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Table of Contents

Introduction......................................................................................................................................3
Objective..........................................................................................................................................3
Hand Sketches.................................................................................................................................5
Design 1.......................................................................................................................................5
Design 2.......................................................................................................................................6
3D Design........................................................................................................................................8
Calculation.....................................................................................................................................15
Crank Shaft................................................................................................................................15
Hydraulic...................................................................................................................................17
Power Screw..............................................................................................................................18
Conveyor Belt............................................................................................................................21
Rack and Pinion.........................................................................................................................25
Material Selection..........................................................................................................................27
Crank shaft.................................................................................................................................27
Hydraulic...................................................................................................................................28
Power Screw..............................................................................................................................29
Conveyor Belt............................................................................................................................30
Rack and Pinion.........................................................................................................................31
Discussion......................................................................................................................................32
Conclusion.....................................................................................................................................33
Reference.......................................................................................................................................33

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Figure 1: Design 1...........................................................................................................................6


Figure 2: Design 2...........................................................................................................................7
Figure 3: The crank shaft.................................................................................................................9
Figure 4: The Hydraulic Cylinder..................................................................................................10
Figure 5: The Power Screw............................................................................................................10
Figure 6: The Conveyor Belt.........................................................................................................11
Figure 7: The rack and pinion........................................................................................................11
Figure 8: The chosen design..........................................................................................................12
Figure 9: Step 1..............................................................................................................................13
Figure 10: Step 2............................................................................................................................13
Figure 11: Step 3............................................................................................................................14
Figure 12: Step 4............................................................................................................................14
Figure 13: Step 5............................................................................................................................15
Figure 14: Step 6............................................................................................................................15
Figure 15: Crank Shaft...................................................................................................................16
Figure 16: The table of the standard size.......................................................................................20
Figure 17: The density of the material belt....................................................................................22
Figure 18: The standard table of the belt width.............................................................................24
Figure 19: Data sheet of motor......................................................................................................28
Figure 20: Data sheet of cylinder...................................................................................................29
Figure 21: Data sheet of motor......................................................................................................30
Figure 22: Data sheet of motor......................................................................................................31
Figure 23: Data sheet mf motor.....................................................................................................32

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Introduction
Technology has become an essential part of our daily life wherever we go we can notice the great
impact that technology has in our life such as , computers elevators and numerous of inventions
that made our life easier. One of the greatest technological inventions is load carrying
mechanisms which are used to convert one type of motion to another and it being used in a wide
range of applications for example ,cranes ,ASRS ,AGVs, robots and many more. Using
mechanism to carry loads is much more efficient and fast as compared to the manual way of
doing it. An efficient load carrying system can be designed by using the right mechanism.

Objective
In this assignment, a system to carry the load from one point to another will be developed. All
possible mechanisms can be using in developing my design. And all calculations in relation to
the mechanisms used will be shown. The system will be a fully automated system.
The system should be consist of three different types of motion conversions by using different
mechanical components.

These motions should be developed using any mechanical component

such as a power screw, a bearing, pulleys, gears, belts, shafts and etc. The motion conversion
should be chosen from the following:

Linear motion to linear motion conversion.


Rotary motion to rotary motion conversion.
Rotary motion to intermittent motion conversion.
Reciprocating motion to linear motion conversion.
Reciprocating motion to rotary motion conversion.
Linear motion to rotary motion conversion.
Rotary motion to linear motion conversion.

Load carrying system specification


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The load carrying system has to move linearly and also in rotation. The specification of the load
and the distance it has to be carried is given below:

3 cm

3 cm

0.03 m
W
= 6 kg

12 cm

W
7 cm

Position 1
Pick
0.06 m

0.5m

0.03m
0.2 m
W

15
0.1 m

0.5 m

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Position 2
Place

cm

Hand Sketches
Design 1
The first design consists of five parts which are a Crank-shaft, a hydraulic cylinder, a pwer
screw, a conveyor belt and a rack and pinion. And it has 3 different mechanisms to move the
component from position A to B.

Figure 1: Design 1.

The operation of the whole design is that the Crank-shaft mechanism at the beginning pushes the
load that has to be carried along till it reach the Hydraulic then the Power screw will push the
load till it reach the conveyor belt and the conveyor belt will deliver it to the surface of the Rack
and Pinion. After that the Rack and Pinion will take the load to the position place.

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Design 2
The second design consists of five parts which are a Cam, actuated linear guides, chain and
sprocket and a rotary table. And it has 4 different mechanisms to move the component from
position A to B.

Figure 2: Design 2.

The operation of the whole design is that the Cam mechanism at the beginning pushes the load
that has to be carried along till it reach the actuated linear guides than the quick return
mechanism will push the load till it reach the chain and sproket and the chain and sproket will
deliver it to the surface of the Rotary Table. After that the Rotary Table will take the load to the
position place.

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Design selected
Both designs are approved from the lecturer, I chose the first design due to the following reasons:

Is comparatively easy to make.


The number of conversion used was less.
Less power is used.
It would be easy to implement in the industry.
The components used in it are easily available in the market.

The characteristics of the mechanisms design chosen


Crank (Rotary motion to Reciprocating motion conversion).
A crank is an arm attached at right angles to a rotating shaft by which reciprocating motion is
imparted to or received from the shaft. It is used to change circular into reciprocating motion, or
reciprocating into circular motion. The arm may be a bent portion of the shaft, or a separate arm
attached to it. Attached to the end of the crank by a pivot is a rod, usually called a connecting
rod. The end of the rod attached to the crank moves in a circular motion, while the other end is
usually constrained to move in a linear sliding motion, in and out.
Hydraulic cylinder (Linear motion to linear motion conversion)
It is a mechanical actuator that is used to give a unidirectional force through a unidirectional
stroke. It has many applications, notably in engineering vehicles. Hydraulic cylinders provide
very high mechanical advantage in lifting heavy loads by using only a small force on the smaller
cylinder. Also they are very rugged and economy.
Power screw (Rotary motion to linear motion conversion)
Power Screws are used for providing linear motion in a smooth uniform manner. They are linear
actuators that transform rotary motion into linear motion. Power screws are generally based on
Acme, Square, and Buttress threads.

Conveyor Belt (Rotary motion to linear motion conversion)

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A belt is a loop of flexible material used to link two or more rotating shafts mechanically. Belts
may be used as a source of motion, to transmit power efficiently, or to track relative movement.
The belt drives permit large speed ratio and provides long life. They are easily installed and
removed and low maintenance.
Rack And Pinion (Rotary motion to linear motion conversion)
It is a type of linear actuator that comprises a pair of gears which convert rotational motion into
linear motion. A circular gear called "the pinion" engages teeth on a linear "gear" bar called "the
rack"; rotational motion applied to the pinion causes the rack to move, thereby translating the
rotational motion of the pinion into the linear motion of the rack.

3D Design
The system was drawn using Solidworks 2013 software.
Crank Shaft

Figure 3: The crank shaft.

Hydraulic Cylinder

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Figure 4: The Hydraulic Cylinder.

Power Screw

Figure 5: The Power Screw.

Conveyor Belt

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Figure 6: The Conveyor Belt.

Rack & Pinion

Figure 7: The rack and pinion.

Complete Assembly

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Figure 8: The chosen design.

The operation of the design as it was explained is that the Crank-shaft mechanism at the
beginning pushes the load that has to be carried along till it reach the Hydraulic then the Power
screw will push the load till it reach the conveyor belt and the conveyor belt will deliver it to the
surface of the Rack and Pinion. After that, the Rack and Pinion will take the load to the position
place. And here are the whole operation system is shown step by step.

Step 1

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The object load will be located in its position which as it mention before as it position A.

Figure 9: Step 1.

Step 2
Crank shaft will push the object load till the hydraulic cylinder (figure 10).

Figure 10: Step 2.

Step 3
The Hydraulic Cylinder will pull down the object load (figure 11).
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Figure 11: Step 3.

Step 4
The power screw will push the object load till the conveyor belt (figure 12).

Figure 12: Step 4.

Step 5
The conveyor belt will deliver the object load to the surface of the Rack and Pinion (figure 13).

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Figure 13: Step 5.

Step 6
The Rack and Pinion will take the load to the position B (figure 14).

Figure 14: Step 6.

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Calculation
Crank Shaft

Figure 15: Crank Shaft.

Inertia Force -The displacement of the piston with respect to crank angle can be derived from
simple trigonometry. This can be differentiated to yield velocity and acceleration of the piston.
The expressions obtained tend to be very complicated and can be simplified into the expression
containing only first order (once per revolution), second order (twice per revolution), and a
negligible fourth order.

Jouhn. (2001). Crank Shaft. Available: http://www.diracdelta.co.uk/science/source/e/n/engine


%20excitation%2mechanisms/source.html. Last accessed 4/10/2014.
Where:

MREC = Reciprocating mass (kg).


= Crank angle ( degrees; zero at top dead centre).
N = Rotational speed [rpm].
R = Crankshaft radius [m].
L = Con rod length [m].
W is angular velocity(rad/s).

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The total torque acting on the crankshaft of a single cylinder engine results from the effect of the
forces on the crank slider mechanism. The torque resulting from piston motion is often called the
INERTIA torque.

In this mechanism, the displacement should be 0.03 + 0.03=0.06m, illustrated in the parameters
given. The radius crank can be taken as 0.06m, as the radius will determine the displacement.
The con rod length has to be more than the radius of the crank. It can be assumed to be 0.09m.
We know the displacement is equal to 0.06m and the radius is 0.06m and the con red length is
0.09m and we know this formula displacement=(L+R) - X, where x is the position of piston pin
f from crank center. So X should be calculated first by the previous formula. After calculating X,
we got 0.09m.
From the triangle relation we can calculate the angle as follow:
l 2=x 2+ R 22 xR cos =cos1 ( 0.333 )=70.52
M ERC =6 kg factor of safaty ( 3 ) =18 kg
We

can

assumed

N =150 RPM =

an

RPM

2 N
=15.708 rad .
60

We can now compute the inertia torque:


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of

150

as

velocity

doesnt

matter

i= M ERC R2 2 (

R
1
3 R
sin sin 2
sin 3 )
4L
2
4L

i=1.669 Nm

Hydraulic
P=gh
Above is the Pascals law which is used to find pressure that is exerted by the hydraulic cylinder.
Where :
= The density of the fluid used,(857kg/m^3).
g = The acceleration due to gravity (9.81m/s^2).
H = height (m).(0.5m)
P = 857 * 0.5 *9.81
P = 4203.585 Pa.
After that, the weight of the object load has to multiply with the factor of safety which is given
in the assignment 6 x 3 = 18kg. And the force should be calculated by the next formula.
F = ma
F = 18 * 9.81
F =176.58 N
After that, the area of the cylinder should be calculated by the next formulas A =

A=

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176.58
4203.585

= 0.042m2.

F
P

Than we can get the diameter of the cylinder by this formula A =

2
4 * D . And A is already

getting which is 0.042m2.


D2=

40.042

D=

0.0535 = 0.231m

= 0.0535

r = 0.231 / 2
r = 0.116m

Power Screw
The next equation is used because the power screw in our design was used horizontally.

[( ) ]
f
cos n
+ f c r c
f tan
1+
cos n

tan +

T =W r m

Where:
T = The torque applied to turn screw or nut, whichever is being rotated.
W = The load parallel to screw axis.
rm = The mean thread radius.
rc = The effective radius of rubbing surface against which load bears, called collar radius and it
will be neglect.

=The coefficient of the friction between screw and nut threads.

c = The coefficient of friction at collar and it will be neglect.

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= The helix angle of thread at mean radius.


n = Angle between tangent to tooth profile and radial line, measured in plane normal to thread
helix at mean radius.

The power screw was chosen with a single thread with ISO trapezoidal and it was made by the
steel. The coefficient friction of the steel is 0.12, and the pitch was assumed as 20 which is equal
to the lead according to the single thread. And the angle of the ISO trapezoidal thread is equal to
15. And from the standard thread size for Acme thread in inch as shown in figure 16, we chose
the diameter of 2.75in than the diameter in inch was converted to mm by multiply with 25.4, we
got the diameter 69.85mm.

Figure 16: The table of the standard size.

After that, rm should be by this formula

by this formula

P
2

formula of rm , rm =

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dh
2

, which d is the diameter and h can be gotten

, so P is the pitch. After that, we got h 10mm and it was substituted in the

69.8510
=30 mm .
2

And for the load (W), the mass of the object is 6kg and it should be multiply with the factor
safety and the platform of the power screw was assumed as 10kg. So W = ((6*3) + 10) * 9.81=
274.68N.
The lead is the distance the screw would advance relative to the nut in one rotation. For a single
thread screw, lead is equal to the pitch as it mention before. Helix angle is related to the lead

and the mean radius rm by the equation tan =

tan =

Lead
2rm

20
2rm

= 0.106

= tan-1(0.106) = 6.057
The angle n measured the slope of the thread profile in the normal section. This is related to the
angle in the axial section and to the helix angle as follows:
Tan n = tan * cos
n = tan-1(tan * cos ) = 14.92
Now we can calculate the torque applied to turn screw from the following equation, after we got
all the values are required.

[( ) ]
f
cos n
+ f c r c
f tan
1+
cos n

tan +

T =W r m

0.12
0.966
30
+0
0.12 0.106
1+
0.966

T =274.68

0.106+

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T = 149.9722 Nmm.
T = 0.14997 Nm.

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Conveyor Belt
Fu = T . g . ( m+ mB ) +g . m. sin
Teery.

(2009).

Convoyer

Belt.

Available:

https://www.google.com.my/search?q=206-

fms_prolink-constructing-and-calculatingconveyors_en&rlz=1C1CHWA_enMY603MY603&oq=206-fms_prolink-constructing-andcalculating-conveyors_en&aqs=chrome..69i57j69i. Last accessed 5/10/2014.


Where:

T = Is the coefficient of friction (constant).


g = It is gravity (g=9.81m/s^2).
m = The load to be conveyed (kg).
mb = (B:) the mass of the belt (kg).
: the decline angle of conveyor (degrees).
Fu = the effective belt pull (N).

Material selection
The material used for belts must be strong, flexible, and durable. It must have a high coefficient
of friction. Though there are many type of belt material, we are going to use leather belt, one of
the most suitable materials used for many application. The densities of various belt materials are
given in the table below. So the density of the leather is 1000 kg/m3.

Figure 17: The density of the material belt.

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The standard flat belt thicknesses are 5, 6.5, 8, 10 and 12 mm. The preferred values of
thicknesses are as follows:

5 mm for nominal belt widths of 35 to 63 mm.


6.5 mm for nominal belt widths of 50 to 140 mm.
8 mm for nominal belt widths of 90 to 224 mm.
10 mm for nominal belt widths of 125 to 400 mm.
12 mm for nominal belt widths of 250 to 600 mm.

The standard values of nominal belt widths are in R10 series, starting from 25 mm upto 63 mm
and in R 20 series starting from 71 mm up to 600 mm. Thus, the standard widths will be 25, 32,
40, 50, 63, 71, 80, 90, 100, 112, 125, 140, 160, 180, 200, 224, 250, 280, 315, 355, 400, 450, 500,
560 and 600 mm.
The thickness of the belt depends mainly on the material that needs to be transported and the
conveyor features such as the way of loading, the drop height, angle of the conveyor, etc. From
these various available choices of belt thickness, it is in our interest to choose the second one
which will make our belt 6.5mm (0.0065m) thick as our belt width will be around 125mm which
lies between 50 to 140mm.
As for the center distance, it is preferable to use 200mm (0.2m), which is illustrated in the given
parameters. We can calculate the belt length using the center distance and the diameters of the
pulleys for this formula:
belt lengt={

Let us first select a pulley material and characteristics then we can calculate the belt length.In
this mechanism, we are going to use aluminum for the pulleys because of its light weight and the
fact that it robs less energy to spin. They also have less rotational mass compared to other
materials. The density of aluminum is =2700 kg/m^3.

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The diameter of the pulley (D) may be obtained either from velocity ratio consideration or
centrifugal stress consideration. The following are the diameter of pulleys in mm for flat and
V-belts:
20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 36, 40, 45, 50, 56, 63, 71, 80, 90, 100, 112, 125, 140, 160, 180, 200, 224, 250,
280, 315, 355, 400, 450, 500, 560, 630, 710, 800, 900, 1000, 1120, 1250, 1400, 1600,1800, 2000,
2240, 2500, 2800, 3150, 3550, 4000, 5000, 5400. The first six sizes (20 to 36 mm) are used for
V-belts only.
If the width of the belt is known, then width of the pulley or face of the pulley is taken 25%
greater than the width of belt. According to Indian Standards, IS: 2122 (Part I) 1973
(Reaffirmed 1990), the width of pulley is fixed as given in the following table:

Figure 18: The standard table of the belt width.

In our case, our belt width is 125mm so the width of the pulley must be 13mm greater than the
belt width, so it is (125+13)mm = 0.138mm. As for the diameter of the roller, we can use
125mm, for both driver and driven pulleys, hence D = 125mm = 0.125m
Knowing the diameters and the center distance, belt length will be calculated in term of pulley
diameter.

Belt length =

Belt length =

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2 *(D1 + D2) + 2* X +

2 *(125 + 125) + 2* 200 +

D 1+ D 2
4x
125+125
4200

Belt length = 792.69mm


Now we can calculate the mass of the belt m b by using this formula mb = b * t * l* . Where b is
the width of the belt which is 0.125. And t is the thickness of the belt which is 0.0065m. And l is
the length of the belt which is 0.79269m. And is the density of leather belt which is1000kgm-3.
mb = 0.125 * 0.0065 * 0.79269 * 1000 = 0.644kg
Now we can calculate the effective belt pull Fu from the following equation, after we got all the
values are required.

Fu = T . g . ( m+mB ) +g . m. sin

Fu =0.529.81 ( 18 sin 15+0.644 sin 15 ) +9.8118 sin 15sin 15


Fu =36.44 N

We can use a velocity of

( V )=

N is the RPM , d=125 mm ,V =

N =0.0033

0.0033 m
.
s

60
=0.504 RPM 1
0.125

Power is given by

We also know that

T =

0.2
dN
=0.0033 m/s
velocity ( V )=
,
we
also
know
that
60
60 ,

power ( p )=Fu veloccity ( V )=36.44 0.0033=0.120 watts

power ( p )=

2 NT
60

60 p 60 0.120
=
=1.145 Nm
2 N
2 1

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(Khurmi, R. S., and J. K. Gupta. A Textbook of Machine Design. New Delhi: Eurasia House,
2005. Print.)

Rack and Pinion


From the table shown below we can see some formals it may use to calculate the torque.
Table 1: The formals of a rack and pinion.

First of all, we have to choose the face width and the number of teeth and the diameter will be
given. We chose the width of 40mm and the number of teeth is 20 so the diameter was 80mm as
it can be seen from the table below. Also the material selection was chosen for both rack and
pinion was steel. The coefficient friction of steel with steel is 0.62.
Table 2: Standard sizes of the rack and pinion.

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Wanamassa. (2010). MODULAR RACK & PINION SYSTEM. Available: www.andantex.com.


Last accessed 1/10/2014.

The torque = Tp * S.f


Where:
Tp = The torque at pinion.
S.f = The factor of safety.
Now we should find the torque at pinion, the factor of safety is given 3.
The torque at pinion = (Fr * d) 2000
Where:
Fr = The force at rack.
D = The diameter.
The force at rack can be gotten by this equation
The force at rack = T . m . g+ m. g
Where:

m = The mass of the object.

g= It is gravity (g=9.81m/s^2).

= The coefficient friction.

So the force will be 0.62 *(6*3)*9.81+(6*3)*9.81 is equal to 286.0596N. The force will be
substitute in the equation of the torque at pinion. The torque at pinion = (Fr * d) 2000. So
(286.0596*0.08) 2000 will be 0.0144Nm. Finally we can get the torque.
T = 0.0144 * 3 = 0.0342 Nm
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Material Selection
Crank shaft
Quantum Series Brushless Servo Motor Dimension Drawing DC Motor (QB03401) can be used
for the crank as it has a torque of 1.669Nm.

Figure 19: Data sheet of motor.

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Hydraulic

Model number of the cylinder is RACL-2010 can be used for Hydraulic as it has a diameter of
231mm.

Figure 20: Data sheet of cylinder.

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Power Screw
DC Motor (BCI-42.25 B00-C/18) can be used for the power screw as it has a torque of
0.149Nm.

Figure 21: Data sheet of motor.

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Conveyor Belt
Quantum Series Brushless Servo Motor Dimension Drawing DC Motor (QB03400) can be
used for the conveyor belt as it has a torque of 1.145 Nm.

Figure 22: Data sheet of motor.

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Rack and Pinion


Quantum NEMA 17 Brushless Servo Motor Dimension Drawing DC Motor (QB01700) can
be used for the rack and pinion as it has a torque of 0.0342 Nm.

Figure 23: Data sheet mf motor.

Page 33 of 35

Discussion

The assignment idea was to carry the load from one point to another will be developed. Two
designs were sketched and both of them got the approval from the lecture. The first design was
chosen because it is comparatively easy to make and it would be easy to implement in the
industry. Power Screw, Hydraulic, Crank Shaft, Conveyor Belt and Rack and Pinion were the
mechanisms of the first design which is chosen to construct it. After that, the design was
implemented in SolidWork 2013 software. Than the calculation part of the five mechanisms
chosen were done. And from the calculations were gotten, the materials selection was done based
on the torque for power screw, conveyor belt, crank and rack & pinion, and for the hydraulic was
based on the diameter.

During the assignment, some problems were faced and they solved. One of this problems was in
the designs, in the first design was done easily. In the second design, it was complicated to find
because most of the motion conversion was used in the first design. And this problem was solved
by checking the internet and some books. Another problem was in implement the 3D design,
CREO software was the one which was usually using but in this design, the workable parts were
needed and this can be doing using CREW but it will be very difficult to implement it. So this
problem was solved by the lectures advice who recommended us to use Solidwork 2013 which
it was very easy to use and install it regarding to many videos in YOUTUBE. These videos were
very helpful to understand Solidwork 2013 and it was enough for students.

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Conclusion
Load carrying mechanisms which are used to convert one type of motion to another and being
used in a wide range of many applications and it is much more efficient and fast as compared to
the manual way of doing it.
This assignment was a very useful, interesting way to learning of designing the mechanical
components by Solidworks 2013. On the other hand, the design was an overall success, it was
designed following all the listed criteria and the calculations are done which it would function
efficiently. So engineers should now design more components of this type so that we can make
our daily works easier. And complete the tasks with maximum efficiency and minimum cost.

Reference

Tony. (2005). Convoyer Belt. Available: file:///C:/Users/TOSHIBA/Downloads/202fms_timing_belts_calc_methods_en.pdf. Last accessed 15/10/2014.


Frank. (2014). The density. Available: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/iso-grade-oild_1207.html. Last accessed 10/10/2014.
Than. (2014). Cylinders. Available: http://www.enerpac.com/en-us/industrial-toolsimperial/hydraulic-cylinders-jacks-lifting-products-and-systems/lightweight-aluminumcylinders/racl-series-aluminum-lock-nut-cylinders. Last accessed 10/10/2014.
CHAN.

(2014

).

Motors.

Available:

http://www.ebmpapst.com.au/en/products/motors/bcigearmotors/bcigearmotorsdetail.php
?pID=142258. Last accessed 9/10/2014.

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