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Chapter one (1)

Introduction
Magnetic susceptibility is the property of a material which determines how much magnetization will be
present due to an external magnetic field. Because everything in a rock or mineral contributes to the
magnetic susceptibility, it is a fertile source of information on the composition of the sample. Magnetic
susceptibility is extremely effective in geological mapping, macroscopically similar, but magnetically
different rocks can be distinguished and delineated.
Some processes of alteration of original rocks are accompanied by changes in rock's magnetic
mineralogy, thus phase changes or destruction of original magnetic minerals, formation of new
magnetic minerals. As these changes are usually reflected in rock's magnetic susceptibility, they are
easily detectable by susceptibility measurement.
Magnetic susceptibility mapping depends on geochemical or mineralogical composition of the rocks
and on later metamorphic processes and alterations. The aim of the survey was to map the site based on
mineralogical composition of the rocks or soil.

1.1 Literature review


The physical background for the existence of magnetic behavior in minerals is the magnetic moment
produced by electrons orbiting their nucleus and spinning around their axis. The major rock-forming
magnetic minerals are the following iron oxides: the titanomagnetite series, xFe2TiO4 (1 x)Fe3O4,
where Fe3O4 is magnetite, the most magnetic mineral; the ilmenohematite series, yFeTiO3 (1
y)Fe2O3, where -Fe2O3 (in its rhombohedral structure) is hematite; maghemite, -Fe2O3 (in which
some iron atoms are missing in the hematite structure); and limonite (hydrous iron oxides). They also
include sulfidesnamely, the pyrrhotite series, yFeS (1 - y)Fe1 - xS. The magnetic character of soils
is dominated by the presence of ferrimagnetic minerals such as magnetite and maghemite, and to a
lesser degree by pyrrhotite (Ward, 1990).

Minerals are classified as either diamagnetic or paramagnetic. Diamagnetic materials have negative and
very low susceptibilities. Most paramagnetic materials have positive susceptibilities but also with very
low values, so they are not of interest in geophysical surveys. Some paramagnetic materials are
ferromagnetic which have alignments of magnetic moments in small areas called magnetic domains.
These materials are not naturally occuring on earth, so again they are not of interest in exploration.
Ferrimagnetic minerals, on the other hand, are common and naturally occuring. These minerals (e.g.
magnetite, pyrrhotite) have a net magnetic moment and thus relatively high susceptibilities. In general,
igneous and metamorphic rocks have higher susceptibilities than sedimentary rocks. Except for rare
monomineralic rocks, rocks consist in general of all three kinds - i.e. diamagnetic, paramagnetic and
ferromagnetic minerals.
Table 1. Magnetic susceptibilities for several iron oxides and soil constituents. Data from Thompson &
Oldfield(1986) and Maher(1988).
Material

Chemical formula

Magnetic status

Magnetic susceptibility
(10-8 m3 kg-1)

Water

H2 O

Diamagnetic

-0.9

Quartz

SiO2

Diamagnetic

-0.6

Pyrite

FeS2

Paramagnetic

30

Ferrihydrite

5Fe2O3 9H2O

Paramagnetic

40

Lepidocrocite

-FeOOH

Paramagnetic

70

Ilmenite

FeTiO3

Superparamagnetic

200

Hematite

-Fe2O3

Antiferromagnetic

60

Goethite

-FeOOH

Antiferromagnetic

70

Pyrrhotite

Fe7S8 / Fe8S9 / Fe9S10

Ferrimagnetic

~5,000

Maghemite

-Fe2O3

Ferrimagnetic

40,000

Magnetite

Fe3O4

Ferrimagnetic

50,000

Table 1: Magnetic susceptibilities for several iron oxides and soil constituents. Data from Thompson &
Oldfield(1986) and Maher(1988)

Iron minerals within the soil can be altered through biological decay and burning which can enhance

the magnetic susceptibility of the soil. Field equipment can be used to measure the magnetic
susceptibility of the soil allowing zones to be mapped.
Le Borgne (1955, 1960) has suggested that the enhanced susceptibilities of soil is due to in situ
conversion of iron oxides from an antiferromgnnetic form such as haematite or goethite to
ferrimagnetic form maghaemite. He also proposed two possible mechanisms. In the first, reduction
occurs as a result of the decay of organic matter in the soil in anaerobic conditions achieved during wet
periods and reoxidation to maghaemite in aerobic conditions during dry periods. In the second the
burning of organic matter produces the temperature increase and reducing atmosphere necessary for the
reduction to magnetite in a thin layer of soil underlying the fire and reoxidation occurs during the
cooling down of the fires when air enters the system.
If rocks containing oil undergo elevated temperature, some Fe oxides and hydroxides can transform
in the reduction environment due to the presence of the organic substance into ferrimagnetic
minerals, which results in the increase of magnetic susceptibility. Particularly obvious is this process
in the oil deposits which underwent natural combustion. These are characterized by the existence of
intense magnetic anomalies and high susceptibility (Cisowski and Fuller 1987).
The natural variation in the soil properties gives rise to anomalies, similar to anomalies that are the
result of buried objects. The discrimination between these geological or soil anomalies and buried
object anomalies is extremely complicated. The location of buried features depends on the fact that the
magnetic susceptibilities of soil derived from sedimentary rocks is normally higher than that of the
parent rock. In strongly magnetic soils, magnetic and electromagnetic sensors often detect anomalies
that have a geologic origin. For most iron or steel objects, the susceptibility, k, falls between 10 and 200
in SI units. However, predicting the response of a magnetic susceptibility survey over metal is
complicated for several reasons. Remanent magnetisation is likely to be strong, and pointing in
different directions in the various components of a buried object. For example, a buried pipe will often

show up as a linear set of anomalies with variable character because each segment will have it's own
magnetic signature. It is worth mentioning that stainless steel is not magnetic, and many potential
targets may not even be ferrous (for example, aircraft frame parts are often some alloy with no
magnetic properties). (Breiner, 1973)
Magnetic susceptibility is an effective technique often used as a form of reconnaissance survey. Natural
magnetite and pyrrhotite (i.e. mixture of hexagonal and monoclinic phases), or other ferrimagnetic
minerals, tend to accumulate in ore deposits (including the non-iron ones) or in their
environs. Even though they do not often represent the economic minerals, their magnetic properties
can be important in the search for ore deposits, because these minerals often accompany the economic
metallizations in various ways. Thanks to their high susceptibility and remanent magnetization, these
minerals can be surveyed not only by geoelectrical methods, like the mineralizations of many other
minerals, but also by magnetometric methods. The measured magnetic anomalies can directly indicate
those ore deposits in which the distribution of ferrimagnetic minerals conforms to the distribution of
the economic mineralization and, of course, those ore deposits in which these minerals represent the
economic mineralization. However, in most cases these ferrimagnetic minerals create only haloes in
footwall rocks and the susceptibilities can indicate the deposit only indirectly. In both cases, it is useful
to measure the magnetic susceptibility in situ, in order to get an idea of the spatial relationship between
the susceptibility and the economic mineralization, which can be utilized in magnetic survey of the
deposits of a similar type. If a ferrimagnetic mineral creates an economic mineralization, the magnetic
susceptibility can be used in the fast control of the searched or exploited ore. This case often takes
place in metamorphosed oxidic Fe-ores, magnetite skarns and also in bodies of metamorphosed siderite
ores, originally metasomatic in origin.
In addition to magnetite and pyrrhotite, other rare magnetic minerals can be interesting from the
point of view of economic geology, such as: cassiterite, franklinite, cobaltite, Ni-sulphides, etc. The
magnetic minerals, hematite, pyrrhotite and magnetite, often occur in sulphide ore deposits. Various

alterations may give rise to transformation and even destruction and subsequent disappearance of
ferrimagnetic minerals from a deposit (Hrouda et al 2009).
Magnetic susceptibility is useful for mapping anthropogenic heavy metal pollution in soil based on the
idea that topsoil has more magnetic content than subsoil samples due to the settling of anthropogenic
magnetic particles.
Moreso, Magnetic susceptibility is enhanced where magnetite spheres produced in the combustion of
petroleum products are present as pollutants in dust particles. Therefore, magnetic susceptibility can be
used as a tracer of industrial pollution (e.g., Petrovsky et al. 2000).

1.2 Theory
Magnetic susceptibility is a parameter of considerable diagnostic and interpretational use in the study
of rocks. This is true whether an investigation is being conducted in the laboratory or magnetic fields
over a terrain are being studied to deduce the structure and lithologic character of buried rock bodies.
Susceptibility for a rock type can vary widely, depending on magnetic mineralogy, grain size and
shape, and the relative magnitude of remanent magnetization present, in addition to the induced
magnetization from the Earths weak field.
The physical background for the existence of magnetic behavior in minerals is the magnetic moment
produced by electrons orbiting their nucleus and spinning around their axis. Magnetism is controlled by
the inherent forces or energies created by electrons which make up atoms. Electrons spin around their
axis, and also around the atoms nucleus in their own orbits. Spins within spins, analogous to the orbit
of the Earth round the Sun whilst spinning on its axis. The way in which different electrons motions
are aligned determines the total magnetic energy or moment of the atom. Different atoms have different
numbers of electrons and types of motion. Atoms make up molecules and molecules make up materials,
so that the overall type of magnetic behaviour of a rock mineral is defined by the configuration and

interactions of all the electron motions in all its atoms.


In many types of material the overall magnetic moment is zero because the orbital and spin components
even out. When a mineral with zero magnetic moment is placed in a magnetic field the electron
motions will rearrange so that the net magnetic moment is in the direction opposite to the applied field.
These types of minerals are called diamagnetic. In contrast, when minerals with a small net magnetic
moment get subjected to a magnetic field the electrons will attempt to line up in the direction of the
magnetic field. These types of minerals are called paramagnetic. In some minerals, the interaction
between electron spin and orbital movement in adjacent atoms causes these minerals to behave as
active magnets. These types of minerals are called ferromagnetic when all magnetic moments line up in
the same direction, or ferrimagnetic, when one third of the magnetic moments line up in the opposite
direction. A special group of minerals are those in which the electron interaction leads to magnetic
moments being aligned in opposite directions. These minerals with a net magnetic moment of zero are
called antiferromagnetic. (Thompson and Oldfield, 1986).
When there is no external magnetic field, individual magnetic zones ("magnetic domains") within
rocks, soils or other materials will generally be oriented randomly. The net effect would be a zero
magnetic field. However, when the material is in the presence of an external magnetic field such as
Earths field, the individual magnetic domains become more or less aligned, resulting in a net non-zero
field. This is a secondary field distinct from, but caused by, the Earths field.
The strength of this so-called "induced" magnetisation is called the "dipole moment per unit volume",
m. It is related to the external magnetic field's strength, H, by
m = KH.

Magnetic susceptibility is therefore the property of a material which determines how much
magnetization will be present due to an external magnetic field.
K = m/H

It is effectively the ratio of the magnetisation effect to the applied magnetic field. Susceptibility K is a
dimensionless number related to the number of individual magnetic dipoles in the medium that can be
aligned with the main field.
Rocks and minerals may retain magnetization after the removal of an externally applied field, thereby
becoming permanent weak magnets. This property is known as remanent magnetization and is
manifested in different forms, depending on the magnetic properties of the rocks and minerals and their
geologic origin and history.
The concept of hysteresis is therefore fundamental when describing and comparing the magnetic
properties of rocks. Hysteresis is the variation of magnetization with applied field and illustrates the
ability of a material to retain its magnetization, even after an applied field is removed.
Generally there are three magnetic effects that impact the (electro)magnetic characteristics of the
subsurface, and thus electromagnetic sensors:
(1) remanent magnetization,
(2) induced magnetization, and
(3) viscous remanent magnetization.
Remanent magnetization Remanent magnetization exists in the absence of an applied field. The
remanent magnetization must be added to any magnetization effects resulting from an applied magnetic
field. Remanent magnetization occurs within ferromagnetic and ferromagnetic minerals that have a
natural alignment of the magnetic moments. This type of magnetization directly affects magnetic
sensors
Induced magnetization Induced magnetization results from a magnetic field being applied to a
magnetically susceptible object. In the low-intensity field region, the net magnetic moment (i.e., the
magnetization, m) is proportional to the strength of the applied field (H). Therefore, the low-field
magnetic susceptibility, defined as the ratio of the magnetization over the field strength, is a material-

specific property. The magnetic susceptibility is either expressed per unit volume (volume-specific
susceptibility, ) or per unit mass (mass-specific susceptibility, ). Induced magnetization can be
measured by applying a magnetic field to a sample (in the laboratory or in the field). By measuring the
difference between this primary magnetic field and the secondary magnetic field one can determine the
material specific magnetic susceptibility. The magnetic induction of a sample, measured by a magnetic
or electromagnetic sensor, is the sum of all the different entities of induced magnetization, weighed for
volume, distance to the sensor, and magnitude of the susceptibility.
Viscous remanent magnetisation Viscous remanent magnetization refers to the effect that the
secondary magneticfield gets delayed relative to the primary magnetic field (Thompson &
Oldfield,1986).

Chapter Two (2)


2.1 Project Site
The experimental site can be located close to the Great Hall of the Kwame Nkrumah University
of Science and Technology in Kumasi Ghana. It features a tropical wet and dry climate, with
relatively constant temperatures throughout the course of the year. The estimated area of the
site is approximately (250*200)m2. The topography of the land is characterized by high and
low lands and generally slopes down at the west. The project site is covered by grass and with a
canopy created by various tree species.

Illustration 1: Project site marked X

2.2 Data Acquisition


In taking the measurements, focus was placed on induced magnetization (magnetic
susceptibility) using the MS2D field loop sensor. The instrument; Bartington MS2 Susceptibility
System consists of a meter that can is attached to a sensor (loop sensor). The meter expresses magnetic
susceptibility in either cgs (centimetre, gram, second) or SI (standard international) units. SI was used
throughout the field measurements. The MS2D search loop sensor is a field sensor, 185 mm in
diameter, designed to make surface measurements. The sensor contains a coil that generates an AC
magnetic field and allows for the bulk susceptibility of a circular area approximately 200mm
Diameter to be quickly measured.

Two sensitivity positions are provided with the instrument: range 1 or 0.1. Accuracy on the
order of 1.0 x 105 SI can be obtained with a 1-s measurement cycle (1 range) and an accuracy
of 0.1 x 105 SI with the 10-s cycle (0.1 range). The Zero (Z) and Measure (M) functions are
selected on a three-position toggle switch. Measurements are displayed on a four-digit LCD
panel and were taken on the 0.1 range which takes about 10s.

Illustration 3: MS2D sensor (loop)


Illustration 2: MS2 meter

Field Procedure
Magnetic objects worn by the surveyor can affect the data and was therefore removed before
collecting data. Also, as a precaution the battery was checked to make sure there was enough
power to give accurate and reliable measurements.
1. The MS2 Meter is carried in a shoulder bag for ease of use on the field
2. After proper assembling of the instrument, a zero operation is performed whilst holding the
probe at least 1m from all objects (in the air) by pressing the Z button.

3. The sensor is placed on the surface (ground) and measurement is triggered with the M button
which takes about 10s with a beep which indicates end. The reading is recorded and the GPS
point taken.

4. Measurements were taken at irregular intervals in a grid-like manner.

Chapter three (3)


3.1 Results
The results gathered from the field was entered into spreadsheet application for further processing of
the data. Below is the results obtained;
Magnetic Susceptibility x10-5

Northing

Westing

32.8

657797

737981

27.6

657789

737981

50.7

657775

737980

20.2

657757

737981

19.3

657736

737984

707.9

657713

737980

44.1

657668

737981

15.2

657626

737981

16

657576

737980

657560

737982

657531

737978

18.6

657530

737942

36.6

657537

737939

33.6

657575

737930

19.3

657607

737912

5.7

657629

737914

19.7

657658

737906

62.3

657686

737911

25.2

657708

737914

12.3

657744

737913

10.3

657762

737909

66.3

657778

737883

28.8

657751

737847

78.6

657727

737827

74.6

657706

737843

38.3

657674

737851

11

657645

737856

44

657607

737869

38.8

657579

737868

24.8

657558

737881

16.4

657531

737886

15.1

657507

737885

25.5

657498

737821

44.5

657528

737819

15.5

657559

737820

50.6

657582

737816

67.1

657602

737810

32

657618

737806

18

657646

737796

26.1

657695

737793

16.1

657794

737928

53.9

657770

737936

20.7

657746

737942

15.4

657721

737947

38.8

657694

737949

80.6

657658

737953

116.3

657655

737970

64.2

657673

737985

92.7

657626

737957

21.3

657596

73795