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Course outline

Information Systems
Development

Foundations for systems development






The systems development environment


The origins of software
Managing the information systems project

Planning



Identifying and selecting systems development projects


Initiating and planning systems development projects

Analysis

Chapter 1
The Systems Development
Environment






Design




Dr. Annabella Habinka Ejiri


annabinka@must.ac.ug
annabinka@yahoo.co.uk
+256772571444
2005 by Prentice Hall




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Introduction

Designing databases
Designing forms and reports
Designing interfaces and dialogues
Finalizing design specifications
Designing distributed and internet systems

Implementation and maintenance





System implementation
Maintaining information systems

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Reading list
Systems Analysis and Design, Donald Yeates (2004)
Object Oriented Systems analysis and Design, Simon
Bennett (1999)
Systems analysis and design, Donald Yeates, Tony
Wakefield (2004)
Modern systems analysis and design, Jeffrey
A.Hoffer, Joey F.George, Joseph S.Valacich (2008)
Essentials of systems analysis and design , Jeffrey A
Hoffer, Joey F.George, Joseph S Valacich (2009)
Systems analysis and design methods, Jeffrey L
Whitten, Lonnie D Bentley (2007)

Determining systems requirements


Structuring systems process requirements
Structuring systems logical requirements
Structuring systems data requirements

Learning Objectives
 Define information systems analysis and design.
 Describe the different types of information systems.
 Describe the information Systems Development Life
Cycle (SDLC).

 Explain Rapid Application Development (RAD),

prototyping, Joint Application Development (JAD),


and Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE).
 Describe agile methodologies and eXtreme
programming.
 Explain Object Oriented Analysis and Design and the
Rational Unified Process (RUP).
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Roles of the systems analyst

Information Systems Analysis and Design





Complex organizational process whereby computer-based


information systems are developed and maintained
In System Analysis more emphasis is given to understanding
the details of an existing system or a proposed one and then
deciding whether the proposed system is desirable or not
and whether the existing system needs improvements.
Thus, system analysis is the process of investigating a
system, identifying problems, and using the information to
recommend improvements to the system.

Study problems and needs of an organization


Determine best approach to improving
organization through use of:



Application Software


Computer software designed to support organizational


functions or processes

Help system users and managers define their


requirements for new or enhanced systems

Systems Analyst


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People
Methods
Information technology

Organizational role most responsible for analysis and design


of information systems
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Skills of a Successful Systems


Analyst

Cont
Assess options for system
implementation





Analytical


In-house development
Outsourced development
Outsourced development and operation
Commercial application




 Ability to see organizations and information

systems as systems

Technical

For in-house projects, work on a team


of analysts and developers
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Understanding of organizations
Problem-solving skills
System thinking

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Understanding of potential and limitations


of technology
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Cont

Introduction (cont.)

Managerial


Ability to manage projects, resources, risk


and change

Interpersonal


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Effective written and oral communication


skills

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A Modern Approach to Systems


Analysis and Design
1950s: focus on efficient automation of existing
processes
1960s: advent of 3GL, faster and more reliable
computers
1970s: system development becomes more like an
engineering discipline
1980s: major breakthrough with 4GL, CASE tools,
object oriented methods
1990s: focus on system integration, GUI applications,
client/server platforms, Internet
The new century: Web application development,
wireless PDAs, component-based applications
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Types of Information Systems


and Systems Development
Transaction Processing Systems (TPS)



Automate handling of data about business activities


(transactions)
Process orientation

Management Information Systems (MIS)





Converts raw data from transaction processing system into


meaningful form
Data orientation

Decision Support Systems (DSS)







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Designed to help decision makers


Provides interactive environment for decision making
Involves data warehouses, executive information systems (EIS)
Database, model base, user dialogue
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Developing Information
Systems and the SDLC

Types of Information Systems


and Systems Development (cont.)

System Development Methodology




Standard process followed in an


organization
Consists of:
 Analysis
 Design
 Implementation
 Maintenance

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Systems Development Life


Cycle (SDLC)

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Standard and Evolutionary Views


of SDLC

Traditional methodology for developing,


maintaining, and replacing information
systems
Phases in SDLC:






Planning
Analysis
Design
Implementation
Maintenance

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SDLC Planning Phase


Identify, analyze,
prioritize, and
arrange IS needs

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SDLC Analysis Phase


Study and
structure system
requirements

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SDLC Design Phase


Logical design:
functional features
described
independently of
computer platform

Convert
recommended
solution to system
specifications

SDLC Implementation Phase


Code, test, install,
and support the
information system

Physical design:
logical
specifications
transformed to
technologyspecific details

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SDLC Maintenance Phase


Systematically
repair and improve
the information
system

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The Heart of the Systems


Development Process

Traditional Waterfall SDLC

One phase begins


when another
completes, little
backtracking and
looping

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Current practice combines analysis, design, and implementation


into a single iterative and parallel process of activities
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Problems with Waterfall


Approach

Alternatives to Traditional
Waterfall SDLC

System requirements locked in after


being determined (can't change)
Limited user involvement (only in
requirements phase)
Too much focus on milestone deadlines
of SDLC phases to the detriment of
sound development practices
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Prototyping
CASE tools
Joint Application Design (JAD)
Rapid Application Development (RAD)
Agile Methodologies
eXtreme Programming
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Prototyping

CASE Tools
Computer-Aided Software Engineering
Software tools providing automated
support for systems development
Project dictionary/workbook: system
description and specifications
Diagramming tools
Example products: Oracle Designer,
Rational Rose

Iterative development process:


Requirements quickly converted to a working system
System is continually revised
Close collaboration between users and analysts

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Joint Application Design (JAD)


Structured process involving users,
analysts, and managers
Several-day intensive workgroup
sessions
Purpose: to specify or review system
requirements

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Rapid Application Development


(RAD)
Methodology to decrease design and implementation time
Involves: prototyping, JAD, CASE tools, and code
generators

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Agile Methodologies

eXtreme Programming
Short, incremental development cycles
Automated tests
Two-person programming teams
Coding and testing operate together
Advantages:

Motivated by recognition of software


development as fluid, unpredictable,
and dynamic
Three key principles




Adaptive rather than predictive


Emphasize people rather than roles
Self-adaptive processes





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Object-Oriented Analysis and


Design

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Communication between developers


High level of productivity
High-quality code
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Rational Unified Process (RUP) involves an iterative,


incremental approach to systems development

Based on objects rather than data or


processes
Object: a structure encapsulating attributes
and behaviors of a real-world entity
Object class: a logical grouping of objects
sharing the same attributes and behaviors
Inheritance: hierarchical arrangement of
classes enable subclasses to inherit
properties of superclasses
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Summary
In this chapter you learned how to:
 Define information systems analysis and design.
 Describe the different types of information
systems.
 Describe the information Systems Development
Life Cycle (SDLC).
 Explain Rapid Application Development (RAD),
prototyping, Joint Application Development (JAD),
and Computer Aided Software Engineering
(CASE).
 Describe agile methodologies and eXtreme
programming.
 Explain Object Oriented Analysis and Design and
the Rational Unified Process (RUP).
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2005 by Prentice Hall