You are on page 1of 14

Tsunami

For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation).

5th century BC History of the Peloponnesian War, that


tsunamis were related to submarine earthquakes,* [5]* [6]
but the understanding of a tsunami's nature remained slim
until the 20th century and much remains unknown. Major areas of current research include trying to determine
why some large earthquakes do not generate tsunamis
while other smaller ones do; trying to accurately forecast
the passage of tsunamis across the oceans; and also to
forecast how tsunami waves would interact with specic
shorelines.

2011 Thoku earthquake and tsunami, An aerial view of damage


in the Sendai region with black smoke coming from the Nippon
Oil Sendai oil renery

A tsunami (plural: tsunamis or tsunami; from Japanese:


, lit. harbour wave";* [1] English pronunciation:
/sunmi/ or /tsunmi/* [2]) , also known as a seismic sea wave or as a tidal wave, is a series of waves
in a body of water caused by the displacement of a large
volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake. Taken at Ao Nang, Krabi Province, Thailand, during the 2004
Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater ex- Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami in Thailand
plosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices), landslides, glacier calvings, meteorite impacts and
other disturbances above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami.* [3] In being generated by
the displacement of water, a tsunami contrasts both with
a normal ocean wave generated by wind and with tides,
which are generated by the gravitational pull of the Moon
and the Sun on bodies of water.
Tsunami waves do not resemble normal sea waves, because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead initially
resemble a rapidly rising tide, and for this reason they
are often referred to as tidal waves. Tsunamis generally
consist of a series of waves with periods ranging from
minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called wave train
.* [4] Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by
large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is limited
to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous
and they can aect entire ocean basins; the 2004 Indian
Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters
in human history with at least 230,000 people killed or
missing in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean.

3D tsunami simulation

1 Terminology

Numerous terms are used in the English language to describe waves created in a body of water by the displacement of water. None of the terms in frequent use are
The Greek historian Thucydides suggested in his late- entirely accurate.
1

HISTORY

This once-popular term derives from the most common


appearance of tsunami, which is that of an extraordinarily
high tidal bore. Tsunami and tides both produce waves of
water that move inland, but in the case of tsunami the inland movement of water may be much greater, giving the
impression of an incredibly high and forceful tide. In recent years, the termtidal wavehas fallen out of favor,
especially in the scientic community, because tsunami
actually have nothing to do with tides, which are produced by the gravitational pull of the moon and sun rather
than the displacement of water. Although the meanings
of tidalinclude resembling* [16] or having the
form or character of* [17] the tides, use of the term tidal
wave is discouraged by geologists and oceanographers.
Tsunami warning bilingual sign in Ulee Lheue, Banda Aceh in
Acehnese and Indonesian

1.1

Tsunami

The term tsunami, meaning harbor wavein literal


translation, comes from the Japanese , composed of
the two kanji (tsu) meaning "harbour" and (nami),
meaning "wave". (For the plural, one can either follow
ordinary English practice and add an s, or use an invariable plural as in the Japanese.* [7])
There are only a few other languages that have an equivalent native word. In Acehnese language, the words are i
beuna* [8] or aln buluk* [9] (depending on the dialect).
In Tamil language, it is aazhi peralai. On Simeulue island, o the western coast of Sumatra in Indonesia, in
Devayan language the word is smong, while in Sigulai language it is emong.* [10]

1.3 Seismic sea wave


The term seismic sea wave also is used to refer to the
phenomenon, because the waves most often are generated by seismic activity such as earthquakes.* [18] Prior
to the rise of the use of the term tsunamiin Englishspeaking countries, scientists generally encouraged the
use of the term seismic sea waverather than the inaccurate term tidal wave.However, like tsunami,
seismic sea waveis not a completely accurate term,
as forces other than earthquakes including underwater landslides, volcanic eruptions, underwater explosions,
land or ice slumping into the ocean, meteorite impacts, or
even the weather when the atmospheric pressure changes
very rapidly can generate such waves by displacing water.* [19]* [20]

In Singkil (in Aceh province) and surrounding, the people


use the word gloro/galoro for tsunami.* [11]* [12] In Nias 2 History
language, it is called oloro/galoro* [13] and in Ende it is
called ae mesi nuka tana lala* [14]
See also: List of historic tsunamis
While Japan may have the longest recorded history of

1.2

Tidal wave

Lisbon earthquake and tsunami in 1755

tsunamis, the sheer destruction caused by the 2004 Indian


Ocean earthquake and tsunami event mark it as the most
devastating of its kind in modern times, killing around
Tsunami are sometimes referred to as tidal waves.* [15] 230,000 people.* [21] The Sumatran region is not unused
Tsunami aftermath in Aceh, Indonesia.

3.1

Seismicity

3
of water is usually attributed to either earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, glacier calvings or more rarely
by meteorites and nuclear tests.* [27]* [28] The waves
formed in this way are then sustained by gravity. Tides
do not play any part in the generation of tsunamis.

3.1 Seismicity

The Russians of Pavel Lebedev-Lastochkin in Japan, with their


ships tossed inland by a tsunami, meeting some Japanese in 1779

to tsunamis either, with earthquakes of varying magnitudes regularly occurring o the coast of the island.* [22]
Tsunamis are an often underestimated hazard in the
Mediterranean Sea region and Europe in general. Of
historical and current (with regard to risk assumptions)
importance are e.g. the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and
tsunami (which was caused by the AzoresGibraltar
Transform Fault), the 1783 Calabrian earthquakes, each
causing several ten thousand deaths and the 1908 Messina
earthquake and tsunami. The latter took more than
123,000 lives in Sicily and Calabria and is among the
most deadly natural disasters in modern Europe. The
Storegga Slide in the Norwegian sea and some examples
of Tsunamis aecting the British Isles refer to landslide
and meteotsunamis predominatly and less to earth quake
induced waves.

Tsunami can be generated when the sea oor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Tectonic earthquakes are a particular kind of earthquake
that are associated with the Earth's crustal deformation;
when these earthquakes occur beneath the sea, the water above the deformed area is displaced from its equilibrium position.* [29] More specically, a tsunami can be
generated when thrust faults associated with convergent
or destructive plate boundaries move abruptly, resulting
in water displacement, owing to the vertical component
of movement involved. Movement on normal faults will
also cause displacement of the seabed, but the size of the
largest of such events is normally too small to give rise to
a signicant tsunami.
Drawing of tectonic plate boundary before
earthquake
Overriding plate bulges under strain, causing
tectonic uplift.
Plate slips, causing subsidence and releasing energy
into water.

As early as 426 BC the Greek historian Thucydides in The energy released produces tsunami waves.
quired in his book History of the Peloponnesian War
about the causes of tsunami, and was the rst to argue
Tsunamis have a small amplitude (wave height) oshore,
that ocean earthquakes must be the cause.* [5]* [6]
and a very long wavelength (often hundreds of kilometres long, whereas normal ocean waves have a wavelength
The cause, in my opinion, of this pheof only 30 or 40 metres),* [30] which is why they gennomenon must be sought in the earthquake. At
erally pass unnoticed at sea, forming only a slight swell
the point where its shock has been the most viusually about 300 millimetres (12 in) above the normal
olent the sea is driven back, and suddenly resea surface. They grow in height when they reach shalcoiling with redoubled force, causes the inunlower water, in a wave shoaling process described below.
dation. Without an earthquake I do not see how
A tsunami can occur in any tidal state and even at low tide
such an accident could happen.* [23]
can still inundate coastal areas.
The Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus (Res Gestae 26.10.15-19) described the typical sequence of a
tsunami, including an incipient earthquake, the sudden
retreat of the sea and a following gigantic wave, after the
365 AD tsunami devastated Alexandria.* [24]* [25]

On April 1, 1946, a magnitude-7.8 (Richter Scale) earthquake occurred near the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. It generated a tsunami which inundated Hilo on the island of
Hawai'i with a 14-metre high (46 ft) surge. The area
where the earthquake occurred is where the Pacic Ocean
oor is subducting (or being pushed downwards) under
Alaska.

Examples of tsunami originating at locations away from


convergent boundaries include Storegga about 8,000
years ago, Grand Banks 1929, Papua New Guinea 1998
The principal generation mechanism (or cause) of a (Tappin, 2001). The Grand Banks and Papua New
tsunami is the displacement of a substantial volume of Guinea tsunamis came from earthquakes which destawater or perturbation of the sea.* [26] This displacement bilised sediments, causing them to ow into the ocean

Generation mechanisms

GENERATION MECHANISMS

and generate a tsunami. They dissipated before traveling


transoceanic distances.
The cause of the Storegga sediment failure is unknown.
Possibilities include an overloading of the sediments, an
earthquake or a release of gas hydrates (methane etc.).
The 1960 Valdivia earthquake (M w 9.5), 1964 Alaska
earthquake (M w 9.2), 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
(M w 9.2), and 2011 Thoku earthquake (M w 9.0) are recent examples of powerful megathrust earthquakes that
generated tsunamis (known as teletsunamis) that can
cross entire oceans. Smaller (M w 4.2) earthquakes in
Japan can trigger tsunamis (called local and regional
tsunamis) that can only devastate nearby coasts, but can Devastation wrought by Hurricane Ike's meteotsunamic storm
surge over the Bolivar Peninsula in 2008.
do so in only a few minutes.
type of storm surge called a meteotsunami which raises
water heights above normal levels, often suddenly at the
*
In the 1950s, it was discovered that larger tsunamis than shoreline. [35]
had previously been believed possible could be caused by In the case of deep tropical cyclones, this is due to very
giant submarine landslides. These rapidly displace large low atmospheric pressure and inward swirling winds causwater volumes, as energy transfers to the water at a rate ing an uplifted dome of water to form under and travel in
faster than the water can absorb. Their existence was tandem with the storm. When these water domes reach
conrmed in 1958, when a giant landslide in Lituya Bay, shore, they rear up in shallows and surge laterally like
Alaska, caused the highest wave ever recorded, which had earthquake-generated tsunamis, typically arriving shortly
a height of 524 metres (over 1700 feet).* [31] The wave after landfall of the storm's eye.* [36]* [37]
did not travel far, as it struck land almost immediately.
Two people shing in the bay were killed, but another
boat amazingly managed to ride the wave.

3.2

Landslides

3.4 Man-made or triggered tsunamis

Another landslide-tsunami event occurred in 1963 when


a massive landslide from Monte Toc went into the Vajont
Dam in Italy. The resulting wave overtopped the 262 m
(860 ft) high dam by 250 metres (820 ft) and destroyed
several towns. Around 2,000 people died.* [32]* [33] Scientists named these waves megatsunami. Scientists discovered that extremely large landslides from volcanic island collapses may be able to generate megatsunamis that
can cross oceans.

See also: Tsunami bomb


There have been studies and at least one attempt to create
tsunami waves as a tectonic weapon or whether human
behavior may trigger tsunamis, e.g. in the (debunked)
Clathrate gun hypothesis.

In World War II, the New Zealand Military Forces initiated Project Seal, which attempted to create small
In general, landslides generate displacements mainly in
tsunamis with explosives in the area of today's Shakespear
the shallower parts of the coastline, and there is conjecRegional Park; the attempt failed.* [38]
ture about the nature of truly large landslides that end in
water. This is proven to lead to huge eect in closed bays There has been considerable speculation on the possibiland lakes, but an open oceanic landslide large enough to ity of using nuclear weapons to cause tsunamis near to
cause a tsunami across an ocean has not yet happened an enemy coastline. Even during World War II considsince before seismology has been a major area of scien- eration of the idea using conventional explosives was extic study, and only very rarely in human history. Sus- plored. Nuclear testing in the Pacic Proving Ground by
ceptible areas focus for now on the islands of Hawaii and the United States seemed to generate poor results. OpLa Palma in the Canary Islands, where large masses of eration Crossroads red two 20 kilotonnes of TNT (84
relatively unconsolidated volcanic shield on slopes occur. TJ) bombs, one in the air and one underwater, above and
Considerable doubt exists about how loosely linked these below the shallow (50 m (160 ft)) waters of the Bikini
Atoll lagoon. Fired about 6 km (3.7 mi) from the nearslopes actually are.* [34]
est island, the waves there were no higher than 34 m
(9.813.1 ft) upon reaching the shoreline. Other under3.3 Meteotsunamis
water tests, mainly Hardtack I/Wahoo (deep water) and
Hardtack I/Umbrella (shallow water) conrmed the reSome meteorological conditions, especially deep sults. Analysis of the eects of shallow and deep undepressions such as tropical cyclones, can generate a derwater explosions indicate that the energy of the ex-

5
plosions doesn't easily generate the kind of deep, allocean waveforms which are tsunamis; most of the energy
creates steam, causes vertical fountains above the water,
and creates compressional waveforms.* [39] Tsunamis are
hallmarked by permanent large vertical displacements of
very large volumes of water which don't occur in explosions.

Characteristics

come back to land to nd their village devastated by a


huge wave.
As the tsunami approaches the coast and the waters become shallow, wave shoaling compresses the wave and its
speed decreases below 80 kilometres per hour (50 mph).
Its wavelength diminishes to less than 20 kilometres (12
mi) and its amplitude grows enormously. Since the wave
still has the same very long period, the tsunami may take
minutes to reach full height. Except for the very largest
tsunamis, the approaching wave does not break, but rather
appears like a fast-moving tidal bore.* [41] Open bays
and coastlines adjacent to very deep water may shape
the tsunami further into a step-like wave with a steepbreaking front.
When the tsunami's wave peak reaches the shore, the resulting temporary rise in sea level is termed run up. Run
up is measured in metres above a reference sea level.* [41]
A large tsunami may feature multiple waves arriving over
a period of hours, with signicant time between the wave
crests. The rst wave to reach the shore may not have the
highest run up.* [42]

When the wave enters shallow water, it slows down and its amplitude (height) increases.

About 80% of tsunamis occur in the Pacic Ocean, but


they are possible wherever there are large bodies of water,
including lakes. They are caused by earthquakes, landslides, volcanic explosions, glacier calvings, and bolides.

5 Drawback

The wave further slows and amplies as it hits land. Only the
largest waves crest.

Tsunamis cause damage by two mechanisms: the smashing force of a wall of water travelling at high speed, and
the destructive power of a large volume of water draining
o the land and carrying a large amount of debris with it,
even with waves that do not appear to be large.
While everyday wind waves have a wavelength (from
crest to crest) of about 100 metres (330 ft) and a height of
roughly 2 metres (6.6 ft), a tsunami in the deep ocean has
a much larger wavelength of up to 200 kilometres (120
mi). Such a wave travels at well over 800 kilometres per
hour (500 mph), but owing to the enormous wavelength
the wave oscillation at any given point takes 20 or 30 minutes to complete a cycle and has an amplitude of only
about 1 metre (3.3 ft).* [40] This makes tsunamis dicult to detect over deep water, where ships are unable to
feel their passage.

An illustration of the rhythmic drawbackof surface water


associated with a wave. It follows that a very large drawback
may herald the arrival of a very large wave.

All waves have a positive and negative peak, i.e. a ridge


and a trough. In the case of a propagating wave like a
tsunami, either may be the rst to arrive. If the rst part
to arrive at shore is the ridge, a massive breaking wave
or sudden ooding will be the rst eect noticed on land.
However if the rst part to arrive is a trough, a drawback will occur as the shoreline recedes dramatically, exposing normally submerged areas. Drawback can exceed
hundreds of metres, and people unaware of the danger
sometimes remain near the shore to satisfy their curiosity
or to collect sh from the exposed seabed.

A typical wave period for a damaging tsunami is about


12 minutes. This means that if the drawback phase is
the rst part of the wave to arrive, the sea will recede,
with areas well below sea level exposed after 3 minutes.
During the next 6 minutes the tsunami wave trough builds
The reason for the Japanese name harbour waveis into a ridge, and during this time the sea is lled in and
that sometimes a village's shermen would sail out, and destruction occurs on land. During the next 6 minutes, the
encounter no unusual waves while out at sea shing, and tsunami wave changes from a ridge to a trough, causing

WARNINGS AND PREDICTIONS

ood waters to drain and drawback to occur again. This 7 Warnings and predictions
may sweep victims and debris some distance from land.
The process repeats as the next wave arrives.
See also: Tsunami warning system
Drawbacks can serve as a brief warning. People who ob-

Scales of intensity and magnitude

As with earthquakes, several attempts have been made to


set up scales of tsunami intensity or magnitude to allow
comparison between dierent events.* [43]

6.1

Intensity scales

The rst scales used routinely to measure the intensity


of tsunami were the Sieberg-Ambraseys scale, used in the
Mediterranean Sea and the Imamura-Iida intensity scale,
used in the Pacic Ocean. The latter scale was modied
by Soloviev, who calculated the Tsunami intensity I according to the formula
Tsunami warning sign
1
I = + log2 Hav
2
where Hav is the average wave height along the nearest coast. This scale, known as the Soloviev-Imamura
tsunami intensity scale, is used in the global tsunami catalogues compiled by the NGDC/NOAA* [44] and the
Novosibirsk Tsunami Laboratory as the main parameter
for the size of the tsunami.

serve drawback (many survivors report an accompanying


sucking sound), can survive only if they immediately run
for high ground or seek the upper oors of nearby buildings. In 2004, ten-year-old Tilly Smith of Surrey, England, was on Maikhao beach in Phuket, Thailand with her
parents and sister, and having learned about tsunamis recently in school, told her family that a tsunami might be
imminent. Her parents warned others minutes before the
wave arrived, saving dozens of lives. She credited her
geography teacher, Andrew Kearney.

In 2013, following the intensively studied tsunamis in


2004 and 2011, a new 12 point scale was proposed,
the Integrated Tsunami Intensity Scale (ITIS-2012), intended to match as closely as possible to the modied
ESI2007 and EMS earthquake intensity scales.* [45]

In the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami drawback was not reported on the African coast or any other east-facing coasts
that it reached. This was because the wave moved downwards on the eastern side of the fault line and upwards on
the western side. The western pulse hit coastal Africa and
other western areas.

6.2

A tsunami cannot be precisely predicted, even if the


magnitude and location of an earthquake is known.
Geologists, oceanographers, and seismologists analyse
each earthquake and based on many factors may or may
not issue a tsunami warning. However, there are some
warning signs of an impending tsunami, and automated
systems can provide warnings immediately after an earthquake in time to save lives. One of the most successful
systems uses bottom pressure sensors, attached to buoys,
which constantly monitor the pressure of the overlying
water column.

Magnitude scales

The rst scale that genuinely calculated a magnitude for


a tsunami, rather than an intensity at a particular location
was the ML scale proposed by Murty & Loomis based on
the potential energy.* [43] Diculties in calculating the
potential energy of the tsunami mean that this scale is
rarely used. Abe introduced the tsunami magnitude scale
Mt , calculated from,

Regions with a high tsunami risk typically use tsunami


warning systems to warn the population before the wave
where h is the maximum tsunami-wave amplitude (in m) reaches land. On the west coast of the United States,
measured by a tide gauge at a distance R from the epicen- which is prone to Pacic Ocean tsunami, warning signs
tre, a, b and D are constants used to make the Mt scale indicate evacuation routes. In Japan, the community is
match as closely as possible with the moment magnitude well-educated about earthquakes and tsunamis, and along
the Japanese shorelines the tsunami warning signs are rescale.* [46]
Mt = a log h + b log R = D

7.1

Forecast of tsunami attack probability

minders of the natural hazards together with a network


of warning sirens, typically at the top of the cli of surroundings hills.* [47]
The Pacic Tsunami Warning System is based in
Honolulu, Hawaii. It monitors Pacic Ocean seismic
activity. A suciently large earthquake magnitude and
other information triggers a tsunami warning. While the
subduction zones around the Pacic are seismically active, not all earthquakes generate tsunami. Computers
assist in analysing the tsunami risk of every earthquake
that occurs in the Pacic Ocean and the adjoining land
masses.
Tsunami hazard sign at Bameld, British Columbia
A tsunami warning sign on a seawall in Kamakura,
Japan, 2004
The monument to the victims of tsunami at
Laupahoehoe, Hawaii
Tsunami memorial in Kanyakumari beach
A Tsunami hazard sign (Spanish - English) in One of the deep water buoys used in the DART tsunami warning
system
Iquique, Chile.
Tsunami Evacuation Route signage along U.S.
Route 101, in Washington

move away from the approaching noise. By contrast,


some humans went to the shore to investigate and many
As a direct result of the Indian Ocean tsunami, a re- drowned as a result.
appraisal of the tsunami threat for all coastal areas is be- Along the United States west coast, in addition to sirens,
ing undertaken by national governments and the United warnings are sent on television and radio via the National
Nations Disaster Mitigation Committee. A tsunami Weather Service, using the Emergency Alert System.
warning system is being installed in the Indian Ocean.
Computer models can predict tsunami arrival, usually
within minutes of the arrival time. Bottom pressure sensors can relay information in real time. Based on these
pressure readings and other seismic information and the
seaoor's shape (bathymetry) and coastal topography, the
models estimate the amplitude and surge height of the
approaching tsunami. All Pacic Rim countries collaborate in the Tsunami Warning System and most regularly
practice evacuation and other procedures. In Japan, such
preparation is mandatory for government, local authorities, emergency services and the population.

7.1 Forecast of tsunami attack probability


Kunihiko Shimazaki (University of Tokyo), a member
of Earthquake Research committee of The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion of Japanese
government, mentioned the plan to public announcement of tsunami attack probability forecast at Japan National Press Club on 12 May 2011. The forecast includes tsunami height, attack area and occurrence probability within 100 years ahead. The forecast would integrate the scientic knowledge of recent interdisciplinarity
and aftermath of the 2011 Thoku earthquake and
tsunami. As the plan, announcement will be available
from 2014.* [50]* [51]* [52]

Some zoologists hypothesise that some animal species


have an ability to sense subsonic Rayleigh waves from
an earthquake or a tsunami. If correct, monitoring their
behavior could provide advance warning of earthquakes,
tsunami etc. However, the evidence is controversial and
is not widely accepted. There are unsubstantiated claims
about the Lisbon quake that some animals escaped to
higher ground, while many other animals in the same ar- 8 Mitigation
eas drowned. The phenomenon was also noted by media sources in Sri Lanka in the 2004 Indian Ocean earth- See also: Tsunami barrier
quake.* [48]* [49] It is possible that certain animals (e.g., In some tsunami-prone countries earthquake engineering
elephants) may have heard the sounds of the tsunami as measures have been taken to reduce the damage caused
it approached the coast. The elephants' reaction was to onshore.

10 FOOTNOTES

9 See also
Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunamis
Disaster preparedness
Earthquake Early Warning (Japan)
Higher Ground Project
Index of wave articles
List of earthquakes
List of natural disasters
Minoan eruption
Rogue wave
Seiche
Sneaker wave
Supervolcano
Tauredunum event
A seawall at Tsu, Japan

Tsunamis in lakes
Tsunami-proof building
Tsunami Society

Japan, where tsunami science and response measures


rst began following a disaster in 1896, has produced ever-more elaborate countermeasures and response plans.* [53] That country has built many tsunami
walls of up to 12 metres (39 ft) high to protect populated
coastal areas. Other localities have built oodgates of up
to 15.5 metres (51 ft) high and channels to redirect the
water from incoming tsunami. However, their eectiveness has been questioned, as tsunami often overtop the
barriers.
The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster was directly triggered by the 2011 Thoku earthquake and tsunami, when
waves exceeded the height of the plant's sea wall.* [54]
Iwate Prefecture, which is an area at high risk from
tsunami, had tsunami barriers walls totalling 25 kilometres (16 mi) long at coastal towns. The 2011 tsunami toppled more than 50% of the walls and caused catastrophic
damage.* [55]
The Okushiri, Hokkaid tsunami which struck Okushiri
Island of Hokkaid within two to ve minutes of the
earthquake on July 12, 1993 created waves as much as
30 metres (100 ft) tallas high as a 10-story building.
The port town of Aonae was completely surrounded by
a tsunami wall, but the waves washed right over the wall
and destroyed all the wood-framed structures in the area.
The wall may have succeeded in slowing down and moderating the height of the tsunami, but it did not prevent
major destruction and loss of life.* [56]

Tsunamis aecting New Zealand


Tsunamis in the United Kingdom
Kaikoura Canyon landslide tsunami hazard

10 Footnotes
[1] Tsunami Terminology. NOAA. Retrieved 2010-0715.
[2] Wells, John C. (1990). Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow, England: Longman. p. 736. ISBN 0-58205383-8. Entry: tsunami
[3] Barbara Ferreira (April 17, 2011). When icebergs capsize, tsunamis may ensue. Nature. Retrieved 2011-0427.
[4] Fradin, Judith Bloom and Dennis Brindell (2008).
Witness to Disaster: Tsunamis. Witness to Disaster.
Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. pp. 42,
43.
[5] Thucydides: A History of the Peloponnesian War,
3.89.14
[6] Smid, T. C. (April 1970). 'Tsunamis' in Greek Literature.
Greece & Rome 17 (1) (2nd ed.). pp. 100104.
[7] [a. Jap. tsunami, tunami, f. tsu harbour + nami waves.
Oxford English Dictionary]

[8] Proposing The Community-Based Tsunami Warning System

[29] How do earthquakes generate tsunamis?". University of


Washington.

[9] Novel Alon Buluek

[30] Facts and gures: how tsunamis form, Australian Geographic, March 18, 2011.

[10] Tsunami 1907: Early Interpretation and its Development


[11] 13 Pulau di Aceh Singkil Hilang
[12] Singkil, Kisah Kota yang Tenggelam
[13] Gempa dan Tsunami di Nias dalam Buku Nias
Amoeata Hoelo Nono Nihakarangan E. Fries
[14] Perjalanan Nama Tsunami
[15] http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/tidal%
20wave
[16]Tidal, The American Heritage Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Houghton Miin Company. 11 November
2008.Dictionary.reference.com
[17] -al. (n.d.). Dictionary.com Unabridged (v 1.1). Retrieved
November 11, 2008, Dictionary.reference.com
[18] The Caribbean Disaster Emergency Management Agency:
Tsunami Smart: Glossary
[19] Earth Science Australia: Tsunami...Tidal Waves
[20] Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology: Tsunami
Frequently Asked Questions
[21] Indian Ocean tsunami anniversary: Memorial events held
26 December 2014, BBC News

[31] George Pararas-Carayannis (1999).The Mega-Tsunami


of July 9, 1958 in Lituya Bay, Alaska. Retrieved 201402-27.
[32] Petley, Dave (Professor) (2008-12-11).The Vaiont (Vajont) landslide of 1963. The Landslide Blog. Retrieved
2014-02-26.
[33] Du, Mark (2013-10-10). Italy Vajont anniversary:
Night of the 'tsunami'". BBC News. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved
2014-02-27.
[34] Pararas-Carayannis, George (2002). Evaluation of the
threat of mega tsunami generation from postulated massive slope failures of the island volcanoes on La Palma,
Canary Islands, and on the island of Hawaii. Science of
Tsunami Hazards 20 (5): 251277. Retrieved 7 September 2014.
[35] Monserrat, S.; Vilibc, I.; Rabinovich, A. B. (2006).Meteotsunamis: atmospherically induced destructive ocean
waves in the tsunami frequency band (PDF). Natural
Hazards and Earth System Sciences 6 (6): 10351051.
doi:10.5194/nhess-6-1035-2006. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
[36] Ike's Texas-Sized Tales Of Survival. CBS News. 17
September 2008. Retrieved 19 December 2013. It was
like an atomic bomb going o. Right after the eye passed,
whole houses came by us at 30 miles an hour.

[22] The 10 most destructive tsunamis in history, Australian


Geographic, March 16, 2011.

[37] Eyewitness video of Supertyphoon Haiyan's meteotsunamic storm surge on November 6, 2013

[23] Thucydides: A History of the Peloponnesian War,


3.89.5

[38]The Hauraki Gulf Marine Park, Part 2. Inset to The


New Zealand Herald. 3 March 2010. p. 9.

[24] Kelly, Gavin (2004). Ammianus and the Great


Tsunami. The Journal of Roman Studies 94 (141): 141
167. doi:10.2307/4135013. JSTOR 4135013.

[39] Glasstone, Samuel; Dolan, Philip (1977). Shock eects


of surface and subsurface bursts - The eects of nuclear
weapons (third edition). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Defense; Energy Research and Development Administration.

[25] Stanley, Jean-Daniel & Jorstad, Thomas F. (2005), "The


365 A.D. Tsunami Destruction of Alexandria, Egypt:
Erosion, Deformation of Strata and Introduction of Allochthonous Material"
[26] Haugen K, Lvholt F, Harbitz C, K; Lovholt, F; Harbitz, C (2005). Fundamental mechanisms for tsunami
generation by submarine mass ows in idealised geometries. Marine and Petroleum Geology 22 (12): 209217.
doi:10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2004.10.016.
[27] Margaritondo, G (2005). Explaining the physics
of tsunamis to undergraduate and non-physics students. European Journal of Physics 26 (3): 401.
Bibcode:2005EJPh...26..401M.
doi:10.1088/01430807/26/3/007.
[28] Voit, S.S (1987).
Tsunamis.
Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 19 (1):
Bibcode:1987AnRFM..19..217V.
217236.
doi:10.1146/annurev..19.010187.001245.

[40] Earthsci.org, Tsunamis


[41] Life of a Tsunami. Western Coastal & Marine Geology. United States Geographical Survey. 22 October
2008. Retrieved 2009-09-09.
[42] Prof. Stephen A. Nelson (28 January 2009). Tsunami
. Tulane University. Retrieved 2009-09-09.
[43] Gusiakov V. Tsunami Quantication: how we measure
the overall size of tsunami (Review of tsunami intensity
and magnitude scales)" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-10-18.
[44] National Geophysical Data Center / (NGDC/WDS)
Global Historical Tsunami Database
[45] Lekkas E.,Andreadakis E., Kostaki I. & Kapourani E.
(2013). A Proposal for a New Integrated Tsunami Intensity Scale (ITIS2012)". Bulletin Seismological Society
of America 103 (2B). doi:10.1785/0120120099.

10

12 FURTHER READING

[46] Abe K. (1995). Estimate of Tsunami Run-up Heights from


Earthquake Magnitudes. Tsunami: progress in prediction, disaster prevention, and warning. ISBN 978-0-79233483-5. Retrieved 2009-10-18.
[47] Chanson, H. (2010). Tsunami Warning Signs on the Enshu
Coast of Japan. Shore & Beach, Vol. 78, No. 1, pp. 52
54. ISSN 0037-4237.
[48] Lambourne, Helen (2005-03-27). Tsunami: Anatomy
of a disaster. BBC.
[49] Kenneally, Christine (2004-12-30). Surviving the
Tsunami: What Sri Lanka's animals knew that humans
didn't. Slate Magazine.
[50] Forecast of earthquake probability is within 30 years
ahead, however Tsunami attack probability is much lower
than earthquake so that the plan is set to be within 100
years ahead. Yomiuri Shimbun 2011-05-13 ver.13S page
2,
[Newly public announce of Tsunami attack probability...Earthquake Research committee of Japan]. Yomiuri
Shimbun (in Japanese). 2011-05-12. Retrieved 2011-0513.

abelard.org. tsunamis: tsunamis travel fast but not at


innite speed. retrieved March 29, 2005.
Dudley, Walter C. & Lee, Min (1988: 1st edition)
Tsunami! ISBN 0-8248-1125-9 website
Iwan, W.D., editor, 2006, Summary report of
the Great Sumatra Earthquakes and Indian Ocean
tsunamis of December 26, 2004 and March 28,
2005: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute,
EERI Publication #2006-06, 11 chapters, 100 page
summary, plus CD-ROM with complete text and
supplementary photographs, EERI Report 2006-06.
ISBN 1-932884-19-X website
Kenneally, Christine (December 30, 2004). Surviving the Tsunami.Slate. website
Lambourne, Helen (March 27, 2005). Tsunami:
Anatomy of a disaster.BBC News. website
Macey, Richard (January 1, 2005). The Big Bang
that Triggered A Tragedy,The Sydney Morning
Herald, p 11quoting Dr Mark Leonard, seismologist at Geoscience Australia.

[51] IndiaTimes Kunihiko Shimazaki speaks during a press


conference in Tokyo Thursday, May 12, 2011

Interactive Map of Historical Tsunamis from


NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center

[52] Margie Mason (2011-05-12). Experts: Early warnings


mitigated Japan disaster. Associated Press.

Tappin, D; 2001. Local tsunamis. Geoscientist.


118, 47.

[53] Journalist's Resource: Research for Reporting, from


Harvard Shorenstein Center. Content.hks.harvard.edu.
2012-05-30. Retrieved 2012-06-12.

Girl, 10, used geography lesson to save lives,


Telegraph.co.uk

[54] Phillip Lipscy, Kenji Kushida, and Trevor Incerti. 2013.


"The Fukushima Disaster and Japans Nuclear Plant
Vulnerability in Comparative Perspective.Environmental Science and Technology 47 (May), 6082-6088.
[55] Kyodo Press Tsunami toppled more than 50% of sea
wall in Iwate prefecture(JA)
[56] 1993 7 12 (in Japanese).

11

References

IOC Tsunami Glossary by the Intergovernmental


Oceanographic Commission (IOC) at the
International Tsunami Information Centre (ITIC)
of UNESCO
Tsunami Terminology at NOAA
In June 2011, the VOA Special English service of
the Voice of America broadcast a 15-minute program on tsunamis as part of its weekly Science in
the News series. The program included an interview
with a NOAA ocial who oversees the agency's
tsunami warning system. A transcript and MP3 of
the program, intended for English learners, can be
found at The Ever-Present Threat of Tsunamis.

Philippines warned to prepare for Japan's tsunami,


Noypi.ph

12 Further reading
Boris Levin, Mikhail Nosov: Physics of tsunamis.
Springer, Dordrecht 2009, ISBN 978-1-4020-88551.
Kontar, Y. A. et al.: Tsunami Events and Lessons
Learned: Environmental and Societal Signicance.
Springer, 2014. ISBN 978-94-007-7268-7 (print);
ISBN 978-94-007-7269-4 (eBook)
Kristy F. Tiampo: Earthquakes: simulations, sources
and tsunamis. Birkhuser, Basel 2008, ISBN 9783-7643-8756-3.
Linda Maria Koldau: Tsunamis. Entstehung,
Geschichte, Prvention, (Tsunami development,
history and prevention) C.H. Beck, Munich 2013
(C.H. Beck Reihe Wissen 2770), ISBN 978-3-40664656-0 (in German).
Walter C. Dudley, Min Lee: Tsunami! University
of Hawaii Press, 1988, 1998, Tsunami! University
of Hawai'i Press 1999, ISBN 0-8248-1125-9, ISBN
978-0-8248-1969-9.

11

13

External links

World's Tallest Tsunami geology.com


Tsunami Data and Information National Geophysical Data Center
IOC Tsunami Glossary International Tsunami Information Center (UNESCO)
Tsunami & Earthquake Research at the USGS
United States Geological Survey
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
Tsunami National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Wave That Shook The World Nova
Recent and Historical Tsunami Events and Relevant
Data Pacic Marine Environmental Laboratory
Raw Video: Tsunami Slams Northeast Japan
Associated Press

12

14

14
14.1

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


Text

Tsunami Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsunami?oldid=660610026 Contributors: Damian Yerrick, Magnus Manske, TwoOneTwo,


Mav, Zundark, The Anome, Berek, Tarquin, Manning Bartlett, Mark, Ed Poor, Andre Engels, Yearofthedragon, Youssefsan, Danny,
Rmhermen, William Avery, Ray Van De Walker, SimonP, Heron, Dwheeler, Stevertigo, Patrick, Kchishol1970, D, Michael Hardy,
Wm, Collabi, Ixfd64, Prefect, Karada, Delirium, Dori, Penmachine, Minesweeper, Pcb21, Egil, Ahoerstemeier, Arwel Parry, Theresa
knott, Plop, Jebba, DropDeadGorgias, Glenn, Cimon Avaro, Dod1, Evercat, Rl, GRAHAMUK, Emperorbma, RodC, Janko, Nohat,
RickK, Fuzheado, WhisperToMe, Selket, DJ Clayworth, Haukurth, Peregrine981, Tpbradbury, Marshman, Nv8200p, Zero0000, Nricardo,
Xevi~enwiki, Shizhao, Khym Chanur, Fvw, Raul654, Scott Sanchez, Proteus, Flockmeal, EldKatt, Adam Carr, Pollinator, Davidmaxwaterman, Francs2000, Slawojarek, Jeq, Aliekens, Lumos3, Denelson83, Jni, Bearcat, Robbot, Paranoid, Vardion, Astronautics~enwiki,
ChrisO~enwiki, KeithH, Fredrik, Kizor, Chris 73, Jredmond, Aliter, Moondyne, ZimZalaBim, Yelyos, Lowellian, Kesuari, Academic
Challenger, SchmuckyTheCat, Blainster, Diderot, Hippietrail, DHN, Sunray, Jhi, Hadal, Wereon, Fuelbottle, Mushroom, Ruakh, Mandel,
Netje, Lupo, Seth Ilys, Diberri, Cyrius, Mattaschen, Rsduhamel, Peter L, Stirling Newberry, Centrx, Giftlite, DocWatson42, Jacoplane,
MPF, Andy, Barbara Shack, Sj, Inkling, Cobaltbluetony, Tom harrison, Meursault2004, Ferkelparade, HangingCurve, Herbee, Monedula, Peruvianllama, Everyking, Curps, Michael Devore, Henry Flower, Xipirho, Leonard G., Revth, Zaphod Beeblebrox, Dsmdgold, Gilgamesh~enwiki, Per Honor et Gloria, Sundar, Mboverload, Pascal666, BesigedB, Gugilymugily, Gzornenplatz, VampWillow, Matt Crypto,
Adam McMaster, Chameleon, SWAdair, Pne, AdamJacobMuller, Bobblewik, Jrdioko, Jurema Oliveira, Golbez, Mooquackwooftweetmeow, Wmahan, Chowbok, Gadum, Pgan002, Keith Edkins, Pamri, Fys, Geni, J~enwiki, Mike R, CryptoDerk, Gdr, Knutux, Blankfaze, Kharoon~enwiki, Antandrus, Mustafaa, Beland, Alexd~enwiki, Estel~enwiki, Vc-wp, Piotrus, Khaosworks, Kiteinthewind, Jossi,
Rdsmith4, Kesac, CJCurrie, DragonySixtyseven, John Foley, Bumm13, Kevin B12, Icairns, GeoGreg, Jareha, JulieADriver, Neutrality,
Sam, Joyous!, Jcw69, Fg2, Jh51681, Grm wnr, Zisky, Adashiel, Frangibility, Trevor MacInnis, Mh, Canterbury Tail, Zro, Mike Rosoft,
PRiis, Ta bu shi da yu, ChrisRuvolo, Freakofnurture, Spiy sperry, Sparky the Seventh Chaos, Ultratomio, RedWordSmith, Andy Smith,
Imaglang, Indosauros, Kathar, Noisy, Discospinster, Bedel23, FT2, Rydel, Wrp103, Ereza, Vsmith, Stephenpace, Zen-master, Wk muriithi,
Westendgirl, Xezbeth, Ponder, Scigeek, Alistair1978, Mani1, Pavel Vozenilek, Rannphirt anaithnid (old), Bender235, ESkog, JoeSmack,
Mcpusc, Pmcm, CanisRufus, Aecis, Livajo, *drew, Ben Webber, El C, Szyslak, Miraceti, Cedders, Kwamikagami, Perspective, Jantangring,
Aude, Shanes, RoyBoy, Triona, Bendono, Aaronbrick, Djd1219, Coolcaesar, Jpgordon, Adambro, JRM, Andrewpmack~enwiki, Bobo192,
Yonghokim, Panzuriel, Meggar, Joaop, Ypacara, Mordemur, Robotje, Geek84, Shenme, Viriditas, Xevious, Archfalhwyl, L33tminion,
I9Q79oL78KiL0QTFHgyc, Neg, Giraedata, Juzeris, Tomgally, Sasquatch, Kjkolb, Nk, TheProject, JoshRaspberry, Rje, Oarih, John
Fader, Opusaug, Sam Korn, Krellis, Luckyluke, Wayfarer, Schnolle, Jez, Rye1967, Danski14, Wereldburger758, M00dimus, JYolkowski,
Etxrge, Anthony Appleyard, Sizzlingsteaks, Megan 189, Atlant, CountdownCrispy, Mr Adequate, Revmachine21, Verdlanco, Plumbago,
Pauldavidgill, Riana, Rjstern, AzaToth, Calton, Axl, SlimVirgin, Sowelilitokiemu, Mac Davis, Mailer diablo, Pippu d'Angelo, InShaneee,
Cdc, Malo, Yummifruitbat, Bart133, Hohum, Ravenhull, JePe, Klaser, Melaen, GJeery, BanyanTree, SidP, Volnturista, KingTT, Nikhilajain, Zantastik, Dabbler, Almafeta, Knowledge Seeker, Yuckfoo, HenkvD, Evil Monkey, RJFJR, RainbowOfLight, Randy Johnston,
Mikeo, Bsadowski1, EventHorizon, Computerjoe, Versageek, Gene Nygaard, Zosodada, Jun-Dai, HenryLi, Dan100, Umapathy, Space
man, Markaci, Centauri, Mwparenteau, BerserkerBen, Shimeru, Jkl sem, Zntrip, CNRNair, Klestrob44, JALockhart, Sandover, Sylvain
Mielot, Boothy443, Kelly Martin, UFu, Jerey O. Gustafson, Lemi4, Lkseitz, Sweet Blue Water, Skyrun~enwiki, Wolfsumatra, LOL,
MMMMMEEEEE, Gruepig, Theloniouszen, Carcharoth, Jacobolus, Hippalus, Lifung, Pol098, Commander Keane, Everton, Richardrut,
JeremyA, MONGO, GeorgeOrr, Tbc2, CiTrusD, Eatsaq, Tactel, Sholtar, Pdn~enwiki, Idwood, Cbustapeck, Ejrs, CryptoStorm, SKAZNBOI, Terence, Tejastheory, Kjnangre, Sengkang, Relaxation, GregorB, Stochata, Karmosin, SDC, Plrk, Ryan Reich, Wayward, Gimboid13, Junjk, Kotoviski, A3r0, Dysepsion, Ashmoo, Graham87, Sparkit, Deltabeignet, Magister Mathematicae, Cuchullain, Deadcorpse,
FreplySpang, GrundyCamellia, RxS, Broccoli, Mlewan, Little jim, Canderson7, Sjakkalle, Koavf, Erebus555, Ustas~enwiki, DeadlyAssassin, Avia, BlueMoonlet, Tangotango, Theinsomniac4life, Xrharris, Seraphimblade, Bruce1ee, MZMcBride, Tawker, FutureNJGov, Pabix,
ErikHaugen, SpNeo, Himasaram, Lucm, RonGroth, Mexaguil, CQJ, Wingover, N-Man, Durin, Bhadani, Bdegfcunbbfv, Dar-Ape, Shalmanese, Sango123, Whatthefat, Yamamoto Ichiro, Strikesvl, Whitetigah, SNIyer12, Ravigateway, Titoxd, Sgkay, FlaBot, CAPS LOCK,
RobertG, Dan Guan, Jcmurphy, Doc glasgow, Latka, Alhutch, Nivix, JIMBO WALES, Celestianpower, RexNL, Gurch, Tequendamia,
Pixel23, ChongDae, Maustrauser, Wikipedia Admin, Goudzovski, Glenn L, Imnotminkus, Cause of death, Jling, Butros, MoRsE, King
of Hearts, Chobot, Visor, Gdrbot, Stephen Compall, Digitalme, Gwernol, Albrozdude, UkPaolo, Lil devil, Roboto de Ajvol, The Rambling
Man, Wavelength, Sceptre, Blightsoot, Adam1213, RussBot, Rxnd, Red Slash, Jtkiefer, Anonymous editor, ScrippsONEDetroit, Splash,
Warmaster, Richjkl, Pigman, SpuriousQ, Chaser, Akamad, Stephenb, David Woodward, Gaius Cornelius, CambridgeBayWeather, Bovineone, Salsb, Wimt, PaulGarner, Shanel, NawlinWiki, Nahallac Silverwinds, Wiki alf, Robertvan1, Aeusoes1, Johann Wolfgang, Justin
Eiler, Robchurch, Daanschr, The Obfuscator, Nick, Anetode, Banes, UniReb, Xdenizen, Santaduck, PhilipC, Raven4x4x, O!, Vivaldi,
Amcfreely, Talldave, Tony1, Epipelagic, Bucketsofg, The Peacemaker, Dbrs, Elizabeyth, Brat32, DeadEyeArrow, Tachyon01, Vishnuvardhan27, Phenz, N. Harmonik, Tonym88, Javajunkiewa, Wknight94, Avraham, FF2010, TheSeer, Plkrtn, Emijrp, Phgao, Zzuuzz,
Gtdp, Theda, Jingjun, E Wing, Pietdesomere, GraemeL, Merfer, JoanneB, Red Jay, Alias Flood, Chrishmt0423, Orcaborealis, Orangbukit, BME, Fram, Spliy, RunOrDie, Ybbor, Nickybutt, Kungfuadam, Rhion, RG2, Ramanpotential, Maxamegalon2000, SkerHawx,
Serendipodous, Mikegrant, DVD R W, One, Kf4bdy, Veinor, Amalthea, Crystallina, Slyder, Joshbuddy, SmackBot, Alan Pascoe, YellowMonkey, TheBilly, Moeron, Reedy, KnowledgeOfSelf, Royalguard11, Ufundo, Pgk, Cthompson, Vald, Gregory j, PizzaMargherita,
Matthuxtable, Delldot, Smartsanu, MindlessXD, Cessator, Frymaster, TheDoctor10, Rachel Pearce, Fnfd, Nscheey, HalfShadow, SmartGuy Old, Ga, Pinpoint23, Willemtijssen, Onsly, Gilliam, Ohnoitsjamie, Hmains, Andy M. Wang, Cowman109, Saros136, Bluebot,
Kurykh, Ncrfgs, LinguistAtLarge, Agateller, Persian Poet Gal, NCurse, Dr bab, Stubblyhead, Timneu22, Moshe Constantine Hassan
Al-Silverburg, Deli nk, Boris Crpeau, Jfsamper, Virtualaris~enwiki, Rolypolyman, Ronewolf, Cygnus78, Da Vynci, Antonrojo, Gracenotes, Sct72, Zsinj, Dethme0w, Can't sleep, clown will eat me, JoeOnSunset, Fiziker, Zone46, Vanis314, Avb, Zaian, Pevarnj, Computerman45, Kittybrewster, Addshore, Grover cleveland, Cameron Nedland, Stevenmitchell, Allison Stillwell, Krich, Flyguy649, Flakker,
Cybercobra, Khukri, Nakon, TedE, Jiddisch~enwiki, RJN, RaCha'ar, Kasperd, Invincible Ninja, Mini-Geek, SteveHopson, Matt Whyndham, BryanG, Jklin, Michalchik, Kotjze, AndyBQ, RJBurkhart, Where, Daniel.Cardenas, Risker, Pilotguy, Kukini, Ged UK, Wilt,
Hahaandy1, The undertow, SashatoBot, Rory096, Dudecon, Srikeit, Sophia, NormalGoddess, Dbtfz, Sanya, Sixtimes, Kuru, Titus III,
John, Scientizzle, Swlenz, H.sand01, Bydand, Soumyasch, Sir Nicholas de Mimsy-Porpington, Edwy, Coredesat, Tim Q. Wells, JohnWittle, Ocatecir, Ludahai, Jess Mars, The Man in Question, Klaam, JHunterJ, Kkken, -js-, Slakr, Stevebritgimp, Martinp23, Mr Stephen,
Jon186, Waggers, SandyGeorgia, Mets501, Funnybunny, Dcyer, Ryulong, Samueldevadoss, Zemlor, DennisJOBrien@yahoo.com, Wiki
wonderful, Sgstarling, ShakingSpirit, KJS77, Hu12, Bal00, Ranix, Levineps, Zootsuits, Michaelbusch, Alessandro57, Spartian, Veyklevar, Colonel Warden, Joseph Solis in Australia, Walton One, Pegasus1138, Muro, Andthu, Takarada, Asprakash, Beno1000, O1ive,

14.1

Text

13

Hokeman, Marysunshine, Phoenixrod, Az1568, AlexNg, Chovain, Tawkerbot2, Ouishoebean, Dyingdreams, Lahiru k, Orangutan, SkyWalker, Andyd1, Pattermeister, Friendly Neighbour, KyleGardiner, CmdrObot, Ale jrb, TheHerbalGerbil, Fieldmarshal Miyagi, Shiva's
Trident, Scohoust, KyraVixen, Runningonbrains, GHe, THF, NickW557, Rmain, Shizane, Moreschi, Bakanov, Casper2k3, Mewantcookie,
Meodipt, Wykebjs, Vanished user fj0390923roktg4tlkm2pkd, Nauticashades, Hill466, Kribbeh, Cydebot, Karimarie, Drick~enwiki, Steel,
Comehomeusa, SyntaxError55, Michaelas10, Gogo Dodo, Bridgecross, Red Director, BlueAg09, Alanbly, Flowerpotman, LinuxSneaker,
Llort, A Softer Answer, Palmleaf, Luckyherb, Tawkerbot4, The snare, Codetiger, JMPZ, DumbBOT, Chrislk02, Phonemonkey, Camelhumps, Hontogaichiban, ErrantX, Omicronpersei8, JodyB, UberScienceNerd, Tuxide, Satori Son, Mockiewicz, Aldis90, Bubblybabs, Sagar
jina, BetacommandBot, JamesAM, Eclypse, Thijs!bot, Daa89563, Mawve, Robsinden, Mathmoclaire, Ivvan Cain, Bear475, Kablammo,
23prootie, Stefan teplan, Gryspnik, Andyjsmith, Mojo Hand, Newton2, Tonyle, Pjvpjv, John254, Woody, Fabianhow, X201, Cool Blue,
Mnemeson, Bd64kcmo, CharlotteWebb, Michael A. White, Teshoma, Big Bird, Elcocinero, Sean William, Dawnseeker2000, Northumbrian, Sordomudo11, Arnnn Christensen, Tourdeforcex, I already forgot, KrakatoaKatie, AntiVandalBot, Amideg, Majorly, Luna Santin,
CodeWeasel, Opelio, Steve Zissou, SummerPhD, Doctor250, Erwin85Bot, Quintote, Prolog, AnAj, Doc Tropics, Scientic American,
Nns, Jj137, RogueNinja, Fayenatic london, TexMurphy, Modernist, Bluetooth954, Vaibhavkumarsingh, Danger, Bigmuggle, SkoreKeep,
Mistachicken, Lfstevens, Myanw, Bka, Ingolfson, Ioeth, Mikenorton, JAnDbot, Deective, X4096, MER-C, The Transhumanist, Instinct, Arch dude, Sanchom, Weird Bird, Seddon, Little Spike, Hello32020, Awien, Andonic, Roleplayer, Sitethief, Hut 8.5, TrumanRu,
Tireoghain2, Nikkigordon, CrankyScorpion, Attarparn, Leh.mo, Ghodgen, Jfrink, Kerotan, Alastair Haines, Suede~enwiki, GoodDamon, LittleOldMe, Adhi Nugroho, Bunny-chan, I80and, Bhadaur, WolfmanSF, Pedro, Bongwarrior, VoABot II, Tandrasz, RHSydnor,
Msgohan, Dannyc77, Dekimasu, JNW, JamesBWatson, Mclay1, Kajasudhakarababu, Janadore, Abstract Idiot, Don Ellis, Jespinos, Tobogganoggin, Nyttend, WODUP, Brusegadi, Avicennasis, Midgrid, Bubba hotep, Notary137, BrianGV, Animum, Johnbibby, Simonxag,
Ali'i, Nposs, Digicana, LorenzoB, Tetsuowilliams, Barbi6, Heartlander, Somettime, Glen, DerHexer, Lelkesa, Cool Nerd, Martocticvs,
Amanbis, Gun Powder Ma, NatureA16, FisherQueen, Phoogenb, PsyMar, Tonicthebrown, Hdt83, BetBot~enwiki, Patriarca12, Arjun01,
Pupster21, Sv650madness, Ccmonty, Rettetast, ScorpO, Azalea pomp, Jonathan Hall, Glrx, AlexiusHoratius, Akronym, LittleOldMe
old, Tarafuku10, Lilac Soul, J.delanoy, Anakixbutt23, Jbvillarante, Trusilver, Try0yrt, Damoncoey, Anas Salloum, Hans Dunkelberg,
Pursey, Jesant13, Ginsengbomb, Eliz81, D052, Boris Allen, Jreferee, WarthogDemon, Bluesquareapple, Acalamari, Katalaveno, BaseballDetective, Trumpet marietta 45750, Mimigu, Jayden54, Milkyface, Dotuniverce, Gurchzilla, Rocket71048576, BARLOWG, AntiSpamBot, (jarbarf), Nofeeling, HiLo48, WarBaCoN, Joshana, Belovedfreak, CeilingCrash, NewEnglandYankee, Cadwaladr, Sd31415,
SmilesALot, Knulclunk, Ohms law, Pygenot, SJP, Malerin, Biglovinb, Tanaats, Shoessss, Arcata1, MetsFan76, BlackDragon235, Cometstyles, WJBscribe, Tvbrichmond, Monkeybooty, Gwen Gale, ShattaAD, Binris, Gtg204y, Inter16, Bonadea, Brclark12, TheNewPhobia, Tttecumseh, Xiahou, MikeLeeds, Idioma-bot, Signalhead, ACSE, Black Kite, Lights, X!, PeaceNT, Deor, 28bytes, VolkovBot, Johan1298~enwiki, Firstorm, Wiki235, KindGoat, Majoreditor, Henrythe8thIam, Ryan032, Barneca, Philip Trueman, Aicchalmers, JayEsJay, Cyberpaul~enwiki, Drunkenmonkey, TXiKiBoT, Asabbagh, Cosmic Latte, Dialh, Vipinhari, Rei-bot, Ann Stouter, Anonymous
Dissident, Garyms1963, Tupolev154, Article7, Bootluy, Qxz, Someguy1221, Greggreggreg, Vanished user ikijeirw34iuaeolaseric, Retiono Virginian, Leafyplant, Smithbrotherles, Songs~enwiki, CanOfWorms, Seb az86556, Masaqui, Hyper3, Andrewrost3241981, Cremepu222, Autodidactyl, Alecl1996, Lebron96, Snjolfur, Kk8998982, Jonny.holbrook, Wenli, Ummm777, SciAndTech, DavidNONO,
Tez99, Rossoxxx, Mythbusters, L.vivian.richard, Soccerproesor, Insanity Incarnate, Manamanam, K10wnsta, Qworty, Mary quite contrary, Sue Rangell, GavinTing, Alex12345678910~enwiki, Mattun0211, Michaelsbll, Cyberman9997, NHRHS2010, Interent, 4r1st0tl3,
Born2x, Steven Weston, Davidsalzberg, Wrkrboob, Timetogo, Bluethedog01, Shinasu, Vibsir2, EJF, SieBot, Squrtle11, Madman, Qblik,
Tiddly Tom, Dfrizzellrocks, Robertoremes, Maa unit, Moonriddengirl, BotMultichill, Fabullus, Benlembo7, Jsc83, Mbz1, Iciac, Caltas,
MarkBolton, Marcocampo, Xymmax, Sport7~enwiki, Calabraxthis, Wohlstrom96, Sat84, Guitarkid44, Elno, Keilana, Dd12345, Erinlynn240, Radon210, Wizzard2k, Factoife, Oda Mari, Youdabom, Nopetro, Yomamaonre, Paolo.dL, Mimihitam, Arthur Smart, Oxymoron83, AnonGuy, Steven Zhang, Dezzman1625, Poindexter Propellerhead, Chansonh, JackSchmidt, Aowpr, Fratrep, Timothyngim,
George07, TAMIL81, Belligero, C'est moi, Spartan-James, Anyeverybody, Mary629, Dipa1965, Dabomb87, Superbeecat, Verdadero,
Finetooth, Into The Fray, Rzf3, Buuuu~enwiki, Heds 1, Boa22, Twinsday, 4Leben2, ClueBot, Rumping, GorillaWarfare, Davesmall52,
Shaneblake, The Thing That Should Not Be, Brekky, Postmortemjapan, Ken l lee, Eazye24, Vidhaug, Cp111, Fossiliferous, Jwihbey, CounterVandalismBot, Bradleyb2007, Arunsingh16, Namazu-tron, Shustov, Calmfeet, Aaron11193, Rubyrussia, Excirial, Kool danielz, Brucedog3, Pierre.Nakhimov, Vivio Testarossa, NuclearWarfare, Alexlemon, Terra Xin, Jotterbot, Nishy123, Singhalawap, CowboySpartan,
SchreiberBike, BOTarate, Thehelpfulone, Thingg, Kmort7, Webbbbbbber, Balweyn1977, Qwfp, Johnuniq, Trulystand700, Crowsnest, Charan094, Loranchet, Mchaddock, Marc van Leeuwen, 2k8, Facts707, Mimarx, Aewadi, Badgernet, Spoonkymonkey, Noctibus, WikiDao,
Ninteneo1379, Kbdankbot, Stinkychops, Halo3general, Ryry0401, Eugeneloh, Blouseman, Addbot, The Geologist, Danielaustinhall12,
Jafeluv, Slash Angus, Tifoo, Older and ... well older, Jamiesuthzerland, Hoboday, Adamsrock, Leszek Jaczuk, Si Gam Ach, Shopping.f,
Emmaskis, NjardarBot, Paperboy3000, CarsracBot, The Shadow-Fighter, Ferroequus, Glass Sword, AnnaFrance, LinkFA-Bot, 5 albert
square, Mdnavman, Elen of the Roads, Specialegb, Ukvilly, Ondewelle, Tide rolls, Lightbot, David0811, Jarble, CountryBot, Liam1985,
Ben Ben, Drpickem, Nargis 2008~enwiki, Luckas-bot, Yobot, TaBOT-zerem, Librsh, KamikazeBot, Minor Contributer~enwiki, Tempodivalse, AnomieBOT, Angry bee, Muhammad Nabil Berri, Floozybackloves, Galoubet, JackieBot, TParis, NickK, Materialscientist, The High
Fin Sperm Whale, Citation bot, RagaBhakta, Twiceuponatime, MauritsBot, Xqbot, Intelati, Addihockey10, 4twenty42o, Johnxxx9, Anna
Frodesiak, Champlax, Papalew, Uragomo, Ed8r, RibotBOT, Moxy, Shadowjams, Ginger74, PascalMichelSI, A. di M., Jmateos, FrescoBot,
Fortdj33, Jatlas, Tranletuhan, Juze~enwiki, Endofskull, Craig Pemberton, Shreemurphy, TTGL, Smallverm, Circulationsys, Citation bot
1, Noahisnice, Pinethicket, HRoestBot, Alonso de Mendoza, Sanderd17, Rameshngbot, Markerqueen, Jusses2, MastiBot, Evansbadboy,
Meaghan, Lindblum, Keri, 3centsoap, FoxBot, TobeBot, , Lotje, Vrenator, Smeagol1123, Schwede66, Tbhotch, Minimac,
Sideways713, TrippyTaka, DARTH SIDIOUS 2, Stratshaw, The Utahraptor, TjBot, Bhawani Gautam, DRAGON BOOSTER, Salvio giuliano, Nkf31, DASHBot, EmausBot, Dead Horsey, Envirodan, WikitanvirBot, Ajraddatz, Fly by Night, NealeFamily, Nissenbaum, Ngatimozart, Cerfa, AvicAWB, Confession0791, Zap Rowsdower, Wayne Slam, BNSF1995, L1A1 FAL, , IGeMiNix, L Kensington,
LSAyear7, Xiaoyu of Yuxi, Platypusmonotreme, Epicstonemason, Autoerrant, Kasparvp~enwiki, Chris857, ChuispastonBot, RockMagnetist, Raghuvamsha, Forever Dusk, Semaj868, DASHBotAV, Newtrend19, Mjbmrbot, William2251, Scodger4, Mikhail Ryazanov, ClueBot NG, TFOK123, TJeong123, AlbertBickford, Ulund, C4100, Matthiaspaul, CocuBot, Ambeddo10, Egg Centric, MillingMachine,
Secret of success, Helpful Pixie Bot, ChristopherCruise, Tjw71, Tholme, Bibcode Bot, BG19bot, Si Gam, Socal212, CitationCleanerBot, Shawn Worthington Laser Plasma, 220 of Borg, Real doing, Holyjoe722, RudolfRed, BattyBot, Justincheng12345-bot, Hlmccullough, ChrisGualtieri, JYBot, SmileyLlama, Dexbot, Wgracen, STRONGlk7, 493Titanollante, 93, Jodosma, Froglich, Serten, Pratiksha90,
Lorgut, Internationalpoliticaleconomy, Gubino, Monkbot, , Spumuq, Rcalvin332 and Anonymous: 2614

14

14

14.2

TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Images

File:1755_Lisbon_earthquake.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/1755_Lisbon_earthquake.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: The Earthquake Engineering Online Archive - Jan Kozak Collection: KZ128 Original artist: Unknown
File:2004-tsunami.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/2004-tsunami.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: Originally at Bild:Davidsvgfoto.JPG. Original artist: David Rydevik (email: david.rydevik@gmail.com), Stockholm, Sweden.
File:Antarctic_bottom_water.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e7/Antarctic_bottom_water.svg License:
CC BY-SA 4.0 Contributors: <a href='//commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Antarctic_bottom_water_hg.png' class='image'><img
alt='Antarctic bottom water hg.png' src='//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/Antarctic_bottom_water_hg.png/
100px-Antarctic_bottom_water_hg.png' width='100' height='77' srcset='//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/2c/
Antarctic_bottom_water_hg.png/150px-Antarctic_bottom_water_hg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/
2c/Antarctic_bottom_water_hg.png/200px-Antarctic_bottom_water_hg.png 2x' data-le-width='3300' data-le-height='2550' /></a>
Original artist: Fred the Oyster
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: ? Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
File:Dart_tsunamicover.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0f/Dart_tsunamicover.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.magazine.noaa.gov/stories/images/dart_tsunamicover.jpg Original artist: NOAA
File:Hurricane_Ike_Gilchrist_damage.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c8/Hurricane_Ike_Gilchrist_
damage.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: This image is from the FEMA Photo Library. Original artist: Jocelyn Augusitno/FEMA
File:Ie_Beuna_Narit_Aceh.JPG Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/40/Ie_Beuna_Narit_Aceh.JPG License:
CC BY 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Si Gam
File:Propagation_du_tsunami_en_profondeur_variable.gif Source:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/
Propagation_du_tsunami_en_profondeur_variable.gif License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Rgis Lachaume
File:Russians_meeting_Japanese_in_Akkeshi_1779.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/72/Russians_
meeting_Japanese_in_Akkeshi_1779.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: [1] Original artist: Russian, anonymous
File:SH-60B_helicopter_flies_over_Sendai.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2a/SH-60B_helicopter_
flies_over_Sendai.jpg License: Public domain Contributors:
This Image was released by the United States Navy with the ID 110312-N-0000X-003 <a class='external text' href='//commons.wikimedia.
org/w/index.php?title=Category:Files_created_by_the_United_States_Navy_with_known_IDs,<span>,&,</span>,lefrom=110312-N0000X-003#mw-category-media'>(next)</a>.
This tag does not indicate the copyright status of the attached work. A normal copyright tag is still required. See Commons:Licensing for more information.

Original artist: U.S. Navy photo


File:SanFranHouses06.JPG Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ec/SanFranHouses06.JPG License: Public domain Contributors:
Scanned from the personal collection of en:User:Infrogmation Originally from en.wikipedia; description page is/was here.
Original artist: ?
File:Shallow_water_wave.gif Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/be/Shallow_water_wave.gif License: GFDL
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Kraaiennest
File:Simulacin_Tsunami.ogv Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3d/Simulaci%C3%B3n_Tsunami.ogv License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors:
Tsunami_simulation.blend Original artist: Carmen lvarez Cobos
File:Tsunami2.JPG Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d8/Tsunami2.JPG License: Public domain Contributors:
Own work Original artist: -Ilhador File:TsunamiHazardSign.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e9/TsunamiHazardSign.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: Own work;
International Tsunami Signs - ISO-approved (2008) (UNESCO)
(Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (Japan))(The system of the sign
for evacuation guide on tsunami) >> >> >> >> Original artist: Kasparvp
File:Tsunami_2004_aftermath._Aceh,_Indonesia,_2005._Photo-_AusAID_(10730863873).jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.
org/wikipedia/commons/4/44/Tsunami_2004_aftermath._Aceh%2C_Indonesia%2C_2005._Photo-_AusAID_%2810730863873%29.
jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: Tsunami 2004 aftermath. Aceh, Indonesia, 2005. Photo: AusAID Original artist: AusAID
File:Tsunami_wall.jpg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Tsunami_wall.jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: Flickr. Original artist: Rudolf Ammann
File:Upwelling.svg Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ee/Upwelling.svg License: Public domain Contributors:
File:Upwelling.jpg Original artist: Lichtspiel

14.3

Content license

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0