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Chapter II


This section of the book presents the related literature of the subject and the
studies conducted by the researcher which gave him the idea on how to go about the
Related Literature
It provides practical explanations, definitions and several discussions to some
aspects of Computer and Information Technology which are related to the study. This
section gives all the information gathered from various resources by the researcher that
was used in the development of this study and includes ideas from other researchers
related to this.
As stated in Grolier International (1996), computers can be used for learning and
teaching in school in at least four ways. First, learning involves acquiring information,
second involves the progressive development of skills like reading and mathematics.
Third, it also involves the development of a wide variety of analytic competencies and
complex understandings. Finally, a large element in learning is communicating with
others- finding and engaging in audience with ones ideas and questions.
According to James O Brien (1988:451), office automation can be viewed as
system of input, processing, output, storage and control components. Ideas are expressed
as words and entered into a computer (input) edited and manipulated electronically
(processing); stored and filled electronically, or on magnetic, optical, micrographic or
paper media (storage); under the direction of automated office programs (control); and


communicated electronically or on paper to a recipient (output). It increased the

productivity of office personnel and reduced the cost of office communication. It
shortened the turnaround time between the preparation and receipt of documents and
message, reduced the expense errors involved in producing documents and increased the
productivity of executives and professionals who are heavy user of office
As being explained in the website of (2013),
Electronic Record is a record consisting of data and information which is input, created,
manipulated and/or stored on electronic media which show evidence of actions and
decisions occurring during transactions of government business.
Marcus M. Frank defines that Vital Records are records essential to the continued
functioning or reconstitution of an organization during and after an emergency and also
those records essential to protecting the rights and interests of that organization and of the
individuals directly affected by its activities. It sometimes called essential records.
According to William A. Fenwick and Robert D. Brownstone (2002), Electronic
filing, hereinafter "e-filing", is the filing of information in electronic form, as opposed to
paper form. E-filing will likely have a more pervasive effect on the legal system than did
the adoption of administrative procedure acts or codes of civil procedure. It will require
fundamental changes in organization, operation, management, and resource utilization by
courts, lawyers, clients, citizens, and government.
An Automated Grading System is an Information System that is used to store raw
data from quizzes, projects, exams, etc. which are processed to produce a student grade.


It produces grade from ranges 70-98 percent for the primary, elementary and high school
levels and 1.0-5.0 in college.
A computerized system is a computer system with a purpose. When we talk about
a computer system, we are simply referring to the hardware and software that comprise
the computer system. But when we talk about a computerized system, we are referring
to a function (process or operation) integrated with a computer system and performed by
trained people (IBM).
A report, in Information Systems, is a compilation of data related to each other
that is well-organized or sorted out in and is viewed at a printable state. Data are collected
from a certain database and is processed. Using selection formulas, data are filtered.
Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms are defined for better understanding of the study.
Break-Even Analysis. It calculates what is known as a margin of safety, the
amount that revenues exceed the break-even point.
Context Diagram. This refers to the set of data flow diagram that illustrates an
entire as one generalized element.
CostBenefit Analysis (CBA). This is a systematic process for calculating and
comparing benefits and costs of a project. By means of this, researchers can easily
determine and evaluate the feasibility of a certain study by simply looking or analyzing
the numbers. Break-even analysis can easily be determined as well as the break-even
Critical Path. This refers to the key path that defines which steps must be
completed on time in order to meet the schedule.
Data. These are numbers, characters, images or other method of recording, in a
form which can be assessed by human.
Data Flow Diagram (DFD). This is a graphical representation of the "flow" of
data through an information system, modeling its process aspects.


Data Processing. This refers to any process that a computer program does
to enter data and summarize, analyze or otherwise convert data into usable information.
Database. This is a software that is used to store various types of data being
processed or retrieved constantly and can be accessed in different ways.
Entity Relationship Diagram. This refers to specialized graphic that illustrates
the relationships between entities in a database. ER diagrams often use symbols to
represent three different types of information. Boxes are commonly used to represent
entities. Diamonds are normally used to represent relationships and ovals are used to
represent attributes.
Gantt Chart. This refers a graphical representation of project schedules that
depict the time relationship between activities.
HIPO (Hierarchical Input Process Output). This is a tool for planning and/or
documenting a computer program and it is consists of a hierarchy chart that graphically
represents the programs control structure and a set of IPO (Input-Process-Output) charts
that describe the inputs to, the outputs from, and the functions (or processes) performed
by each module on the hierarchy chart.
IPO Chart (Input Process Output). This is a tabular chart showing the inputs
and outputs associated with the cohesive task. It also identifies data flow labels and the
data store label and operation.
Information System (IS). This refer to the interaction between people,
algorithmic processes, data and technology wherein a way in which people interact with
this technology in support of business processes.
Intangible Benefits. These are the subjective benefits that cannot be measured in
monetary terms.
Net Present Value. This is defined as the sum of the present values (PVs) of the
individual cash flows of the same entity.
One Time Cost. This refers to the cost associated with project start-up and
development, or system start-up.


PERT (Project Evaluation Review Technique) Diagram. This is a graphical

networking technique. This is a diagram that depicts project activities and their interrelationships.
Organizational Chart. This refers to the visual graphic device that shows lines
of authority and chain command in an organization.
Recurring Cost. It is the regular cost incurred repeatedly, or for each item
produced or each service performed.
Tangible Benefits. This refers to the benefits that can be quantified, especially in
Tangible Cost. This refers to the cost of doing business that can be tied to a
specific activity or product. This could include the purchase of supplies, employee
paychecks, and utility bills.
User-Friendly. This is defined as easy to operate, understand, or deal with.
The model that was used by the researcher as the process model in the
development of the proposed system Automated Grading System of Anastrophe Christian
School was the Waterfall Model. The waterfall model is a sequential design process,
often used in software development processes, in which progress is seen as flowing
steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of Conception, Initiation,
Analysis, Design, Construction, Testing, Production/Implementation, and Maintenance.
The waterfall development model originates in the manufacturing and construction
industries: highly structured physical environments in which after-the-fact changes are
prohibitively costly, if not impossible.
Requirements Engineering


The researcher approached the school principal where the research was conducted
and asked permission through a request letter in order to understand the flow of the
current system. After the researcher was given permission, he went through personnel
interview with school principal and the officer-in-charge (OIC) of the school. The
researcher also asked permission to gather important data and get sample records from
the office to obtain the information needed to develop an effective system.
Methods of Gathering Data
The researcher used the interview method in gathering data in order to obtain data
needed. Through this method the researcher conducted series of interviews and requested
sample forms such as form 138 and class records of the students, through this the
researcher was able to develop an effective system.
System Design and Construction
When all of the needed information is gathered, the data models such as Data
Flow Diagram and Entity Relationship Diagram were used as a graphical representation
in representing the flow of the current system. The Data Flow Diagram was used to
describe how the system transforms information and define how information is processed
and stored, and identifies how the information flowed through the process. The EntityRelationship Diagram is an abstract and conceptual representation of data that shows the
different components of grades of the students.
The programming language used by the researcher in designing and coding the
proposed system was Microsoft Visual Studio 2008 Professional Edition. The researcher
used MySQL 5.5.24 as the database software to create the database of the proposed
system and store all the necessary information.
The researcher also printed a users manual to provide assistance to the people
who would use the proposed system which contains the steps on how to use the proposed


System Testing and Maintenance

When the proposed Automated Grading System of Anastrophe Christian School
was ready to be tested, the researcher presented it to the Chairman and members of the
Defense Panel for them to evaluate the flow of operations and outputs of the system. It
was also presented to the faculty members and staff of Anastrophe Christian School. The
Automated Grading System was evaluated along: reliability, user-friendliness, usefulness,
completeness and aesthetic effect.
The following norms were used to determine the mean rating of the system
Descriptive Rating
4.26 - 5.0
3.46 - 4.25
Very Good
2.56 - 3.45
1.76 - 2.55
1.00 - 1.75
Needs Improvement