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for CSEC ®

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for CSEC ® Imelda Pilgrim • Maria Darlington Anthony Perry • Joyce Stewart
for CSEC ® Imelda Pilgrim • Maria Darlington Anthony Perry • Joyce Stewart
for CSEC ® Imelda Pilgrim • Maria Darlington Anthony Perry • Joyce Stewart
for CSEC ®
Imelda Pilgrim
Maria Darlington
Anthony Perry • Joyce Stewart

Contents

 

Introduction

1

Unit 1

The basic skills

2

  • 1.1 Purpose and audience

2

  • 1.2 Word choice

4

  • 1.3 Word order

10

  • 1.4 Punctuation

20

  • 1.5 Paragraphing

28

  • 1.6 Putting it all together

34

Unit 2 Reading and writing informative texts

36

  • 2.1 Understanding purpose and audience

36

  • 2.2 Identifying sequences

42

  • 2.3 Fact and opinion

46

  • 2.4 Select and use detail

48

  • 2.5 Interpret and respond to graphics

54

  • 2.6 How writers use words

60

  • 2.7 Reading and writing to summarise

68

  • 2.8 Writing to inform and explain

76

Unit 3 Reading and writing creative texts

80

  • 3.1 Register, tone and mood

80

  • 3.2 The writer, the narrator and

 

the speaker

86

  • 3.3 Characterisation

92

  • 3.4 Creating character

98

  • 3.5 Skills in descriptive writing

102

  • 3.6 Writing descriptions

108

  • 3.7 Structuring stories

112

  • 3.8 Writing stories

118

Unit 4 Reading and writing persuasive and

 

argumentative texts

124

  • 4.1 Fact and opinion

124

  • 4.2 Bias and slant

128

  • 4.3 Techniques of persuasion

132

  • 4.4 Techniques of argument

140

Unit 5

Doing well in your exams

148

  • 5.1 Doing well in Paper 1

148

  • 5.2 Doing well in Paper 2

158

Unit 6

Paper

Practice exam questions

168

1: Multiple-choice questions

168

Paper 2: Practice exam questions

176

 

Glossary

182

Index

184

Acknowledgements

188

1 The basic skills

  • 1.1 Purpose and audience

LEARNING OUTCOMES In this section you will:
LEARNING OUTCOMES
In this section you will:

• learn the meaning of the

terms purpose and audience

• recognise clues which help

you to identify purpose and

audience.

When a writer starts to write, he or she has an intended purpose: the

reason or reasons why he or she is writing.

For example, a writer may wish to inform, to persuade, to argue, to describe, to advise, to record, to explain or, simply, to entertain.

Sometimes a writer may wish to achieve two or more of these purposes.

As well as having an intended purpose, a writer will also have an intended

audience. The audience is the targeted reader: the person or persons for

whom the writer is writing. For example, possible audiences include:

young children, teenagers, adults, males, females, elderly persons,

religious persons, or individuals with a specifi c interest. Sometimes a

writer may wish to target more than one particular audience.

ACTIVITY 1
ACTIVITY
1

Think about the following texts. For each one, decide what the writer’s purpose or purposes are likely to

be.

a A diary entry

b A newspaper sports article

c A job application

d A letter to a friend

2

Think about the following texts. For each one, identify the intended audience or audiences.

a An advertisement for a sportswear sale

c A school report

b A letter to a newspaper

d A bus timetable

3

Basing your ideas on your own experience, list at least three main differences between textbooks written

for junior school children and textbooks written for senior school children.

We can usually work out the intended purpose and audience by

looking for clues in the text. Read the restaurant fl yer text and the

commentary that follows it. The clues have been

highlighted for you in the commentary. This text is clearly an advertisement. It has two main
highlighted for you in the commentary.
This text is clearly an advertisement. It has two
main purposes. One of these is to inform the
reader about the restaurant as it gives details
about where it is and the kind of food you can
eat there. Another purpose is to persuade the
reader to go there. Words such as ‘unlimited’,
‘mouth-watering’ and ‘famous’ are used to
achieve this purpose. As it refers to a ‘unique
dining concept’ it is likely that the intended
audience is adults who like to dine out and
who are looking for something different.
ACTIVITY 4 Read texts A–C. For each one, identify and record the purpose and audience. List
ACTIVITY
4 Read texts A–C. For each one, identify and record the purpose and audience. List at least two clues
which helped you to identify these. You could record your ideas on a chart like the one below.
Text
Purpose
Audience
Clues
Example
To inform and
persuade
Adults who like
to dine out
Details about the place
Words such as ‘unlimited’ and ‘mouth-watering’
Reference to a ‘unique dining experience’
A
B
C
Text A
Once upon a time, not all bullfrogs were plain
like their cousins, the lizards. Bredda Croaky
was a special bullfrog. His skin glowed with all
the rich colours of hibiscus fl owers. He used to
croak all day long, so that other animals would
admire him.
Anansi the spider didn’t like this. He grew
jealous of Bredda Croaky and tired of his
boastful croaking.
One day …
H. Patten and John Clementson,
Clever Anansi and Boastful Bullfrog
Text B
Text C
Ramshackle homes
bulldozed in Brazilian capital
RIO DE JANEIRO, Brazil – Yesterday
authorities began the demolition of
dilapidated homes in some of the Brazilian
capital’s most unstable slums. Following
last week’s oods, which killed over 200
people around the city, many homes were
considered at high risk from mudslides. Over
300 houses in the Morro de Uruba favela
were bulldozed after residents had been
evacuated on Sunday.
Rio mayor, Eduardo Paes, has warned that
4,000 families occupying seven of the city’s
slums would soon face eviction in order to
destroy at-risk homes.
1.2 Word choice
1.2 Word choice
1.2
Word choice
LEARNING OUTCOMES In this section you will:
LEARNING OUTCOMES
In this section you will:

• identify when a formal or

informal style is appropriate

• express ideas in Creole and

Caribbean Standard English

• recognise the difference

between the active and

passive voices

• learn how to use metaphor

and simile

• improve your skills in the

use of a dictionary and a

thesaurus

• experiment with using a

wider range of vocabulary.

ACTIVITY 1 Separate two lists:
ACTIVITY
1 Separate
two lists:

the following into

a those that are likely to be

written in an informal style

b those that are likely to be written in a formal style.

A diary entry; a letter of application for a job; a note to a friend; an email to a friend; a letter to a principal; a newspaper article; an exam essay; an advert targeting teenagers; a poster for a book sale.

A Formal and informal

As you have seen in Section 1.1, writers write for purpose and

audience. These are the factors that determine both what they say

and how they say it. Sometimes the writing can be informal and

sometimes a formal style of writing is required.

Diaries are often written using an informal style. This is because a

diary entry is usually written by the writer as a personal record of their

thoughts and activities. Blogs are a relatively new form of writing that

are written online. In some ways similar to a diary, a blog often gives an

account of the day-to-day detail of one person’s life. However, a blog

has a much wider audience. Blogs are often written in an informal style

to give the impression that the writer is talking directly to the reader.

ACTIVITY 2 Read the following entry, taken from a blog written using many characteristics of Creole.
ACTIVITY
2 Read the following entry, taken from a blog written using
many characteristics of Creole. The most obvious of these are
highlighted for you.
Me sea-wall walk shocked me to the core today.
Mounds o’ plastic and oil drums banging against the steps, on the sea-
side of the harbour.
I wonder if it is true, that there is a real link between pollution and cancer.
And if there is, then why we still allow it in green land of Guyana?
Why we supermarkets wrap vegetables and fruit in plastic? (Listen, the
food don’t look appealing like that, supermarket owners. It look ready to
serve up death in miniature shrouds).
Why the chicken people sell chicken in it? Making it hallal (kosher) does
make it wholesome?
Why we salt-fi sh people wrap the fi sh in it?
Why food vendors continue to sell food in it, then we dump it, blocking-
up we drains and rivers?
Why we let it fl oat out to sea and poison the sea-life?
If it is true that pollution is deadly, why we media don’t shout about it?
nobody don’t give a damn no more.
For each one, identify how the word or phrase would be written
in Caribbean Standard English (CSE). You could use a table like the
one below. The fi rst three have been done for you.
Creole
Caribbean Standard English (CSE)
Me sea-wall walk
o’ plastic
why we still
My walk on the sea wall
of plastic
why are we still
  • 3 Using informal language write the text for your own blog entry. Your purpose is to share your ideas, feelings and/or experiences with your audience. Your audience is likely to be people of your own age. You could focus on a particular thing that has happened to you this week. Aim to write 150–200 words.

  • 4 Highlight the places in your writing where your use of language is clearly different from CSE. By the side, identify how the word or phrase would be written in the more formal CSE.

There are many times when writing in an informal style is not

appropriate. One of these is writing in examinations. While you may

use Creole when writing direct speech within a narrative, you must

use C SE at all other times. As you may well spend much of your time

talking in Creole, this means that you need to think carefully about

the words you use and the order in which you place them.

B The active and passive voices

So far you have considered how the use of Creole can create a more

informal style and tone. The word tone is used here to describe the

attitudes and feelings of the speaker to his or her subject. You can

create either an informal or a formal tone using Caribbean Standard

English. For example:

I think it’s going to be a really great carnival this year.

(informal tone)

It is thought that this year’s carnival will be a truly

spectacular affair. (formal tone)

One way of creating a more formal tone is through your use of the

verb.

Many verbs can be active or passive.

When the verb is active, the subject performs the action, for example:

subject

I placed the book on the table.

This is called the active voice.

verb

When the verb is passive, the subject is on the receiving end of the action, for
When the verb is passive, the subject is on the receiving end of the
action, for example:
verb
The book was placed on the table.
subject

This is called the passive voice. The passive voice is often used to create a more formal tone.

ACTIVITY

1 Copy the table below. Sort the sentences that follow into active and passive. Highlight the
1 Copy the table below. Sort
the sentences that follow
into active and passive.
Highlight the subject and
the verb in each sentence as
shown in the example.
Active
Passive
I placed the
book on the
table.
The book
was placed
on the table.
a A game was played by the
children.
b The children played a
game.
c
The prayer was read
quietly by the woman.
d
She read the prayer quietly.
e You are considered
innocent by this court.
f This court considers you
innocent.
g A book was moved by the
boy.
h The boy moved a book.

C Figurative language

Writers do not always use words literally. They sometimes use words to help create a specifi c image and expect their readers to interpret these words.

ACTIVITY I’m Not a Rock! I can’t be your rock anymore I’m just a tiny, rolling
ACTIVITY
I’m Not a Rock!
I
can’t be your rock anymore
I’m just a tiny, rolling stone
That hasn’t got a place in life
That hasn’t got a home
Somehow got stopped as I rolled by
By forces in my way
And all this dirt that stuck to me’s
Now begun to wash away
I
cannot be your rock at all
I’m really just a lot …
Of dirt that all got crushed together
I
am not a rock!
Miranda Sealy, ‘I’m Not a Rock!’
1 Read the poem above and answer the questions that follow.
a Clearly a writer cannot be a rock. What does the image of a rock
suggest to you? What is the writer suggesting by saying this?
b What is the effect of her describing herself as a tiny, rolling
stone?
c
Can you suggest what she is referring to in the line: ‘All this dirt
that stuck to me’?
d
What does the line ‘Of dirt that all got crushed together’
suggest to you about the writer’s feelings about her life?

In the above poem the writer is using words fi guratively. She refers

to herself as a specifi c object, a stone that has gathered dirt, to help

the reader understand the point she is making. This type of fi gure of

speech is called a metaphor.

Sometimes, rather than say something is something else, a writer will say something is like something else. For example:

She stood fi rm like a rock in times of trouble. She was like a tiny,
She stood fi rm like a rock in times of trouble.
She was like a tiny, rolling stone that gathered dirt
along the way.

This type of fi gure of speech is called a simile.

ACTIVITY 2 Which of the following fi gures of speech are metaphors and which are similes?

ACTIVITY 2 Which of the following fi gures of speech are

metaphors and which are similes?

a Love is a fragile blossom about to fl ower. b The newborn baby was as cute as a cupcake.

  • c The kite danced in the air like a carnival queen.

  • d The lake was a shimmering mirror, gracefully refl ecting the towering hills.

e He focused the telescope and watched

carefully like a menacing bird of prey.

f

The crocodile opened his mouth to reveal a

row of shining white daggers.

Extended similes and metaphors

  • 3 For each of the phrases a–f, state what effect is created by the use of the fi gure of speech.

  • 4 Try writing your own metaphors and similes by completing the following sentences using language fi guratively. Love is … The moon shone on the sea like a … The swimmer was a … He ate hungrily like a ….

Sometimes a writer will develop and extend a simile, for example:

The school children crashed through the playground

like a bunch of wild animals preparing to corner and

devour their prey.

ACTIVITY

5 Extend the following similes.

a His anger rose quickly and fi ercely like a fi re …

b The teacher swept through the room like a hurricane …

Sometimes a writer will develop and extend a metaphor. In the

following passage the poet develops the idea of the city singing. The

highlighted words show you how the metaphor has been extended.

If you listen, you can hear it.

The city it sings.

If you stand quietly, at the foot of a garden, in the middle of a

street, on the roof of a house.

It’s clearest at night, when the

surface of things, when

ACTIVITY 2 Which of the following fi gures of speech are metaphors and which are similes?

It’s

And

the song sings

The

low soothing hum

other,

a lullaby hum

 

sound cuts more sharply

the song

 

across the

reaches out to a place inside you.

it’s a song it sings.
it’s a song
it sings.

a wordless song, for the most, but

all the same, and

each note.
each note.

nobody hearing it could doubt what

ACTIVITY 2 Which of the following fi gures of speech are metaphors and which are similes?

the loudest when you pick out

of air-conditioners, fanning out the heat

and the smells of shops and cafes and offi ces across the city,

for tired streets.

winding up and winding down, long breaths layered upon each

ACTIVITY 2 Which of the following fi gures of speech are metaphors and which are similes?

Jon McGregor, If Nobody Speaks of Remarkable Things

ACTIVITY 2 Which of the following fi gures of speech are metaphors and which are similes?
ACTIVITY 6 Think about the sounds you hear in a playground and list them. Now use

ACTIVITY 6 Think about the sounds you hear in a playground and list them.

Now use your ideas to develop your own extended metaphor. You could use the following sentences as your opening. If you listen, you can hear it. The playground is an orchestra.

  • D Using a wide range of vocabulary

ACTIVITY 6 Think about the sounds you hear in a playground and list them. Now use

To do well in your exam, you need to show that

you have a wide vocabulary and the ability to

choose the best words to suit your purpose.

Using a dictionary

One of the most useful tools you have at your

disposal is a dictionary. It helps you to:

nd the meaning of a word you do not know

• pronounce the word correctly

• spell the word correctly.

A dictionary is organised in alphabetical order.

It is not just the fi rst letter of the word that

counts. When you have several words starting

with the same two, three or even more letters,

you have to go further into each word to fi nd its

alphabetical order.

ACTIVITY 1
ACTIVITY
1

Place each of the following sets of words into alphabetical order.

 

a drastic

icing

best

public

free

money

risk

envelope

trial

silver

b ready

rush

rattle

reason

ring

robot

range

roller

rider

red

c

grief

grind

frit

grill

grime

grid

grizzly

grin

grip

grievance

When you want to fi nd a particular word in a dictionary, you should look at the words in bold at the top

of the pages. These are the fi rst and last words on that page. They are called guide words. If the word

you are looking for comes between these two words alphabetically, you are on the correct page.

2

Look at the four words and below the guide words from four pages in a dictionary. Which page

would you turn to in order to fi nd each word?

skull

skate

Page 966

Page 967

sixteen

skew

skyscraper

sketch

skint

skill

Page 968

Page 969

skin-tight

skylight

skylark

slap

Your dictionary will help you broaden your vocabulary. Start to use it frequently.

Using a thesaurus

The English language is rich in synonyms: words that share a similar or related meaning. Lists of such words are contained in a book called a thesaurus. Take, for example, the simple word big. The following words are all synonyms of big:

bulky, burly, enormous, extensive, gigantic, great, huge, immense, infl ated, large, massive, ponderous, swollen.

Is it any wonder that examiners despair when students, hoping to gain a CXC qualifi cation in English, continue to use the word big?

Using words precisely

A writer can better engage the interest of a reader, and impress an

examiner, by using words with precise meaning. Take the simple

sentence: The man walked down the path. Consider how each of the

following creates a different impression of how he walked:

The man ambled …

The man limped …

The man stumbled …

The man tip-toed …

The man swaggered …

The man hurried …

The man staggered …

The man strolled …

With each of these alternatives, the writer is creating a precise

impression for the reader.

A simple sentence can be further enhanced through the use of

carefully chosen adjectives and adverbs.

ACTIVITY 3
ACTIVITY
3

Write down as many words

as you can which have a similar meaning to the simple word small.

4

Use a thesaurus to add to your list.

Using a thesaurus The English language is rich in synonyms : words that share a similar

Take again the simple sentence: The man walked down the path.

The

elderly man walked

hesitantly down the

muddy path.

Adjective: a word which tells you more about a noun (person,

place or thing)

 

Adverb: a word which tells you more about a verb (a word of action)

ACTIVITY

  • 7 Show a wider vocabulary range by writing down the following sentences and then adding well-chosen adjectives and adverbs: a The girl spoke to her friend. b The house stood on the hill.

    • c The toy was thrown into the room.

    • d The game was played in the fi eld.

e The laptop was placed on the desk.

ACTIVITY

5

Now take the simple

sentence:

The girl said this yesterday.

Think of as many different

words that could be used

to give a more precise

impression of how the girl ‘said this’, for example ‘whispered’. List your alternatives.

6

Now look up ‘say’ in a thesaurus to see if you can add to your list.

1.3 Word order
1.3 Word order
1.3
Word order
LEARNING OUTCOMES In this section you will:
LEARNING OUTCOMES
In this section you will:

• learn about the different

functions and types of

sentences

• make sure there is agreement

between subject and verb,

and noun and pronoun

• practise using the correct

tense for a verb

• examine the differences

between script, direct speech

and reported speech

• think about how to vary

sentence structure

• experiment with different

sentence structures and

linking words.

A Sentence structures: functions and types

A sentence is a group of words that makes complete sense.

Sentences can have different functions. The main functions are:

• a declaration or statement, for example: ‘Tigers are found in

eastern and southern Asia.’

• a question, for example: ‘What happened next?’

• an exclamation, for example: ‘We won the competition!’

• an imperative or directive, for example: ‘Drink six to eight

glasses of water a day.’

There are various ways in which sentences can be structured. There

are three main types of sentence structure:

A simple sentence is the fi rst kind of sentence you learnt to write. It

consists of one main clause which makes complete sense on it own.

For example:

The bus was late. We walked home.

main clause

main clause

A compound sentence has two or more main clauses, usually

linked by the coordinating conjunctions ‘and’, ‘or’, ‘but’. For

example:

The bus was late and we walked home.

main clause

conjunction main clause

In a compound sentence, each clause could stand as a sentence

in its own right. A compound sentence can contain several main

clauses, for example:

The bus was late and we walked home but it was a long way

and we got caught in the rain.

In complex sentences, the clauses are not of equal importance.

One clause (the subordinate clause) is dependent on the other (the

main clause). A subordinate clause cannot stand as a sentence in its

own right, for example:

He said that the show would start when the audience was seated.

main clause

subordinate clause

In the example above the two clauses are linked by the

subordinating conjunction ‘when’. Other examples of

subordinating conjunctions are ‘because’, ‘while’, ‘although’,

‘since’, ‘until’ and ‘after’. These are placed at the beginning of the

subordinate clause.

ACTIVITY 1 Identify each of the sentences below as 4 When writing sentences, writers make decisions
ACTIVITY
1
Identify each of the sentences below as
4
When writing sentences, writers make decisions
simple, compound or complex.
according to their purpose and audience. They
vary the structure and type of their sentences
a The young man walked down the street
according to the needs of their readers. Read the
smiling happily because he had got the job
following extract. Identify the structure of each
he wanted.
sentence. Why do you think the writer has not
b He walked towards the reception but there
used complex sentences?
was no one at the desk.
c
He stopped abruptly.
d
Although it was almost dark, he could still
Sam and Jasmine love
see clearly.
to go to the beach. They
e They enjoyed the carnival and they won the
like to play on the sand
prize for best fl oat.
or sometimes they swim
2
Copy and annotate each of the above
in the sea. They are both
sentences to show main clauses, subordinate
good swimmers. The
clauses and coordinating or subordinating
waves are often high
conjunctions.
but they don’t mind.
Sometimes their Daddy
3
Experiment using the conjunctions ‘and’,
takes them to the rock-
‘or’, ‘but’ to form compound sentences by
pools. They take their nets and they look for
combining two or more of the following
little fi sh. The fi sh usually escape.
simple sentences.
a The shopping centre was crowded.
b The young couple went for a coffee.
5
Continue the story about Sam and Jasmine,
c
There was a long queue.
which is written for young children. Use only
d
They joined it.
simple and compound sentences. Aim to write
e A little girl was crying.
between eight and ten sentences.
f The security man spoke to her.

Another useful way of forming a sentence is shown below:

The young couple

walked

along the beach and they spotted a

swimmer in trouble near the rocks.

Walking

along the beach, the young couple spotted a swimmer in

trouble near the rocks.

 

I

wore

my fi nest outfi t and I cheerfully joined the carnival parade.

Wearing

my fi nest outfi t, I cheerfully joined the carnival parade.

In the examples above, the second sentence uses the -ing form of the

verb is used.

 

The -ing form of the verb can be used with various other words,

such as ‘when’, ‘before’, ‘while’, ‘after’, ‘without’, ‘instead of’. For

example:

ACTIVITY 1 Identify each of the sentences below as 4 When writing sentences, writers make decisions

After leaving

Instead of listening

own way.

school, the teacher drove home.

to advice, the student decided to revise in her

before entering
before entering

the race.

You must sign the indemnity form

Aim to experiment with the way you write your sentences.

ACTIVITY

6 Restructure the following

sentences, using the -ing

form of the verb at the start.

a The boy runs in the race

and he trips over at the

last hurdle.

b The children walked to

school and they saw a very

unpleasant road accident.

  • c saw my best friend on the

I

other side of the street and

I called out to her.

  • d believed that all would

I

turn out for the best and I

put my faith in God.

B Agreement within sentences

It is important that the different parts of a sentence match each

other. There are some common mistakes that students make and that

examiners would like them to avoid.

Subject/verb agreement

The verb in a sentence must agree with its subject in number and in

person:

Subject

Verb (singular)

Verb (plural)

The child

sits

 

The children

 

sit

The teacher

watches

 

The teachers

 

watch

Mr Jones (i.e. He)

waits

 

Mr Jones and Mr Andrews (i.e. They)

 

wait

Notice how it is the singular verb that often ends in an ‘s’!

Sometimes the subject of a sentence is a collective noun, which is a

word that refers to a group. For example: crowd, team, fl ock, herd. In

such cases the verb needs to be singular:

TTTThhhhhheee teteamam ooff cr cricickeketetersrs ttraraininss reregugulalarl rly. y
TTTThhhhhheee teteamam ooff cr
cricickeketetersrs ttraraininss reregugulalarl rly. y

However, if the collective noun is a plural, i.e. crowds, teams, fl ocks,

herds, the verb needs to be plural: TTTThhhhhhee teteamamss of of ccri rickcket eter erss trtrai
herds, the verb needs to be plural:
TTTThhhhhhee teteamamss of
of ccri rickcket
eter
erss trtrai
ainn reregugulalarl rly. y

In a long sentence it is easy to forget the subject and so fail to write

the correct form of the verb, for example: WWa Wa Wa Wa Wayne and Carol, who
the correct form of the verb, for example:
WWa
Wa
Wa
Wa
Wayne and Carol, who used to go to the same school as
GGGGeeorge, was meeting him in town.

If you ignore the subordinate clause (who used to go to the same

school as George) you can see that this is wrong: WWa Waaaa ne andd Ca Carolele
school as George) you can see that this is wrong:
WWa
Waaaa ne andd Ca
Carolele
s meet
etinin
hi
him inin ttown.

As ‘Wayne and Carole’ is plural, i.e. ‘they’, the verb should match

this, i.e. ‘were meeting’.

If in doubt, ask yourself: What is the main subject of this clause/

sentence? Is it singular or plural? Is the verb correct?

ACTIVITY Correct the following sentences to make the verb agree with the subject. There are a
ACTIVITY
Correct the following sentences to make the
verb agree with the subject.
There are a herd of goats in the fi eld.
b The army are fi ghting the enemy.
Various teams of student is competing in
the contest.
The ladies’ group are going to the shops.
e Our parish are supporting that charity.
Select the correct form of the verb for each of
the following sentences.
a The shopkeeper said that imported goods
and local fruit (is/are) never sold in his place.
b When I’m running I feel free, as though all my troubles (is/are) left behind me.
The boy and his mother (searches/search) for his books.
Neither the dog, which is very large, nor the cat, which is very small, (likes/like) to drink water.
e The price of household goods and clothing (is/are) very reasonable in that store and (makes/make) it
very competitive.

1

a

c

d

2

c

d

The boys

for dinner.

 

noun

ACTIVITY

3

c

d

agreement.

Making pronouns match

Pronouns often replace a noun in a sentence and help us to avoid

repetition, for example:

boys went fi shing and they caught several large fi sh

pronoun

The most common types of pronouns are:

• personal pronouns: I/me, you, he/him, she/her, we/us, they/them, it

• possessive pronouns: mine, yours, his, hers, ours, theirs, its.

It is important to make sure that any nouns and pronouns used are in

Correct the following sentences to make the underlined nouns and pronouns agree. a One of the
Correct the following sentences to make the underlined nouns and pronouns agree.
a One of the women selling in the market is well known for their sweet-tasting pineapples.
b When my son came in, I told he to go down to town and see the Court’s celebrations.
The children were crying because they had lost they sweets.
Peter and I put us food in bags and set out on their bikes for the day.
e
It rained at the carnival but she was still a great day out.

Making tenses match

A tense is a verb form that most often indicates time.

English verbs have two basic tenses: past and present.

These can be simple or continuous, for example:

present

I run (simple)

  • I am running (continuous)

past

I ran (simple)

I was running (continuous)

They can also be perfect, for example:

present perfect

I have run

  • I have been running (continuous)

past perfect

I had run

I had been running (continuous)

It is important to make sure that your tenses match within a

sentence, for example:

She

looks

across the fi eld and

 

smiles

at the child who

is playing

happily.

 

The boy

slipped

and

fell

into a ditch because he

was not looking

where he

was going.

The children

had been running

 

for the bus, but they

stopped

when

they

realised

it

was

late.

 

It is possible to mix tenses in the same sentence, but you must always

ACTIVITY 4 Correct the following sentences to make the underlined verbs agree. a As she sat
ACTIVITY
4 Correct the following
sentences to make the
underlined verbs agree.
a As she sat by the window,
she thinks about the days
she had spent on vacation.
b After she had reached
home, my mother begins
to prepare dinner.
c
He sat on top of a covered
well and holds a cold
bottle of Ting in his hand.
d
Facebook was the site on
the internet I love the most
and I am grateful it was
invented.
e
I have live here all my life
so I understand why the
people are doing this.
f
This is once a beautiful
house but now it is just a
ruin.

use the correct form, for example:

past

past

present

When I fi rst came here I went to the local church, but now I go

to the one in town.

Notice how the word ‘now’ indicates the move from the past to the

present.

Future time can be expressed in English in a number of different

ways using ‘will’ or present tenses, for example:

The children will arrive tomorrow.

The children are going to arrive tomorrow.

The children will be arriving tomorrow.

The children are arriving tomorrow.

The children arrive tomorrow.

ACTIVITY
ACTIVITY

5 The following sentences are each written in the future tense.

a His mother is going to tell him off.

b The teacher is setting a test tomorrow.

  • c We will talk when we next meet

  • d There will be a book sale at the shop next week.

How many other ways can you write them in the future tense?

C Writing speech

There are three different ways of recording the spoken word: script,

direct speech and reported speech.

Script

This method is usually used by writers of plays. It may also be used to

write the transcript of a speech or conversation.

The main features of script are shown below:

On the beach as the sun goes down and night is falling.

Tariq: (ang rily turning to face Matthew)

here?

Who told you I’d be

Matthew:

Nobody told me. I just guessed this was where you’d

come. We always used to come here when we were kids. I just

guessed … that’s all.

Tariq: Well we’re not kids anymore. I’ve got nothing to say to

you.

(shrugs and begins to walk away)

Matthew:

(following behind) Wait! There’s something I have to

tell you. Something that puts you in the clear.

Direct speech

ACTIVITY

1 Write your own six to ten

lines of script. Decide:

• where the conversation

will take place

• the names of the two

characters

• what they will say to each

other.

You could base it on

conversations you have had in

school.

Remember to use the main

features shown above in your

writing.

Direct speech is often used in narratives or stories. It may also be used

in newspaper reports. The exact words spoken are still used but they

have to be introduced so that the reader knows what is going on.

Study the use of direct speech in the narrative and work out the

correct answers to the questions that follow it on page 16.

Night was falling on the beach as the sun dipped behind the horizon. Tariq heard a
Night was falling on the beach as the sun dipped behind the
horizon. Tariq heard a sound behind him and turned to face his
old friend Matthew.
‘Who told you I’d be here?’ he asked angrily.
‘Nobody told me,’ Matthew replied. ‘I just guessed this was
where you’d come. We always used to come here when we were
kids. I just guessed … that’s all.’
‘Well,’ Tariq responded, with a softer tone to his voice, ‘we’re not
kids anymore. I’ve got nothing to say to you.’ He shrugged and
started to walk away.
‘Wait!’ Matthew shouted following him determinedly. ‘There’s
something I have to tell you. Something that puts you in the
clear.’
ACTIVITY 2 The spoken words are contained within: 4 Every sentence spoken starts with: a capital
ACTIVITY
2
The spoken words are contained within:
4
Every sentence spoken starts with:
a capital letters
a an exclamation or a full stop
b inverted commas
b a capital letter or inverted commas
c
apostrophes.
c
a new line or a question.
3
Each time someone begins to speak, the writer:
5
Every piece of speech is followed by:
a
leaves a line out
a a question mark
b continues writing on the same line
b an exclamation mark
c
starts a new paragraph.
c
a punctuation mark.
6
Look back at the script you wrote in Activity 1. Rewrite it as narrative.
7
Underline the spoken words in your script and check that you have presented them correctly.
Reported speech
Reported speech, or indirect speech as it is sometimes called, is often
used in offi cial reports and newspaper articles. Reported speech gives
the same information as direct speech, but in a different way.
ACTIVITY
8
Copy and complete this table, rewriting the direct speech as reported speech:
Direct speech
Reported speech
‘Who told you I’d be here?’ he asked angrily.
He was angry and asked who had told him that
he would be there.
‘Nobody told me’, Matthew replied. ‘I just
Matthew replied that nobody had told him and
guessed this was where you’d come. We always
that he had just guessed this was where he
used to come here when we were kids. I just
would be. He reminded him that they always
guessed … that’s all.’
used to go there when they were kids and
repeated that all he had done was guess.
‘Well,’ Tariq responded, with a softer tone to his
voice, ‘we’re not kids anymore. I’ve got nothing
to say to you.’
‘Wait!’ Matthew shouted, following him
determinedly. ‘There’s something I have to tell
you. Something that puts you in the clear.’
As you can see, reported speech requires quite a few changes from direct speech. There are:
• changes of pronouns, for example: nobody told me nobody had told him
• changes of tense, for example: I just guessed he had just guessed
• changes of words to do with time and place, for example: I’d be here he would be there
• changes of verbs, for example: always used to come here always used to go there.
9
Rewrite the direct speech in your own narrative as reported speech. Read it aloud to check that it
makes clear sense.

D

Sentence structures and linking words

Good writers consider how to vary sentence structures and length to

make their writing more diverse and interesting. There are many ways

of doing this.

Look at the following sentences:

John and Sam are close friends. They met at primary school. They are both 15 years
John and Sam are close friends. They met
at primary school. They are both 15 years
old. They both enjoy listening to music.

These simple sentences are very repetitive.

However, as you saw earlier, short sentences

can be built up into longer sentences by using

the conjunction ‘and’. But that too can make

sentences sound very repetitive if used too much:

John and Sam are fi rm friends and

they met at primary school and they are

both 15 years old and they both enjoy

listening to music.

D Sentence structures and linking words Good writers consider how to vary sentence structures and length

However, there are several other ways in which the details in this

sentence could be organised to give emphasis to different points, for

example:

Although John and Sam met at primary school, they are

now 15 and still fi rm friends who enjoy listening to music.

Having met at primary school, John and Sam are fi rm

friends and, both being 15 years old, enjoy listening to

music.

John and Sam, fi rm friends who fi rst met at primary school

and are now 15, enjoy listening to music.

At 15 years old, John and Sam, who met at primary school

and are still fi rm friends, enjoy listening to music.

Experimenting with different sentence structures is one of the best

ways of ensuring that your writing in the examination is varied and

interesting.

ACTIVITY 1 Experiment by rewriting the information contained in the following short sentences in one longer
ACTIVITY
1 Experiment by rewriting the information contained in the
following short sentences in one longer sentence. Try to write
three different longer sentences for each set of sentences, as
in this example:
Swarmi ran for the school team. He came fi rst in the 100
metres. His team mates applauded him.
• Having come fi rst in the 100 metres when running for
the school team, Swarmi was applauded by his team
mates.
• Swarmi’s team mates applauded him because he came
fi rst in the 100 metres when running for the school team.
• When running for the school team, Swarmi came fi rst in
the 100 metres and his team mates applauded him.
a Kylie was crowned carnival queen. She was delighted. She
won a free makeover for her mother.
b Larissa and Kamal went to the park. They sat on a bench.
They talked about their holiday.
c The girl looked through the window. It was dark inside. She
could see a mysterious fi gure.
In order to vary sentences structures you need to be able to:

• vary the order in which you present detail to the reader

• use the right linking words and phrases.

Linking words and phrases have a number of different purposes. ACTIVITY 2 The most widely used
Linking words and phrases have a number of different purposes.
ACTIVITY
2
The most widely used linking words and phrases are listed below. They have a number of different
purposes. Copy the following table and sort the words and phrases according to their purpose. You
will fi nd that two columns contain more words than the others.
Words
Words which
identify a
person or thing
Words which
Words which
Words which
Words which
associated
explain
qualify
develop
allow
with time
after
who
because
if
so that
although
when
in order to
whom
before
because
if
until
who
that
in order
that
unless
while
as
since
although
whose
even if
so that
which
after
3
Choose ten of the linking words or phrases listed above. For each word you choose, write a sentence
containing that word.

There is a link between the length of sentences and the kind of thing

the writer is trying to say in them. Short sentences are usually clear

and to the point. They are ideal for giving instructions. ACTIVITY When you get to the
and to the point. They are ideal for giving instructions.
ACTIVITY
When you
get to the road junction,
which is
4
If you were a motorist, which of the following sets of directions
often very busy, especially at
lunch
would you fi nd most helpful? Explain the reasons for your
hour, you should take a right-
choice.
hand turn. You’ll pass
some shops
a
and a supermarket and possibly
bank before you get to
some traffi c
At the
lights about
road
junction
200 metres along the
road. When you get to
turn
right.
Proceed
these traffi c
lights turn left
for
about
metres.
and continue driving
As
soon
as
you
pass
some more
along this road through
the
traffi
lights,
busy streets
with lots of
shops and
turn
left.
c 200 Continue
After about
some business centres.
for
approximately
2 kilometres you’ll come to the city
kilometres.
Pass
the
park, which
is where all the main
city
park.
The
school
parades start. Go a little bit further
you
are
looking
for
2 is
and you’ll fi nd the
on past this park
school set back a bit
left-hand
immediately
on
your
on the
left.
side of the road.
5
Using short sentences, write a set of clear directions for
how to get from your home to another place you know well.
1.4 Punctuation
1.4 Punctuation
1.4
Punctuation
LEARNING OUTCOMES In this section you will:
LEARNING OUTCOMES
In this section you will:

• work out why we use

punctuation when we write

• revise how to use a wide

range of punctuation marks

• practise using a range

of punctuation marks

appropriately.

A The basics

We do not use punctuation when we speak, so why do we need to

use punctuation when we write? Read the extract below and work

out some answers to this question.

thesunsetslowlyoverthedistantdeepblueoceanschontalwatchedit

wistfullybeforeslowlyrisingfromherchairontheverandaandmoving

insideshewasstruckimmediatelybythecooloftheairconsystemitbreathed

newlifeintoherandtoldhertohurryandpreparetheeveningmealasher

childrenwouldsoonbearriving.

You have probably worked out that when we speak we use:

• pauses to separate words and sentences

• tone to give emphasis to questions and exclamations.

When we write we need to:

• leave spaces between words so the reader can see clearly where

one word ends and another starts

• use punctuation to help the reader make sense of what we have

written – without punctuation, it is almost impossible for a reader

to follow what we have written.

You are now going to revise and practise how to punctuate sentences

A

Z

using:

• capital letters

• full stops

• question marks

• exclamation marks

• semicolons.

Capital letters

Capital letters are used for a range of different reasons:

• At the start of each sentence: The lady stopped and put her bag

down. She looked around her with a puzzled expression. This town

had changed so much.

• For the personal pronoun I.

• For the fi rst letter of proper nouns (people’s names, place names,

names of days and months): On Tuesday Clarence will see Karen

and he’ll ask her if she’s coming to the dance in June.

• For the fi rst letter of titles of people and organisations: They asked

the Principal, Mr Jameson, to attend the meeting of the Voluntary

Association Committee.

• At the beginning of a new piece of direct speech: Angrily, he

replied, ‘They didn’t tell us where they were going.’

• For the main words in titles of books, plays, games, fi lms, etc. His

favourite book is The Cay and his favourite fi lm is The Lord of the

Rings. ACTIVITY 1 The following extract has all the correct punctuation apart from capital letters. Rewrite
Rings.
ACTIVITY
1
The following extract has all the correct punctuation apart from capital letters. Rewrite the extract
placing capital letters where needed.
hindus in trinidad celebrate the lesser-known
religious festival of ganga dashara in ‘youthful
stages’ of the marianne river in the month of
june. devotees spend the day paying homage
to several hindu deities, the most important
being ganga ma, the river goddess who
brought water to the earth.
a second religious river festival known as
oshun takes place in august at the mouth of
the salybia river in balandra. this orisha festival
is similar to ganga dashara in many ways.
2
Twenty capital letters were needed to correct
the extract. Check your work and see if you identifi ed them all. If not, try again.

Full stops

The main use of a full stop is to mark the end of a sentence:

.

The alley was dark and narrow and full of shadows. The

children crept nervously through it.

If you do not use full stops to punctuate sentences correctly, readers

will fi nd it very diffi cult to follow what you have written.

ACTIVITY 3 The following paragraph contains six sentences. The sentences have no capital letters at the
ACTIVITY
3
The following paragraph contains six sentences. The sentences have no capital letters at the start
and no full stops at the end of them. Read the paragraph through fi rst to make sense of it and
to identify the six sentences.
leeches are segmented worms with a sucker at each end forest species hang by their rear sucker
when a victim brushes past, they catch hold using the front sucker and start feeding leeches that feed
on humans are common in rainforests in India they come out during the monsoon leeches usually fall
off after feeding, but can attach themselves inside the nostrils of animals and, more rarely, to people
who drink from streams
BBC Wildlife Magazine, April 2006
4
Now rewrite the paragraph using capital letters and full stops in the correct places.
5
Read your punctuated version aloud. It should make clear sense. If it does not, you need to rethink
where you have placed your punctuation marks.

Question marks and exclamation marks

There are two other punctuation marks that can be used at the end

of a sentence.

  • The question mark is used to mark the end of a question: How old are you? Who is that girl sitting at the back?

  • The exclamation mark is used to show expression and it is a command/imperative. It also marks the end of a sentence: Get out now!

!

The exclamation mark may also be used at the end of an

interjection: Oh no!

ACTIVITY 6 Decide which of the following sentences should end in a full stop, a question
ACTIVITY
6 Decide which of the following sentences should end in a full
stop, a question mark or an exclamation mark and rewrite the
paragraph.
Ha
Have you ever read a book you just couldn’t put down —
Well, if not, you need to try Smokescreen — It’s the action
book with everything needed to keep you on the edge of your
seat until the very last page — Like all the other books in this
seseries, this one’s a winner — Read it now —

Semicolons

;

The semicolon can be used to take the place of a full stop

between sentences that are closely linked in meaning, for

example: The fi rst book was more interesting, with tales of

mystery and adventure; the second one was just plain boring.

;

The semicolon may also be used to separate items in a list,

when the items are too long to be separated by commas: The

class raised the grand total by staging a wide range of events:

a sponsored run through the centre of town; daily cake stalls

throughout November; a book sale in the church hall; and, to their

teachers’ great delight, a sponsored silence.

The use of the semicolon is often very subtle. Look out for it in your

general reading and make a note of how different writers use it.

B Commas and brackets

Commas to separate items on a list

When you are writing lists in a sentence you need to separate

the items with commas. The fi nal comma before the ‘and’ is

usually left out. For example:

If you ever explore this area you fi nd you can go swimming in the

warm ocean, play football on the green, visit a range of exciting

shops and eat the most delicious foods.

ACTIVITY 1 Copy the
ACTIVITY
1 Copy the

following sentences. Place commas between the

items in the lists to make the sentences easier to follow.

a He opened the bag warily and inside found a crumpled note

a rusty key some foreign coins a faded photograph and a

suspicious-looking parcel.

b Anti-virus software is provided to protect computers against

infected fi les provide support systems and automatically

update virus defi nitions.

Commas to mark off extra information

When you give extra information about something or

,

somebody, you use commas to separate it from the main

sentence. For example:

Alf Johnson, 32, claimed he had bought the car the day before.

Mr Johnson, a father of four, was unable to show a receipt and

Judge Benjamin Carr, a most respected member of the Court

of Justice, found him guilty of theft.

ACTIVITY

  • 2 Copy the

following sentences. Underline the words that give

you extra information and put commas around them:

The street watched in wonder when Charlie Sooner

the well-known local hero was up to his tricks again.

This time Charlie 72 climbed a ladder to rescue his

neighbour’s cat. Mrs Elkin Charlie’s neighbour for

27 years had called for help when her cat had chased

a bird up a tree and got stuck. Charlie war veteran

and grandfather of eight didn’t hesitate.

Commas to separate different parts of a sentence

Commas help the reader to make sense of what you have

  • written. They mark a pause, in the same way as we would pause when speaking. Say the following sentence aloud:

Although the bus was late he still got to school on time.

ACTIVITY 1 Copy the following sentences. Place commas between the items in the lists to make

To make clear sense of the sentence, you need to pause after ‘late’.

That is where you place your comma:

Although the bus was late, he still got to school on time.

ACTIVITY 3 Read the
ACTIVITY
3 Read the

following sentences

aloud. Decide where commas

should be placed.

a

He still got to school on

time even though the bus

was late.

b On the other hand there

might be a way to fi x it

safely.

  • c Having set the alarm incorrectly Carl was very late for work.

  • d Before you open the gate make sure the dog is in the kennel.

  • 4 Rewrite the sentences placing the commas correctly.

The best ways to learn how to use commas well are to:

• take notice of how other writers use them

• read your writing aloud, to help you work out where you need to

place the commas.

ACTIVITY 5 Read the following extract from a computer manual. Notice how the commas have been
ACTIVITY
5
Read the following extract from a computer manual. Notice
how the commas have been used to help the reader follow
the meaning.
Your computer can catch a virus from disks, a local network or
the internet. Just as a cold virus attaches itself to a human host,
a computer virus attaches itself to a program. And just like a
cold, it is contagious. Like viruses, worms replicate themselves.
However, instead of spreading from fi le to fi le, they spread from
computer to computer, infecting an entire system.
6
Write a passage that could be used in a manual or guide. It
can be based on a thing or a place that you know something
about. Aim to write 60–70 words and use sentences that need
commas.

Brackets

()

Brackets may also be used to separate a section of writing

from the main text so as not to disrupt the fl ow of the

sentence. For example:

Ki Ki Ki Ki Kingston, the capital of Jamaica, is situated on the rich plains of
Ki
Ki
Ki
Ki
Kingston,
the capital of Jamaica, is situated on the rich plains of
Liguanea (an ancient Arawak Indian name pronounced Lig-a-nee)
between the cays and banks of the eastern coast and the mighty
Bl
BB ue Mountains.
Bl
IIII arrived late for the bus (by more than thirty minutes) but, due totoooo tthtthe rains,
IIII arrived late for the bus (by more than thirty minutes) but, due totoooo
tthtthe rains, it still had not arrived.

C Apostrophes and inverted commas

Apostrophes

’

The apostrophe has two uses:

• to show where one or more letters have been missed out

(omission)

• to show that something belongs to someone or something

(possession).

Using apostrophes for omission

’

Instead of saying I am, we often use the shortened form of

I’m, missing out the letter a. The apostrophe is used in

writing to show that a letter or letters have been missed out.

we are were

is not isnt

they have theyve

cannot cant

The apostrophe is placed in the exact spot where the missing letter

or letters would have appeared.

ACTIVITY 1 Copy and complete the following. it is _________ John is _________ they are ------------
ACTIVITY
1
Copy and complete the following.
it is _________
John is _________
they are ------------
they would _________
I have
I will _________
should not ------------
we have _________
2
Copy and complete the following message. Use apostrophes to shorten the underlined words.
I would really like to join you on your birthday. Unfortunately, I have a meeting
planned for the same date. Hopefully, I will be able to leave a bit early so it should
not be too late to meet up with you. It will be good to see you again. Hope you are
keeping well and have not had too many problems with work.
3
There are a few commonly used words that do not follow the normal rule. You need to learn these.
will not becomes won’t
shall not becomes shan’t

Using apostrophes for omission

We rarely say the house of my friend. We would be more

likely to say my friend’s house. In this case the apostrophe is

used to show that the house belongs to the friend. The friend

is the possessor. Where you place the apostrophe depends on

whether the possessor is singular or plural.

Singular

Plural, ending in s

Plural, not ending

in s

When the possessor

When the possessor

When the possessor

is singular, as in the

is plural and already

is plural but does not

case of Paul, the

ends in an s, we just

end in an s, we add

apostrophe is placed

add an apostrophe.

an apostrophe and

after the word and

an s.

an s is added.

For example: the

For example: the

For example: the

friend of Paul

school of the girls

children of the men

Paul’s friend

the girlsschool

the men’s children

ACTIVITY 4
ACTIVITY
4

Copy and complete the following:

a the daughter of the woman ____________________________

b the football kits of the boys ____________________________

  • c the homes of the women ____________________________

  • d the passengers of the boat ____________________________

e the staffroom of the teachers ____________________________

f the toys of the children ____________________________

It is important to remember that the possessive words yours, his,

hers, its, ours, theirs are not written with an apostrophe. The word

it’s should only have an apostrophe when it is being used as the

shortened form of it is.

ACTIVITY 5 The following passage should contain seven apostrophes to show possession. Rewrite the passage putting
ACTIVITY
5 The following passage should contain seven apostrophes to
show possession. Rewrite the passage putting the apostrophes
in the correct places.
Abduls mother told him not to go to Muhammeds
house at all during the weeks holiday. However,
while she was at work, he borrowed his brothers bike
and went straight there. There was no one in, though
the younger childrens toys were still out on the
lawn. Abduls window was open and Muhammed
climbed in through it, intending to wait for him.
Unfortunately for Muhammed, he was spotted by
the neighbours dog and then by the neighbour …

Inverted commas

‘’

You have already revised how to use inverted commas in

direct speech. Look back to pages 15–16 to refresh your

memory.

The second main use for inverted commas is when a writer is quoting

from another text, for example: The recipe instructed the chef to ‘stir

in the spices’.

Study the use of inverted commas for quotation by completing the

following activities.

ACTIVITY 6 Read the advert for holidays in Barbados. The place for you! Barbados is a
ACTIVITY
6
Read the advert for holidays in Barbados.
The place for you!
Barbados is a small but beautiful island with stunning beaches, friendly
people, much to see and do, a serene atmosphere, and some of the best
Caribbean resorts available.
Looking for an island for your Caribbean honeymoon? In Barbados
you will nd the best Caribbean resorts for your romantic getaway.
Choose from the many Barbados resorts and hotels that offer Caribbean
honeymoon and wedding packages.
Whether it’s for a Caribbean honeymoon, a family vacation or a group
holiday, resorts in Barbados have the ideal accommodation for you.
Let us help you nd the perfect Barbados resort for your Caribbean
holiday! Use our Barbados hotels search or select one of our Caribbean
vacation packages with a choice of several hotels on the Caribbean.
www.barbados.org/HotelsandResorts.htm
7
Now study the extract below, from a student’s writing about the advertisement. The annotations help
you to understand how to quote correctly from a text.
Quotation marks
are placed
before and
after the words
taken from the
advertisement.
The writer targets the reader directly by using the
word ‘you’ at the close of the title. The reader is shown
that Barbados is suitable for different types of
holidays, ranging from ‘a Caribbean honeymoon’
to a ‘group holiday’. The appeal to different groups is
emphasised in the offer of ‘ideal’ accommodation for
all. The advertiser reveals its function in the sentence:
More than one
quotation can
be used in the
same sentence.
A quotation can
be used to give
emphasis to a
particular word
or phrase.
‘Let us help you fi nd the perfect Barbados resort for
your Caribbean holiday!’
A colon can
be used to
introduce
a longer
quotation.
8
Copy the following g
passage, which
is also about the
advertisement.
Add inverted
commas and
a colon where
needed.
The opening list with its stunning beaches, friendly people,
much to see and do is designed to tempt the reader. The notion
that this is the best place to go to is emphasised by the use of the
word perfect. It is recommended as a romantic location through
its direct appeal to newly weds Looking for an island for your
Caribbean honeymoon? The directives use and select further
target and persuade the reader.
1.5 Paragraphing
1.5 Paragraphing
1.5
Paragraphing
LEARNING OUTCOMES In this section you will:
LEARNING OUTCOMES
In this section you will:

• use topic sentences to

help you to identify what a

paragraph is about

• learn how to link ideas within

and between sentences in a

paragraph

• decide on a logical order for

a series of paragraphs

• learn how to link paragraphs

• learn how to plan for

paragraphing.

A What is a paragraph?

Most writing is organised into paragraphs. This helps the reader to

follow more easily the points being made. Each paragraph marks a

new stage or idea in the writing. In handwritten texts a new paragraph

is usually signalled by the writer starting a new line about an inch in

from the margin. In typed texts a writer sometimes leaves a line out.

The fi rst sentence of a paragraph is sometimes called the topic

sentence. It often gives you a clue as to what the paragraph is going

to be about. Read ‘A Star is Born’ on page 29 and use the topic

sentences to help you identify what each paragraph is about.

Sentence order

Sentences should follow a logical order within a paragraph. Here is a

sentence breakdown of the fi rst paragraph of the passage:

Sentence 1 – statement about Rihanna’s childhood

Sentence 2 – information about her birth

Sentence 3 – information about her parents

Sentence 4 – information about the school she attended when

her parents split up

Sentence 5 – information about her interest in music at this time

As you can see, there is a logical order in the way the details are

given to the reader.

As well as having a logical order, the sentences of a paragraph must

be coherently linked. Highlighting parts of the sentences can help you

1.5 Paragraphing LEARNING OUTCOMES In this section you will: • use topic sentences to help you

to see the connections between sentences. The highlighted parts of

the following paragraph show you the connections of ideas within

and between sentences. There was nothing too unusual about Rihanna’s childhood. She was born as Robyn
and between sentences.
There was nothing too unusual about Rihanna’s childhood. She was born
as Robyn Rihanna Fenty on 20 February 1988 in the Parish of St Michael,
Barbados. Her father Ronald was Bajan and her mother, Monica, was
Guyanese ; they split when Rihanna was fourteen . At the time she was
attending the Combermere High School in Waterford, St Michael. She
always enjoyed singing to friends and family and it was at about this time
that she formed a musical group with a couple of her classmates.
ACTIVITY
ACTIVITY

1 Look again at the paragraph above. List:

• all the direct references to Rihanna

• all references to the time when her parents split up.

ACTIVITY 2 Now copy the second paragraph from the 3 Write a coherent paragraph about yourself
ACTIVITY
2 Now copy the second paragraph from the
3
Write a coherent paragraph about yourself
passage below. Track the references to the
that could be included in a biography.
highlighted words through the paragraph and
Remember that ideas:
highlight them.
• need to follow a logical order
• should make links within and between
Things changed for the young Rihanna in December
2003. A friend introduced her to Evan Rogers, a music
producer from New York City who was on holiday in
Barbados. From that point on, she never looked back.
Together with Rogers, and co-producer Carl Sturken,
she produced a demo CD containing twelve songs.
The demo disc was sent to various record labels and
people in the music industry and eventually it led to
her signing a deal with the label Def Jam Recordings.
sentences.
4
Highlight the links you have made within your
paragraph.
A Star is Born There was nothing too unusual about Rihanna’s childhood. She was born as
A Star is Born
There was nothing too
unusual about Rihanna’s
childhood. She was born as
Robyn Rihanna Fenty on 20
February 1988 in the Parish
of St Michael, Barbados.
Her father Ronald was
Bajan and her mother,
Monica, was Guyanese;
they split when Rihanna
was fourteen. At the time
she was attending the
Combermere High School
in Waterford, St Michael.
She always enjoyed singing
to friends and family and
it was at about this time
that she formed a musical
group with a couple of her
classmates.
her to Evan Rogers, a music
producer from New York
City who was on holiday in
Barbados. From that point
on, she never looked back.
Together with Rogers, and
co-producer Carl Sturken,
she produced a demo CD
containing twelve songs.
The demo disc was sent to
various record labels and
people in the music industry
and eventually it led to her
signing a deal with the label
Def Jam Recordings.
second album entitled A
Girl Like Me was released.
It turned platinum and its
rst single, ‘SOS’, topped
the charts, with a second
entitled ‘Unfaithful’ also
becoming an international
hit.
★ ★ ★
★ ★ ★
★ ★ ★
Things changed for the
young Rihanna in December
2003. A friend introduced
Success was soon to follow.
In August 2005, the Def Jam
label launched Rihanna’s
debut album entitled
Music of the Sun which
made number 10 on the
US Billboard 200 chart. In
less than a year, Rihanna’s
In her short time at the top
Rihanna has sold millions
of albums all over the world
and has been awarded a
number of titles including
‘World’s Best Pop Selling
Female Artist’ in 2007’s
World Music Awards and
‘Favorite Pop/Rock Female
Artist’ in 2008’s American
Music Awards. In 2008 she
also received her very rst
Grammy Award: ‘Best Rap/
Sung Collaboration’ for her
single ‘Umbrella’. Rihanna
has been con rmed for this
year’s edition of the famous
Rock in Rio festival. The
event is one of the biggest
music festivals in the world
and will take place in Rio de
Janeiro, Brazil.

B Ordering and linking paragraphs

As you have seen, you need to organise your ideas in a logical order

within a paragraph. The paragraphs themselves also need to be

sequenced in a logical order.

ACTIVITY 1 A journalist is writing an article entitled ‘Tourism in the Caribbean’. Below is a
ACTIVITY
1 A journalist is writing an article entitled ‘Tourism in the
Caribbean’. Below is a list of the seven different areas he
intends to cover in seven paragraphs. Decide the best order
for him to cover these areas.
1234567
a The importance of tourism to the Caribbean economy
b Why tourists come to the Caribbean
c
How tourism can be improved
d
Problems created by tourism
e Popular tourist destinations
f What the local people say about tourists
g The history of tourism in the Caribbean

As you will have realised, there are a number of different ways in which

these paragraphs could be organised logically. The journalist fi nally

decided to place his fi rst four paragraphs in the following order:

• The history of tourism in the Caribbean

• Why tourists come to the Caribbean

• Popular tourist destinations

• The importance of tourism to the Caribbean economy

Having a paragraph outline made the writing easier. As the journalist

was not using subheadings, he then had to ensure that his paragraphs

were linked in a logical way. While each paragraph moves the reader on

to a new area, the paragraphs are linked by their opening sentences.

ACTIVITY 2 Read the
ACTIVITY
2 Read the

four paragraphs written by the

journalist on the next page.

  • 3 Correctly match the following annotations to the opening sentence of each paragraph.

• Refers to tourists of the past and today

• Refers to tourists of the past

• Refers to tourists of today and tourists of

the future

• Refers to tourists of today

4 The journalist still has three paragraphs to

write. They are about:

• how tourism can be improved

• problems created by tourism

• what the local people say about tourists.

Write an appropriate opening sentence for

each of these paragraphs.

Tourism in the Caribbean Tourists have been coming to sample the delights While early tourists favoured
Tourism in the Caribbean
Tourists have been coming to sample the delights
While early tourists favoured islands according
of the Caribbean for over 200 years. The Bath
to their nationality, with the English visiting Nevis,
Hotel on the island of Nevis opened in 1778, the
Barbados and Jamaica, and the French heading
nearby hot springs
for Martinique, today’s
being one of its main
tourist is more likely to
attractions for foreign
pick an island for what it
visitors, and by the late
offers, rather than for its
nineteenth century the
historical associations.
Caribbean was a popular
Many visit Barbados for
destination for the
its beaches, while the
wealthy and those with
waterfalls of Dominica
the time to make the
draw a wide range of
journey. However, it was
visitors, as does the Blue
not until the advent of
Hole of Belize. Scuba
regular non-stop international airplane fl ights in
divers often head to Turks and Caicos, while those
the 1960s that the market started to open up to the
in search of romance, and even a wedding, might
less rich, but equally adventurous, ‘common man’.
head for St Lucia.
Today, millions of tourists visit the Caribbean
With visitor numbers being so high, tourism
each year. They come both by air and by sea, some
clearly plays an important part in the Caribbean
staying for just a few hours as they hop from island
economy. For countries such as Antigua and
to island. The attractions of the islands remain as
Barbuda, and the Virgin Islands, tourism is the
they always were: warm seas; dazzling coral reefs;
biggest contributor, and it is not just the tour
beautiful beaches; stunning sunsets; and, of course,
operators and hoteliers who make money.
a warm and welcoming people. Visitors come to
Farmers, fi shermen, merchants and those in the
experience the frenzy of the carnival, the trials and
construction trade all benefi t from the steady
triumphs of the
stream of people with money to spend. However,
golf course and
there is a negative side in that the Caribbean is
the never-ending
particularly susceptible to the fortunes of the
array of delicious
world economy, though concern is growing as to
foods.
what will happen if the visitors stop coming.

C Planning for paragraphs

The writer of the article about tourism in the Caribbean found it

helpful to have an outline of what he wanted to write about in each

paragraph. Before you can develop a paragraph plan, you need to

think about your subject and gather ideas connected with it.

Take, for example, the following task:

inform
inform

Write an article for a school magazine in which you

students and parents

other

about a recent school event.

Start by identifying

the purpose

(what you are hoping to achieve)

and

the audience

(who you are writing for) and highlight these in the

question.

The next step is to make a note of ideas connected with the subject.

Staff/pupils – auditions

and rehearsals

Singing/dancing/

magic/comedy – worst

and best acts – votes for

best act

Judges – no teachers

– community

leaders

You could list these or use a spidergram, as shown below.

7 p.m. on 6 June – parents

come – everyone very

nervous

Hall packed –

tickets $2

Talent contest

Money going to support

school sports teams

Principal speech at

start – applause at

end – everyone happy

Once you have ideas, they need to be grouped and put in order. You

could use four headings your ideas, for example:

Paragraph 1 – preparations Paragraph 2 – performances Paragraph 3 – judging Paragraph 4 – success
Paragraph 1 – preparations
Paragraph 2 – performances
Paragraph 3 – judging
Paragraph 4 – success

Each paragraph heading can now be used as a ‘hook’ on which to

hang your ideas, and you may think of new ideas to add. For example:

Thirdly …

As well as

Similarly …

However …

Nevertheless …

Finally …

Notwithstanding …

As a

direct consequence of this …

Firstly …

In contrast to ...

• Preparations: auditions and rehearsals – 7 p.m. on 6 June school

hall – parents come – Principal’s speech

• Performances: everyone very nervous – singing/dancing/magic/

comedy – worst and best acts

• Judging: judges – no teachers – community leaders – votes for

best act – tension – winner

• Success: hall packed – applause at end – everyone happy – tickets

$2 – $300 raised for school sports teams

ACTIVITY

  • 1 Choose one of the following writing tasks. • Write an article for your local newspaper advising parents

on the most effective ways of dealing with their teenage

children.

• ‘Jewellery should not be allowed in schools.’ Write an essay

giving your views on this subject.

• Write a letter to an aunt who has been living in the US

for the past 20 years and is visiting you and your family.

Describe the place you live in and tell her of your plans for

her visit.

  • 2 Identify your audience and purpose.

  • 3 Draw a spidergram and put down as many ideas as you can connected with your subject.

  • 4 Decide on four paragraph headings under which to group your ideas.

  • 5 Sort your ideas according to these paragraph headings, adding new ideas if you have them.

Linking words

As you saw on Activity 3 on page 30, writers sometimes link

paragraphs through the topic sentences. It is also possible to make

connections between paragraphs by using a range of linking words

and phrases. Here are some words and phrases that are useful for

linking paragraphs.

Secondly …

Furthermore …

With regard to …

This does not mean that …

LINK Look back at page 18. Make
LINK
Look back at page 18. Make

a list of the linking words and

phrases given to you there.

Add the words and phrases

provided here to that list and

learn them all.

1.6 Putting it all together
1.6 Putting it all together
1.6
Putting it all together
LEARNING OUTCOMES ACTIVITY In this section you will: 1 Word choice Rewrite the following paragraph by
LEARNING OUTCOMES
ACTIVITY
In this section you will:
1
Word choice
Rewrite the following paragraph by changing and adding words
• review your learning in this
to show you have a wide range of vocabulary.
unit
• complete a piece of extended
We were waiting for the bus when it arrived. The driver took
writing
us to the bus station in town. When we got there we decided
• complete an extension
to go to the shops. Having spent about two hours shopping,
activity.
we decided to meet up with some other friends. They met us
in town. The fi rst thing we did was go back to their house
to drop off our bags as they were so heavy. Then we set off
back to town. We stopped at a café and had some lunch
before going on to the market. There were lots of things to see
there, including a really good toy stall where I bought my
Christmas presents for all my nephews and nieces.
2
Word order
In the following paragraphs, the writer has made several errors
with subject/verb agreement, use of pronouns and use of tenses.
Rewrite the paragraphs, correcting the errors.
I’ve been interested in running ever since I was about
10 and watch Usain Bolt winning three gold medals
in the Beijing Olympics. I fi nd that running are
a great way to keep fi t and lose weight. You don’t
need to have the proper running shoes or clothes to
go running though they does help. I only wears my
Puma trainers for running so that me don’t wear
them out too quickly.
Since I start running, I’ve joined a club and now
have a coach and my times is really improving.
He make us work hard but she worth it. Last week I
ran my personal best in the 200 metres. When me
running me feel free, as though all me troubles is
left behind and I don’t need to worry about anything
anymore. My mother’s also very happy about it. Her
says it keep me out of trouble!
  • 3 Paragraphing

Look back at the paragraph plan you made on page 33. You are

now going to use it to help you write four paragraphs on your

chosen essay title. Remember to:

• write for purpose and audience

• use similes and metaphors if appropriate

• vary your vocabulary

• vary your sentence structures

• write in organised and linked paragraphs

  • 4 Punctuation

The following paragraph has been written without punctuation.

Copy it and punctuate it correctly.

the future holds many dreams and many worries for all of us i dont

know any student who knows what he or she wants to do on

leaving school do you theres a part of me which would just like to

forget about getting qualifi cations and a job and travel the world

however i know that if i did that my mum would kill me and my

aunty sarah would probably never talk to me again mr sweeney

my geography teacher thinks i should try to become a surveyor

and i think i might enjoy that id need good grades in my exams so

that I could go on and study further

• use punctuation accurately to help your reader follow your ideas.

Extension Punctuation … An ellipsis is a form of punctuation. It appears as three dots following
Extension
Punctuation
An ellipsis is a form of punctuation. It appears as three
dots following a word.
An ellipsis may be used in the middle of a quotation to indicate
that some words have been left out, for example:
The Minister said that, despite the current economic
depression, ‘the signs with regard to employment and
overseas sales … were promising for future security’.
Some writers may use an ellipsis at the end of a story to suggest
that something is about to happen, for example:
The boy turned sharply. He knew now what lay behind that
dark and threatening door. Slowly, he turned the key …
At other times they may use it in the middle of a story to mark
a pause in the action or the passage of a period of time, for
example:
All was quiet in the homestead as the sun set behind the
distant mountains …
Day broke and with it came the cries of the children.
Look out for the use of the ellipsis when you are reading. Collect
examples of it being used effectively and experiment with using
it occasionally in your own writing.
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for CSEC

®

A Caribbean Examinations Council® Study Guide

Developed exclusively with the Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC®), this study guide will

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Engaging activities to transfer theory into practice and extend understanding

Links to illustrate where skills are shared between topics.

Examination-style practice questions to build confi dence ahead of your examinations

This comprehensive self-study package includes a fully interactive CD, containing multiple-

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