windmills, horse shoes, and crop
rotation
Chinese brought back system of merit
Charlemagne rebuilt educational reform

ARTS
Art Unit 1
-tools made from bones
- Venus figurines
-cave paintings
-paleolithic crafted pots
-Indo European languages
-elaborate tombs
-The Vedas
-Bronze metallurgy in Shang Dynasty
-Iron mettallurgy in Zhou dynasty
-oracle bones
-Early chinese writing
-Zhou literature- many textbooks instructing diviners in the art of fortelling
-Book of songs
Mesoamericans had elaborate ceremonial centers with pyramids, temples, and palaces
-Traded jade and obsidiian
-Maya Calendar
-Mayan ballgame

Unit II?
Unit III Art

-large buildings: built with stone or clay, ex: palaces, temples, churches, mosques
-traded through Indian Ocean Basin, Mediterranean Sea, or Silk Roads
-created a form of money either coins or paper
-written or spoken law codes
-created sculptures (shrines), painted
-more protection and freedom of artisan/merchant class

NEAR/GEOGRAPHY..

The Mongol Khanates

Trade with Ghana and later


Mali

INCAN EMPIRE

Spread of the Black Plague

Settlement of Oceania

The Holy Roman Empire during medieval Europe