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Section 4.~).

:3 presents evidence that K 2 b is likely to be


around 2.0, not LO. On the other hand, the calculated
stresses are based on intersecting shells with no fillet
weld or radius. These stresses attenuate very rapidly,
sometimes by 50% within one wall thickness. In fatigue
test models, the fillet weld or outer fillet radius may
cover this high stressed area, and thereby significantly
reduce the actual stresses as compared with the calculated stresses. Further, the fillet weld or outer radius
may provide reinforcement in the critical intersection
zone.
In the sense that protection against fatigue is the
rationale behind the Code evaluations using i-factors,
we view the fatigue tests as more directly relevant than
calculated stresses. We thus view Table 15 comparisons as an adequate basis for the proposed ib for RIT
up to about 25. (Note that the maximum R/T in Table
14 is 18.2.) Based on all present evidence, we think it is
reasonably valid for R/T up to 50.
As a final point, note that ib covers the full range of
r/R; hence, the UFT can be deleted from Fig. NC3673.2(b)-1. Indeed, if it is not deleted, the underestimate of i for Mob would remain in the Code.
6.0 References
1. Mark!, A. R. C. and George, H. H., "Fatigue Tests on Flanged Assemb
"Trans ASME, 82,77-87, (19!)0).
Mark!, A. R. C. "Fatigue Tests of Piping Components," Trans. ASME,
74,287-303, (1952).
3. ANSI B3Ll, "Power Piping," 1983 Edition, ASME, New York.
4. ANSI B31.3, "Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping," 1983
Edition, ASME, New York.
5. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section Ill. Division l. "Nuclear Power Plant Components," 1983 Ed. with Winter 1984 Addenda, New
York, NY 10017.
6. Blair, J. S., "Heinforcment of Branch Pieces," Engineering, London,
England, 1947.
7. Pickett, A. G., et al., "Low Cycle Fatigue Testing of One-Half Scale
Model Pressure Vessels," Progress Reports No. 9-12. Southwest Research
Institute, San Antonio, Texas, July 1964-.Jan. 1965.
8. Decock, J., "External Loadings on Nozzles in Cylindrical Shells.'' 4th
lnt'L Conf. on Press. Vessel Technology, J. Mech. Eng., 1980.
9. Davies, J. B. and Jaske. C. E. "Fatigue Evaluation of Weldolet Branch
Connections in Carbon Steel Pipe," Battelle-Columbus Report to Bonney
Forge, Allentown, PA 18105, Aug. 30, 1974.
10. Tableriou, J.P. and Walsh, D ..J., "Determination of Stress Intensification Factors for the Code Qualification of Integrally Reinforced Branch Connections," ASME Paper No. 78-PVP-66 and "Final Report on 1979 S!F
Testing Program.'' Target Technology Report to WFL Inc., Houston, Texas
77008, Aug. 22, 1979.
11. Forte, T. P., "Fatigue Evaluation of 6 x 4 Weldolet Branch Connections
in Carbon Steel Pipe," Battelle-Columbus Report to Bonney Forge, Allentown, PA 18105, Dec. 31, 1981.
12. Davies, K. B. and Jaske, C. E., "Fatigue Evaluation of 12 x 6 Weldolet
Branch Connections in Carbon Steel Pipe," Battelle-Columbus Report to
Bonney Forge, Allentown, PA 18105, June 25, 1975.
13. Forte, T. and .Jaske, C. E. "Fatigue Evaluation of 14 x 6lnsert Weldolet
Branch Connections in Carbon Steel Pipe," Battelle-Columbus Report to
Bonney Forge, Allentown, PA 18105, Apr. 30, 1981.
14. Rodabaugh, E. C., "Cyclic B<?nding Tests of a Half-Scale Model of an 8"
x 24" Saddle Reinforced Branch Connection,'' Tube Turns, Report No. 8.011,
Louisville, K Y 40201, 1953.
15. Mershon, J. L., Letter to member of PVRC Subcommittee on Reinforced Openings, Dec. 20, 1963.
16. Schneider, R. W., Letters to C. R. Felmley, .Jr., Executive Secretary of
PVRC, Mar. 17, 1981, Mar. 31, 1981 and Apr. 10, 1981.
17. Schneider, R. W., Letter to ,J. Millman, Secretary of ASME Section III,
Apr. 21, 1981 (copy to B31 Code Committee on Pressure Piping).
18. Khan, A. S., "A Study of Fatigue Crack Initiation and Failure in Reinforced Shell to Shell Intersections," U. of Oklahoma, Report Prepared for
WFI International, Houston, TX, May 1985.
19. Lankston, R. J. (Taylor Forge Engineered Systems, Inc., Paoli, KS
6(l071) Letter to E. C. Rodabaugh dated May 30, 1985.
20. Mershon, .J. L., et al., "Local Stresses in Cylindrical Shells Due to
External Loadings on Nozzles-Supplement to WRC Bulletin No. 107,"
WRC Bulletin 297, New York, Aug. 1984.
21. Fujimoto, T. and Soh, T., "Flexibility Factors and Stress Indices for
Piping Components with D/T > 100 Subjected to In-Plane or Out-of-Plane
Moment," pp. 59-70 of ASME Bound Volume No.HOO:J29 of Pressure Vessels
and Piping Conference, New Orleans, .June 1985.
22. Wordsworth, A. C. and Smedley, G. P., "Stress Concentrations of linstiffened Tubular Joints," European Offshore Steels Research Seminar, Cambridge, 1978.

36

2:l. Moffat, D. G., "ExpNimental StrP" Analysis of .J FabricatPd Equal


Diamcter Branch Pipe Intersections Suhj('('t('(l to Moment Loadings," !'roc.
lnst. Mech. Eng .. Part A.lsstt<: A4.
24. Wkhman, K. R. HoppN. A.
and Me"hon .. ]. L., "Local
Spherical and Cylindrical Shell> Due to External Loadings," WRC
/07, NPw York. Aug. 19hfl, ""'ised Marrh 1979.
2f>. Corum,.). M .. et a/ .. "TheorPtiral and Experim<ntal
Analysis of
OHNL Thin-Shell Cylinder to-Cylinder-Model No. 1 (2, :l, ll. OHNL-TM
4:,5:l, fJ021, G020 and f>OJ9 for ModPls I, 2, :1 and 4, respectively. Dated Oct.
1972, Oct. 197fJ, ,Jltne 1975 and ,June 197;, for Models I, 2, :land 4, respectively,
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Hidge. TN :mno.
26. Hodahaugh, E. C. and Moore, S. E., "Stress Indices and Flexibility
Factors for Nozzles in Pressure Vesspls and Piping," NUREG/l'H-0778, Oak
Hidge National Laboratory, .June 1979.
27. Rodabaugh, E. C., "Compari,ons of ASME Code Fati~ue Evaluation
Method for Nuclear Cla8s 1 Piping with Class 2 or 3 Piping," Nl1HEG/CR:)24:l. Oak Hidge National Laboratory, .June 1983.
28. Rodabaugh, E. C., "Sources of Uncertainty in the Calculation of Loads
on Supports on Piping Systems," NUREG/CH-3599, Oak Hidge National
Laboratory, .June 1984.

Appendix A-Specific Recommendations for NC3600 of ASME Code Section III


The last pages of this Appendix include copies of
pages 166, 171, 172, 173 and 17 4 from NC-3600 of the
ASME Code, Section III, 1986 Edition. Pages 166, 171,
172 and 174 are marked-up to show recommended
changes. Table A1 contains the recommended notes to
replace those on p. 173.
The changes include those in Section 5 of this report. We will discuss those first in the following. In
addition, several more-or-less editorial changes toother portions of Code pages 171, 172 and 173 are suggested; we discuss those subsequently in the following. To
facilitate the discussion of changes, we have numbered
the "Descriptions" from (1) to (15) as noted on the left
margin of Code pages 171 and 172.
Changes From Recommendations in Section 5 of This
Report
Page 166

This change reflects Recommendation (IOc). This


change makes the procedure the same for Descriptions
(4), (5) and (7); and eliminates the (t~/Tr) term in the
i-equation for checking the branch end of Description
(7).

We have changed Tb toT~ as being consistent with


page 174. We have not changed Tr; it agrees with page
174 but not page 171.
Description (4), Welding tee per ANSI Bl6.9

The only change is replacing the meaningless" 1" by


"Note (9)"; see Recommendation (1).
Description (5), Reinforced fabricated tee

The "Description" has been retitled to "Fabricated


branch connection ... " rather than "tee." This is motivated by revised footnote (7), which is applicable to
"Fabricated branch connections ... "; Descriptions (5)
and (7) not "Welding tee ... ,"Description (4). The "1"
has been changed to "Note (9)."
It might be noted that the run moment problem
continues to exist for Description (5). For example,
consider a 24 in. diam x 0.375 in. wall run pipe with 4.5
in. diam x 0.237 in. wall branch. For a pad or saddle
with te = 0.375 in., the SIF i = 4.57. Using Description
(7), which, of course, is without a pad, i = 2.1 (lower
bound, r2 not provided). Perhaps the Mob problem also
exists.

WRC Bulletin 329

Description (6), Unreinforced fabricated tee

Deleted, See Recommendation (lOd). This "Description" is included in Description (7). Retention of
Description (6) would, of course, continue both the
M 0 t>-problem and the run-moment problem.

More-or-less Editorial Changes to Fig. NC-367:l.2(b)-l


Note (l)

The words "reinforced thickness" were perhaps


meant to be "reinforcement thickness" but, more directly, te is the pad or saddle thickness.

Description (7), Branch connection

Note (2)

The "Description" has been retitled to make it consistent with and distinct from Description (5).
The equations for i are from Recommendation
(lOa). Note that they are written for r2 not provided;
i.e., as-welded. For the branch end, when the value of i
is not controlled by the minimum, the equations for i
reduce the value by a factor of 2 from the present rule.
They reduce the minimum for the branch end from the
present 2.1 to 1.5.

Proposed footnote (2) is intended to be the same as


the present footnote (2) with respect to i-factors. However, the word "bending" has been changed to "moments." See discussion under note (3).

For the run ends, there is no change from the


present rules. The factor of 2 in the present footnote
(6)(h) leads to the coefficient 0.8 rather than the
present 0.4. The present minimums of 2.1 for rz not
provided and 1.5 for r 2 provided are retained.
However, Description (7) is no longer limited to r/R
~ 0.5. For r/R = 1.0, the SIF equation for branch ends
becomes essentially identical to the present i = 0.9(R/
T)213; the difference lies in the (r/rp) factor. For r/R =
1.0, the SIF equation for run ends becomes 0.8(R/T)213
rather than the present 0.9(R/T)213.
There is a subtle but usually numerically insignificant change in that Z for run ends and for "full outlet
branch connections" is not defined as 7r(Rm) 2 Tr or
1r(r ~)2 T~. To the extent that a Code user takes Z to be
the exact section modulus, he will have a bit higher
calculated stress than if he used the approximate section modulus.
Present Note (6)

Part (a) has been dropped because it is not necessary and because it implies that branch connections
that do not meet NC-3643 are somehow acceptable.
Parts (b) and (c) are picked up in proposed note (7);
applicable to both Descriptions (5) and (7).
Part (d) has been dropped because moment fatigue
tests and theory indicate that the inside corner radius
is not a critical consideration.
Parts (e) and (h) have been combined in proposed
note (8).
Part (f) has been dropped. The lower bound of 1.5
for checking the branch end with r2 provided has been
retained.
Part (g) has been dropped because of the D 0 /t 11 ~
100 limit in the title of Fig. NC-3673.2(b)-1 and because the r~/R ~ 0.5limit no longer applies.
Fig. NC-3673.2(b)-2, Branch dimensions

General note (2) has been deleted; see Recommendation (13). Editorially, an arrow on rp in (b) should be
added and, in (c), the arrow on rp should end at the
vertical line.

Note (3)

Proposed footnote (3) is intended to be the same as


footnote (2) as it applies to k-factors for elbows, bends
and miters. However, the word "bending" has been
changed to "both in-plane and out-of-plane moments"
and added: "For torsional moments, k = 1.00." We
think that the word "bending" is meant to exclude
torsional moments; see present footnote (8).
In Description (3), the "heavy center lines" extend
some undefined amount; an ambiguity we do not attempt to correct.
Note (4)

Proposed note (4) is the present note (3), with the


second line deleted. Fig. NC-3673.2(b)-5 (and -4) are
deleted in accordance with recent action of the ASME
Code, Working Group on Piping.
Note (9)

We propose that this note be deleted. Problems with


over-thickness elbows have arisen with wrought steel
elbows; not cast elbows.
Note Tie-ins

The present note tie-ins are incomplete. Note (9) is


not shown with Description (1). Note (2) should be
tied into Descriptions (5), (6), (7), (12) and (13) as well
as (1), (2), (3) and (4); i.e., i ~ 1.0 applies to all of these
descriptions. In the proposed revisions, we have attempted to provide complete note tie-ins.
Flexibility Factors
Proposed note (3) applies to elbows, bends and mi-

ters. Proposed note (9) applies to Fabricated Branch


Connections and Tees. The "1" for Descriptions (8)
through (14) is meaningless and should be deleted.
Perhaps a note can be developed which indicates the
intent of the Code for these descriptions but we have
not attempted to do so.
Description (12), 30 deg. tapered transition

The relevant portion of ANSI Bl6.25 is now Fig.


NC-4250-1.
Description (15), Corrugated straight pipe or creased
bend

This Description, "Corrugated straight pipe or corrugated or creased bend," and the equivalent of
present note (8), are unchanged from the 1955 edition

Stress Intensification Factors

37

of B31.1. At that time (and still in B31.1):

cance of the rules. For Description (15), it appears


impossible for any reader to say what the significance
is.
To illustrate the point, suppose we put a single corrugation, with depth equal to the wall thickness, in a
40 foot length of pipe. Is the flexibility factor of this 40
foot length of pipe equal to 5? If not, using k = 5 might
make the piping system analysis (including support
and nozzle loads) almost meaningless. On the other
extreme, in what quantitative way is a corrugated pipe
different from a "Bellows Expansion Joint," NC3649.2?
We have deleted Description (15). If a need exists
for this Description, we deem it essential that it be
quantified so that a reader will know what the k = 5
and i = 2.5 are applicable to.

"Calculations shall take into account stress intensification factors found to exist in components other
than plain straight pipe. Credit may be taken for the
extra flexibility of such components. In the absence
of more applicable data, the flexibility factors and
stress intensification factors shown in Fig. 2 may be
used."
Fig. 2 contained much of what is now in Fig. NC3673.2(b)-1 including Description (15).
Figure NC-3673.2(b)-l, in our view, is different from
B31.1-1955 in that it is part of an enforced set of rules.
The piping system analyses and stress calculations are
subjected to checking; which means that two or more
readers of the rules must be able to agree on the signifi-

Table Al: Revised Notes for Fig. NC-3673.2(b)-1 on Page 173

(1)

Same as present note (1), except


te = pad or saddle thickness, in.

(2)

Stress intensification factors, i, apply to moments in any plane and


shall in no case be taken as less than 1.00 except that for branch leg
checks of welding tees and fabricated branch connections reinforced by
pad or saddle, i(T~/Tr) ) 1.0.

(3)

Flexibility factors, k, apply to both in-plane and out-of-plane moments


and shall in no case be taken as less than 1.00. For torsional moments,
k = 1.0. The factors apply over the effective arc length (shown by
heavy center lines in the sketches) for elbows, bends and miters.

(4)

\~here

flanges are attached to one or both ends, the values of k and i


shall be multiplied by the factor c given below:

= hl/6

(a)

One end flanged, c

(b)

Both ends flanged, c

= hl/3

But after such multiplication, values of k and i shall not be taken as


less than 1.00.
(5)

Same as present note (4).

(6)

Same as present note (5).

(7)

Fabricated branch connections:


(a)

38

Stress intensification factors are applicable only where the axis


of the branch pipe is normal to within ~5 of the surface of
straight run pipe.
WRC Bulletin 329

Table Al.Continued
(b) Stress intensification factors are based on tests and/or theories
in which the branch connection is in straight run pipe with about
two or more diameters of run pipe on each side of the branch. The
effect of closely spaced branch connections may require special
consideration.
(8)

Fabricated branch connections other than pad or saddle reinforced:


If a radius rz is provided that is not less than the larger of
Tb/2, (Tb + y)/2 [Fig. NC-3673.2(b)-2 sketch (c)] or Tr/2, then the
calculated values of ib and ir may be divided by 2.0; but with
ib(T~/Tr) > 1.5 and ir > 1.5.

(9)

Fabricated Branch Connections and Tees:


In piping system analysis, it may be assumed that the flexibility
is represented by a rigid joint at the branch-to-run centerlines
juncture. However, the Code user should be aware that this assumption can be inaccurate and should consider the use of more appropriate flexibility representation.

(10)

Same as present note (7).

(11)

Same as present note (10).

(12)

Same as present note (11).

(13)

For checking branch leg:

Fo r ( ; : )

< 0,9:

. _ 1.5 (Rm)2/3
( -r~)l/2 -r~)
Tr
Rm
rp

1-

i(T~/Tr)

> 1.5

For(~:)=
i

0.9

1.0:

(~t'

c;)

Linear interpolation is to be used for (::)between 0,9 and 1,0


For checking run legs:
213

= 0.8

(~~)

(;:);

2,1 minimum
Stress Intensification Factors

39

NC-3653.3-NC-365H.l
M . M . .H, .H,,

SECrJON III. DIVISIO:"' 1 -

SUBSECTION NC

=
Use i(Tb/Tr) in
less than 1.0.

r= run pipe mean cross-sectional radius, in.

r',., =branch mean cross-sectional radius, in.

!,=effective branch wall thickness, in~


omit
=lesser of T, or iT
Tb nomina ranch wall thickness, in.
legs
,=nominal wall thickness of run pipe, in.
For the ~n
, use MA Ms. and Me as
I
defined in NC-3633.3(a);
Z for the run pipe

fllfa----------

NC-3654

Consideration of Level C Service


Limits

For Service Loadings for which Level C Service


Limits are designated, the conditions of Eq. (9) shall
be met. In calculating the resultant moment loading
(M 8 ), the effects of anchor displacement due to
earthquake or other secondary effects need not be
included. The allowable stress to be used for this
condition is 2.25S11 but not greater than 1.8Sr
S,= basic material yield strength at Design T emperature, psi
Sit= basic material allowable stress at Design
Temperature, psi

NC-3655

Consideration of Lenl D Service


Limits

For Service Loadings for which Level D Service


Limits are designated, the conditions of Eq. (9) shall
be met. In calculating the resultant moment loading
(M8 ), the effects of anchor displacement due to
earthquake or other secondary effects need not be
included. The allowable stress to be used for this
condition is 3.0S11 but not greater than 2.0S,
S_,=basic material yield strength at Design Temperature. psi
Sit= basic material allowable stress at Design
Temperature, psi

NC-3658

Analysis of Flansed Joints

Flanged joints shall be analyzed for compliance


with one of the fo11owing subparagraphs.

NC-3658.1 Any Flanged Joint. Flanged joints may


be analyzed and the stresses evaluated by using the
methods given in Appendix XI as modified by (a)

166

40

1986 Edition

WRC Bulletin 329

place

z.

of

i;

n(C')2

but
!'
b,

not
i

n.

1986 Edition

NC-3<XXl -

o..t.<:" phon

Fle.bhty

Flexblty

Charac1~HIItc h

Factor;;

elbow or
pipe bend [Notes (3)1

Weldin<;~

t.R

1.65

r>

tlg. NC-3673.2(b)-l

DESIGN
Streu lnt<!na

fcaflon Factor

Ske!Ch

0.9

(1),(2),(3),(4)]

ClOMiy apa<:..:l mi1er


bend [Notes (1),
( 2). ( 3). ( 4)

<

( 3). ( 4). ( 5)
~

0.9

1.52

cot 8

2r'

r(l + tan 0)

hend [Notes

1t.

(1),(2),

t. (1 + cot
2r

IJ)

,....

1.52

0.9

r(l +tan 9)

Weldtng 11111 per


ANSI 8113.9 [Notn (1), (21)

4 4 r.
--'

Fabricated branch

(r. + ~) .,,

connection reinforced
with pad or saddle

r(l. )''

Note (9)

Note (9)

0.9

0.9
h't.

[Notes (1), (2),(6)


(7),(11)]

Omit
Unreinforce<l fabricat..:l
IM (Not" (1), (10))

FIG. NC-3673.2(b)-l FLEXIBILITY AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORS (0 0 It,. s 100)


171

Stress Intensification Factors

41

SECfiON 111. DIVISION I

O...c.rtphon

SUBSECTION NC

1986

E~itlon

StrHI lntnatfichon

F&ebtftty
Fa<1or t

Fa<1or

Skelch

Fabricated branch conNote (13)

nection other than Fad


or saddle reinforced
[Notes

Note

(9)

Fill NCJe73.21bl2

(7), (8))

Girth bun wld [Not (II]


r. l! 0.237 ln.

I0

1.9 mal<. or

Gonh butt wald [Not (II)


t

< 0.237 In

''r""' efentlal ftUM w.Sded


~"'

N' e

@
@

ra, .,..

w.ld..:l 101nta
( 12))

o 9(1 +

36/r.l

but not la11 than 1.0

Ftg NC-4427 1

2.ti(C,It.l

lll<atchH lc1), (c-2).

but t\01 than 1.3

tont

and (<:3)

fig. NC-46111

2.1

r------------------~----------~---------------------r---------------------1
I

3Ci deg taper..:! tranlfk>n

[Notes (1),(2)]

t.l .. 0.0036

r.

2.0 mu.
~af'ltrie

'

Of'

enrl .eeantrie

reducers [Notes

0.5 + 0.01o ( 0::::!)'"

'

(1)' (2)' (10))

Fia. NC-4250-1

u!.

.f' __!
If~*
o.

(ANSI B16.9)

Threadotd pi~ joint


or threadotd fl~

o,

2.3

Omit

FIG. NC-3673.2<b>-l FLEXIBILITY AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORS (00 It,. s lOO)(CONT'O)
172

42

WRC Bulletin 329

1986 Edition

NC-3000 -- DESIGN

Fig:. NC-3{)73.2(b)- 1

FIG. NC-3673.2(bl-l <CONT'Dl *


NOTES:
( 1) The following nomenclature applies
r = mean radius of p1pe. in. {matching pipe for tees and elbows)
t = nommal wall thickness of pipe. in. [matching pipe for tees and elbows. see Note (9)]
R = bend radius of elbow or pipe bend. in.
8 = one-half angle between adJacent miter axes. deg.
s = miter spacing at center line. in
r. = reinforced thickness. in.
13 =average perm1ssible mismatch at girth butt welds as shown in Fig. NC-4233-1. A value of 131ess than Y,, in. may
be used provided the smaller mismatch is specified for fabrication. For "flush" welds. as defined in Fig. NB368 3. 1(cl-1, b may be taken as zero. i = 1.0, and flush welds need not be ground.
D.
outside diameter. in.
(2) The flex1bility factors k and stress intensification factors ' apply to bendmg 10 any plane for fittings and shall in no
case be taken less than unity. Both factors apply over the effective arc length (shown by heavy center lines in the
sketches) for curved and miter elbows. and to the intersectiOn pomt for tees. The values of k and i can be read directly
by entering with the characteristic h computed from the equations given.
(3) Where flanges are attached to one or both ends. the values of k and i shall be corrected by the factor c given below.
which can be read d1rectly from Fig. NC-3673.2(bl-5. entering with the computed h.
(a) One end flanged. c = h '
(b) Both ends flanged. c = h '>
(4) Also includes single m1ter jomts
(5) When t, > 1 5r __ h = 4 05rJr
(6) The equat1on applies only if the followmg cond1tions are met
(a) The re1nforcement area requ1rements of NC-364 3 are met
(b) The ax1s of the branch pipe 1s normal to the surface of run p1pe waiL
(c) For branch connections in a p1pe. the arc distance measured between the centers of adJaCent branches along the
surface of the run p1pe is not less than three times the sum of the~r mside radii in the longitudinal direction or not
less than two times the sum of the1r inside radii along the circumference of the run pipe.
(d) The ms1de corner radius r, [F1g NC-3673.2(b~2] for nominal branch pipe size greater than 4 m. shall be between
10% and 50% T. The radius r, is not required for nominal branch pipe size smaller than 4 in.
(e) The outer rad1us r, IS not less than the larger of T.l2. (T" +- Y)/2 (Fig. NC-3673-2(bl-2 sketch (c)] or T,/2.
(f) The outer radtus r, IS not less than the larger of
(1)0002/ldo
(2) 2 (s1n II)' t1mes the offset for the conf1gurat1ons shown in F1g NC-3673 2(bl-2 sketches (a) and (b).
(g) R_!T, 50 and r _!R~ ; 0.5
(h) The outer rad1us r, IS not reqUired prov1ded an add1t1onal mult1pller of 2.0 IS mcluded in the equations for branch
end and run end stress intens1ficat1on factors In this case. the calculated value of i for the branch or run shall not
be less than 2 1
(7) The equat10n applies only if the follow1ng conditions are met
(a) Cone angle n does not exceed 60 deg.
(b) The larger of D, I r, and D, I r, does not exceed 100
(c) The wall th1ckness is not less than r, throughout the body of the reducer. except in and immed1ately adJacent to
the cylmdr1cal portion on the small end. where the th1ckness shall not be less than t,.
(d) For eccentnc reducers. a is the maximum cone angle
(8) Factors shown apply to bending; flexibility factor for torsion equals 0.9.
(9) The designer is caut1oned that cast butt welding elbows may have considerably heav1er walls than that of the pipe
with wh1ch they are used. Large errors may be introduced unless the effect of these greater thiCknesses is considered
( 10) The stress mtens1flcat10n factor i shall in no case be taken as less than 2 1
( 1 1) C. 11 the f1llet weld length. For unequal leg lengths. use the smaller leg length for C.

*See !abel Al for proposed changes.

Stress Intensification Factors

43

f'la. NC-3673.2(b)-2

SECTION Ill. DIVISION l -

SUBSECTION NC

1986 Edition

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WRC Bulletin 329

then r .. can be t.aken

250 Generalized Yield Surfaces for Plates and Shells, by D. B. Peterson, W. C. Kroenke, W. F. Stokey, and W. J. O'Donnell, July 1979.
251 Comparison of Three-Dimensional Finite Element and Photoelastlc Results lor Lateral Connection, WC-12B2, August 1979.
252 Ultrasonic Evaluation and Sectioning of PVRC Plate Weld Specimen 201, by A. C. Adamonis and E. T. Hughes, September 1979.
253 A Survey of Simplified Inelastic Analysis Methods, by K E. Nickell, October 1979.
254 ( 1) A Critical Evaluation of Plastic Behavior Data and a Unified Deflnltlon of Plastic Loads for Pressure Components, by J. C. Gerden; (2) Interpretive Report
on Limit Analysis and Plastic Behavior of Piping Products by E. C. Rodabaugh; (3) Interpretive Report on Limit Analysis of Flat Circular Plates, by W. J. O'Donnell, November 1979.
255 Experimental Investigation of Commercially Fabricated 2:1 Ellipsoidal Heads Subjected to Internal Pressure, December 1979.
256 Review of Data Relevant to the Design of Tubular Joints tor use In Fixed Offshore Platforms, by E. C. Rodabaugh, January 1980.
257 Analysis of the Ultrasonic Examinations of PVRC Weld Specimens 155, 202 and 203 by Standard and Two-Point Coincidence Methods, by R. A. Buchanan
and 0. F. Hedden, February 1980.
258 International Benchmark Project on Simplified Methods for Elevated Temperature Design and Analysis: Problem 1-The Oak Ridge Pipe Ratchetlng
Experiment; Problem li-The Saclay Fluctuating Sodium level Experiment, by H. Kraus, May 1980.
259 Analysis of the Radiographic Evaluation of PVRC Weld Specimens 155, 202, 203, and 251J, by E. H. Ruescher and H. C. Graber, June 1980.
260 Energy Dissipation Characteristics of Pipes and Short Compression Members as Elements of Pipe-Whip Restraint, by S. S. Palusamy, R. L Cloud, and T. E.
Campbell, August 1980.
261 Effects of Porosity on the Fracture Toughness of 5083,5456, and 6061 Aluminum Alloy Weldments, by W. A. McCarthy, Jr., H. Lamba and F. V. Lawrence, Jr.,
September 1980.
262 ( 1} Derivation of ASME Code Formulas for the Design of Reverse Flanges, by E. 0. Waters and R. W. Schneider. (2) Functional Test of a Vessel with Compact Flanges In Metal-to-Metal Contact, by J. Webjornand R. W. Schneider, (3) Interpretive Report on Gasket leakage Testing, by H. Kraus, October 1980.
263 An Annotated Bibliography on the Significance, Origin and Nature of Discontinuities In Welds, 1975-1980, by C. D. Lundin and S. J. Pawel, November 1980.
264 The Influence of Mulllaxlal Stress on low-Cycle Fatigue of Cr-Mo-V Steel at 1000F, by fl. H. Marloff and R. L Johnson, December 1980.
265 Interpretive Report on Small-Scale Test Correlations with ~c Oata, by R. Roberts and C. Newlon, February 1981.
266 Weldability and Fracture Toughness of 5% Nl Steel-'Part 1: Weld Slmulatloo Testing,

by A. Ohooge, K Ostyn, W. Provost and A. Vinckler, Welda-

bility and Fracture Toughness of 5% Nl Steei-'Part 2: Wide Plate Testing, by A. Dhooge, W. Provostarrd A. Vinckier, Aprll1981.
267 Elastic-Plastic Buckling of internally Pressurized Ellipsoidal Pressure Vessel Heads, by D. Bushnell, May 1981.
268 Review of Worldwide Weld Discontinuity Acceptance Standards, by C. D. Lundin, June 1981.
269 Interpretive Report on Dynamic Analysts of Pressure Components-Second Edlllon, August 1981.
270 Long-Range Plan for Pressure-Vessel Research-Sixth Edition by the Pressure Vessel Researdl Committee, September 1981.
271 ( 1} Methods of Analysis of Bolted Flanged Con-ctions-A Review, by A. E. Blach and A. Bazergui (2) Gasket leakage Behavior Trends, by H. D. Raut, A.
Bazergui andL Marchand, October 1981.
272 ( 1) Design of Beam Columns with lateral-Torsional End Restraints, by T. L Hsu and G. C.lee (2) Tapered Columns with Unequal Flanges, by G.

c. Lee and T.

L Hsu,tlovember 1981.
273 Design Implications of Recent Advances In Elevated Temperature Bounding Techniques, by J. S. Porowski, W. J. O'Donnell and M. Badlani, December 1981.
274 International Benchmark Project on Simplified Methods for Elevated Temperature Design and Analysts: Problem II-The Sactay Fluctuating Sodium level
Experiment; Comparison of Analytlcill and Experimental Results; Problem lii_.:.The Oak Ridge Nozzle to Sphere Attachment, by H. Kraus, January 1982.
275 The Use of Quenched and Tempered :214 Cr-1 Mo Steel for Thick Wall ReactorVesselsln Petroleum Refinery Processes: An Interpretive Review of :25 Years
of Researdl and Application, by W. E. Erwin and J. G. Kerr, February 1982.

276 A Summary and Critical Evaluation of Stress Intensity Factor SolutlonsDf Comer Cracks at the Edge Dl a Hole, by R L Cloud and S. S. Palusamy, April 1982.
277 High Temperature Properties of 214 Cr-1 Mo Weld Metal, by C. D. Lundin, B. J. Kruse and M. R. Pendley, May 19S2.
278 The Crack Arrest Properties of 9% Nickel Steels for Cryogenic Applications, byRD. Stout and A. W. Pense, June 1982.
279 Weldablllty and Fracture TDughness of Quenched and Tempered 9% Nickel Steel: Part 1-Weld Simulation Testing; Part 11-Wlde Plate Testing by A.
Dhooge, W. Provost and A. Vinckier, July 1982.
280 The Varestralnt Test, by C. D. Lundin, A. C. Lingenfelter, -G. E. Gmtke, G. G. Lessmarln and S. J. Matthews, August 1982.
:281 Hydrodynamic Response of fluid Coupled Cylinders: Simplified Damping and Inertia Systems, by S. J. Brown, October 1982.
282 Elastic-Plastic Buckling of Axially Compressed Ring Stiffened CyllndersTest vs. Theory, by D. Bushnell, November 1982.
283 A Critical Evaluation Df Fatigue Crack Growth Measurement Techniques for Elevated Temperature Applications, by A. E. .Carden, February 1983.
284 The External Pressure Collapse Tests of Tubes, by E. Tschoepe and J. R. Maison,

1983.

285 ( 1) Stress Indices and Flexibility Factors for Concentric Reducers, by E C. Rodabaugh and S. E. Moore (2) Finite Element Analysis of Eccentric Reducers
and Comparisons with Concentric Reducers by R R Avent, M. H: Saddand E. C. Rodabaugh, July 1983.
286 fatigue Beha~ior of Aluminum Alloy Weldments, by W. W. Sanders, Jr. and R H. Day, August 1983.
287 Welding of Copper and Copper Base Alloys, by R J. C. Dawson, September 1963.
288 Fracture DfPlpellnes and Cylbuiers Containing a Circumferential Crack, by F. :Erdogan and H. Ezzat, October 1983.
289 Hot Cracking.Susceptlblllty of Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Metals, by C. D. Lundin and C. P. D. Chou, November 1983.
290 Factors Affecting Porosity In Aluminum Welds-A Revlew;by

J. H. Devletlan and W. :E. Wood, December 1983.

291 Fracture Control of Pressure Vessels Up to 216 Inches Thick, by P. 0. Metz, January 1984.
292 PVRC Milestone Gasket Tests-First Results, by A. Bazergui and L Marchand, February 1984.
293 Current Welding Research Problems, Compiled and Edited by R. A. Kelsey, G. W. Oyler and C. R. Felmley, Jr., April 1984.
294 ( 1) Creep of Bolted Flanged Connections, by H. Kraus and W. Rosenkrans (2) Short Term Creep and Relaxation Elehavlor of Gaskets, by A. Bazergui, May
1984.

Listing continued on outside back cover

295 Fundamentals of Weld Discontinuities and Their Significance, by C. D. Lundin, June 1984.
296 Fitness-for-Service Criteria for Pipeline Girth-Weld Quality, by R. P. Reed, M. B. Kasen, H. I, McHenry, C. M. Fortunko. and D. T. Read, July 1984.
297 local Stresses In Cylindrical Shells Due to External loadings on Nozzles-Supplement to WRC Bulletin No. 107, by J. L. Mershon, K. Mokhtarian, G. V. Ranjan, and E. C. Rodabaugh, August 1984.
298 long-Range Plan lor Pressure-Vessel Research-Seventh Edition, by the Pressure Vessel Research Committee, September 1984.
299 (1) Engineering Aspects of CTOD Fracture Toughness Testing, by G. W. Wellman and S. T. Rolfe; (2) Three Dimensional ElastlcPlastlc Finite Element
Analysis of Three-Point Bend Specimen, G. W. Wellman. S. T. Rolfe and R. H. Dodds; and (3) Failure Prediction of Notched Pressure Vessels Using the
CTOD Approach, by G. W. Wellman, S. T. Rolfe and R. H. Dodds, November 1984.
300 ( 1) Technical Position on Criteria Establishment; (2) Technical Position on Damping Values for Piping-Interim Summary Report; (3) Technical Position on
Response Spectra Broadening; (4) Technical Position on Industry Practl<:4, December 1984.
301 A Parametric Three-Dimensional Finite Element Study of 45 Degree Lateral Connections, by P. P. Raju, January 1985.
302 (1) Postweld HeatTreatment of Pressure Vessels, by R. D. Stout; (2) Relaxation Stresses In Pressure Vessels, by P. S. Chen, W. A. Herman, and A. W. Pense;
(3) A Study of Residual Stress In Pressure Vessel Steels, by R. J. Zhou, A. W. Pense, M. L. Basehore. and D. H. Lyons, February 1985.
303 Interpretive Report on Dynamic Analysis of Pressure Components-Third Edition-April 1985.
304 Experimental Limit Couples for Branch Moment loads on 4-ln. ANSI B16.9 Tees by J. Schroeder, May 1985.
305 Summary Reports Prepared by the JPVRC Subcommittee on Hydrogen Embrlttlement: (1) Hydrogen Attack Limit of 2'/. Cr-1 Mo Steel by Task Group I; (2)
Embrittlement of Pressure Vessel Steels in High Temperature, High Pressure Hydrogen Environment by Task Group II; (3) Hydrogen Embrlttlement of
Bond Structure Between Stainless Steel Overlay and Base Metal by Task Group Ill, June 1985
306 PVRC Flanged Joint User Experience Survey by J. R. Payne, July 1985
307 Fatigue and Creep Rupture Damage of Perforated Plates Subjected toCyllc Plastic Straining In Creep Regime, by M. L. Badlanl, T. Tanaka, J. S. Porowskl and
W. J. O'Donnell, August 1985
308 Verification and Application of an Inelastic Analysis Method for lMFBR Piping Systems, by H. D. Hibbitt and E. K. Teung, September 1985
309 Development of a Production Test Procedure for Gaskets, by A. Bazergui, L. Marchand, and H. D. Raut, November 1985
310 Damage Studies in Pressure Vessel Components, by F. A. Leckie, December 1985
311 Assessment of the Slgnlflcance of Weld Dlscontlnutles: Effects of Microstructure and Discontinuities upon Fracture Morphology, by C. 0. Lundin and C. R.
Patriarca, January 1986.
312 Joining of Molybdenum Base Metals and Factors Which Influence Ductility, by A. J. Bryhan, February 1986
313 Computer Programs for Sensitivity Analysis of Stiffened Cylindrical Shells, by R. L. Clterley, April 1986.
314 Bolted Flanged Connections with Full Face Gaskets, by A. E. Blach, A. Bazergul, and R. Baldur, May 1986.
315 Stress Rupture Behavior of Postweld Heat Treated 2-'\'4Cr-1Mo Steel Weld Metal, by C. D. Lundin, S.C. Kelley, R. Menon, and B. J. Kruse, June 1986
316 (1) Technical .Position on Piping System Installation Tolerances, byE. B. Branch, N. Kalyanam, D. E Landers, E. 0. Swain, and D. A. VanDuyne; (2) Technical
Posttlon on Damping Values tor Insulated Pipe-Summary Report, by J.1.. Bitner, S. N. Hou, W. J. Kagay, and J. A. O'Brien, July 1986.
317 PVRC Centrifugal Pump..Piplng Interaction Experlen<:4Survey, by J. R Payne, August 1986.
318 ( 1) Factors Influencing the .Measurement of Ferrite Content In .AustenltlcStalnless.Steel Weld Metal using Magnetic Instruments, by E. W. Pickering, E. S.
Robitz, and D. M. Vancter:griff;(2) Measurement of FerriteContentln.Austenlllc Stainless 'Steel Weld Metal Giving Internationally Reproducible Results, by
E. Stalmasek, September 1986.
319 .Sensltlzation1lf Austenitic Stainless Steels; Effect1>f Welding Variables on HAZ Senslllzatlon of AlSI304 and HAZ Behavior of BWR Alternative Alloys 316
NG and 347, by C. D. Luctin, C. H. Lee, A. Menon, and E. E. Stansbury, November 1986.
320 Welding Metallurgy and Weldabllity of High Stren.Qth Aluminum Alloys, by S. Kou, December 1986.
321 The Dynamic Deformation of Plplng, by J. L. Mclean, P. K. Beazley and A. H. Manhardt, January 1987.
322 (1) The Strain Aging Behavior of Microalloyed Steels, by W. A. Herman, M.A. Erazo, L. R Depatto, M. Sekizawaand A. W. Pense; (2) The Fracture Toughness
Behavior of ASTM A737 Grade Band Grade CMicroalloyed PresSure Vessel Steels, by J. A. Aadland, J. l. Qureshi and A. W. Pense; (3) The Fracture Behavior of ASTM A737 Grade Band Grade CMicroalloyed Steel Weldments, by J. M. Aurrecoechea, B. Oain and A. W.Pense; {4) Long Time Stress Relief
Effects In ASTM A737 Grade Band Grade CMicroalloyedSteels, byN. Shinohe, M. SeklzawaandA. W. Pense, April1987.
323 Monograph on Narrow-Gap Welding Technology, by V, Malin, May 1987.
324 Investigation of Design Crlleria for Dynamic Loads on Nuclear Power Piping, by R. J. Scavuzzo and P. C. Lam, June 1987
325 Further Gasket Leakage Behavior Trends, by A. Bazergui, L Marchand and H. 0. Raut, July 1987.
326 Revised Bulletin 191-August 1987. Suggested Arc-Welding Procedures for Steels Meeting Standard Specifications, by C. W. Ott and D. J. Snyder. This
Revision is a part onne WAC book, "Weldability of Steels-Fourth Edition."
Revised Bulletin 297. Local Stre.ss'es ln Cylindrical Shells Due to External Loadings on Nozzles-Supplement to WRC Bulletin 107 (Revision 1), by J. L. Mershon, K.
Mol<htarian, G. V. Ranjonand E. C. Rodabaugh, September 1987.
327 Long,Range Plan for Pressure-Vessel Research-Eighth Edition, by the Pressure Vessel Research Committee, October 1987.
328 (1) SpeCimen Thickness Effects for Elastic-Piasti~CTOD Toughness of anA36 Steel, by G. W. Wellman, W. A. Sorem, R. H. Dodds, Jr., and S. T. Rolfe; (2) An
Analytical and Experimental Comparison of Rectangular and Square CTOD Fracture Specimens of an A36 Steel, byW. A. Sorem, R. H. Dodds, Jr., and S.
T. Rolfe, November 1987.
329 Accuracy of Stress Intensification Factors for Branch Connections, by E. C. Rodabaugh, December 1987.

Copyright 1987 Welding Research Council


Requests for reproduction or republication permission should be addressed to the
President and Executive Director, Welding Research Council.