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groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into

the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job


1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
o

3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict
over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown
authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]

In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]
In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven

Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]
From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]

Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.
When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by

humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
1.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with


the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."

2.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

3.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World
Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.

4.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen
2009

5.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly WarmanStallings 2012

6.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated
Encyclopedia

7.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

8.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite
article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."

9.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible
in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009

10.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65
"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"

11.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6


12.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings
11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."

13.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

14.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus
testamentum.

15.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they
left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah

16.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.
pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.

17.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish
religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.

18.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The
Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.

19.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air
continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4

20.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from
the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4

21.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,
by A. T. S. Goodrick.

22.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:
Demonology, by R.H. Charles.

23.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford
dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,
chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"

24.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.
paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.

25.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington
UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan
and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."

26.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

27.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to
Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "

28.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152
"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"

29.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European
roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.

30.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)

31.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.

32.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.

33.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

34.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

35.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

36.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

37.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,
"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155

38.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The
Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.
Retrieved November 30,2009.

39.

Jump up^ Iblis

40.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

41.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

42.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

43.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

44.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult
and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]

45.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,
Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.

46.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:
Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.

47.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.

48.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

49.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.
Retrieved 2008-05-12.

50.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar
2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."

51.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

52.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol
Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298

53.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan
Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695

54.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,
University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.

55.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &
LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243

56.

Jump
up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m

57.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

58.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

59.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

60.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

61.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard
Petersen, 2009

62.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job


1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict
over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.

The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown
authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]
In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]
From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.

When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
63.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with


the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."

64.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

65.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World
Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.

66.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen
2009

67.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly WarmanStallings 2012

68.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated
Encyclopedia

69.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

70.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite
article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."

71.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible
in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009

72.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65
"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"

73.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6


74.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings
11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."

75.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

76.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus
testamentum.

77.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they
left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah

78.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.
pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.

79.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish
religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.

80.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The
Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.

81.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air
continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4

82.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from
the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4

83.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,
by A. T. S. Goodrick.

84.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:
Demonology, by R.H. Charles.

85.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford
dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,
chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"

86.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.
paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.

87.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington
UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan

and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
88.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

89.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to
Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "

90.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152
"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"

91.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European
roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.

92.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
93.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.

94.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.

95.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

96.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

97.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

98.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

99.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,
"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155

100.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
101.

Jump up^ Iblis

102.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

103.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

104.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

105.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

106.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


107.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


108.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


109.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


110.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

111.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.
Retrieved 2008-05-12.

112.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar
2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."

113.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

114.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol
Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298

115.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan
Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695

116.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,
University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.

117.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &
LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243

118.

Jump
up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m

119.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

120.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

121.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

122.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

123.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
124.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into

the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job


1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict

over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown
authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]

In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]

From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.
When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
125.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
126.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

127.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


128.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
129.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
130.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
131.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

132.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
133.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


134.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
135.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6

136.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
137.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

138.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.
139.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
140.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


141.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
142.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
143.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


144.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
145.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
146.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


147.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,

chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
148.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
149.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan
and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
150.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

151.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
152.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
153.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
154.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
155.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


156.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


157.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

158.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

159.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

160.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

161.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155


162.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
163.

Jump up^ Iblis

164.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

165.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

166.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

167.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

168.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


169.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


170.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


171.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


172.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

173.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.

174.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
175.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

176.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


177.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


178.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
179.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


180.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
181.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

182.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

183.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

184.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

185.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
186.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

Hebrew Bible

The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job

1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a

title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict
over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown

authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]
In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]
From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.

When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
187.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
188.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

189.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


190.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
191.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
192.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
193.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

194.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
195.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


196.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
197.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6


198.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
199.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

200.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.

201.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
202.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


203.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
204.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
205.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


206.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
207.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
208.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


209.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,
chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
210.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
211.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington
UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan

and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
212.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

213.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
214.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
215.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
216.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
217.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


218.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


219.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

220.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

221.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

222.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

223.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155

224.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
225.

Jump up^ Iblis

226.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

227.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

228.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

229.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

230.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


231.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


232.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


233.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


234.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

235.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.
236.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
237.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

238.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


239.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


240.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
241.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


242.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
243.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

244.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

245.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

246.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

247.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
248.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into

the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job


1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict

over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown
authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]

In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]

From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.
When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
249.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
250.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

251.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


252.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
253.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
254.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
255.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

256.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
257.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


258.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
259.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6

260.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
261.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

262.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.
263.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
264.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


265.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
266.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
267.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


268.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
269.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
270.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


271.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,

chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
272.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
273.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan
and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
274.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

275.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
276.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
277.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
278.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
279.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


280.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


281.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

282.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

283.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

284.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

285.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155


286.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
287.

Jump up^ Iblis

288.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

289.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

290.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

291.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

292.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


293.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


294.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


295.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


296.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

297.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.

298.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
299.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

300.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


301.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


302.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
303.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


304.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
305.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

306.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

307.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

308.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

309.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
310.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

Hebrew Bible

The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job

1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a

title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict
over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown

authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]
In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]
From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.

When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
311.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with


the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."

312.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

313.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


314.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
315.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
316.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
317.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

318.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
319.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


320.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
321.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6


322.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
323.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

324.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.

325.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
326.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


327.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
328.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
329.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


330.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
331.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
332.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


333.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,
chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
334.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
335.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan

and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
336.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

337.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
338.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
339.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
340.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
341.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


342.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


343.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

344.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

345.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

346.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

347.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155

348.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
349.

Jump up^ Iblis

350.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

351.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

352.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

353.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

354.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


355.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


356.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


357.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


358.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

359.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.
360.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
361.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

362.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


363.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


364.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
365.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


366.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
367.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

368.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

369.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

370.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

371.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
372.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into

the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job


1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict

over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown
authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]

In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]

From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.
When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
373.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
374.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

375.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


376.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
377.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
378.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
379.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

380.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
381.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


382.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
383.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6

384.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
385.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

386.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.
387.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
388.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


389.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
390.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
391.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


392.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
393.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
394.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


395.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,

chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
396.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
397.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan
and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
398.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

399.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
400.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
401.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
402.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
403.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


404.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


405.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

406.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

407.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

408.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

409.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155


410.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
411.

Jump up^ Iblis

412.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

413.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

414.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

415.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

416.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


417.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


418.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


419.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


420.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

421.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.

422.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
423.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

424.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


425.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


426.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
427.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


428.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
429.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

430.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

431.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

432.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

433.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
434.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

Hebrew Bible

The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job

1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a

title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict
over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown

authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]
In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]
From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.

When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
435.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
436.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

437.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


438.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
439.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
440.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
441.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

442.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
443.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


444.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
445.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6


446.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
447.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

448.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.

449.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
450.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


451.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
452.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
453.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


454.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
455.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
456.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


457.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,
chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
458.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
459.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan

and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
460.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

461.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
462.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
463.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
464.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
465.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


466.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


467.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

468.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

469.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

470.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

471.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155

472.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
473.

Jump up^ Iblis

474.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

475.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

476.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

477.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

478.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


479.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


480.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


481.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


482.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

483.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.
484.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
485.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

486.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


487.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


488.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
489.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


490.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
491.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

492.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

493.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

494.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

495.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
496.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into

the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job


1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict

over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown
authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]

In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]

From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.
When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
497.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
498.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

499.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


500.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
501.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
502.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
503.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

504.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
505.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


506.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
507.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6

508.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
509.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

510.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.
511.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they
left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah

512.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


513.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
514.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
515.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


516.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
517.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
518.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


519.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,

chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
520.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
521.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan
and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
522.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

523.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
524.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
525.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
526.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
527.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


528.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


529.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

530.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

531.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

532.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

533.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155


534.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
535.

Jump up^ Iblis

536.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

537.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

538.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

539.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

540.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


541.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


542.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


543.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


544.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

545.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.

546.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
547.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

548.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


549.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


550.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
551.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


552.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
553.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

554.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

555.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

556.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

557.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
558.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

Hebrew Bible

The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job

1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a

title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict
over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown

authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]
In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]
From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.

When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
559.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
560.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

561.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


562.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
563.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
564.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
565.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

566.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
567.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


568.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
569.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6


570.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
571.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

572.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.

573.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
574.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


575.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
576.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
577.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


578.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
579.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
580.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


581.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,
chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
582.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
583.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan

and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
584.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

585.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
586.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
587.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
588.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
589.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


590.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


591.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

592.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

593.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

594.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

595.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155

596.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
597.

Jump up^ Iblis

598.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

599.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

600.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

601.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

602.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


603.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


604.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


605.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


606.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

607.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.
608.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
609.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

610.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


611.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan
Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695

612.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
613.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


614.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
615.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

616.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

617.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

618.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

619.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
620.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into

the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job


1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict

over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown
authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]

In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]

From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.
When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
621.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
622.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

623.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


624.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
625.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
626.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
627.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

628.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
629.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


630.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
631.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6

632.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
633.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

634.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.
635.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
636.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


637.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
638.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
639.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


640.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
641.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
642.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


643.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,

chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
644.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
645.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan
and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
646.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

647.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
648.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
649.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
650.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
651.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


652.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


653.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

654.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

655.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

656.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

657.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155


658.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
659.

Jump up^ Iblis

660.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

661.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

662.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

663.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

664.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


665.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


666.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


667.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


668.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

669.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.

670.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
671.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

672.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


673.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


674.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
675.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


676.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
677.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

678.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

679.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

680.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

681.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
682.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
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Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
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Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
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Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


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Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

Hebrew Bible

The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job

1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a

title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict
over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown

authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]
In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]
From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.

When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
683.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
684.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

685.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


686.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
687.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
688.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
689.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

690.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
691.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


692.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
693.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6


694.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
695.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

696.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.

697.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
698.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


699.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
700.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
701.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


702.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
703.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
704.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


705.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,
chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
706.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
707.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan

and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
708.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

709.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
710.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
711.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European
roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.

712.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
713.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


714.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


715.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

716.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

717.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

718.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

719.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155

720.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
721.

Jump up^ Iblis

722.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

723.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

724.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

725.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

726.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


727.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


728.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


729.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


730.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

731.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.
732.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
733.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

734.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


735.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


736.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
737.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


738.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
739.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

740.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

741.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

742.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

743.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
744.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into

the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job


1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict

over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown
authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]

In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]

From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.
When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
745.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
746.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

747.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


748.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
749.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
750.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
751.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

752.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
753.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


754.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
755.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6

756.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
757.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

758.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.
759.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
760.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


761.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
762.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
763.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


764.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
765.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
766.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


767.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,

chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
768.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
769.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan
and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
770.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

771.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
772.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
773.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
774.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
775.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


776.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


777.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

778.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

779.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

780.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

781.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155


782.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
783.

Jump up^ Iblis

784.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

785.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

786.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

787.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

788.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


789.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


790.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


791.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


792.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

793.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.

794.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
795.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

796.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


797.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


798.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
799.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


800.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
801.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

802.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

803.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

804.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

805.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
806.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

Hebrew Bible

The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job

1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a

title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict
over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown

authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]
In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]
From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.

When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
807.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
808.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

809.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


810.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
811.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly WarmanStallings 2012

812.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
813.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

814.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
815.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


816.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
817.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6


818.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
819.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

820.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.

821.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
822.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


823.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
824.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
825.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


826.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
827.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
828.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


829.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,
chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
830.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
831.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan

and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
832.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

833.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
834.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
835.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
836.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
837.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


838.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


839.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

840.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

841.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

842.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

843.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155

844.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
845.

Jump up^ Iblis

846.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

847.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

848.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

849.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

850.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


851.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


852.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


853.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


854.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

855.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.
856.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
857.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

858.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


859.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


860.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
861.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


862.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
863.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

864.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

865.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

866.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

867.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
868.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into

the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job


1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict

over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown
authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]

In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]

From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.
When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
869.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
870.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

871.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


872.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
873.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
874.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
875.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

876.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
877.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


878.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
879.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6

880.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
881.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

882.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.
883.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
884.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


885.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
886.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
887.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


888.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
889.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
890.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


891.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,

chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
892.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
893.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan
and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
894.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

895.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
896.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
897.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
898.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
899.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


900.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


901.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

902.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

903.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

904.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

905.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155


906.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
907.

Jump up^ Iblis

908.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

909.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

910.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

911.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

912.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


913.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


914.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


915.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


916.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

917.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.

918.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
919.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

920.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


921.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


922.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
923.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


924.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
925.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

926.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

927.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

928.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

929.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
930.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

Hebrew Bible

The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job

1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a

title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict
over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown

authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]
In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]
From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.

When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
931.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
932.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

933.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


934.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
935.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
936.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
937.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

938.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
939.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


940.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
941.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6


942.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
943.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

944.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.

945.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
946.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


947.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
948.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
949.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


950.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
951.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
952.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


953.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,
chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
954.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
955.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan

and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
956.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

957.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
958.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
959.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
960.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
961.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


962.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


963.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

964.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

965.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

966.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

967.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155

968.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
969.

Jump up^ Iblis

970.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

971.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

972.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

973.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

974.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


975.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


976.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


977.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


978.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

979.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.
980.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
981.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

982.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


983.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


984.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
985.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


986.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
987.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

988.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

989.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

990.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

991.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
992.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,

Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job


1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict

over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown
authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]

In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]

From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.
When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
993.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
994.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

995.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


996.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
997.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
998.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
999.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

1000.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
1001.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


1002.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
1003.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6

1004.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
1005.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

1006.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.
1007.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
1008.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


1009.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
1010.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
1011.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


1012.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
1013.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
1014.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


1015.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,

chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
1016.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
1017.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan
and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
1018.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

1019.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
1020.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
1021.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
1022.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
1023.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1024.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1025.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

1026.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

1027.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

1028.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

1029.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155


1030.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
1031.

Jump up^ Iblis

1032.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

1033.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

1034.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

1035.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

1036.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


1037.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


1038.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


1039.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


1040.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

1041.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.

1042.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
1043.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

1044.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


1045.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


1046.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
1047.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


1048.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
1049.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

1050.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

1051.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

1052.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

1053.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
1054.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

Hebrew Bible

The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job

1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a

title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict
over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown

authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]
In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]
From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.

When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
1055.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
1056.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

1057.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


1058.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
1059.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
1060.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
1061.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

1062.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
1063.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


1064.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
1065.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6


1066.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
1067.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

1068.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.

1069.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
1070.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


1071.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
1072.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
1073.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


1074.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
1075.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
1076.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


1077.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,
chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
1078.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
1079.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan

and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
1080.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

1081.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
1082.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
1083.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
1084.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
1085.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1086.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1087.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

1088.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

1089.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

1090.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

1091.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155

1092.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
1093.

Jump up^ Iblis

1094.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

1095.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

1096.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

1097.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

1098.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


1099.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


1100.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


1101.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


1102.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

1103.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.
1104.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
1105.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

1106.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


1107.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


1108.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
1109.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


1110.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
1111.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

1112.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

1113.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

1114.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

1115.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
1116.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into

the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job


1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict

over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown
authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]

In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]

From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.
When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
1117.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
1118.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

1119.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


1120.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
1121.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
1122.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
1123.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

1124.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
1125.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


1126.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
1127.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6

1128.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
1129.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

1130.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.
1131.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
1132.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


1133.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
1134.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
1135.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


1136.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
1137.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
1138.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


1139.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,

chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
1140.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
1141.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan
and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
1142.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

1143.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
1144.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
1145.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
1146.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
1147.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1148.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1149.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

1150.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

1151.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

1152.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

1153.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155


1154.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
1155.

Jump up^ Iblis

1156.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

1157.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

1158.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

1159.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

1160.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


1161.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


1162.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


1163.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


1164.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

1165.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.

1166.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
1167.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

1168.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


1169.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


1170.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
1171.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


1172.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
1173.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

1174.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

1175.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

1176.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

1177.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
1178.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

Hebrew Bible

The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job

1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a

title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict
over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown

authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]
In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]
From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.

When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
1179.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
1180.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

1181.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


1182.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
1183.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
1184.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
1185.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

1186.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
1187.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


1188.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
1189.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6


1190.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
1191.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

1192.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.

1193.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
1194.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


1195.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
1196.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
1197.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


1198.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
1199.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
1200.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


1201.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,
chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
1202.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
1203.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan

and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
1204.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

1205.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
1206.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
1207.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
1208.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
1209.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1210.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1211.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

1212.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

1213.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

1214.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

1215.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155

1216.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
1217.

Jump up^ Iblis

1218.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

1219.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

1220.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

1221.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

1222.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


1223.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


1224.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


1225.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


1226.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

1227.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.
1228.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
1229.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

1230.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


1231.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


1232.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
1233.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


1234.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
1235.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

1236.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

1237.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

1238.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

1239.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
1240.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into

the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job


1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict

over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown
authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]

In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]

From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.
When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
1241.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
1242.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

1243.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


1244.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
1245.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
1246.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
1247.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

1248.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
1249.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


1250.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
1251.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6

1252.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
1253.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

1254.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.
1255.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
1256.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


1257.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
1258.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
1259.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


1260.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
1261.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
1262.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


1263.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,

chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
1264.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
1265.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan
and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
1266.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

1267.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
1268.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
1269.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
1270.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
1271.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1272.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1273.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

1274.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

1275.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

1276.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

1277.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155


1278.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
1279.

Jump up^ Iblis

1280.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

1281.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

1282.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

1283.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

1284.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


1285.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


1286.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


1287.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


1288.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

1289.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.

1290.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
1291.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

1292.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


1293.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


1294.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
1295.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


1296.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
1297.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

1298.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

1299.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

1300.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

1301.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
1302.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

Hebrew Bible

The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job

1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a

title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict
over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown

authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]
In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]
From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.

When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
1303.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
1304.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

1305.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


1306.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
1307.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
1308.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
1309.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

1310.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
1311.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


1312.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
1313.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6


1314.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
1315.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

1316.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.

1317.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
1318.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


1319.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
1320.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
1321.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


1322.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
1323.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
1324.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


1325.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,
chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
1326.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
1327.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan

and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
1328.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

1329.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
1330.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
1331.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
1332.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
1333.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1334.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1335.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

1336.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

1337.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

1338.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

1339.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155

1340.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
1341.

Jump up^ Iblis

1342.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

1343.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

1344.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

1345.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

1346.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


1347.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


1348.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


1349.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


1350.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

1351.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.
1352.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
1353.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

1354.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


1355.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


1356.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
1357.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


1358.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
1359.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

1360.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

1361.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

1362.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

1363.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
1364.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into

the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job


1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict

over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown
authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]

In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]

From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.
When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
1365.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
1366.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

1367.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


1368.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
1369.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
1370.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
1371.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

1372.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
1373.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


1374.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
1375.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6

1376.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
1377.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

1378.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.
1379.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
1380.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


1381.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
1382.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
1383.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


1384.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
1385.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
1386.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


1387.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,

chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
1388.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
1389.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan
and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
1390.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

1391.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
1392.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
1393.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
1394.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
1395.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1396.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1397.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

1398.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

1399.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

1400.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

1401.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155


1402.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
1403.

Jump up^ Iblis

1404.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

1405.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

1406.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

1407.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

1408.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


1409.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


1410.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


1411.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


1412.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

1413.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.

1414.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
1415.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

1416.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


1417.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


1418.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
1419.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


1420.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
1421.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

1422.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

1423.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

1424.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

1425.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
1426.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

Hebrew Bible

The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job

1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a

title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict
over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown

authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]
In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]
From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.

When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
1427.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
1428.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

1429.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


1430.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
1431.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
1432.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
1433.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

1434.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
1435.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


1436.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
1437.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6


1438.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
1439.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

1440.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.

1441.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
1442.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


1443.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
1444.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
1445.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


1446.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
1447.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
1448.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


1449.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,
chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
1450.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
1451.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan

and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
1452.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

1453.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
1454.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
1455.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
1456.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
1457.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1458.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1459.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

1460.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

1461.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

1462.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

1463.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155

1464.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
1465.

Jump up^ Iblis

1466.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

1467.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

1468.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

1469.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

1470.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


1471.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


1472.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


1473.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


1474.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

1475.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.
1476.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
1477.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

1478.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


1479.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


1480.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
1481.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


1482.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
1483.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

1484.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

1485.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

1486.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

1487.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
1488.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into

the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job


1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict

over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown
authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]

In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]

From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.
When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
1489.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
1490.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

1491.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


1492.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
1493.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
1494.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
1495.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

1496.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
1497.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


1498.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
1499.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6

1500.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
1501.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

1502.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.
1503.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
1504.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


1505.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
1506.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
1507.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


1508.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
1509.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
1510.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


1511.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,

chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
1512.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
1513.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan
and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
1514.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

1515.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
1516.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
1517.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
1518.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
1519.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1520.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1521.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

1522.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

1523.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

1524.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

1525.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155


1526.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
1527.

Jump up^ Iblis

1528.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

1529.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

1530.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

1531.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

1532.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


1533.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


1534.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


1535.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


1536.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

1537.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.

1538.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
1539.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

1540.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


1541.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


1542.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
1543.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


1544.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
1545.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

1546.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

1547.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

1548.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

1549.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
1550.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 3
(Mar., 1913), pp. 167172 in JSTOR

Empson, William. Milton's God (1966)

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Old Enemy: Satan & the Combat Myth. Princeton University Press; Reprint
edition. ISBN 0-691-01474-4.

Forsyth, Neil (1987). The Satanic Epic. Princeton University Press; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-691-113394.

Gentry, Kenneth L. Jr (2002). The Beast of Revelation. American Vision. ISBN 0-915815-41-9.

Graves, Kersey (1995). Biography of Satan: Exposing the Origins of the Devil. Book Tree. ISBN 1885395-11-6.

The Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated Encyclopedia;ed. Buttrick, George Arthur;
Abingdon Press 1962

Jacobs, Joseph, and Ludwig Blau. "Satan," The Jewish Encyclopedia (1906) online pp 6871

Kelly, Henry Ansgar. Satan: A Biography. (2006). 360 pp. excerpt and text search ISBN 0-521-60402-8,
a study of the Bible and Western literature

Kent, William. "Devil." The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) Vol. 4. online older article

Osborne, B. A. E. "Peter: Stumbling-Block and Satan," Novum Testamentum, Vol. 15, Fasc. 3 (Jul.,
1973), pp. 187190 in JSTOR on "Get thee behind me, Satan!"

Pagels, Elaine (1995). The Origin of Satan. Vintage; Reprint edition. ISBN 0-679-72232-7.

Rebhorn Wayne A. "The Humanist Tradition and Milton's Satan: The Conservative as
Revolutionary," Studies in English Literature, 15001900, Vol. 13, No. 1, The English Renaissance (Winter,
1973), pp. 8193 in JSTOR

Rudwin, Maximilian (1970). The Devil in Legend and Literature. Open Court. ISBN 0-87548-248-1.

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive
Christianity (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (1987) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages (1986) excerpt and text search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. Mephistopheles: The Devil in the Modern World (1990) excerpt and text
search

Russell, Jeffrey Burton. The Prince of Darkness: Radical Evil and the Power of Good in
History (1992) excerpt and text search

Schaff, D. S. "Devil" in New SchaffHerzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge (1911), Mainline


Protestant; vol 3 pp 414417 online

Scott, Miriam Van. The Encyclopedia of Hell (1999) excerpt and text search comparative religions; also
popular culture

Wray, T. J. and Gregory Mobley. The Birth of Satan: Tracing the Devil's Biblical Roots (2005) excerpt
and text search

Hebrew Bible

The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a
title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Satan (Hebrew:
satan, meaning "adversary";[1] Arabic: shaitan, meaning "astray" or
"distant", sometimes "devil") is a figure appearing in the texts of the Abrahamic religions[2][3] who
brings evil and temptation, and is known as the deceiver who leads humanity astray. Some religious
groups teach that he originated as an angel who fell out of favor with God, seducing humanity into
the ways of sin, and who has power in the fallen world. In the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament,
Satan is primarily an accuser and adversary, a decidedly malevolent entity, also called the devil, who
possesses demonic qualities.
In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a positive force and deity who is either worshipped or
revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is regarded as holding virtuous characteristics.[4][5]
Contents
[hide]

1 Judaism
1.1 Hebrew Bible

1.1.1 Thirteen occurrences

1.1.2 Book of Job

1.2 Second Temple period

1.2.1 Septuagint

1.2.2 Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha


1.3 Rabbinical Judaism

2 Dualism and Zoroastrianism

3 Christianity
3.1 Terminology

4 Islam

5 Yazidism

6 Bah' Faith

7 Satanism
o

7.1 Theistic Satanism

7.2 Atheistic Satanism

8 Notes

9 References

10 External links

Judaism
Hebrew Bible
The original Hebrew term satan is a noun from a verb meaning primarily "to obstruct, oppose", as it
is found in Numbers 22:22, 1 Samuel 29:4, Psalms 109:6.[6] Ha-Satan is traditionally translated as
"the accuser" or "the adversary". The definite article ha-(English: "the") is used to show that this is a

title bestowed on a being, versus the name of a being. Thus, this being would be referred to as "the
satan".[7]
Thirteen occurrences
Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew
Bible: Job ch.12 (10x)[8] and Zechariah 3:12 (3x).[9]
Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the
Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version:

1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" (KJV) or "And there standeth up an
adversary against Israel" (Young's Literal Translation)[10]

Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" (KJV)[11] or "let an accuser stand at his
right hand." (ESV, etc.)

The other eight instances of satan without the definite article are traditionally translated
(in Greek, Latin and English) as "an adversary", etc., and taken to be humans or obedient angels:

Numbers 22:22,32 "and the angel of the LORD stood in the way for an adversary against
him."

32 "behold, I went out to withstand thee,"

1 Samuel 29:4 The Philistines say: "lest he [David] be an adversary against us"

2 Samuel 19:22 David says: "[you sons of Zeruaiah] should this day be adversaries (plural)
unto me?"

1 Kings 5:4 Solomon writes to Hiram: "there is neither adversary nor evil occurrent."

1 Kings 11:14 "And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite"[12]

1 Kings 11:23 "And God stirred him up an adversary, Rezon the son of Eliadah"

25 "And he [Rezon] was an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon"

Book of Job

The examination of Job, Satan pours on the plagues of Job, by William Blake

At the beginning of the book, Job is a good person "who revered God and turned away from evil"
(Job 1:1), and has therefore been rewarded by God. When the angels present themselves to God,
Satan comes as well. God informs Satan about Job's blameless, morally upright character. Between
Job 1:910 and 2:45, Satan points out that God has given Job everything that a man could want,
so of course Job would be loyal to God; Satan suggests that Job's faith would collapse if all he has
been given (even his health) were to be taken away from him. God therefore gives Satan permission
to test Job.[13] In the end, Job remains faithful and righteous, and there is the implication that Satan is
shamed in his defeat.[14]

Second Temple period


Septuagint
In the Septuagint, the Hebrew ha-Satan in Job and Zechariah is translated by
the Greek word diabolos (slanderer), the same word in theGreek New Testament from which the
English word devil is derived. Where satan is used of human enemies in the Hebrew Bible, such
asHadad the Edomite and Rezon the Syrian, the word is left untranslated but transliterated in the
Greek as satan, a neologism in Greek.[15]In Zechariah 3, this changes the vision of the conflict
over Joshua the High Priest in the Septuagint into a conflict between "Jesus and the devil", identical
with the Greek text ofMatthew.
Dead Sea scrolls and Pseudepigrapha
In Enochic Judaism, the concept of Satan being an opponent of God and a chief evil figure in among
demons seems to have taken root in Jewish pseudepigrapha during theSecond Temple period,
[16]

particularly in the apocalypses.[17] The Book of Enoch contains references to Satariel, thought also

to be Sataniel and Satan'el (etymology dating back to Babylonian origins). The similar spellings
mirror that of his angelic brethren Michael, Raphael, Uriel, and Gabriel, previous to the fall from
Heaven.
The Second Book of Enoch, also called the Slavonic Book of Enoch, contains references to
a Watcher (Grigori) called Satanael.[18] It is a pseudepigraphic text of an uncertain date and unknown

authorship. The text describes Satanael as being the prince of the Grigori who was cast out of
heaven[19] and an evil spirit who knew the difference between what was "righteous" and "sinful". [20] A
similar story is found in the book of 1 Enoch; however, in that book, the leader of the Grigori is
called Semjz.
In the Book of Wisdom, the devil is represented as the being who brought death into the world. [21]
In the Book of Jubilees, Mastema induces God to test Abraham through the sacrifice of Isaac. He is
identical to Satan in both name and nature.[22]

Rabbinical Judaism
In Judaism, Satan is a term used since its earliest biblical contexts to refer to a human opponent.
[23]

Occasionally, the term has been used to suggest evil influence opposing human beings, as in

the Jewish exegesis of the Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5). Micaiah's "lying spirit" in 1
Kings 22:22 is sometimes related. Thus, Satan is personified as a character in three different places
of the Tenakh, serving as an accuser (Zechariah 3:12), a seducer (1 Chronicles 21:1), or as a
heavenly persecutor who is "among the sons of God" (Job 2:1). In any case, Satan is always
subordinate to the power of God, having a role in the divine plan. Satan is rarely mentioned
in Tannaiticliterature, but is found in Babylonian aggadah.[17]
In medieval Judaism, the Rabbis rejected these Enochic literary works into the Biblical canon,
making every attempt to root them out.[16] Traditionalists and philosophers in medieval Judaism
adhered to rational theology, rejecting any belief in rebel or fallen angels, and viewing evil as
abstract.[24] The Yetzer hara ("evil inclination" Genesis 6:5) is a more common motif for evil in
rabbinical texts. Rabbinical scholarship on the Book of Job generally follows the Talmud and
Maimonides as identifying the "Adversary" in the prologue of Job as a metaphor.[25]
In Hasidic Judaism, the Kabbalah presents Satan as an agent of God whose function is to tempt one
into sin, then turn around and accuse the sinner on high.[vague] The Chasidic Jews of the 18th century
associated ha-Satan with Baal Davar.[26]

Dualism and Zoroastrianism


See also: Angra Mainyu
Some scholars see contact with religious dualism in Babylon, and early Zoroastrianism in particular,
as being influenced by Second Temple period Judaism, and consequently early Christianity.[27]
[28]

Subsequent development of Satan as a "deceiver" has parallels with the evil spirit in

Zoroastrianism, known as the Lie, who directs forces of darkness.[29]

Christianity

The Devil depicted in The Temptation of Christ, by Ary Scheffer, 1854

Main article: Devil in Christianity


See also: War in Heaven
Satan is traditionally identified as the serpent who tempted Eve to eat the forbidden fruit, as he was
in Judaism.[30] Thus Satan has often been depicted as a serpent. Christian agreement with this can
be found in the works of Justin Martyr, in Chapters 45 and 79 of Dialogue with Trypho, where Justin
identifies Satan and the serpent.[31] Other early church fathers to mention this identification
include Theophilusand Tertullian.[32]
From the fourth century, Lucifer is sometimes used in Christian theology to refer to Satan, as a result
of identifying the fallen "son of the dawn" of Isaiah 14:12 with the "accuser" of other passages in the
Old Testament.[citation needed]

Satan as depicted in the Ninth Circle of Hell in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Dor

For most Christians, Satan is believed to be an angel who rebelled against God. His goal is to lead
people away from the love of God; i.e., to lead them to evil. [citation needed]
In the New Testament he is called "the ruler of the demons" (Matthew 12:24), "the ruler of the world",
and "the god of this world" (2 Cor. 4:4). The Book of Revelation describes how Satan was cast out of
Heaven, having "great anger" and waging war against "those who obey God's commandments".
Ultimately, Satan will be thrown into the lake of fire.[33]
The early Christian church encountered opposition from pagans such as Celsus, who claimed that "it
is blasphemy...to say that the greatest God...has an adversary who constrains his capacity to do
good" and said that Christians "impiously divide the kingdom of God, creating a rebellion in it, as if
there were opposing factions within the divine, including one that is hostile to God". [34]

Terminology
In Christianity, there are many synonyms for Satan. The most common English synonym for "Satan"
is "Devil", which descends from Middle English devel, from Old Englishdofol, that in turn represents
an early Germanic borrowing of Latin diabolus (also the source of "diabolical"). This in turn was
borrowed from Greek diabolos "slanderer", fromdiaballein "to slander": dia- "across, through"
+ ballein "to hurl".[35] In the New Testament, "Satan" occurs more than 30 times in passages
alongside Diabolos (Greek for "the devil"), referring to the same person or thing as Satan. [36]
Beelzebub, meaning "Lord of Flies", is the contemptuous name given in the Hebrew Bible and New
Testament to a Philistine god whose original name has been reconstructed as most probably "Ba'al
Zabul", meaning "Baal the Prince".[37] This pun was later used to refer to Satan as well.
The Book of Revelation twice refers to "the dragon, that ancient serpent, who is called the devil and
Satan" (12:9, 20:2). The Book of Revelation also refers to "the deceiver", from which is derived the
common epithet "the great deceiver".[38]

Islam
Main article: Devil (Islam)
See also: Azazel Azazel in Islam
Shaitan ( )is the equivalent of Satan in Islam. While Shaitan (, from the root t n
)(is
an adjective (meaning "astray" or "distant", sometimes translated as "devil") that can be applied to
both man ("al-ins", )and Jinn, Iblis (Arabic pronunciation: [iblis]) is the personal name of the Devil
who is mentioned in the Qur'anic account of Genesis.[39]According to the Qur'an, Iblis
(the Arabic name used) disobeyed an order from Allah to bow to Adam, and as a result Iblis was
forced out of heaven. However, he was given respite from further punishment until the day of
judgment.

When Allah commanded all of the angels to bow down before Adam (the first Human), Iblis, full
of hubris and jealousy, refused to obey God's command (he could do so because he had free will),
seeing Adam as being inferior in creation due to his being created from clay as compared to him
(created of fire).[40]
It is We Who created you and gave you shape; then We bade the angels prostrate to Adam, and
they prostrate; not so Iblis (Lucifer); He refused to be of those who prostrate. (Allah) said: "What
prevented thee from prostrating when I commanded thee?" He said: "I am better than he: Thou didst
create me from fire, and him from clay."
Qur'an 7:1112
It was after this that the title of "Shaitan" was given, which can be roughly translated as "Enemy",
"Rebel", "Evil", or "Devil". Shaitan then claims that, if the punishment for his act of disobedience is to
be delayed until the Day of Judgment, then he will divert many of Adam's own descendants from the
straight path during his period of respite.[41] God accepts the claims of Iblis and guarantees
recompense to Iblis and his followers in the form of Hellfire. In order to test mankind and jinn alike,
Allah allowed Iblis to roam the earth to attempt to convert others away from his path. [42] He was sent
to earth along with Adam and Eve, after eventually luring them into eating the fruit from the forbidden
tree.[43]

Yazidism
An alternative name for the main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of
the Yazidi, Malek Taus, is Shaitan.[44] However, rather than being Satanic, Yazidism is better
understood as a remnant of a pre-Islamic Middle Eastern Indo-European religion, and/or
a ghulat Sufi movement founded by Shaykh Adi. The connection with Satan, originally made by
Muslim outsiders, attracted the interest of 19th century European travelers and esoteric writers.

Bah' Faith
In the Bah' Faith, Satan is not regarded as an independent evil power as he is in some faiths, but
signifies the lower nature of humans. `Abdu'l-Bah explains: "This lower nature in man is symbolized
as Satan the evil ego within us, not an evil personality outside." [45][46] All other evil spirits described
in various faith traditionssuch as fallen angels, demons, and jinnsare also metaphors for the
base character traits a human being may acquire and manifest when he turns away from God. [47]

Satanism
Main article: Satanism
Within Satanism, two major trends exists, theistic Satanism and atheistic Satanism, both having
different views regarding the essence of Satan.

Theistic Satanism
Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as 'devil-worship', [48] holds that Satan is an actual deity or
force to revere or worship that individuals may contact and supplicate to, [49][50]and represents loosely
affiliated or independent groups and cabals which hold the belief that Satan is a real entity[51] rather
than an archetype.
Among non-Satanists, much modern Satanic folklore does not originate with the beliefs or practices
of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or
sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.[52][53][54][55] An example is the Satanic
ritual abuse scare of the 1980sbeginning with the memoir Michelle Rememberswhich depicted
Satanism as a vast conspiracy of elites with a predilection for child abuse and human sacrifice.[53]
[54]

This genre frequently describes Satan as physically incarnating in order to receive worship. [55]

Atheistic Satanism
Atheistic Satanism, most commonly referred to as LaVeyan Satanism, holds that Satan does not
exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather
a symbol of pride, carnality,liberty, enlightenment, undefiled wisdom, and of a cosmos which
Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by
humans over the course of time. To adherents, he also serves as a conceptual framework and an
external metaphorical projection of [the Satanists] highest personal potential. [56][57][58][59][60][61]
In his essay, "Satanism: The Feared Religion", the current High Priest of the Church of Satan, Peter
H. Gilmore, further expounds that "...Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature
dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all
of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things. Satan is not
a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at
will."[62]

Notes
1551.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan "Term used in the Bible with

the general connotation of "adversary," being applied (1) to an enemy in war (I Kings v. 18 [A. V. 4]; xi.
14, 23, 25), from which use is developed the concept of a traitor in battle (I Sam. xxix. 4); (2) to an
accuser before the judgment-seat (Ps. cix. 6); and (3) to any opponent (II Sam. xix. 23 [A. V. 22]). The
word is likewise used to denote an antagonist who puts obstacles in the way, as in Num. xxii. 32,
where the angel of God is described as opposing Balaam in the guise of a satan or adversary; so that
the concept of Satan as a distinct being was not then known."
1552.

Jump up^ Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, page 290, Wendy Doniger

1553.

Jump up^ Leeming, David Adams (2005). The Oxford Companion to World

Mythology. Oxford University Press. p. 347. ISBN 978-0-19-515669-0.


1554.

Jump up^ Contemporary Religious Satanisim: A Critical Reader, Jesper Aagaard Petersen

2009
1555.

Jump up^ Who's ? Right: Mankind, Religions and the End Times, page 35, Kelly Warman-

Stallings 2012
1556.

Jump up^ ed. Buttrick, George Arthur; The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, An illustrated

Encyclopedia
1557.

Jump up^ Crenshaw, James L. Harper Collins Study Bible (NRSV), 1989

1558.

Jump up^ Stephen M. Hooks 2007 "As in Zechariah 3:12 the term here carries the definite

article (has'satan="the satan") and functions not as a ... the only place in the Hebrew Bible where the
term "Satan" is unquestionably used as a proper name is 1 Chronicles 21:1."
1559.

Jump up^ Coogan, Michael D.; A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament: The Hebrew Bible

in its context, Oxford University Press, 2009


1560.

Jump up^ Rachel Adelman The Return of the Repressed: Pirqe De-Rabbi Eliezer p65

"However, in the parallel versions of the story in Chronicles, it is Satan (without the definite article),"
1561.

Jump up^ Septuagint 108:6


1562.

Jump up^ Ruth R. Brand Adam and Eve p88 2005 "Later, however, King Hadad 1 Kings

11:14) and King Rezon (verses 23, ... Numbers 22:22, 23 does not use the definite article but
identifies the angel of YHWH as "a satan."
1563.

Jump up^ HarperCollins Study Bible (NRSV)

1564.

Jump up^ Steinmann, AE. "The structure and message of the Book of Job". Vetus

testamentum.

1565.

Jump up^ Henry Ansgar Kelly Satan: a biography 2006 "However, for Hadad and Rezon they

left the Hebrew term untranslated and simply said satan.. in the three passages in which a supraHuman satan appears: namely, Numbers, Job, Zechariah
1566.

^ Jump up to:a b Jackson, David R. (2004). Enochic Judaism. London: T&T Clark International.

pp. 24. ISBN 0826470890.


1567.

^ Jump up to:a b Berlin, editor in chief, Adele (2011). The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish

religion(2nd ed. ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. p. 651. ISBN 0199730040.
1568.

Jump up^ 2 Enoch 18:3. On this tradition, see A. Orlov, "The Watchers of Satanael: The

Fallen Angels Traditions in 2 (Slavonic) Enoch," in: A. Orlov, Dark Mirrors: Azazel and Satanael in
Early Jewish Demonology (Albany: SUNY, 2011) 85106.
1569.

Jump up^ "And I threw him out from the height with his angels, and he was flying in the air

continuously above the bottomless" 2 Enoch 29:4


1570.

Jump up^ "The devil is the evil spirit of the lower places, as a fugitive he made Sotona from

the heavens as his name was Satanail, thus he became different from the angels, but his nature did
not change his intelligence as far as his understanding of righteous and sinful things" 2 Enoch 31:4
1571.

Jump up^ See The Book of Wisdom: With Introduction and Notes, p. 27, Object of the book,

by A. T. S. Goodrick.
1572.

Jump up^ [ Introduction to the Book of Jubilees, 15. Theology. Some of our Author's Views:

Demonology, by R.H. Charles.


1573.

Jump up^ Based on the Jewish exegesis of 1 Samuel 29:4 and 1 Kings 5:18 Oxford

dictionary of the Jewish religion, 2011, p. 651 "Satan is rarely mentioned in tannaitic literature; later,
chiefly Babylonian, aggadah enlarges the scope of his influence and activities. Perhaps because of
the influential presence of Satan as a name or character in the New Testament and the"
1574.

Jump up^ Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen angels : soldiers of satan's realm (1.

paperback ed. ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Jewish Publ. Soc. of America. p. 148,149. ISBN 0827607970.
1575.

Jump up^ Robert Eisen Associate Professor of Religious Studies George Washington

UniversityThe Book of Job in Medieval Jewish Philosophy 2004 p120 "Moreover, Zerahfiiah gives us
insight into the parallel between the Garden of Eden story and the Job story alluded to ... both Satan

and Job's wife are metaphors for the evil inclination, a motif Zerahfiiah seems to identify with the
imagination."
1576.

Jump up^ The Dictionary of Angels" by Gustav Davidson, 1967

1577.

Jump up^ Jeffrey Burton Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to

Primitive ...1977, page 102 "This conflict between truth and the lie was one of the main sources of
Zarathushtra's dualism: the prophet perceived Angra Mainyu, the lord of evil, as the personification of
the lie. For Zoroastrians (as for the Egyptians), the lie was the essence ... "
1578.

Jump up^ Peter Clark, Zoroastrianism: An Introduction to Ancient Faith 1998, page 152

"There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition
that it would be difficult to ... Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the
Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon ..539 BC"
1579.

Jump up^ Winn, Shan M.M. (1995). Heaven, heroes, and happiness : the Indo-European

roots of Western ideology. Lanham, Md.: University press of America. p. 203. ISBN 0819198609.
1580.

Jump up^ http://jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/13219-satan. Missing or empty |

title= (help)
1581.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 176. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1582.

Jump up^ Kelly, Harry Ansgar (2007). Satan: a Biography. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press. p. 177. ISBN 978-0-521-84339-3.


1583.

Jump up^ Revelation 20:10

1584.

Jump up^ Origen. Contra Celsum. Book 6. Ch 42.

1585.

Jump up^ "American Heritage Dictionary: Devil". Retrieved 2006-05-31.

1586.

Jump up^ Revelation 12:9

1587.

Jump up^ K. van der Toorn, Bob Becking, Pieter Willem van der Horst, Baalzebub,

"Dictionary of deities and demons in the Bible", p. 155

1588.

Jump up^ B. W. Johnson (1891). "The Revelation of John. Chapter XX. The

Millennium.". The People's New Testament. Memorial University of Newfoundland.


Retrieved November 30,2009.
1589.

Jump up^ Iblis

1590.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:61]; [Quran 2:34]

1591.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:62]

1592.

Jump up^ [Quran 17:6364]

1593.

Jump up^ [Quran 7:2022]

1594.

Jump up^ Drower, E.S. The Peacock Angel. Being Some Account of Votaries of a Secret Cult

and their Sanctuaries. London: John Murray, 1941. [1]


1595.

Jump up^ Abdul-Bah (1982) [1912]. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette,

Illinois, USA: Bah' Publishing Trust. pp. 294295. ISBN 0-87743-172-8.


1596.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2000). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bah' Faith. Oxford, UK:

Oneworld. pp. 135136, 304. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.


1597.

Jump up^ Smith, Peter (2008). An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith. Cambridge: Cambridge

University Press. p. 112. ISBN 0-521-86251-5.


1598.

Jump up^ http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-29448079

1599.

Jump up^ Partridge, Christopher Hugh (2004). The Re-enchantment of the West. p. 82.

Retrieved 2008-05-12.
1600.

Jump up^ Satanism and Demonology, by Lionel & Patricia Fanthorpe, Dundurn Press, 8 Mar

2011,p. 74, "If, as theistic Satanists believe, the devil is an intelligent, self-aware entity..." "Theistic
Satanism then becomes explicable in terms of Lucifer's ambition to be the supreme god and his
rebellion against Yahweh. [...] This simplistic, controntational view is modified by other theistic
Satanists who do not regard their hero as evil: far from it. For them he is a freedom fighter..."
1601.

Jump up^ "Interview_MLO". Angelfire.com. Retrieved 2011-11-30.

1602.

Jump up^ Cinema of the Occult: New Age, Satanism, Wicca, and Spiritualism in Film, Carrol

Lee Fry, Associated University Presse, 2008, pp. 9298


1603.

^ Jump up to:a b Encyclopedia of Urban Legends, Updated and Expanded Edition, by Jan

Harold Brunvand, ABC-CLIO, 31 Jul 2012 pp. 694695


1604.

^ Jump up to:a b Raising the Devil: Satanism, New Religions, and the Media, by Bill Ellis,

University Press of Kentucky p. 125 In discussing myths about groups accused of Satanism, "...such
myths are already pervasive in Western culture, and the development of the modern "Satanic Scare"
would be impossible to explain without showing how these myths helped organize concerns and
beliefs." Accusations of Satanism are traced from the witch hunts, to the Illuminati, to the Satanic
Ritual Abuse panic in the 1980s, with a distinction made between what modern Satanists believe and
what is believed about Satanists.
1605.

^ Jump up to:a b Satan in America: The Devil We Know, by W. Scott Poole, Rowman &

LittlefieldPublishers, 16 Nov 2009, pp. 4243


1606.

Jump

up^name="altreligion.about.com">http://altreligion.about.com/od/alternativereligionsaz/a/satanism.ht
m
1607.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/WhatTheDevil.html

1608.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/_FAQ03.html

1609.

Jump up^ [2][dead link]

1610.

Jump up^ http://www.churchofsatan.com/Pages/ChaplainsHandbook.html

1611.

Jump up^ Contemporary religious Satanism: a critical anthology, page 45, Jesper Aagaard

Petersen, 2009
1612.

Jump up^ http://churchofsatan.com/satanism-the-feared-religion.php

References

Bamberger, Bernard J. (2006). Fallen Angels: Soldiers of Satan's Realm. Jewish Publication Society of
America. ISBN 0-8276-0797-0.

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: I. In the Old Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 1
(Jan., 1913), pp. 2933 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: II. Satan in Extra-Biblical Apocalyptical Literature", The
Biblical World, Vol. 41, No. 2 (Feb., 1913), pp. 98102 in JSTOR

Caldwell, William. "The Doctrine of Satan: III. In the New Testament", The Biblical World, Vol. 4