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"il ,lr'
{--l,rrr¡ ri f¡f"i':--ü
its oi,S : 0.8
: 0.5 ¡,um is
i¿r difli'acted

Frlnpcig*lms ffi$
FHher ffig$frrw


If, ln Figure


=- 0.6





This chapir-r tliscusses li¡¡ht pi'opagation in a step-index fiber. Total internal
reflection, lvhich is ihe basic underlyi:rg principle, and some details of lighb
propagation in fiber arr prescnted, in,:luding the rnodes of'p",:opagar-ion, the
angle of propagation. end the acceptance angle. An important term, numerical
aperture, which is connected to the rel¿..tiv+: r'efractive index dift'erence
between cor,: and cladding, is discussetl. You will be able to c¡.rlculate thesc
p.arameters numerically and be introtiuced^ to the relarions among t,he
nurnerical erperture, t're line width, ancl ttre data rate of the fiber.

Iiigure 3-1 iltustrat,rs r step-index liber. In this fiber the refractive index
changes in step fashion, from ihe cente,- of thr: 6ber, the core, to the outer shell,
the claddirrg. It is high in the core and lo';er in the clndding. The ligtrt in the
liber prtrpagates by bouncing back anci fc:th from the core-cladding interface.
sses between

?o sinrplify the Ciscussion of ¡:rt:¡:;lgation, you will use ray-tracing
techniques. That is, yott will follow a sample ray through the fiber. Mostlv, you
rvill assume that the sample ray passe$ ,, rrough the center of the fiber. Such
rays are called meridional rays. Section 3-2-3 briefly covers nonmeridional,
rtr skeu'rays.
The ray pr:opagating in the fiber must be launched into the fiber at one
end. The condit.ions necessary to inject ;iuch rar*s efficiently rlepend on the fiber


ü' n,

will propagate in the fiber. Again. Note that 0r) 0". An incident ray with an angle larger than a. between air and the core. At interface A.-Clatlding index n.42 Chapter 3 structure. in fJ Ch¡ EXAMPLI Total Internal Reflection Find A typical step-index frber is shown in Figure 3-1. Light propagation in a step-index fiber.. At point B'. closer to the center line. light errteri propagatior 3-2-2 l\ All rays wi electronrtrg ray is prop propagate i propagatin¡ propagatior . 0r. nf girren in Jilx (single-rnod shallow ¡tn< and is c()nfi. This ray is not confi.-Launch angle that becomes Claclding 0.ber. However.. as it exits the fiber at the cladding-air interface. refraction takes place at point A.ned and does not propagate through the fiber" Nów. Rays with propagation angles larger than f. The ray then gets to the core-cladding interface at point B. and the ray continues at a smaller angle.l" will not propagate. For convenience. where the index for the cladding is n2 and for the core is n1). in e Solution The r¿ incident. Follow the dashed ray first (the dashed line). total internal reflection occurs. to 0" and 0. as well as on the characteristics of the light source. Finally. : Sin-L (nrln). the core-cladding interface.l' 0" increases l. follow the second ray (the solid line).. 0n) 0r. refraction takes place. Note that in communication applications the power introduced into the fiber is typically 10-100 ¡^cW with a light-emitting diode (LED) source and approximately 1 mW with a laser s_ource. From Equation 2--Lla. ----É 7 Index profile FIGURE 3_ J- . that is.-Launch angle-unconfined ray FIGURE LT t-. Or. refraction takes place and the ray bends and continues in the cladding. this time the ray leaves the fiber. d. C as 0" It is importr travels fi'on 3_2 LIGHT PROPAGATION 3-?-l The angle f/. The critical ray (the solid line) in Figure 3-1 makes an angle 0" with the fiber center. Two rays are shown in Figure 3-1. One (the solid line) is injected at a lower angle than is the other (the dashed line). the ray bends again. and that 01ray exits the fiber and is not confined to the fiber. assume that the angle of incidence at the core-cladding interface is the critical angle and call it a" (a specific case of 0" in Equation z-lL for a fi. ) n. This ray is confined to the fiber core. at point C. Again.

l) r. iVlode Propagation All rays with angles less than 0" will propagate in the fiber.0.2are the angles of incidence of the ligtrt entering the fiber'.'r¡'ith t¡e not propagabe.r[€ : Solution ai'e shown in tn is the other that. and g" and 01 arc the corresponding angles of light. on l. and gr. propagating at at. The :fi'ar:tion takes the ray bends rt C. ¡riace.. The angles 0¿1 and 0"rin Figure 3-1 are not equal to 0. 0r.Ll.43 and cos 0.. . Note that in er is typically imately 1 rnW 0.7". Light Propagation is not the same here (3-1) It is important to note that total internal reflection can occur only when light travels from high index to low index media.1 (É/. : n2ln.- Core I I I f- _!'. These rays are referred to as modes of propagation. From the geometry. . these r'¿iys propagate at dibtinct angles. other rays will propagate at distinct angles below 11. gie fl. The 0" depends on nrln1. is called the critical propagation angle in Chapter 2).es place nral reflection js:rrJ.43 11. and 9. However. 0" of about 12' is very shollow and requires special care in launching to make sure the light enters and is confined to the fiber.)": 1. and the > 0t .401L. On the basis of electrr¡ntagnr-'tic theory. +ó . 3-?-2 r ttre fiber. the agL¡ ¡nfl call n"¡. is incitlent at the core-cladding interface at a": 90 .¿ it r inriex for: the = sin--L qnrlnl'). The angle as d" sin a. and 03.7o The ray propagating at the critical angle. Figure 3-2 shows three distinót rays. The total number of modes propagating in the fiber increases as ll."and0¡.ed to the fiber'.3o. EXAIVIPLE 3_1 Find 0" in a fiber with n"nru: 1. '. and does not :.?".02.. It turns out \ \ t I il . increases. The values given in Example 3-1 are typical for step-index fibers used in communication (single-mode fibers have shallower critical angles).40.7'in Example 3-1. 0" : I1. : cos 0.. propagaüion inside the fiber. 1.7 : 78.nrlnr: (. If the critical ra-v is propagating at 02 : 11. lndex protile }-IGLIRE I ¡ t I -T 3-2 Three propagation mocles: 01. as in the Example 3-1.3-2 . as does the number of modes. (see Section 3-2-4).

. In Figure 3-3(c). . those with propagation angles close to the critical angle d". The high-or. It is most efficient to avoid the situations shown in Figure 3-3(a) and 3--3(c). It is common to distinguish between high-order modes. o. This energy is ultimately lost. particularly at fiber Each mode is carrying ih the fiber. Note that n takes place C. Figure 3-3(b) shows a light source that couples the light at shallow angles. (b) Low-order modes. FIGUITII } macrobend.44 Chapter 3 that the total number of modes increases as the relative refractive index difference (n.der modes tend to send light energy into the cladding. those with propagation angles much lower than the critical angle. This means that the distribution of light energy among the modes is relatively constant from there on.and low-order modes. This tends to cause losses.'io*-orá. n Mode bends. (c) Off axis launch: high-order modes. If the light source to fiber connectián causes a large part of the light energy to be coupled to the fiber at relatively large angles. the light source is misaligned aná tends to set up higher and leaky modes. high-order modes will be set up (Figure 3-3(a)). Whether the light energy propagates mostly in high-order modes. and low-order modes.r modes. larg shows whar When the larger thar critical anE a leaky mo angle 02 is. The mode distribution (the relative amount of energy carried by each mode) initially set up in the fiber is substantially altered by mode coupling (or mode conversion). Mode Conversion (Mode Coupling). Light source FIGURE 3-3 (c) Production of high. particularly at fiber bends. and thus low-order modes are set up and energy loss is reduced. (a) High-order modes. The mode distribution after about 1 or 2 km of fiber reaches what is called a steady-state mode distribution. The incir conversion sions to hi¡ Light source It is st a short fibe fibel is prr Narrow beam (b) mixing blc FIGURE 3microbends. increases. puiticular mix of modes " of the rays entering the depends on launch conditions (the angle of incidence fiber end) and on the extent-that mode coupling (the transfer of light energ-y from one mode to another) takes place.

0z' ) 02. mode distribution remains relatively unchanged. The sandpaper introduces indentations in the fiber and causes a light source rdes are set up aisaligned and . When the ray with angle ó)1 reaches point A.r at relatively This tends to carrying its fair share of light. to avoid the tribution r (the irr the fiber is rwhat is called bution of light Each mode is ::--. this angle is assumed to be larger than 0" (the critical angle). those lhe high-order ¡ is ultimately :gy propagates srix of modes s entering the :f light energy ber connection . Figure 3-4 shows what happens to two rays as they pass through a macrobend in the fiber. is converted to a higher-order mode 02' due to the bend. its propagation angle becomes larger than 0¡. Low-ortler mode ü¡n =t Q.) Figure 3-b shows mode conversion caused by a srnall indentation in the fiber. a microbend.3-2 FIGURE ractive index 3-4 Light Propagation Effects of 45 Rny in cladtling macrobend.) Mode coupling (the conversion of one mode to another) is caused by fiber bends. see what happens to a ray incident at point C. Here. and the ray exits the fiber. macrobends and microbends. :s. (To prove this point. It is sonrebi¡nes desirable to set up the steady-state mode distribution over ¿r short fiber length by deliberately introducing minute bends in the fiber. Conversions to high-order and low-order modes aie shown. (Although mode coupling continues throughout the fiber. The fiber is pressed between two blocks covered with fine sandpaper (a mode irnixing block). In Figure 3-4. The mode propagating at arrgle 0. itlote that mode conversion to both higher-order and lower-order modes usually tahes place. The 91 mode has been converted to a leaky mode (very high order mode) and thus lost. large and small.--------:b) FIGURE l'i-5 /r"':'"* Effects of microbends. those with r modes. respectively.__ High-order Low-orrjer mode mode . The incident and reflected angles mrLst be the same. I I t -\.

N. will be accepted by the fiber. 3-2-3 I -+I \ \ Skew Waves Thus far. sin 0o/sin 0" : nrln¡ir : FIGURII 3_6 The "half acc You car difference A From Eqtratic EXAMPLE A fiber has th as a decimal Solution rz1 and sin 0o : ftLx sin g" The term sin 0o is called the numerical aperture (N. This means that the light entering the fiber must be shallow enough to maintain this condition. In threü dimensions. The refractive indices involved are thosá of air.. .I to be meridional.. at point A (Figure 8-6). If you follow the solid line ray. the analysis of meridional rays glves a close approximation of what actually takes place so that it is not necessary to include the complex analysis of skew waves.) and n2 is the cladding index (n"¡o¿). all rays have been'arru*". A common question regarding light.A. Fortunately. Skew waves (also called skew rays) represent a significant part of the total light transmission.t I Acceptance Angle and Numerical Aperture The propagation angle must be equal to or iess than the critical angle. : sin 0n: ftL sin d" (3-2) (3-3) To obtain N. B-1 and 3-3 and the trigonometric identity cos2o-1-sinzÉ.vhether a ray ever travels directly along the fiber. limite. and it is nearly impossible and also unnecessary to avoid them. Skew waves are a result of the way the light is rnjected into the fiber. passing through the fiber center. and the core nl. is the core index (n"o.) and N.4 ) lo. Solution you get .l by"""uftance theLngl e 20n. It is useful to relate the angle 0oto the refractive indices oitho fiber. there is refraction at pointA so that f/o does not equal 0". 3-2. where n. By Snell's law. it is an acceptance'cone. In reality. This method also causes increased loss because some of the modes become leaky. ft : L. The ansrver is that süch a mode (0 : 0") would very quickly be converted to higher-orcler modes because of fiber bends.rró Eqrrutio. Only rays that enter the fiber edge within the angle 20.r. Figure 3-6 traces two entering rays that become the critical rays in the fiber. l. The angl e 20nis the angte. a large number of rays travel throúgh the fiber without going through the fiber's center line. and n2.A.A.propagation in the fiber is r.46 Chapter 3 increased mode mixing.A.\ EXAMPLE From . in terms of the refractive indices n.:(nt2_n22)Lt2 (3-4) : A step-index f (3) the accept. parallel to the fiber axis.

44)' - (1.44 and n"¡-¿ (3) the acceptance' : x (2 x 2 x nrz x A.A. In three ¿.35 (core index) and A ¿rs a decimal ratio.66' Acceptance angle : 2 x 0o : 31.A.40.. $-7) 6¡trz 3_2 z\ liber has the follorving characteristics: n1 : 1. 0.A.35 x (2 x O.A. (B-5) You can express the N." = L. aci. and the acceptance angle.02). (N. ringle...A. Solrrtion : ftr x (2 x A¡trz : 1. Accepüance angle. in the angle 21i. :ll-l[)..38? 47 .)' = nr' N. the .. The allswer through the rc iiber: without lr:d skew t'ays) ortunately. r fiber.o higher'-order' (n12 - nrz)l{zx (N. of'sl<ew waves. Find (1) the N.). (3-2) (3-.A.40)\lL/2: 0. : sin-t 0.3-2 Light Propagation i because some er is whether a .uaily takes r1g FIGURE 3-6 The 'ihalf acceptance" angle 0o is given by' % 0r. By .A.. which ls defined as A: - btu'e ical angle. .A. EXAMPLE : nL . : 2Vo ( 1. of'the fiber. and it is Ctll'e t)... This gh to rnaintain rrne the ct:itical :i.)z1(2 x nrz) nrz) (ffi) From Equations 3-4 and 3-6.. sin-1 N. in ternrs of tl¡e relaüve refractive index difference A. (2) A.ic¡n at point A tre ütrctse of'air.A.2'l : 0.j) re i-l is the core and 3-3 and EXAMPLE 3_3 ¡¿r A step-index fiber has n".]l n. and .OZ)Ltz : 0. (3-4) N.33o N. Find the N. Solution : 1. From Equation 3-4. - l(1.27 : 15.

n" It is often convenient to simplify the expression for A. X (n. /o is the (3-g) : f6 : .n)ll(2 x nr') of the number ofl (3-8) system. corresponds to a bandwidth A : : [2 X n. of the relative line width A. A/can be expressed for narrow line widths as Lf Á¡. A:(L. a large N. they are not monoehromatic.48 Chapter 3 2. That is. lVhen nr is approximately equal to n2. A large N. cer Note that i where Af : f" .A. Remember that the N. : 810 nm and tr : 830 nm."Tf. tro percent. (n-.L/). a large difference in refractive index.1lü wavelengths between the two points where the light energy drops off to one : (Ar/ro) x fr.03 (1-37o).A.] A typical I relative lin Solution l.1: -b itidi'ff'llHl':i"""Ji..44\ 1. . on: sin-t : x 1.a"1 fiL¡e In :"1T5"1"x3'. Typically. !ín.: 39. A is of the order of 0.33? (Equation 3-5) 19. they are not Lr*\ represents a large acceptance angle and vice versa.01-0. in wavelengtl That is. In Figure 3-7.' and the center frequencY.810 : 20 nm. ' r.ft and f"are the half-power frequencies of the light source.A. Typically. half its maximum power.) i it l___ .402)/(2 0..A. to denote line width.7o/o 3.[(nr + n"r) x (nr - nr)U(Z x nr'). therefore.027 : (approximatemethod) FIGURE 3 The li 2.. also implies 'large A. the pcwer is maximum at \ : 820 nm and drops to half its maximum at ). 830 . produces a large number of modes and presents some serious performance problems.2 x 0.7o Acceptance angle -.442 :0. Al. 3-4 center wavelength center frequency PR The refract This makes u : c/n. An approximation for A is obtained by rewriting L:(nt2-nr\l(2xrr') . The relative bandwidth and relative line width are equal. and Af is the bandwidth of the light source. .. 3-3 LINE WIDTH The actual sources of light used in fiber optics produce a light that has a band of frequencies. A large N. . represents the acceptance angle. t.. (This can be derived directly. As you will see in Section 5-1. We will use the notation A). the bandwidth is the product.:TT". EXAMP{.'lnl#i. by realizing that Lflf : AI/I.. The line width is.

i.tive iine width in percent and Q) lc.m." t.width of the source has serious effecüs on the overail performance of the fiber optic transmission system.-r {) i Írppfo. This makes the speed of light u depend on wavelength. Lhe width in rh'ops ofI'to orrc il .82 x x 10-o) 1015 fu is the center frequency. the light source.A..r9 .3658 106/(0.0 1) ¿ ^ . t:_i ( L-:1q0. 0. in the range of wavelengths used in fiber optics.l/31'.3 o.82 ¡rm I [13nárto-'y(8zo x 10-e) In percent. fo: : : c/Lu 300 x 0.'flie line width . ther variations in ¿ and u wiLh wavelength .34 FIGURE rocl) 3-7 Propagation Velocities Line width.A. and the ''hat L'flf : A\itr' The refractive index n of most materials varies with the wavelength involved.A.. 1015 L (3-e) Note that in ühis example. corresponding to trs Ar : x :. A typicat LllD emits light at tro : has a b¿rnd :s.82 ¡r. : 40 nm.) / I u------l I l--l- I l---r>l. where r¿ : l. EXAMPLE 3--l Ls some serious rela. ^ = ^L 1.\ IU r3'?'-?l nz 0.. also irnplies . an enormous bandwidth Ai is involved. and lowers the maximum data rate of the s¡rstern. u : c.o(t . A large line width yields a larger (3--8) number of modes fclr the same N. av^o tlitt 0. tr : 820 nm .\ to denote line t fbr narrorv line with A). Solution 1. . A large N.-it.88a/o 2. Fintl (1) the ^f. i. (Remernber the relation u : cln.) For silicon glass. 3_4 PROPAGATION VELOCITIES th AL/\.\('imaLi0n t- {.irey are not ol' rval'elengths.830 840 The iine. in a vacuurn.(n¡¡l) I 800 rt l0 ll20. in Section 5-1.0488x100:4.

u increases with wavelength. (See the discussion of dispersion in Section 4-3.. At about 1. Monu MrxrN( Moue l.. it is desirable to use sources that operate at close to 1. Because changes in u with wavelength greatly reduce the data rate the fiber can carry. .8 L0 l.3-1.l ¡ I .) fiber.0 1p.) AccRpr'. and you operate near 1. Use this glossary to review the material you have just read. Tornr.lNU WID'l'lI. Figure 3-8 shows tiris relationship amot1 tu.46 102 width" ancl Cnltrcrrl pn critical ang f. u. rvill enter t (Arrows indicate vertical scale to be used.rNcr* formed by r' BANDWTD'ru.: DISl'tu tlllllll> .tl 2. Moxocrrrront has a very l Nun¡rirucnl ¡ Pn<lpRcnt¡or axis. and increasing wavelength I. . ft increases with increasing wavelength while u decreases.t) E ro3 i X t. For wavelengths from about 0. indicating a positive slope (t' I]J .E versus L (for silicon glass). it is advantageous to operate at about 1. (See "r Rut. a reversal in the slopes of ¿ and u. you Can expect AulAL to be near 0 and the bandwidth (or data rate that ühó fiber can carry) to be extremely high.r¡t- I . the slope of both n and u is approximately 0. That is. For 1.3'¡.. line. These terms are used throughout this text and in industry. For the same wavelengths. 1-Or 2 nm.4 L6 l.6 to 1. usual.3 ¡^tm.ttot¡A plarce at disr modes.aJ [t"u ¡\ "' (Au/AI is positive).7 Fn. emission of MIRrnto¡¡nL Mone coNV[ Monu c()t.45 Moor.6 .. rN'r'Er¡ critical prop undergo toti This behavi'rrve R refractive ir RBlnrrvu r-rr the sourcc. Say.rn) change direction. (Skew Srpanv-s'r'¡'r' carried by e to be in the SUMMARY AND GLOSSARY Stnp-rNnnx The terms defined here reflect what you have learned in this chapter. n decreases with increasing wavelengbh.cttP'r"\Nr.Chapter 3 FIGURE3-8 nandu A(.3 pm. If the line width of the sgurce is very narrow. These systems can operate at frequencies in excess of 2 GHz.3 pm. indicating a negative slope (AnlA\ is negative). You should recognize them and understeud what they mean. Sx¡rw nnv.3 ¡rm. This means that there are no variations in ¿ or u as the wavelength changes (for small Atr). ¡ r2".

Sxnw nnY.and cladding with two refractive indices. or sim¡rly -+ 1. Srnp-lxnEx I'IBER. (A light source which has a vely n¿lrro\¡r line width is monochromatic. A fiber made of a core. INTERNAL REFLEcTIoN. The transfcr of lighi energy from one mode io another.") Rulertvu REF'RAcrIVE IND¡lx DrrFErrENcE. Rays traveling at shallow angles (below the critical propagation angle) from a high-index material to a low-index material undergo total internal reflection and do not cross into the low-index material.) AccuprexcE coNE. These rould recognize to review the 5l . The sine of one-half the acceptance angle. Moon coNVERsIoN. MoxoctrRoMArtc. This behavior is the same as that of a reflected ray. Monp PRoPAGATIoN.) 106 --------t E r0-r E 102 Mooe coupLING. usually given in relative terms. The angle a beam inside a fiber makes with the fiber axis. (See "relative line width. The amount of energy carried by each mode in an optical fiber. (See Equations 8-6 and g-g. (See "line width" and Equation 3-9. Tot¡1. A ray. A device designed to cause mode conversion in the fiber.artvn LINE wIDrH.) Srnenv-srA'rn MoDE DtsrRIBUrroN.'Ihat is. Moon MIXING BLocK.) B. After a certain length of fiber. (See "critical propagation angle.) LrNu wIDTH. (This angle is related to the numerical aperture. The range of wavelengths between the two points of half-power emission of a light source.) Rel. Frequency range corresponding to the line width Ar. with gative). The accepüance angle in three dimensions.3 ¡r*. The mode distribution is said to be in the steady-stabe distribution. See "mode conversion. The propagation of light energy in an optical fiber takes place at distinct angles of propagation called modes of propagation.Summary and Glossary Accnt'r. Pnop. (They leave the fiber." Moon DISTIuBUTIoN.¡n.") M¡. the power carried by each mode does not change any more. The range of angles rvithin which an injected light beam will enter the frber.qcarloN ANcLE. This th changes (for :r: the data rate .0 riecreases Cntttcal PRoI'AcArIoN ANGLtt. AL/tr. (Skew ray is the same as skew wave. with the fiber center line as the axis.tNcE ANGLE. it is ine width of the .) Nunpnrc¿L ApER'ruRE.o and n"¡o¿. Approximately the ratio of the refractive index difference over the core index.Rroro¡rAL RAy. A ray that propagates in the fiber without crossing the fiber center line.that passes through the fiber center line. For the r positive slope ng wavelength creasing waveimately 0. Rays with propagation angles larger than the critical angle are not confined to the fiber. : chapter. (The cone is formed by rotating the acceptance angle. D"o.rNnwrptH. Of single color or single frequency. The ratio of the line width to the center wavelength of the source. you can a[ the fiber can encies in excess modes.

c.. What ar 5.A. propaga N. (3-. QUESTII 1. Approximation for A.. The I b.i. Half acceptance angle. ¿r.:(nr2_nr")lt.3) 4. b. b.'Y"n.z (3-4) Relation between'\''' (3-5) : [ltl^. (3-2) : sin 0o: n1 sin \ I phenonr I)efinition of half acceptancL angle 0n. Would 0. 3. (3-l) The relation between the refroctiue indices and the criti. d. D"la. (3-8) a. and N. sin a" : cos 0" : n2ln. cladding index. The sim easier t acceptar Definition of N. For the a.n") (M) u" = Definition of the relatiue refractiue difference modes? 11. Are low modes ) l:l-lÍIf sin-'(nr. The ¡ The c The I The ¿ .. N. core index and no.A.l : I 6:(nr-n2)ln. WiU lig Explain. . sin 0. : tlr X sin 0.52 Chapter'3 FORMULAS Relation lte In the following formulas.f. In a ste ¿ Relation between L.. N. What is steady-s angles.. FIow is PROBLE f. ^ ¿r 10.A 7. Line 8.' -. and the refractiue índices. How arr a. A step-i b'. Prop. What is 6. What is 2. Light bt angle. : nL x (2 x L¡trz (3-7) 2. Acce¡ c.A.1.A. The 3.A.

find a. The ft"u.3) 4. PROBI. The N. The critical propagation angle c.EMS (&-6) 1.. The acceptance angle 3. b.A. lVould light be confined in an optical fiber if the total internal reflection (3. The acceptance angle 296 and 58 . 3..nce angle c.A.w are the followi'g related to the liber data rate? a.u Find a. What are propagation modes? 5. Accepta. lYhat is the steady-state mode distribution? Does mocle cor. ?. raor the fiber in Problem 1.l{ow is ühc relative refractive index difference related to propagation (Íi-. Line width 8.) x ft Relatio¡¿ betuteen the frequency bandwidth ^f (3_g) and the line wiclt¿ aI.r:e low-order modes or high-order modes more likel-v to become leaky niodes and to lea.Problenrs af : (ar/r. What is the diff'erence betlveen meridional and the skerv waves in a fiber? 2. Will light propagate in a glass iubing (air inside with a glass shell)? Explain. 6. 'Ihe N.82. 7.. Propagation modes b. what is nrode coupling? Give causes for mode mixi^g. the relative refractive index difference is zclad : 1. Would it be ea-sier to couple it to a fiber with a low acceptance angle or a high phenomenon ciid not exisü? Explain accr. (ii-z) I-.pbrnce angle? Explain. it.? the fiber. Wiil they propagate in the fiber? nxplain.H. The sinrple flashlight sends beams at a relatively wide angle. A step-index fiber has ru"o.rpling stop after sready-state mc¡de distribtrtion is reached? f. QUESTIONS (3-1) Iles. ($-8) I i ¡ t ]- d. (3-7) b.11 and n"¡-¿ : 1. Find the range of propagation angles (all angles below the critical angle).1) (3-5) modes? 11. In a step-index fiber.o : 1. Light beams are injected into the fiber at angles larger than the acceptance augle.40.

For the fiber in Problem 6. Find a.38 c. The N. The An involved b.3 prn.68 the exact and n"1o¿(n) 1.8 ¡. 12. The acceptance angle.5 energ'y loss dispersion h wavelength i dispersion. find Af.0 CHAPT'E] After studyir 0. Find n"o. For'the source of Problem 8. Repeat Problem 10 for a source with a LÚo/o line width. 11.42 b.1. . A fiber is made of a core with an index of 1. Find its line width.r.40 and no cladding (air cladding). b. 7. The Au involved Ll INTI The characte composition a diameter of t fiber directly affect losses i: when discuss and the data l_ . F'ind Af.36 1.38. 4 F¡he Its cladding index is 1. FIGURE 3-9 Figure for mW) Problem 8. 10. using approximate formulas. 1.A.415 1. ar preferred ove 9. A source has a 2Vo line width at a center wavelength of 1."(n1) a.54 Chapter 3 A for the step-index fibers listed here. A light source has the response in Figure 3-9. Compare the resulting values.m and a line width of 80 nm (*40 nm) is used with a fiber made of silicon glass (Figure 3-S). t. what is the highest-order mode (critical propagation angle)? 8.34 b. A source with a center wavelength of 0. It must have an acceptance angle of 75'. 4. Find its core index. An optical fiber is being designed. Find a. L.