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B.V.

RAJU INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY


(UGC Autonomous)

Vishnupur, Narsapur, Medak (Dist.) 502 313


(Sri Vishnu Educational Society)

DEPARTMENT OF
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

POWER & ENERGY SYSTEMS LAB


(LAB MANUAL)

ACADEMIC YEAR 2015-2016


M.Tech (PE & ES) II-SEMESTER

PREFACE

The significance of the Power & Energy System Lab is renowned in the various fields
of engineering applications. For an Electrical Engineer, it is obligatory to have the practical
ideas about the Power systems. By this perspective we have introduced a Laboratory manual
cum Observation for Power & Energy System Lab.

The manual uses the plan, cogent and simple language to explain the fundamental
aspects of Power & Energy System Lab in practical. The manual prepared very carefully
with our level best. It gives all the steps in executing an experiment.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is one of lifes simple pleasures to say thank you for all the help that one has
extended their support. I wish to acknowledge and appreciate Associate Professor Mr.Saleem
Pasha, Assistant Professors Mr.N.Ramchander, Mr.G.Naresh Kumar, and Lab Technician
K. Srinivas Raju, P. Prabhu Dass, Foremen for their sincere efforts made towards developing
the Power & Energy System Lab. I wish to thank students for their suggestions which are
considered while preparing the lab manual.

I am extremely indebted to Dr. Ch. Venkateshwarlu, Principal and Professor,


Department of Chemical Engineering, BVRIT for his valuable inputs and sincere support to
complete the work.
Specifically, I am grateful to the Management for their constant advocacy and
incitement.
Finally, I would again like to thank the entire faculty in the Department and those
people who directly or indirectly helped in successful completion of this work.

Dr. N. BHOOPAL
HOD - EEE

GUIDELINES TO WRITE YOUR OBSERVATION BOOK

1. Experiment Title, Aim, Apparatus, Procedure should be on right side.


2. Circuit diagrams, Model graphs, Observations table, Calculations table should be left side.
3. Theoretical and model calculations can be any side as per your convenience.
4. Result should always be in the ending.
5. You all are advised to leave sufficient no of pages between experiments for theoretical or
model calculations purpose.

DOS AND DONTS IN THE LAB

DOS:1. Proper dress has to be maintained while entering in the Lab. (Boys Tuck in and shoes, girls
with apron)
2. All students should come to the Lab with necessary tools.
3. Students should carry observation notes and record completed in all aspects.
4. Correct specifications of the equipment have to be mentioned in the circuit diagram.
5. Student should be aware of operating equipment.
6. Students should be at their concerned experiment table, unnecessary moment is restricted.
7. Student should follow the indent procedure to receive and deposit the equipment from the
Lab Store Room.
8. After completing the connections Students should verify the circuits by the Lab Instructor.
9. The reading must be shown to the Lecturer In-Charge for verification.
10. Students must ensure that all switches are in the OFF position, all the connections are
removed.
11. All patch cords and stools should be placed at their original positions.

DONTs:-

1. Dont come late to the Lab.


2. Dont enter into the Lab with Golden rings, bracelets and bangles.
3. Dont make or remove the connections with power ON.
4. Dont switch ON the supply without verifying by the Staff Member.
5. Dont switch OFF the machine with load.
6. Dont leave the lab without the permission of the Lecturer In-Charge.

M. TECH. (PEES) Autonomous


M. TECH I YEAR II SEM. (PEES)
Power & Energy Systems Lab
List of Experiments
**Note: Conduct any ten experiments
1. Measurement of load and power factor for the electrical utilities.
2. Determination of characteristics of Solar Photovoltaic (PV) module/cell.
3. Determination of efficiency of DC/AC inverter
4. Study of Lead Acid Battery as energy storage.
5. Study of Performance of Solar Lamp.
6. Measurement of Intensity of solar radiation
7. Experimental study of solar lighting systems and system optimization.
8. Experimental study of solar PV pumping system.
9. Pay back analysis, financial work sheet of a renewable energy project.
10. Simulation of PV systems using PSPICE.
11. Simulation studies of PV systems using PVsyst.
12. Designing of grid-connected PV systems using PVsyst.
13. Performance analysis of PV systems using PVsyst.
14. Shading Analysis of PV systems using PVsyst.

1. Measurement of load and power factor for the electrical


utilities.

AIM: To measure the load and power factor for the electrical utilities.
APPARATUS:
S.NO Name of the equipment

Wattmeter

Rheostats

Connecting wires

4
5
6

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Range

Type

Qty

Theory:
Power factor is the percentage of electricity that is being used to do useful work. It is defined
as the ratio of active or actual power used in the circuit measured in watts or kilowatts (W
or KW), to the apparent power expressed in volt-amperes or kilo volt-amperes (VA or
KVA).

The apparent power also referred to as total power delivered by utility company has two
components. 1) Productive Power that powers the equipment and performs the useful work.
It is measured in KW (kilowatts) 2) Reactive Power that generates magnetic fields to
produce flux necessary for the operation of induction devices (AC motors, transformer,
inductive furnaces, ovens etc.). It is measured in KVAR (kilovolt-Ampere-Reactance).
Reactive Power produces no productive work. An inductive motor with power applied and no
load on its shaft should draw almost nil productive power, since no output work is being
accomplished until a load is applied. The current associated with no-load motor readings is
almost entirely "Reactive" Power. As a load is applied to the shaft of the motor, the
"Reactive" Power requirement will change only a small amount.
The Productive Power is the power that is transferred from electrical energy to some other
form of energy (i.e. such as heat energy or mechanical energy). The apparent power is always
in always in excess of the productive power for inductive loads and is dependent on the type
of machine in use. The working power (KW) and reactive power (KVAR) together make up
apparent power, which is measured in kilovolt-amperes (KVA).

Graphically it can be represented as:

The cosine of the phase angle between the KVA and the KW components represents the
power factor of the load. KVAR represents the non-productive reactive power and is
lagging phase angle.
The Relationship between KVA, KW and KVAR is non-linear and is expressed
KVA2 = KW2 + KVAR2 .
A power factor of 0.72 would mean that only 72% of your power is being used to do useful
work. Perfect power factor is 1.0, (unity); meaning 100% of the power is being used for
useful work.
FORMULAE:
PF = cos
where
PF = power factor
= phase angle between voltage and current

Procedure:
1) Connect the circuit as shown in the figure.
2) Ammeter is connected in series with wattmeter whose other end is connected to one of
the loads of the balanced loads.
3) The Y-phase is directly connected to one of the nodes of the 3-ph supply.
4) A wattmeter is connected across R-phase & Y-phase as shown in fig. The extreme of
Bphase
is connected to the third terminal of the balanced 3-ph load.
5) Another wattmeter is connected across Y & B phase; the extreme of B-phase is connected
to the third terminal of the balanced three phases load.
6) Verify the connections before switching on the 3-ph power supply.
7) Calculate the power factor by the give formulae at different loads as mentioned.

TABULAR FORM:
Power =
S.NO

SPEED(rpm)

Load

Hp.
Load

1 hp = 745.7 W.

PRECAUTIONS:
1. Avoid making loose connections.
2. Readings should be taken carefully without parallax error.

RESULT: The load and power factor for the electrical utilities is calculated.

Full Load

2. V-I CHARACTERISTIC OF SOLAR CELL


AIM: To study illuminated characteristics of a solar cell for different illumination levels.
APPARATUS:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Solar cell,
Rheostat,
Ammeter,
Voltmeter,
Illumination source,
Variac and
Connecting wires.

THEORY:
A solar cell is illuminated by light having photon energy greater than the band gap energy of
the solar cell. Then, using a proper circuit, the open circuit voltage, short circuit current and
power drawn from the solar cell are measured.
I. Introduction
1. Solar cell is basically a two terminal p-n junction device designed to absorb photon
absorption through the electrical signal or power in the external circuits. Therefore it is
necessary to discuss the physics of semiconductor p-n junction diode, which converts
the optical energy into electrical signals.
2 It is well known that doped semiconductors are of two types, p and n- types
semiconductors depending upon the nature of the charge carriers. In n-type
semiconductor the free carriers are electrons and in p-type semiconductor, the positive
charge carriers are holes. Since the semi conduct- ors are electrically neutral, in a doped
semiconductor the number of free carriers is equal to the lattice ions present in the
semiconductor. The nature of the semiconductor can be defined from the location of Fermi
energy level (EF) in the band structure of the semiconductor as shown in Fig.1. (The Fermi
energy level is defined as the highest filled energy level at 0 K). In p-type semiconductor the
Fermi level lies just above the valence band (EV) and in n-type semiconductor it lies just
below the conduction band (EC) as shown in Fig. 1. When these two types of
semiconductors come in contact, the free carriers flow in opposite direction and neutralize
each other. This process will continue until the Fermi energy levels of the two
semiconductors come to the same level as shown in Fig. 2.

The region surrounding the junction thus only contains the uncovered positive ions in n-side
and uncovered negative ions in p-side. This region is known as the depletion region (W)

and there are no free carriers available in this region (Figure 3a). In the depletion region, the
nature of Fermi energy level is most important from device point of view.
The variation of different parameters across the depletion region is also shown in Fig. 3(b-e).

p-type semiconductor
n-type semiconductor
Figure 1. Location of Fermi energy level in p and n type semiconductors.

Figure 2. Energy bend band diagram of p-n junction diode under no bias condition.

Vo is the potential difference at the depletion region.

3. A p-n junction semiconductor can be used in forward as well as in the reverse


biasing mode. If V is the applied reverse voltage across the junction then the current in the
external circuit can be expressed as follows: Where,

Lp,n = Recombination length of holes and electrons in semiconductors.


tp,n = Life time of holes and electrons.
A = Surface area of the junction in p-n semiconductor diode.
pn , np = minority carrier density in n and p sides.
V = is the applied reverse bias voltage across the junction.
For a combination of two particular semiconductors, the quantityand is known as the reverse
saturation current ( Irs ).

4. When a radiation of photon energy greater than the band gap energy of the
semiconductor falls up on the surface across the junction (i.e., region surrounding the
depletion region), it produces new electron hole (e-h) pairs. Since there exists a junction
potential difference as shown in Fig 3, the new carriers flow in opposite directions depending
on their nature of charge. Under this condition eq. (1) can be modified as follows:

Where, gop is the optical generation rate of e-h pairs per (cm3- sec) and V is the applied
reverse bias across the p-n junction diode. The second part of the equation is the current due
to optical genera-tion of e-h pairs (Iop).

Figure 3. Schematic diagram of p-n junction showing different parameters exist across the junction.

So, the above equation could be written as

Following eq.(2), when the device is short circuited (V=0), there is a short circuit current
from p to n equal to Iop. The usual (i.e., under dark conditions) V-I characteristic for
diode is shown in Fig. 4 by the dashed line that passes through the origin (see eq. (1)).

Figure 4. V-I characteristic curves of a photo-diode under dark (------) and illuminated ( ___ ) conditions.

When the optical generation current, Iop


is introduced , the nature of the
characteristic curve is modified. In the illuminated condition, the curve passes through
the fourth quadrant also. When the circuit is open, I=0, using applied reverse bias is also
zero, the potential across the junction due to optical generation of electron hole pairs,
become Voc ( as like V) and one can write from eq. (2),

Under this condition the Fermi levels will again change the nature in depletion region.
From the difference of the Fermi levels in n and p-type semiconductors one can express the
open circuited voltage as shown in Fig . 5.

Figure 5. Illuminated I-V characteristics for solar cell for two different illuminations

5. When we need to use the photodiode as detector application, we usually operate it in the
3rd quadrant. If power is to be extracted from the device, the fourth quadrant is used. The
equivalent circuit for the purpose is shown in Fig. 6. in the experimental section. The
maximum power delivered through the load RL is when the series resistance RS is
equivalent to the value of RL as given in the procedure. Again to receive maximum power
from solar cell, it is designed with large surface area coated with appropriate materials to
reduce the reflection of the incident light and to reduce the recombination. Therefore in solar
cell device the junction depth from the surface must be less than the recombination length of
electron and holes from both sides, so that the optically generated carriers can reach the
depletion region before recombination with the majority carriers in the semiconductors. In
most of the cases the incident photons penetrate the n and p regions and are absorbed in the
depletion region.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

PROCEDURE:
1. Complete the circuit as shown in circuit diagram (figure 6.)
2. Illuminate the solar cell. Adjust the rheostat position for resistance so that the volt meter
reads zero. This is the short circuit connection. Adjust the variac 119 (maximum
up to 230 V) such that ammeter reads a value of about 500 mA. Note down the value of
the current as short circuited current, Isc .
3.

Increase the resistance by varying the rheostat slowly and note down the readings of
current and voltage till a maximum voltage is read. Ensure to take at least 15 20
readings in this region.

4. Disconnect the rheostat and note down the voltage. This is the open circuit voltage,
Voc
5. Repeat the experiment for another intensity of the illumination source.
6. Tabulate all readings in Table 1. Calculate the power using the relation, P = V x
7. Plot I vs. V with Isc on the current axis at the zero volt position and Voc on the voltage
axis at the zero current (see Figure 5.)
8.

Identify the maximum power point


Pm on each plot. Calculate the series
resistance of the solar cell using the formula as follows : RS = [ DV/DI ].

9. To see the performance of the cell calculate fill factor (FT) of the cell, which can be
expressed by the formula, FF = [ Pm/Isc Voc ].

RESULT:

VIVA QUESTIONS:
1. What is a semiconductor? What are p and n type semiconductors? Give one example of
each.
2. What are the advantages of using doped semiconductor rather than pure
semiconductors? Why are semiconductor diodes preferred to valve diodes?
3. What is the meaning of valence and conduction band in semiconductor? How is the Fermi
energy level in a semiconductor defined?

4. Why do the Fermi energy levels come to the same level when p and n-types of
semiconductors come in contact?
5. What is the depletion region? Assuming majority carrier concentration in n-type
semiconductor is higher than p-type, discuss about the width of the depletion region about the
physical contact layer.
6. What is the meaning of recombination, recombination length, and life time of carriers in
doped semiconductor?
7. What is reverse saturation current in p-n diode? If you increase the reverse bias voltage,
what will be the nature of the 3rd quadrant part of the dotted line in figure 4?
8. Give some practical uses of the solar cell

3. Lead-Acid Batteries

AIM: Study of Lead Acid Battery as energy storage.


APPARATUS: Lead acid battery, load

THEORY:
Methods of charging
Some of the methods of charging are constant-current method, constant-voltage method,
modified constant-voltage method, float charging method, and trickle charging method.
Constant-current charging method
In the constant-current method, a fixed current is applied for a certain time to the battery to
recharge it. The charging current is set to a low value to avoid the voltage across the battery
from exceeding the gassing voltage as the battery charge approaches 100%. Consequently,
this results in long charge times (usually 12 hours or longer). Figure below (A) shows the
charging characteristic curves obtained with the constant-current method (single step).
Multiple decreasing current steps can also be used to shorten charge times obtained using the
constant-current charging method as shown in Figure below (B) Though it is used for
charging some small lead-acid batteries, the constant current charging method is not widely
used for lead-acid batteries, because of the gassing which is likely to occur when charging a
battery too long. The risk of gassing is more important when charging a battery which is only
partially discharged.
Constant-current is also used in trickle charging, another charging method described later in
this discussion.

b
Constant-voltage charging method
In the constant-voltage charging method, a fixed-voltage is applied to the battery to recharge
it. The initial charging current (current at the beginning of the battery charge) is at its
maximum and can even reach higher values (even exceeding the maximum charge current
prescribed by the battery manufacturer) when the battery depth of discharge is high. For this
reason, purely constant-voltage charging is seldom used to charge lead-acid batteries that are
used in cyclic charge-discharge applications (e.g., battery in an electric vehicle). However,
constant-voltage charging is often used to maintain the charge of lead-acid batteries used in
standby applications (e.g., as in uninterruptable power supplies), in which case the charge
process is referred to as float charging (another charging method described later in this
discussion). Figure below shows
the charging characteristic curves obtained with the constant-voltage charging method. The
waveform difference between the charger output voltage and the battery cell voltage at the
beginning of the charge cycle is caused by the internal resistance of the battery.

Typical charging characteristics of a SLI battery using the constant-voltage chargingmethod.

Float charging method


In the float charging method, a constant voltage, set to a value just sufficient to finish the
battery charge or to maintain the full charge is applied to the battery. Typical float charging
voltage values range from about 2.15 V to 2.3 V per battery cell. The float charging method
is commonly used to maintain the charge of lead acid batteries used in stationary
applications, such as in uninterruptable power supplies and SLI batteries (when the battery is
charged from the motor
alternator). Note that to achieve a full recharge with a low constant voltage requires the
proper selection of the starting current, which is based on the manufacturers specifications.
Modified constant-voltage charging method
In the modified constant-voltage charging method, both a constant initial current and a
constant finishing charge rate (float charging) are used. Battery charging starts with a
constant current until a certain voltage is reached (usually the gassing voltage). Battery
charging continues with a constant-voltage just equal to or slightly below the gassing voltage
until the current decreases to a value of about 2.3V. At this point, the constant-voltage is
reduced to the float value (see
float charging method) to complete and maintain the battery charge. The higher the initial
constant-current and constant-voltage, the shorter the charge time. Figure shows the charging
characteristic curves obtained with the modified constant-voltage charging method. This
charging method is also known as the fast charging method. This charging method is used in
the lead-acid battery charger (fast) implemented with the Four-Quadrant
Dynamometer/Power Supply.

Modified constant-voltage charging method

Trickle charging method


In the trickle charging method, a low-value constant current is applied to the battery. This
small current is sufficient to maintain the full charge of a battery or to restore the charge of a
battery that is used intermittently for short periods of time. The trickle charging method, also
called the compensating charge, is used to maintain the charge of batteries used for stationary
applications and SLI batteries. During trickle charging, the battery is disconnected from the
load (e.g. in the case of an SLI battery, the battery is disconnected from the electrical circuit
of the car).

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

Battery connected to the Four-Quadrant Dynamometer/Power Supply operating as a battery discharger.

PROCEDURE:
The Procedure is divided into the following sections:

1. Setup and connections


2. Battery charge using the modified constant-voltage charging method (fast charge)
3. Battery charge using the float charging method (slow charge).

RESULT:

4. SOLAR LIGHTENING SYSYTEM AND SYSTEM


OPTIMISATION

AIM: Experimental study of solar lighting systems and system optimization.


APPARATUS:
1. Photovoltaic module or solar arrays.
2. Lightning device.
3. Inverter.
4. Battery.
THEORY:
Solar Photovoltaic (pv): Photovoltaic is the technical term for solar electric. Photo means
light and voltaic means electric. PV cells are usually made of silicon, an element that
naturally releases electrons when exposed to light. Amount of electrons released from silicon
cells depend upon intensity of light incident on it. The silicon cell is covered with a grid of
metal that directs the electrons to flow in a path to create an electric current. This current is
guided into a wire that is connected to a battery or DC appliances. Typically, one cell
produces about 1.5 watts of power. Individual cells are connected together to form a solar
panel or module, capable of producing 3 to 110 Watts power. Panels can be connected
together in series and parallel to make a solar array, which can produce any amount of
Wattage as space will allow. Modules are usually designed to supply electricity at 12 Volts.
PV modules are rated by their peak Watt output as solar noon on a clear day. Some
applications for PV system are lightning for commercial buildings, outdoor (street) lightning,
rural and village lightning etc. Solar PV systems are found to be economical especially in the
hilly and far flung areas where conventional grid power supply will be expensive to reach.

PROCEDURE:
The performance of a solar cell is measured in terms of its efficiency at converting
sun light into electricity. Only sunlight of certain energy will work efficiently to create
electricity.

STREET LIGHTNING SYSYTEM:


It consists of two photo-voltaic modules mounting frame, four meter long pole battery box,
lead acid battery and inverters. It works with one fluorescent tube light of 20 Watts for whole
night.

ADVANTAGES:
1. Absence of moving parts.
2. Modular in nature in which desire currents, voltage and power levels can be achieved by
more integration.
3. They consume no fuel to operate on solar energy
4. Maintenance cost is low.
5. Easy to operate
6. Solar cells can be used in combination with power conducting circuits to feed powerv into
utility grid.
APPLICATIONS:
1. Home lightening system
2. Traffic control system
3. Street lightening system
4. Battery charging

RESULT:

5. STUDY OF SOLAR PV PUMPING SYSTEM


AIM: Experimental study of solar PV pumping system.
APPARATUS:
1. Solar cell array
2. Inverter
3. Cable
4. Submersible pump motor
5. Delivery pipe
6. Storage tank
DIAGRAM:

WORKING:
A solar photo voltaic water pumping system consist of photo voltaic array mounted on a
stand and one of the following motor pump sets compatible with the photo voltaic array. This
array converts the solar energy into electricity, which is used for running the motor pump set.
The pumping system draws water from the open well, bore well, streme, pond, cannel, etc.
The system components of solar photovoltaic water pumping systems are photo voltaic array,
motor pump, interface voltaic, connecting cables, switches and pipes etc.
The SPV water pumping system is used in agriculture, horticulture, animal husbandry,

poultry forming high valve crops, fish culture, salt farming, drinking water etc..

The water pumping systems are available in different types to meet various needs and
applications:
SURFACE PUMPS: These pumps are suitable for lifting and pumping water from a
maximum depth of 20 meters (total head)
SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS: These pumps can be used in areas where water is available at a
greater depth and where open wells are not available. The maximum recommended depth
these systems can pump is 50 meters

SOLAR HAND PUMP: These pumps are exclusively designed by Balaji Industrial and
agricultural casting to meet both the requirements of surface and submersible pumps. It has a

manual operation mode where the system can be used manually when sufficient sunshine is
not available to drive the pump.

b. Organic fluid based solar pump


Apparatus:
1. Solar collecter array
2. Heat exchanger
3. Organic fluid
4. Heat engine
5. Condenser
6. Pump
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

WORKING: When the su ray falls on the solar collector, black body absorbs the sun rays
and water in the tubes get heated up and circulates to the heat exchanger. Through the heat
exchanger, hot water is again pumped back in the solar collector with the help of pump. The
organic fluid in the other tube senses the heat produced in the heat exchanger and converts
its phase into vapor. Ground water is pumped with the help of a pump, which is coupled
with the heat engine.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

Result:

6. EFFICIENCY OF DC/AC INVERTORS


AIM:To determine efficiency of DC/AC inverter.
APPARATUS:
Eqipment for stand-alone invertor test:

Equpiment for grid-connected invertors test:

CIRCUIT:

Experimental set up for testing of stand-alone connected inverter.

Experimental set up for testing of grid connected inverter.


THEORY:
A.STAND-ALONE INVERTERS
Stand-alone, or battery supplied, inverters are demand driven - they provide any power or
current up to the rating of the inverter and assuming that there is enough energy in the
battery. These inverters are being used increasingly to operate household appliances and
other normal 230 V equipment. The question as to the maximum size for which a single
central inverter for all electrical devices is still the best solution, is a matter of philosophy.
The central inverter must be in operation all the time. In this case, it is important that the
inverter itself has a very low internal consumption.
Different types of inverter produce different AC waveforms and are suitable for
different situations.
Square Wave Inverters
The square wave inverter derives its name from the shape of the output waveform figure (1)

Square wave output wave Figure (1)

Square wave inverters were the original electronic inverter. The first versions use a
mechanical vibrator type switch to break up the low voltage DC into pulses. These pulses are
then applied to a transformer where they are stepped up. With the advent of semiconductor
switches the mechanical vibrator was replaced with solid state transistor switches.
Nowadays, the most common circuit topology, which is used to produce a square wave

output, referred to as push-pull. Square wave inverters run simple electric motors, but not
much else, and will require a lot of energy to do so. Also, this kind of inverters is low quality.
The price of better quality inverters is low enough to make the use of these unattractive.
Modified Square Wave Inverters
Modified square wave inverters (often referred to as modified sine wave inverters) use a
push-pull topology as well as square wave inverters, with the addition of a few extra parts in
their design. However, some modified square wave inverters use another one topology, which
is called H-Bridge. Their output has the shape of the waveform of the next page (see figure
2).

These inverters are a good choice for a 'whole home' inverter since their high surge capacity
lets them start motors whilst their high efficiency lets them run small appliances
economically. Most loads will run without trouble from a modified sine wave. It is suitable
for a variety of applications such as induction motors (i.e. refrigerators, drill presses);
resistive loads (i.e. heaters, toasters); universal motors (i.e. hand tools, vacuum cleaners) as
well as microwaves and computers. However, some appliances will not operate or will run
noticeably less well if not on a pure sine wave.
Problem loads: e.g. many laser printers, copiers, some computers, light dimmers and some
variable speed tools may not operate; some TV's and some audio equipment will pick up
interference or background buzz; some digital clocks may not keep time; microwave ovens
will have longer cooking times; and some small battery chargers may fail. Central heating
ignition systems can be problematic.
Sine Wave Inverters
A sine wave inverter puts out an AC equal to what you get from utility grid, a smooth sine
wave. A 'mains' quality pure sine wave output is necessary for some applications such as
running electronics or audio equipment. Two common tolopogies that are used to produce
sine wave output are push-pull and H-Bridge. True sine wave inverters can run all types of
load and are now available which are powerful, efficient and affordable! Their disadvantage
is their cost, which is higher than the cost of the other kinds of inverters.

B. GRID-CONNECTED INVERTERS
Grid-connected inverters are supply driven - they provide all the power supplied from a DC
source to the grid or mains. Therefore, in grid-connected systems, the solar inverter is the
connecting link between the solar generator and the AC grid, while the characteristics of the
inverter have a decisive influence on the performance of the grid connected photovoltaic
system.
Generally, grid-connected inverters operate at a higher DC voltage than stand alone inverters.
Grid-connected inverters should NOT be connected to batteries and stand-alone inverters
should NOT be connected directly to PV or the grid. Smaller systems with few appliances
may have only DC power, but recent advances in inverter design, efficiency, and reliability
have increased the potential of solar systems considerably.
With the use of modern high efficiency AC lighting the majority of, if not all, loads can be
operated on AC especially in larger installations. We can use both AC & DC where each is
most effective and economical - many DC appliances use less power than their AC
equivalents (especially refrigeration, lighting & electronics) - but DC appliances tend to be
harder to find and more expensive.
PROCEDURE FOR MEASURING EFFICIENCY:
EFFICIENCY MEASUREMENT CONDITIONS:
EFFICIENCY CALCULATIONS:

Rated output efficiency


Rated output efficiency will be calculated from measured data as follows:
nR = (Po / Pi) * 100 (1)
where
nR is the rated output efficiency (%);
Po is the rated output power from the inverter (kW);
Pi is the input power to the inverter at rated output (kW).

Partial output efficiency


Partial output efficiency will be calculated from measured data as follows:
npar = (Pop / Pip) * 100 (2)
where
npar is the partial output efficiency (%);
Pop is the partial output power from the inverter (kW);
Pip is the input power to the inverter at partial output (kW).
MODEL GRAPHs:
Graph of efficiencies

RESULT:

7. Measurement of Intensity of solar radiation


Aim: To measure the Intensity of solar radiation
Apparatus:
1. Pyranometer
2. Pyrheliometer
Theory:
A Pyranometer: is an instrument for measuring solar irradiance from the solid angle 2 onto
a plane surface. When mounted horizontally facing upwards it measures global solar
irradiance. If it is provided with a shade that prevents beam solar radiation from reaching the
receiver, it measures diffuse solar irradiance.
These radiometers must be calibrated periodically against a standard. An accuracy of about
3% is then obtainable in good instruments.
Great care is needed when choosing a site for these radiometers, especially when the
measurements are required for climatological studies in conjunction with measurements by
other instruments over a large area. It is surprisingly difficult to find sites that have an
uninterrupted view of the sky from the zenith to the horizon in all directions. Objects that
stand above the horizontal plane of the instrument obscure part of the sky and influence the
diffuse solar irradiance measured.

Pyrheliometer:
The receiver of the instrument consists of two thin strips of manganin, made as identical in
every way as possible. One strip is exposed to the sun radiation, while the other one is
screened from the sun. Through the screened strip an electric current is passed, the intensity
of which is regulated so that heating of the two strips is the same.
To secure this thermo junctions connected through a sensitive galvanometer are attached to
the central points at the back side of the two strips. A current through the screened strip is
adjusted, so that the galvanometer shows no deflection.
PROCEDURE:

The power incident on a PV module depends not only on the power contained in the sunlight,
but also on the angle between the module and the sun. When the absorbing surface and the
sunlight are perpendicular to each other, the power density on the surface is equal to that of
the sunlight (in other words, the power density will always be at its maximum when the PV
module is perpendicular to the sun). However, as the angle between the sun and a fixed
surface is continually changing, the power density on a fixed PV module is less than that of
the incident sunlight.
The amount of solar radiation incident on a tilted module surface is the component of the
incident solar radiation which is perpendicular to the module surface. The following figure
shows how to calculate the radiation incident on a tilted surface (S module) given either the
solar radiation measured on horizontal surface (Shoriz) or the solar radiation measured
perpendicular to the sun (Sincident).

CALCULATIONS:-

RESULT:-

8. Designing of grid-connected PV System using PVsyst

Grid-connected system definition:


The "system" is defined as the set of components constituting the PV-array, the inverter, up
to the connection to the grid.

First rule: all the strings of modules connected to the input of an inverter (or a MPPT input),
should be homogeneous: identical modules, same number of modules in series, same
orientation.
Exceptions may sometimes be acceptable - as far as only differences in the current of strings
are
concerned - for example strings of different orientations (cf Heterogeneous planes ).
PVsyst now allows the construction of heterogeneous systems with several different
subfields.
For a given subfield: you have to define your requirements, and PVsyst will automatically
propose a suited arrangement.
The basic requirements for a sub-field (i.e. the parameters you should input) are:
- The desired nominal power, or alternatively the available area for installing modules,
- The inverter model, chosen in the database,
- A PV module model, chosen in the database.
Then the program will choose the required number of inverters, according to a pre-defined
Pnom array/inverter ratio of 1.25. It will then propose a number of modules in series, and a
number of strings in order to approach the desired power or available area.
The acceptable choices for the number of modules in series/parallel are mentioned on the
dialog. They should meet the following requirements:
- The minimum array voltage in worst temperature conditions (60C) should not be under the
inverter's voltage range for MPPT,

- The maximum array voltage in worst temperature conditions (20C) should not be above
the inverter's voltage range for MPPT,
- The maximum array voltage in open circuit should not exceed the absolute maximum
voltage at the input of the inverter,
- The maximum array voltage in open circuit should not exceed the allowed system voltage
specified for the PV module.
The inverter power sizing is a delicate and debated problem. PVsyst proposes a
methodology based on the predicted overload losses. This usually leads to Pnom ratios far
below those recommended by inverter's providers, but we think that they are closer to an
economical optimum. All these conditions are explicitly displayed on a system sizing graph,
(button "Show sizing").

Array voltage sizing according to inverter:


The number of modules in series has to match the following conditions:
- The minimum array operating voltage (i.e. at max. module operating temperature, 60C by
default) should be above the minimum inverter's operating voltage (Vmin of MPPT range).
- The maximum array operating voltage (i.e. at min. module operating temperature, 20C by
default) has to stay below the maximum inverter's operating voltage (Vmax of MPPT range).
- The maximum array absolute voltage (i.e. Voc at min. temperature, -10C by default) has
to stay below the absolute maximum inverter's input voltage.
- The maximum array absolute voltage (i.e. Voc at min. temperature, -10C by default)
should not overcome the maximum system voltage specified for the PV module.

Design temperatures:
These conditions involve design temperatures, which are part of your project and may be
changed according to your climate in the definition of the project, option "Site and Meteo" /
"Next". The default values (for each new project) may be redefined in the Hidden Parameters,
topic "System design parameters". These are:
- Maximum cell temperature in operating conditions, default 60C,
- Summer usual operating conditions, not used for sizing constraints, default 50C,
- Winter minimum cell temperature in operating conditions, default 20C,
- Absolute Cell lower temperature for determining the Maximum possible voltage of the
array. The default is set to -10C for most European countries (best practice rule). For this
limit, the cell temperature is considered as the ambient temperature (worst case when the sun
suddenly appears on the field).

Inverter / Array sizing:


The inverter power sizing is a delicate and debated problem.
Most inverter providers recommend (or require) a PNom array limit or a fixed Pnom
(inverter/array) ratio,
usually of the order of 1.0 to 1.1.
But we have to notice:
- The Pnom of the inverter is defined as the output power. The corresponding input power is
PnomDC =PnomAC / Effic, i.e. about 4 to 6% over.
- The Pnom array is defined for the STC. But in real conditions, this value is very rarely or
never attained (the power under 1000 W/m and 25C is equivalent to that under 1120 W/m
at 55C if we take a Pmpp
= -0.4%/C).
- The power distribution is strongly dependent on the plane orientation,
- But the maximum powers are not very much dependent on the latitude: by clear day and
perpendicular to the sun rays, the irradiance is quite comparable, only dependent on the air
mass,
- Most inverters accept a part of overload during short times (dependent on the temperature of
the device). This is not taken into account in the simulation, and may still reduce de
calculated overload loss,
- When over-sized, the inverter will operate more often in its low power range, where the
efficiency is decreasing.
Grid Inverter sizing:
Please note that the inverter sizing should take into account the fact that:
- the inverter nominal power is defined as the device output power. The corresponding input
ower has to be increased by a factor 1 / Efficiency (about +4 to +8% at maximum power).
- the array nominal power is defined at STC (1000 W/m, 25C). Under operating
conditions the module temperature, mismatch and other losses decrease the effective array
output power of at least15 to 20% from the given nominal power. Therefore, for proper
operation an inverter nominal power about 20-25% below the array nominal power is
sufficient.

System sizing
As with any usual system, you are advised to start by specifying the required power for your
subfield (or the available area). After that you have to choose a PV module. When choosing a
SolarEdge inverter, the system sizing dialog will change to a suited dialog for the SolarEdge
architecture, and predefine the number of required inverters for your system size. You have
first to choose the Power Box to be used in your system (in the PV module group). Then in
the Array design part, please define the Power Box input configuration, i.e. the number of PV
modules connected to each Power Box (according to number of available inputs).

Then you define the inverter input:

- The number of Power Boxes in Series. The limits described above are shown on the right of
the edit box. The nominal power corresponding to a whole string is shown, as well as the part
of the inverter capacity (in percent). This very important information indicates how many
identical strings you can connect on one inverter. For example if more that 50%, only one
string of that length can be connected to each inverter.
- The number of Strings in Parallel. When one only string is allowed per inverter, this will be
limited to the number of inverters. Below 50% capacity, this will be 2 times this number or
more You are of course advised to use the "Show Sizing" tool for visually checking the
sizing of this sub-field.
Systems with different strings

When you have strings with different lengths, you should define different sub-arrays, one for
each length to be defined. In this case within a subfield, only a part of the inverter will be
used for each string. Therefore you should define "Uses fractional Input" option, and define
the inverter fraction to be used for this string. When several inverters are used, this will be the
fraction for one inverter times the number of inverters. This will allow the use of the
complement of each inverter within another subfield, with the suited fraction (for example
70% in one subfield and 30% in another one). The total number of inverters defined in the
whole system appears in the "Global system summary" table at the top right of the dialog.
When inverter inputs are connected to strings of different lengths, the program is not able to
check the full Compatibility of your system. You should check by yourself that the defined
fractions are compatible with the foreseen strings.

Simulation
With distributed SolarEdge architecture:
- there are no mismatch losses,
- the near shadings should be defined as "Linear", i.e. without string partition.
Linear shading is a good approximation for the shadings in SolarEdge architecture. As
opposed to the
option "according to module strings", that is used for the upper bound of electrical losses
with regular inverters. The most exact way for SolarEdge simulation would be to define a
string partition with rectangles corresponding to the number of PV modules in series at the
input of one Power Box. These very little rectangles will reduce drastically the usual
electrical shading losses observed with full strings, except in very regular cases like shed
arrangement, where each module of the lower row becomes unproductive as soon as the
bottom cell is shaded.

9. PAY BACK ANALYSIS


Aim: To determine the Pay back analysis, financial work sheet of a Renewable energy

project.
Theory: Solar Photovoltaic (PV) systems convert Sunlight directly into Electricity. This PV
systems vary greatly in size and cost, calculating the economics of a solar system is key to
knowing whether a solar system is right for your home, business or farm. Knowing the
economics of solar PV systems will be one of the most important considerations when
deciding on solar energy. Here you should view your solar PV system as an investment; this
decision should be made after determining the feasibility of installing a solar system at
specific site. This experiment focuses on grid-tied PV systems. These economic calculations
will be similar for off-grid systems.

Procedure:
1. Determine if you have a viable site (facing south )
2. Determine the total installed cost of a system from the local solar installer, Work with
the installer to estimate annual production from solar array.
3. Determine your cost of electricity, Check state net metering laws, and check local
utilities net metering policy.
4. Calculate simple payback period.
5. Determine eligibility for local, state and federal grants and tax credits.
6. Include inflation estimate in your calculations.
7. Calculate Internal Rate of return and Net Present value using a spread sheet.

CALCULATIONS:

Example:

ASSUMPTIONS:
Capacity
Cost of Project (Rs )
Project cost excluding land (Rs)
Technical Inputs:
Capacity Utilization factor
Degredation for Ist year
Degredation year on year
Generation 1st year
Length of transmission line
Lossess per Km
Total loss
Sale of Power:
PPA tariff
PPA tariff year on year escalation
APPC rate
APPC tariff year on year escalation
Rate of REC
Rate valid upto years
REC rate after the years
CDM Benefits:
Grid Emission factor
CER rate
%of revenue available to the owner
CDM benefit start year
No of years of CDM benefit
VCU rate
Project Financing:
Debt
Debt
Equity
Subsidy
Interest on term loan
period of loan
Moratorium
Operating Expenses:

1 MW
70230000 Per MW cost
66690000
70230000
19.50%
2%
0.70%
1674036
5 Km
0.05%
0.25%
0
0.00%
3
5.00%
3.5
3
3.5

Rs per unit
Rs per unit
Rs per unit
years
Rs per unit

0.916 tones of Co2/MWhr


1.5 Euro
50%
2
10
2 Dollars

70% %
49161000 Rs in lakhs
21069000 Rs in lakhs
Rs in lakhs
12.50%
10 years
1 years

O&M Charges
O&M charges escalation
Insurance
Working Capital Requirment:
O&M charges
Accounts Receivable
Spares
Interest
Taxation:
MAT rate
Income tax rate
80 I/A holiday starts from
Depreciation
Use WDV book depreciation at 15.33% ?
(y/n)
Use accelerated Dep (y/n)
Accelerated Dep in 1st year
Standalone project
Other Parameters:
Exchange rate ( Euro)
Exchange rate ( Dollar)
Discounting rate for NPV
Feasibility
Indicators:
Project Pay Back
Equity Pay Back
Project NPV
Equity NPV
Project IRR
Equity IRR
DSCR

No of years
No of years
Rs
Rs
%
%

500000 per MW
5%
0.50% Of COP

1
1.5
10.0%
12%

Months
Months
(% of O&M)
% p.a

20.96%
32.45%
4 year

y
y
80% ( 40% or 80%)
n
( y/n)

90 Rs
62 Rs
12%

6.80
10.14
8578530
9110076
15%
18%
1.24

COST OF SOLAR PV PROJECT


Sl
No.
1
2
3
4

5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Particulars
Cost of land & boyndary wall etc
Cost of land ( in Acres)
Conveyancing charges
Boundary wall (mt)
Site development
Sub Total
Plant & Machinery:
Modules
Inverters
Module mounting structures
Cables & connectors
SJB
Lightning arresters
Transformer & HT panels
Evacuation line
Civil Construction:
Inverter & control Room (Sqft)
Trenches
Internal roads
Sub Total
SCADA
Metering panels
Misc approvals etc

Cost of Project without land cost

per unit
cost

Nos
4
15%
600
1

400000
2000
500000

1000000
2
55
1
12
10
1
5

36
2000000
70000
2500000
80000
50000
6000000
1200000

1200
1
1

2400
300000
500000

1
1
1

1000000
200000
2000000

Cost per
MW ( Rs in
lakhs)
1600000
240000
1200000
500000
3540000
36000000
4000000
3850000
2500000
960000
500000
6000000
6000000
59810000
2880000
300000
500000
3680000
1000000
200000
2000000
3200000
70230000

Total cost (
Rs in lakhs)

3540000
36000000
4000000
3850000
2500000
960000
500000
6000000
6000000

3680000
1000000
200000
2000000
70230000
66690000

10. Performance analysis of PV systems using PVsyst


Page 1/3

Grid-Connected System: Simulation parameters


Project :

BVRIT SOLAR PLANT 100kWp

Geographical Site
Situation
Time defined as

Narsapur, Medak

Meteo data :

Latitude 17.7N
Legal Time Time zone UT+6
Albedo 0.20
Narsapur, Medak, Synthetic Hourly data

Simulation variant :

No shading effects
Simulation date

Country
Longitude
Altitude

India
78.3E
560 m

21/02/14 23h59

Simulation parameters
Collector Plane Orientation

Tilt

Horizon

Free Horizon

Near Shadings

No Shadings

17

Azimuth

PV Array Characteristics
PV module

Si-poly
Model
Manufacturer
Number of PV modules
In series
Total number of PV modules
Nb. modules
Array global power
Nominal (STC)
Array operating characteristics (50C)
U mpp
Total area
Module area

SIRIUS-250
SIRIUS SOLAR ENERGY
20 modules
In parallel
400
Unit Nom. Power
100 kWp
At operating cond.
534 V
I mpp
644 m

Inverter

RefuSol 20K
REFU Elektronik GmbH
480-800 V
Unit Nom. Power
5 units
Total Power

Characteristics
Inverter pack

Model
Manufacturer
Operating Voltage
Number of Inverter

20 strings
250 Wp
88 kWp (50C)
165 A

19.2 kW AC
96.0 kW AC

PV Array loss factors


Thermal Loss factor
Uc (const) 20.0 W/mK
Uv (wind)
=> Nominal Oper. Coll. Temp. (G=800 W/m, Tamb=20C, Wind velocity = 1m/s.) NOCT

0.0 W/mK / m/s


56 C

Wiring Ohmic Loss


Global array res.
Module Quality Loss
Module Mismatch Losses
Incidence effect, ASHRAE parametrization
IAM =

1.5 % at STC
2.0 %
2.0 % at MPP
0.05

User's needs :

Unlimited load (grid)

55 mOhm

1 - bo (1/cos i - 1)

Loss Fraction
Loss Fraction
Loss Fraction
bo Parameter

PVSYST V5.14

22/02/14 Page 2/3

Grid-Connected System: Main results


Project :

BVRIT SOLAR PLANT 100kWp

Simulation variant :

No shading effects

Main system parameters


PV Field Orientation
PV modules
PV Array
Inverter
Inverter pack
User's needs

System type
tilt
Model
Nb. of modules
Model
Nb. of units
Unlimited load (grid)

Main simulation results


System Production

Produced Energy
Performance Ratio PR

Grid-Connected
17
SIRIUS-250
400
RefuSol 20K
5.0

157 MWh/year
75.4 %

azimuth
Pnom
Pnom total
Pnom
Pnom total

Specific prod.

Normalized productions (per installed kWp): Nominal power 100 kWp


0.8
Lc : Collection Loss (PV-array losses)
1.31 kWh/kWp/day
Ls : System Loss (inverter, ...)
0.09 kWh/kWp/day
Yf : Produced useful energy (inverter output) 4.29 kWh/kWp/day

0.6

Performance Ratio PR

Normalized Energy [kWh/kWp/day]

PR : Performance Ratio (Yf / Yr) : 0.754

0.7

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

1565 kWh/kWp/year

Performance Ratio PR

0
250 Wp
100 kWp
19 kW ac
96 kW ac

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

Nov

0.0

Dec

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

Jun

Jul

Aug

Sep

Oct

New simulation variant


Balances and main results
GlobHor

T Amb

GlobInc

GlobEff

EArray

E_Grid

EffArrR

EffSysR

kWh/m

kWh/m

kWh/m

kWh

kWh

January

160.1

22.88

190.7

185.5

15046

14725

12.25

11.99

February

165.8

25.97

188.4

183.3

14125

13822

11.64

11.39

March

204.5

31.17

215.0

209.0

15632

15304

11.29

11.06

April

207.1

29.91

202.9

196.8

15217

14896

11.65

11.40

May

203.6

32.18

189.1

182.8

13996

13686

11.50

11.24

June July

158.6

27.87

145.7

140.6

11244

10985

11.98

11.71

August

145.1

26.27

136.7

131.7

10919

10671

12.41

12.13

September

139.9

26.31

135.3

130.8

10748

10503

12.34

12.06

October

144.6

26.26

145.6

141.0

11488

11232

12.26

11.98

November

150.2

24.35

160.8

156.0

12844

12573

12.41

12.15

December

151.5

24.81

177.3

172.1

13810

13523

12.10

11.84

154.2

22.62

189.4

183.8

14907

14596

12.23

11.97

1985.1

26.72

2077.0

2013.5

159975

156514

11.96

11.70

Year

Legends:

GlobHor

Horizontal global irradiation

EArray

Effective energy at the output of the array

T Amb

Ambient Temperature

E_Grid

Energy injected into grid

GlobInc

Global incident in coll. plane

EffArrR

Effic. Eout array / rough area

GlobEff

Effective Global, corr. for IAM and shadings

EffSysR

Effic. Eout system / rough area

Nov

Dec

PVSYST V5.14

22/02/14 Page 3/3

Grid-Connected System: Loss diagram


Project :

BVRIT SOLAR PLANT 100kWp

Simulation variant :

No shading effects

Main system parameters


PV Field Orientation
PV modules
PV Array
Inverter
Inverter pack
User's needs

System type
tilt
Model
Nb. of modules
Model
Nb. of units
Unlimited load (grid)

Grid-Connected
17
SIRIUS-250
400
RefuSol 20K
5.0

azimuth
Pnom
Pnom total
Pnom
Pnom total

0
250 Wp
100 kWp
19 kW ac
96 kW ac

11. PERFORMANCE OF SOLAR LAMP


Aim: To study the performance of Solar lamp.
Apparatus: Solar panel, LED
Theory:
Limited energy resources, increased energy demands, as well as energy market speculations
have recently escalated the energy prices. This indeed has an enormous impact on industry growthrates, product prices, transportation costs, and therefore an impact on our lifestyles. Our economy has
been too dependent on fossil fuels, resulting in increased CO2 emissions worldwide which have
further accelerated climatic changes at an alarming speed. Higher energy costs have afforded the
further adoption of renewable energy like waterpower, biomass heating, wind turbines, tidal power
and, last but not least, solar technologies.
Electricity from the sun is a versatile technology that can be scaled up from small to large
applications. The modular nature of solar technology enables us to construct distributed electricitygenerating systems in increments as demands grow, to improve supply reliability, and to moderate
distribution and transmission costs. And because sunlight is widely available, we can build
geographically diverse solar electric systems that are less vulnerable to international energy politics,
volatile fossil-fuel-based markets, and transmission failures. One part of solar technology is based on
photovoltaic cells, which convert light into direct current using the photoelectric effect. The first PVcells converted less than 1% of incident light into electricity. Today PV-cells with about 20-30% are
available on the market. Germany has become the leading PV market worldwide since revising its
feed-in tariff system as part of the Renewable Energy Sources Act. Installed PV capacity has risen
from 100 MW in 2000 to approximately 4150 MW at the end of 2007.
Besides renewable energy sources, efficient consumer loads are needed and in this respect the
LED technology plays an important role in reducing energy consumption in lighting. A main
advantage of the PV-cell technology and LED technology is the fact that they can easily be
combined, because the voltages produced by PV-cells and the LED load-voltage can be matched.
These systems are highly efficient without additional voltage transformation stages. Today, LEDSolar systems are used in street-lighting, residential lighting where no or poor mains are available,
and in mobile lighting systems, e.g. the World Banks Lighting Africa initiative supports providing
light to underdeveloped regions.

It is incredible that about 20% of electricity is used for lighting worldwide and that, for some
municipalities, up to 40% of the electricity bills are calculated for street lighting. In todays
environmentally- and budget conscious society, engineers have combined two existing technologies
to help reduce energy costs as well as CO2 emissions. This most recent generation of solar LED street
lights provides a mature optical design, thoroughly chosen and dimensioned components, and
optimized, robust electronics. Subject to these premises, the combination of photovoltaic and LED
technology allows for street lighting, pedestrian lighting, park lighting, etc., and shows numerous
advantages over conventional systems: lowered maintenance costs, reduced light pollution, reduced
CO2 emissions, and an enhanced green image for cities, which attracts new investors, companies,
and inhabitants
Benefits of new solar lighting solutions include significant cost savings, less fire risk from
Kerosene type lanterns, and no direct carbon footprint and the use of a sustainable natural
commodity, sunlight or manpower to generate electricity. In addition there are economic and social
benefits from being able to undertake activities in the evening hours. Other products and services
could involve crank able torches, woodstove and water purifiers.
Advantages of LEDs in (solar) street lighting
There are numerous advantages for LED technology:
Directed light output system efficiency/homogeneous illumination
Low voltages best fit for solar-powered street lighting
Long and predictable service intervals reduced maintenance costs
Reliability and long lifetime increased road safety
Dimming adjusting to specific ambient light levels
Small package size flexible, flat and compact luminaries design
High-color rendering appearance and safety
LED contains no polluting materials easy lamp recycling
Higher light output even at low temperatures.

Especially for PV applications, the LED is the perfect product choice. The low DC forward voltage of
LEDs can be applied with an electronic circuit to the battery power. Alternatively an electronic boost
converter can easily be used to achieve a higher DC voltage and to drive more LEDs in series.
Total Cost of Ownership (TCO):
The LED + PV solution requires a higher investment in the beginning, but the digging work for the
power cable and the energy costs are not applicable. With the long LED lifetime, expensive
maintenance work can be decreased, resulting in a benefit for LED over traditional lighting.

Solar Streetlights (StreetSun)


Pieces

Product

Price/Unit

Price

11

Solar Streetlights

2480/-

27280/-

11

Foundation

300/-

3300/-

44

Batteries

200/-

8800/-

22

LED modules

240/-

5280/44660/-

Total
Traditional Streetlights
9

Street Lights

1600/-

14400/-

Digging, 9 foundations, cabling

15058/-

15058/-

36

Illuminants

51

1836/-

Electricity

32248/-

32248/-

Total

63542/-

This results in a relaxed budget for the municipalities as an average city spends about 40% of its
electrical bill on street lighting. The zero-energy consumption of the solar lights additionally helps to
fulfill the strong targets of CO2 reduction.
Conclusion:
Improvements in recent years in LED technology and photovoltaic technology allow for attractively
designed street lighting products and adequate light output for most requirements, even under winter
conditions with poor solar input. The preconditions are a well-designed optical
System that guarantees good light distribution with minimal losses, and the usage of the best, most
efficient, high-quality components available. Regarding TCO, this combination is competitive today.
Replacing line driven streetlights with solar streetlights would be a valuable contribution to energy
saving and CO2 reduction. Considering the research results of recent laboratory samples of PV cells
and LEDs, we can expect a bright future for these two combined technologies.