You are on page 1of 24

ASIA WATER MANAGEMENT FORUM

29 th October, 2012 Seoul, Korea

WATER MANAGEMENT IN MYANMAR

Bo Ni

Director

Watershed Management Division

Forest Department Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry

Presentation Outlines

  • Brief Introduction to Myanmar

  • Water Resources & Water Resource Management in Myanmar

  • Water Related Policies and Laws

  • Water utilization and challenges

  • Integrated Water Resource Management in Myanmar

Presentation Outlines  Brief Introduction to Myanmar  Water Resources & Water Resource Management in Myanmar
  • Water Supply & Waste Water Treatment Facilities

  • Issues and Challenges

  • Conclusion

Brief Introduction to Myanmar

Brief Introduction to Myanmar Topographic map of Myanmar  Situated in South East Asia and total

Topographic map of Myanmar

  • Situated in South East Asia and total land area is about 676,577 km 2

  • Population : 58.38 million (2008-09), Growth rate :1.52% Density : about 86 people /km 2

  • Climate : Sub-tropical climate with three distinct weather namely; Summer, Rainy and Winter season Temperature : Maximum 43°C Rainfall : Maximum > 5,000 mm Minimum < 800 mm

  • About 70% of the people living in rural areas

Water Resources in Myanmar

Water Resources in Myanmar  Total Drainage Area : about 737,600 km comprise of major four
  • Total Drainage Area : about 737,600 km 2 comprise of major four rivers namely Ayeyarwady, Chindwin, Sittaung and Thanlwin

  • Discharge from the total drainage area: 1082 km 3 / annum

  • Monthly distribution of river flow closely

follow the pattern of Rainfall; 80% during

the rainy season (May-October) and 20% in dry season (November April)

  • Estimated groundwater potential : 495 km 3

Water Resource Management in

Myanmar

The following Institutions are responsible for water resource management in Myanmar;

No.

Institutions

Responsibility

1

Irrigation Department

water level recording and discharge measurement, especially for irrigation dams and canals

2

Meteorology and Hydrology Department

discharge stations, sediment discharge stations on main rivers and big tributaries, water quality stations on Ayeyarwady delta for measuring discharge and sediment flows and monitoring salt intrusion

3

Forest Department

rehabilitation and conservation of forests and watersheds and maintaining the stability of Environment in order to develop the social and economic conditions of the nation, especially in rural areas

Water Related Policies

No.

Source

Statement

1

Guidelines on development of rural areas

Ensuring adequate supplies of safe drinking water

2

Roundtable Workshop on the

Sustainability of water resources to

National Water Vision in Myanmar

ensure sufficient water quality of

cooperation with UNESCAP and FAO, 2003

acceptable quality to meet the needs of the population in terms of health,

food security, economy and environment

3

Mission statement for the water

To establish a beneficial framework

sector

and effective mechanism for managing, developing, and protecting water and related resources in an

environmentally and economically

sound manner in order to meet the

needs of the people of Myanmar

Water Related Policies

No.

Source

Statement

4

National Health Policy

To intensify and expand environmental health activities including prevention and control of

air and water pollution

5

National Policies in water sector

To expand safe drinking water supply and adequate sanitation

facilities in order to fulfill

the basic

needs of the people with priority

attached to the rural

areas to

narrow up gap

of disparity of social

and economic development between the urban and rural

     

Water Related Laws

The Rangoon Water Works Act, 1885

The Burma Municipal Act, 1898

The Burma Canal Act, 1905 as amended by Burma Act, 1914, 1924, 1928 and

1934

The Burma Embankment Act, 1905 as amended by Burma Act 1923 and 1931

The City of Rangoon Municipal Act, 1922

The Underground Water Act, 1930

The Burma Water Power Rules, 1932

Environmental Law, 2012

  • It has been noted that laws, regulations and legislation set out in the early 1900s needed to be reviewed and amended except newly promulgated Environmental Law

Opportunities and threats in water

resources development

Opportunities

Threats

  • Rich in water resources

  • Sedimentation is one of the major

  • Total utilization of the nation’s water resources : only 5% (56 km 3 )

adverse effects of storage dams and in the lower courses of rivers

  • The development of industry and

increasing population density will cause increasing river pollution and health risks for people living close to the rivers

  • Changing in landuse

Opportunities and threats in water resources development Opportunities Threats  Rich in water resources  Sedimentation
Opportunities and threats in water resources development Opportunities Threats  Rich in water resources  Sedimentation

Water Utilization and Challenges

  • total water withdrawal in 2000 was 33.2 km³ , 98.3% used in agriculture sector, 1.2% used for domestic and 0.5% used for industry sector*

  • Dam Irrigation more than 1 million ha, river pumping about 150,000ha and tube wells irrigation 36,000 ha

  • domestic water withdrawal per capita is 8.9 m 3 /year (24.4 liter/day)*

  • Committee responsible for Urban Water Supply

    • 1. Nay Pyi Taw Development Committee(NPTDC)

    • 2. Yangon City Development Committee (YCDC)

    • 3. Mandalay City Development Committee(MCDC)

    • 4. Township Development committee in each townships (TDCs)

  • Water sector faces several problems including climate change effects, flooding and drought, impact of shifting cultivation, deforestation in watershed areas, management conflicts of interest and weak coordination within the agencies

  • * ESCAP Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2007, http://www.unescap.org/stat/data/syb2007/

    Integrated Water Resource Management

    Stakeholder Mapping

    Integrated Water Resource Management

    Proposed Myanmar Water Commission for Integrated Water Resource Management

    Integrated Water Resource Management Proposed Myanmar Water Commission for Integrated Water Resource Management

    Integrated Water Resource Management

    It has been suggested that Myanmar Water Commission should comprise of a senior minister as chairman and the ministers from water-related ministries as member

    Suggested duties and responsible of MWC are;

    (1) To lay down and prescribe the Policies and Guidelines concerning with water and water

    resources and required assessment (2) The preparation of water Laws (3) The introduction of new laws, and the enforcement and amendment of existing laws (4) To act as coordinator for water users of both consumptive and non-consumptive nature and to give necessary instructions to the different water sectors (5) To take necessary action where relevant

    Integrated Water Resource Management

    It has been also suggested that to establish a working (coordination) committee comprise of heads of departments in the ministries concerned as members

    Suggested duties and responsible of the working (coordination) committee are;

    (1) To deal with international organizations as well as regional and national organizations (2) Conduct coordination work between water sectors

    (3) The preparation of standardization works for water quality of each sector of water usage

    (4) To prepare and implement a National Water Vision

    (5) To monitor and make the necessary assessments, e.g. environmental impact assessment for water usage

    (6) Recommendations for water and benefit sharing and resolving conflicts over

    transboundary water usage between neighboring countries

    (7) Decision-making and establishing the cause and effect of water use and development of water resources

    Water supply and waste water

    treatment facilities

    • In Myanmar, the following governmental agencies are taking responsible and committing all-out measures for provision of urban water supply services.

      • 1. Nay Pyi Taw Development Committee(NPTDC)

      • 2. Yangon City Development Committee (YCDC)

      • 3. Mandalay City Development Committee(MCDC)

      • 4. Township Development committee in each townships (TDCs)

  • Regarding to achieve improved water supply system, many agencies have been involved such as three Development Committees, Department of Development Affairs (DDA), Water Resource Utilization Department (WRUD), National Health Laboratory (NHL), Environmental Sanitation of Department (ESD) and Department of Health (DoH).

  • These agencies have been carrying out water supply and sanitation activities and drinking water quality surveillance and monitoring pilot projects, Water Safety Plans, Low Cost Water Treatment, Awareness and Capacity Building of community through trainings, workshop and IEC Materials.

  • Water supply and waste water

    treatment facilities

    The NayPyiTaw (New Capital of Myanmar) Development Law was enacted in 2009. Altogether 23 functions and duties are prescribed in the Law and the following Water

    works in this Law are being used.

    • 1. Carrying out works for water supply;

    • 2. Carrying out works for construction and maintenance of reservoirs, water storage reservoirs and pipelines;

    • 3. Carrying out works for sanitation and sewage;

    Water supply and waste water treatment facilities The NayPyiTaw (New Capital of Myanmar) Development Law was

    Slow sand filter

    Water supply and waste water treatment facilities The NayPyiTaw (New Capital of Myanmar) Development Law was

    Pumps at slow sand filter

    Water supply and waste water treatment facilities The NayPyiTaw (New Capital of Myanmar) Development Law was

    Purified water collecting

    ground tank

    Water supply in Yangon

    Profile of Yangon (former capital city)

    age : more than three hundred years old

    topography : slightly undulating and hilly land in the center of the city and low flat on the fringes

    drainage : originate in the highest parts

    run in all directions and finally drain into

    the Yangon and Bago rivers

    population : more than 5 million in 33 townships

    city authority : Yangon City Development Committee (YCDC)

    Water supply in Yangon Profile of Yangon (former capital city) age : more than three hundred

    Yangon city area map

    Water supply in Yangon

    a long history of more than 150 years.

    340 000 m 3 per day (1.5 million m 3 per day in

    2020)

    4 reservoirs (Hlawga, Gyobyu, Phugyi, and Ngamoyeik) and over 200 tube wells

    water is supplied by the long-distance pipelines

    only 37% of city area benefits and water pressure is very low ( JICA study report, 2002)

    Water supply in Yangon • a long history of more than 150 years. • 340 000

    Hlawga reservoir

    Water supply in Yangon • a long history of more than 150 years. • 340 000

    Water supply in Yangon

    the existing water supply facilities were constructed during the colonial era

    YCDC’s water supply system is very low in terms of

    water quality, quantity and pressure.

    water supply is sometimes suspended.

    consumers have installed their own pumps to

    draw water from YCDC’s distribution pipes to

    ground or elevated tanks

    consequently conditions of the distribution pipe become negative pressure

    Water supply in Yangon • • • • • the existing water supply facilities were constructed

    water transmission pipe from Gyo-phyu reservoir

    some distribution pipes are contaminated by

    ground water.

    Water supply in Yangon

    Water treatment

    water treatment plant installed at only Gyobyu reservoir (coagulation and sedimentation)

    treatment facility does not fully function because

    coagulant is not injected.

    supply water is without treatment

    a lot of deposits settle in the pipes and the

    reservoirs

    the distribution pipes are blocked up by massive floating water plants

    Water supply in Yangon Water treatment • water treatment plant installed at only Gyobyu reservoir (coagulation

    Hlawga reservoir, operated since 1904

    disinfection is implemented intermittently due to limited budget.

    E-coli are detected in the water of the distribution pipe and in reservoirs ( JICA study report, 2002)

    Water supply in Yangon

    Water supply program for out of YCDC water supply area

    tube wells dug on basis of self help

    YCDC has to provide required technology & equipments, machinery and engineers

    the local residents/companies provide financing

    • contributes significantly to Yangon’s water

    supply system

    •…

    ..

    this

    is the main feature of public-private

    partnership.

    Public- Private partnership for water supply

    Residential Industrial area zone
    Residential
    Industrial
    area
    zone

    Water supply in Yangon

    Urban water supply rate : YCDC‘s current water tariff structure

    Water supply in Yangon Urban water supply rate : YCDC‘s current water tariff structure Rural water

    Rural water supply rate

    Water supply in Yangon Urban water supply rate : YCDC‘s current water tariff structure Rural water
    Water supply in Yangon Urban water supply rate : YCDC‘s current water tariff structure Rural water
    Water supply in Yangon Urban water supply rate : YCDC‘s current water tariff structure Rural water
    Water supply in Yangon Urban water supply rate : YCDC‘s current water tariff structure Rural water

    FROM VISION TO ACTION, A SYNTHESIS OF EXPERIENCES IN LEAST-DEVELOPED COUNTRIES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA

    THE FAO-ESCAP PILOT PROJECT ON NATIONAL WATER VISIONS PHASE 2, Bangkok, December 2004

    http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/ae546e/ae546e00.HTM

    Issues and Challenges

    • Strengthening the legal framework to ensure effective and harmonious integration of water resources management, development and protection activities into the socio-economic development process of the country

    • Enhancement and consolidation of the existing systems

    • The operation, maintenance and rehabilitation of facilities safely, reliably and efficiently

    • Prioritizing capacity-building needs in order to enhance organizational capacity and effectiveness of the water resources coordination system

    Conclusion

    • The pressure of rapid population growth and attendant demands for more food will inevitably strain in the country’s water resources further.

    • Therefore, it will be necessary to establish a high-level Water Commission as well as an effective National Water Policy covering water laws, disaster preparedness, efficient water use, ecosystem conservation, institutional strengthening and sectoral coordination of all relevant aspects.

    • Moreover, It is desirable to establish much more private water supply firms in the course of development so as to reduce the burden on the government