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1. Historical context
• Geography, topography and resources of Rome and the Roman Empire
• Overview of Roman social and political structures; principate
• Role of imperial women in Roman society
2. Background and rise to prominence
• Family background and status
• Early life, ambitions and marriages
3. Career
• Basis of her power and influence; patronage
• Role during the reign of Gaius (Caligula), including exile
• Role during the reign of Claudius
• role and changing relationship with Nero during his reign
• Relationships with other members of the imperial court: Seneca, Burrus and imperial
• Freedmen
• Impact of her personality on career: public image
• Attempts on her life
• Death: motives, manner and impact of death
4. Evaluation


Impact and influence on her time

Assessment of her life and career


Ancient and modern images and interpretations of Agrippina the Younger



Key  terms  



14  –  Death  of  Augustus  
15  –  Agrippina  born  
19  –  Death  of  Germanicus  
28  –  Marriage  to  Ahenobarbus  

auctoritas  –  personal  prestige  and  standing  

potestas  –  the  power  of  magistrates  

potentia  –  power,  authority,  sway,  influence  

vis  –  power,  force,  vigour  

fastigium  –  height,  summit  (of  a  

29  –  Death  of  Livia  

artes  honestae  –  respectable,  worthy  skills  

impotentia  –  lack  of  control  and  restraint  

impudicitia  –  unchastity  

37  –  Death  of  Tiberius,  accession  of  Gaius,  birth  of  

lascivia  –  wantonness    


noverca  –  a  stepmother  

cupiditas  –  greed  for  money  and  power  

avaritia  –  greed  

superbia  –  arrogance  

socia  –  partner,  comrade,  companion,  

33  –  Death  of  Agrippina  the  elder  

38  –  Conspiracy  against  Gaius,  exiled  
40  –  Death  of  Ahenobarbus  
41  –  Assassination  of  Gaius,  accession  of  Claudius,  

associate,  ally,  relative,  wife  

recall  from  exile  

42  –  Marries  Crispus    

times  and  bad  

48  –  Death  of  Messalina    
49  –  Marriage  to  Claudius,  Seneca  recalled  

prosperis  dubiisque  socia  –  an  ally  in  good  

domestica  cura  –  domestic  concerns  

domination  –  domination/lordship  


50  –  title  Augusta,  Nero  adopted  
51  –  Burrus  appointed  
53  –  Marriage  of  Nero  and  Octavia  
54  -­‐    Death  of  Claudius,  accession  of  Nero  


55  –  Acte  involved,  fall  of  Pallas,  death  of  
Britannicus,  Agrippina  left  palace  
59  –  Murder  of  Agrippina  

Geography, topography and resources of Rome and the Roman

62  –  Death  of  Burrus  


65  -­‐    Death  of  Seneca  

 relied  heavily  on  the  Italian  countryside.   resources  and  manpower  to  run  army  and  industry.  all  eyes  watched  for  the  imperial  commands.  marshy.  Lead  (Spain)   • Plentiful  in  stone.  Egypt  and  Sicily).  hills  provide  healthy  environment   • Strabo:  walls.  rocky.  pests.  mountainous.  fertile  land.  weapons.   prone  to  flooding  and  fire.  dyeing.  sea  close   enough  for  trade  yet  far  enough  for  threat  of  invasion.  wine  and  perfume     Overview of Roman social and political structures.  jewellery.  defence  (not  easily  defended  open  to  attack). principate • TACITUS  (on  Augustus)  “then  he  gradually  pushed  ahead  and  absorbed  the  functions   of  the  Senate.  the  officials  and  even  the  law.  Opposition  did  not  exist…Political   equality  was  a  thing  of  the  past.  open  to  attack  (not   enough  population.  Wine  (Spain  and  Italy).HSC  STUDY  BUDDY   3     Empire • As  Rome  developed  into  an  empire.     • Livy:  Tiber  river  “favourable  for  navigation  upstream  to  inland  crops”.”   • Augustus  established  Principate  (system  of  government)  -­‐>  “rule  by  first  citizen”   • Did  this  by  accumulating  powers  given  to  him  by  the  senate  during  the  first   settlement  of  27BC  and  the  second  settlement  of  23BC               .  Iron  tin  and  copper.  pottery  and  wood     • Trade  and  industry  were  strong    milling.   • Efficient  sea  transport  ensured  Rome  and  Italy  received  their  supplies  e.  centre  of  Italy  therefore  good   for  expansion.  problems.  baking.  Grain   (Africa.  silverware.  glass  manufacturing   • Markets  provided  pottery.g.  clay.

 the  princeps  control  of  the  army  was   the  true  basis  of  his  power       .  for  treason  trials   The  principate  developed  over  time  so  it  appeared  that  the  princeps  shared   authority  with  the  senate.  however.g.   The  first  settlement  of  27BC  gave  Augustus:   1) Proconsular  imperium  over  a  large  Provincia  (province  consisting  of  Spain.  Gaul  and   Syria)   2) Control  of  most  of  the  legions  to  administer  these  provinces   3) The  consulship   4) The  name  Augustus  (Revered  one)   5) The  title  Imperator     The  second  settlement  of  23BC  gave  him   1) Proconsular  maius  imperium  (his  power  extended  over  all  provinces  and  governors)   2) Tribunicia  potestas  –  gave  him  increased  political  power  and  prestige   The  princeps  was  distinguished  from  all  other  magistrates  by  the  wide  scope  of  his  powers  and   functions  including     Paid  army  out  of  military  treasury   Made  political  decisions   Appointed  governors  to  imperial  provinces   Controlled  imperial  provinces   Controlled  the  army   Nominated  names  for  magistrate  positions   Controlled  the  civil  service   Controlled  foreign  affairs  through  his  maius  imperium       • His  dominant  position  meant  that  he  controlled  the  army  and  ruled  with  the  help  of   the  senate     • Although  the  government  continued  to  function  according  to  republican  tradition.  In  reality.   there  was  now  a  sharing  of  it’s  powers  with  the  princeps   • The  sharing  of  powers  meant  that  the  senate  had  the  following  authority   - Controlled  senatorial  provinces  (although  Augustus  had  supreme  military   power  in  all  provinces)   • - Could  mint  coins  and  control  finances   - Was  a  court  of  law  e.

 Rome  had  two  distinct  class   1) Upper-­‐class  patricians     2) Lower  class  plebeians.   including  the  freed  men.HSC  STUDY  BUDDY   5     Social  Structure   • From  the  times  of  the  early  Republic.     A  middle  class  emerged  called  the  equestrians   • During  the  period  of  the  early  empire  new  opportunities  opened  for  each  class.  for  example   • - Prefect  of  Egypt   - Commander  of  the  praetorian  guard   - Administrator  of  the  grain  supply   - Commander  of  the  fire  brigade   - Procurator   - Staff  officer  in  a  legion   - Commander  of  an  Auxiliary  infantry  cohort   Plebeian  order   - Were  involved  in  trades  industries  or  farms   - Worked  on  imperial  building  sites  or  were  lower  officers  in  legion   - Made  up  two  thirds  of  the  plebs  urbana  (urban  mob)   - Received  the  grain  dole   - Attended  the  free  shows     During  the  early  empire  freedmen  played  a  very  important  role.  they  were  the  former  slaves   who  had  been  freed  by  their  masters.  They  took  on  the  citizenship  of  their  former  masters   but  were  not  fully  privileged  roman  citizens     .   • • Senatorial  order  (Patricians)   - Magistracies   - Chief  military  posts   - Control  of  the  state  treasury   - Administration  of  peaceful  provinces   - Supervision  of    the  civil  services   Equestrian  order   Civil  and  military  service  for  the  princeps.

 shopkeepers  and  clerks   - Remained  with  former  masters  as  secretaries   - Became  apart  of  the  emperors  household  and  managed  his  private  affairs     - Became  influential  civil  servants   Rome  during  the  early  empire  also  consisted  of  women.  principate:     .     • • Freedmen   - were  artisans.  non  citizens  and  slaves   Overview  of  Roman  social  and  political  structures.

 Had   the  ability  to  assume  military  command     .HSC  STUDY  BUDDY   7     • Political  structure  was  organised  into  the  ‘cursus  honorum’.  especially  in  provinces.  streets  of  Rome.  ranking  of  magistrates           Princeps                     Proconsul  -­‐  ex-­‐ consuls.   Quaestor  -­‐    General  Ainancial  duties.  corn  supply  etc.  governors   of  senatorial   provinces   Consul  -­‐  supreme  civil  and   military  magistrate  position   often  taken  by  emperor  or   family  members.  Also  reponsible  for  public   affair   Tribune  -­‐  "defender  of  the  common  people".   Ability  to  veto  magistrate  and  were  sacrosanct     Aedile  -­‐  General  administrative  dutie.  Princeps   recommendations   Praetor  -­‐  dealt  largely  with  legal   affairs.   public  order.  water  supply.

  women   held   no   direct   political   power/influence   and   were   forced   to   gain  and  wield  it  by  furthering  the  political  ambitions  of  husbands  lovers  or  sons   • A  Roman  woman’s  main  role  was  to  be  a  good  daughter.  commonly  being  forced  into  marriage   for   purposes   such   as   securing   wealth   or   of   establishing   a   link   to   power   (Augustus.)   • Roman  society  was  patriarchal  (run  by  men)   • Major  role  for  all  Roman  women  was  within  the  family  as  daughters.   • Used   as   a   means   of   uniting   noble   families   through   marriage   (women   married   and   remarried  quite  easily)     .   • Despite   these.   Role of imperial women in Roman society • 100   year   period   leading   up   to   Julio-­‐Claudians   saw   a   change   from   women   being   frowned   upon   if   they   wished   to   act   independently   to   a   time   where   they   enjoyed   significantly  more  personal  freedom  that  women  at  any  other  time  in  Roman  history   • Held   some   freedoms:   ability   to   attend   most   social   functions   with   their   husbands.  women  with  +3  children  did  not  need  a  male  counter-­‐signature  for  legal   contracts.  wives   or  mistresses.   administering   their   own   properties   as   well   as   positive   legislative   change   made   on   their  behalf.  mothers.  wife  and  mother   • They  were  often  controlled  for  political  gain.   other  princeps  etc.

  they   wanted   them   to   be   under   the   authority   of   parents.   • • Was  the  great-­‐granddaughter  of  Augustus   Was  the  daughter  of  Germanicus  ‘…there  is  no  doubt  that  Germanicus  was  immensely   popular  with  the  Roman  people  and  the  army.’  (Bradley)  who  had  great  influence  on   her  life   • ‘…the  family  was  loved  by  the  people  of  Rome…’  (Lawless)   • To  understand  Agrippina’s  later  actions  it  is  necessary  to  examine  the  events  in  her  life   leading   up   to   her   marriage   with   Claudius.   During   these   years   she   learned   the   brutalities  of  life  and  intrigue  within  the  imperial  family   Early life & Ambitions   .   brothers  or  husbands.  Augustus’  wife  Livia.HSC  STUDY  BUDDY   9     • Women  had  a  great  deal  of  personal  freedom  however  had  no  direct  political  power   and  could  only  influence  the  political  activities  of  their  husbands  and  sons   • Always  under  the  control  of  a  male  (fathers.  Claudius  and  Nero.g.g.   • Julio  Claudian  family  contained  a  number  of  well  educated  and  talented  women  who   wielded  great  power  and  influence  e.   • Main   historians   of   the   time.  Gaius.   Suetonius   and   Cassius   Dio   disapproved   (context/bias)   Background and rise to prominence Family background and status • Agrippina  was  part  of  the  Julio-­‐Claudian  family  which  provided  the  first  emperors  e.’  (Livy)   • By  first  century  significant  changes  occurred  that  challenged  this  traditional  view.   Tacitus.  Tiberius.   Augustus.  husbands  or  a  male  next  of  kin)  ‘…  our   ancestors   did   not   want   women   to   conduct   any   -­‐   not   even   in   private   -­‐   business   without   a   guardian.  daughter  Julia  and  sister   Octavia  and  Agrippina  the  Elder.

    • Her   brother   Gaius   became   Emperor   after   Tiberius’   death.   Promotion   of   sons   for   emperor.  cultivation  of  the  military.g.   Made   Agrippina   and   her   sister  Vestal  Virgins.   • Family   was   immensely   popular   and   loved   by   the   people   of   Rome      power   and   influence   at   an   early   age      Agrippina’s   birth   placed   her   at   the   centre   of   imperial   power   • Her  mother  Agrippina  the  Elder  was  involved  in  ‘masculine  activities’  (Tacitus)  and   was   outspoken   about   political   issues   e.   • Agrippina   learnt   her   ambitions   from   her   mother’s   actions   e.   • They   appeared   on   coins   as   goddesses   and   were   able   to   sit   in  the   Imperial   seats   at   games  and  festivals    heightened  her  influence  and  popularity   • Caligula   became   ill   ‘…imagined   all   sorts   of   plots   against   him’   (Koutsoukis)   and   exiled  Agrippina  on  the  grounds  of  treason  and  adultery  ‘…he  deported  his  sisters  to   the   Pontian   islands   because   of   their   relationships   with   Lepidus…he   was   always   pretending  to  be  in  danger’  (Cassius  Dio)   • Before   she   was   exiled   Agrippina   gave   birth   to   Nero   (Ahenobarbus’   son)   who   was   sent  to  live  with  his  aunt  when  his  father  died  during  Agrippina’s  exile   • When   Gaius   was   assassinated.  she  was  on  the  search  for  a  new   husband.  and  was  therefore  exiled.  first  aimed  for  Galba  but  settled  for  Crispus   Marriages First  marriage  to  Ahenobarbus           • Arranged  by  her  guardian  Tiberius   • He  became  consul  in  AD32   • Was  the  father  of  Agrippina’s  son  Nero   • He  became  ill  with  dropsy  and  died  in  AD40   .  and  with  Ahenobarbus  dead.   Claudius   became   the   new   Emperor   and   recalled   Agrippina  from  exile.  She  was  powerful  yet  unwise.   Tiberius’   involvement   in   Germanicus’   death.  ‘masculine  activities’  (Tacitus)   • Agrippina’s  aunt  was  also  exiled  for  the  murder  of  her  husband  Drusus   • Agrippina  learned  valuable  lessons  about  the  consequences  of  female  involvement   in  politics.g.

 threat  to  Britannicus’  heir  to  the  throne   • Messalina   was   executed   on   the   grounds   of   adultery   and   plotting   (was   outed   by   Claudius’  Advisors).     • Historians   vary   in   their   analysis   as   to   why   Claudius   picked   Agrippina   for   marriage:   political  or  sexual   • This  marriage  was  of  great  importance    placed  Agrippina  in  the  highest  position  of   power  for  a  Roman  woman  granting  her  greater  power  and  influence  allowing  her  to     .   Messalina   had   reasons   for   disliking   Agrippina  e.HSC  STUDY  BUDDY   1 1     Second  marriage  to  Crispus     • He  held  the  consulship  in  AD  27  and  44   • Came  form  a  noble  family  and  was  quite  wealthy  (wealth  was  a  key  factor  in  politics)   • He  died  in  AD  47  and  left  an  enormous  inheritance  to  Agrippina  and  Nero     Third  Marriage  to  Claudius     • Agrippina   was   determined   to   achieve   a   position   of   great   power     was   achievable   if   she  married  Claudius  however  he  was  married  to  Messalina    ‘…it  was  a  position   of  utmost  power.   • Claudius  relied  heavily  on  his  advisors  and  listened  when  they  suggested  Agrippina   over   the   other   candidates.g.   Messalina   was   a   jealous   woman   who   eliminated   those   who   stood   in   her   way.   rather   than   allow   this   lady   to   transfer   the   glorious   name   of   the   Caesar’s   to   another   family…’  (Tacitus)   • Law   had   to   change   to   allow   the   marriage   otherwise   the   union   would   have   been   incestuous  as  Claudius  was  Agrippina’s  uncle.  Agrippina  was  now  in  a  position  to  marry  Claudius     • Agrippina   made   alliances   with   the   Praetorian   Guards   who   were   looking   to   stop   Britannicus   from   inheriting   the   throne   as   they   were   fearful   of   revenge   for   the   death   of  Messalina.  and  a  very  attractive  one.  her  popularity.  considering  her  life  so  far’  (Lawless)     • Agrippina   needed   to   be   wary   of   Messalina.   ‘[Pallas   proposing   Agrippina]…let   the   Emperor   ally   himself   with   a   noble   race   and   unite   two   branches   of   the   Claudian   house.

  achieve   her   two   main   goals      1.  appeared  on  coins  next  to  Claudius  and  Nero.  strengthening  Nero’s  position’   • Agrippina  dominated  and  influenced  many  of  Claudius’  decisions  and  accompanied   him   on   his   political   duties   ‘…she   set   out   to   dominate   Claudius…she   was   following   the  pattern  set  out  by  Messalina  but  was  infinitely  more  successful’  (Koutsoukis)   • Evidence   of   Agrippina’s   power   and   influence:   -­‐   given   her   own   Praetorian   Guard.   this   took   Agrippina   three   years   to   achieve      Nero   received   the   title   ‘Prince   of   Youth’     was  betrothed  to  Claudius’  daughter  Octavia.   rode  in  the  carpentum.  She  was  now  in  a  very   powerful  position   Proven  capacity  for  child  bearing   Now  a  woman  of  great  eminence   Popular     Organisational  and  leadership  ability     Potential  threat  if  she  married  someone  else     who  was  influential       .  Secure  her  son’s  position  of  Emperor     • Marriage   would   assist   in   Nero   becoming   Emperor:   adoption   of   Nero   by   Claudius   gave   Nero   precedence   over   Britannicus   making   Nero   the   heir   to   the   throne.   Secure   and   strengthen   a   position   of   power   and   influence  2.  received  the   title   of   Augusta.   ‘…   [Her   growing   power]   is   confirmed   by   two   points…Agrippina   was   named   Augustus…and   the   appearance  of  her  portrait…upon  the  official  gold  and  silver  coinage’  (Grant)   • Relationship  with  Claudius  was  a  key  factor  in  her  political  successes     Advantages  of  marriage  between  Claudius  and  Agrippina:-­‐       To  Claudius   To  Agrippina   Agrippina’s  connections  with  Augustus  who   Satisfied  her  ambitions  for  herself  and  Nero   was  considered  as  a  god   Agrippina  had  Julian  blood   Safeguard  her.   accompanied   Claudius   whilst   on   political   duties.

  o Burrus  was  made  sole  praetorian  prefect  in  51  who  then  in  turn  allowed  Agrippina  to  use  his   position  to  her  benefit.  especially  with  Seneca  &  Burrus.  patronage  and  position  in  society  paved  the   way  for  the  basis  of  her  power  and  influence.   o After   her   family   persecution   by   Sejanus   under   Tiberius’s   rule   Gaius’s   principate   signalled   a   new   beginning   for   Agrippina.   o The  elimination  of  rivals  &  political  intrigues  under  Gaius. including exile o When   assessing   Agrippina   and   Gaius’s   relationship   one   must   take   into   account   “the   sources   at  are  their  most  opaque  here.   Role during the reign of Gaius (Caligula).   “When   Tiberius   died   and   Gaius   succeeded   in   March   of   37.   o Her  family  background  &  status.     o Her  wealth  along  with  her  family  connections.  Claudius  &  Nero.”  –  Suetonius   o When   Gaius   become   emperor   the   three   sisters.   Drusillia   and   Julia   were   given   unprecedented  constitutional  status.   o The   wealth   Agrippina   has   acquired   through   her   marriages   and   her   family   allowed   to   her   build  a  support  base.  legal  support  etc  to  client  in  return  for  them  advancing  their  career.  including  being  made  honorary  vestal  virgins.   o Her  use  of  wealth  &  patronage.   Agrippina’s  fortunes  underwent  a  complete  change.   o The  honours  &  privileges  she  received. patronage o Patron  gave  gifts.  included   in  the  annual  vows  of  allegiance  and  having  a  coin  issued  with  their  images     .   Agrippina.”  –  Bauman   o Gaius’s   reign   is   perhaps   the   most   badly   documented   principate   of   the   Julio-­‐Claudians   with   Tacitus’   lost   books   consisting   of   his   reign.   Instead   we   must   rely   on   Suetonius   and   archaeological  evidence  to  draw  our  conclusions.   o Agrippina  used  influence  during  Claudius  to  recall  Seneca  from  exile  and  give  him  position  of   Praetor.HSC  STUDY  BUDDY   1 3     Career Basis of her power and influence.

”  -­‐  Barrett   o It   can   be   argued   that   these   honours   served   a   political   purpose.  the  fact  they  appeared  as  god-­‐like  figures  emphasises  their  importance  to  Rome   and  the  principate.  but  Salmon  disagrees.  Claudius  could  both  right  old   wrongs  and  immeasurably  reinforce  his  political  position”     o Sebastian  relief  shows  Claudius  and  Agrippina  with  clasped  hands.   o These  close  relations  between  Gaius.   also   parties   to   the   conspiracy..   o Gaius  was  assassinated  in  41AD  and  Claudius  was  hailed  emperor.   were   banished   and   Agrippina.  Drusilla  and  Livilla  spurred  stories  of  incest   “it  was  his  habit  to  commit  incest  with  each  of  his  three  sisters.  Gaius  fell  dangerously   ill  which  is  said  to  have  affected  his  mental  state  and  Drusilla  his  favourite  sister  died.   o Levick   tells   us   of   the   political   advantages   “   Agrippina   was   the   last   surviving   daughter   of   the   beloved  Germanicus  and  his  martyred  wife…By  marrying  her.   who   had   become   Lepidus’   mistress.   o While   it   is   not   completely   clear   why   the   following   events   occurred   we   do   know   Agrippina   and  Livilla  fell  from  grace.D.   o Annual   vow:   “I   will   not   value   my   life   or   that   of   my   children   less   highly   than   I   do   the   emperor  Gaius  and  his  sisters..Good  fortune  attend  the  emperor  Gaius  and  his  sisters.  (conferriatio  marriage)   o The   sisters’   inclusion   on   coins   also   is   unparalleled   and   portrays   the   great   distinction   given   to   the  sisters.   was   forced   to   carry   his   ashes   to   tome   in   an   urn”  –  Garzetti  –  humiliating  Agrippina   o Gaius  confiscated  Agrippina’s  property  and  sent  her  into  exile.   o “Gaius’   sisters   Agrippina   and   Julia   Livlla.”  –  Suetonius   o Agrippina’s  role  during  Gaius’s  reign  shifted  dramatically  by  39  A.  Gaius  charged  them  with  adultery  with  Drusilla’s  husband  Lepidus   and  of  being  involved  in  a  political  conspiracy  against  him  and  his  emperorship.”  –   Suetonius   o Other  honours  included  vestal  privileges  and  seats  in  the  imperial  enclosure  at  the  games.     o “The   prominence   given   to   the   sisters   has   no   precedent   in   the   history   of   Roman   coinage   and  suggests  an  extraordinary  honour.   The   political   reasoning   behind   these   actions’   is   thought   to   be   that   Gaius   was   attempting   to   establish   an   Eastern   style  monarchy.   Role during the reign of Claudius o Dio  Cassius  says  Agrippina  seduced  Claudius.  Agrippina.  -­‐>  GEMMA  CLAUDIA  COIN   o “She  dominated  the  politics  of  her  time  like  no  other  women  had”-­‐  Bauman     .

She  was  awarded  the  title  ‘Augusta’  in  50AD   3.  she  enlarged  the  scope  of  her  plans  and  devoted   herself  to  scheming  for  her  son.  but  was  preparing  to  put  an  end  to  her  power. She  was  given  her  own  Praetorian  bodyguard   2.”  -­‐  Dio   o Agrippina   and   Claudius’s   relationship   disintegrated   in   its   latter   stages.  but  also   to  enhance  her  own  position.HSC  STUDY  BUDDY   1 5     o In   marrying   Claudius   Agrippina   significantly   increased   her   role   in   Roman   politics.  -­‐  DEBATE       . Drove  the  carpentum   5.  Wiedemann  mentions  that  in  the  unhygienic  conditions  food   poisoning  would  have   been  common.   o Ahphrodisias’s   relief   of   Agrippina   and   Claudius   depicts   the   influence   Agrippina   had. She   founded   a   colony   of   veterans   where   she   was   born   and   name   it   ‘Colonia   Claudia  Argippinensis’   4.   o “Agrippina  used  her  influence  over  Claudius  not  only  to  consolidate  Nero’s  claims.  Suetonius  says  he  was  poisoned  by  not  sure   who  by.   o Tacitus  writes  “once  sure  of  her  marriage. Appeared  on  coins   o The  ancient  sources  stress  how  Agrippina  used  her  newly  found  relationship  with  Claudius  to   influence   him   “Agrippina’s   intrigues   were   still   driving   Claudius   to   the   most   brutal   behaviour”  -­‐  Tacitus   o “As   soon   as   Agrippina   had   come   to   live   in   the   palace   she   gained   complete   control   over   Claudius.”  –  Dio   o Claudius’  death  -­‐  Dio  thinks  Agrippina  killed  him.”   o Not   only   did   she   convince   Claudius   to   approve   of   Nero   and   Octavia’s   marriage   she   also   conspired  for  Nero’s  adoption.   Dio   and   Suetonius   comment   on   the   worsening   of   the   relationship   “in   his   last   years   Claudius   made   it   pretty   plain  that  he  repented  of  having  married  Agrippina  and  adopting  Nero.”  –  Bauman   o Honours  given  to  Agrippina:   1.”  –  Suetonius   o “He  could  not  endure  her  behaviour.   she   was   now   the   emperor’s   wife   and   in   a   perfect   position   to   use   her   relationship   with   Claudius   to   influence  his  decisions  and  promote  Nero  as  his  successor  over  Britannicus.   they   are   represented  as  having  equal  prominence  and  standing  (their  height  and  hand  gesture  signals   this)   and   the   partnership   shared   between   the   two   represents   the   extent   of   Agrippina’s   power  in  Claudius’s  principate.

 She  went  into   a  rage.  she  chose  Seneca  and  Burrus  to  be   his  advisors.  Later:   She  moved  to  the  opposite  side.   o Nero   forbade   advocates   to   receive   fees   or   gifts   (Tacitus).   The   measure   was   passed  anyway.  which  made  Agrippina  furious.   o This  showed  Agrippinas  waning  influence  under  Nero   o Nero  openly  disobeyed  his  mother  and  asked  Seneca  to  help  him.   o Just  before  his  accession  solely  women  and  freeman  were  running  the  government  from  the   Julio-­‐Claudian  household.   o Nero  had  married  Claudius’  daughter  Octavia  to  ensure  his  place  on  the  throne.   o At  this  point  Agrippina  changed  tactics  and  offered  him  her  own  bedroom.  The  senate  treated  her  seriously  and  the  meeting   was  held  at  the  Palatine  and  Tacitus  records  that  a  door  was  built  at  the  back  so  she  could   stand  behind  a  curtain  and  listen.   Claudius’s   death  made  way  for  Nero  to  become  emperor  and  for  Agrippina  to  advance  her  position  and   role.     o Agrippina   objected   to   changing   legislation   when   the   senate   tried   to   excuse   Quastors   from   the  obligation  to  hold  gladiatorial  games.   The   majority   of   modern   and   ancient   historians   agree   that   Agrippina   poisoned   Claudius   to   prevent   him   from   naming   Britanicus   as   heir   and   exposing   Agrippina’s   doings.   o Nero  removed  Pallas  (a  friend  and  lover  of  Agrippina)  from  his  position  to  bring  in  his  new   regime.  –  this  significantly  undermined  Agrippina’s  influence   o Removed  the  Praetorian  guard  (military  was  sympathetic  due  to  Germanicus)     .   o AD  54  Nero’s  accession  occurred   o Nero  “turned  over  all  his  public  and  private  affairs  to  Agrippina’s  management”-­‐  Suetonius   o “Her  dominant  influence  lasted  only  a  very  short  time”  Michael  Grant   o Coins:  Was  face  to  face  bareheaded  with  Nero.  and  later  disappeared  from  coinage  all  together.  showed  they  were  almost  corulers.   o He  fell  in  love  with  a  freedwoman  named  Acte.   Role and changing relationship with Nero during his reign o Marriage  to  Claudius  meant  she  was  in  a  good  position.   Agrippina   argued   that   this   legislation   could   not   be   challenged   because   Claudius   had   been   deified.

  Relationships with other members of the imperial court: Seneca.  and  was  the  enemy  to  Agrippina   “Suetonius  claims  that  his  forced  retirement  was  due  to  the  ill-­‐will  Agrippina  bore  towards   him  over  his  friendship  with  Narcissus”   o   The  mistreatment  of  Narcissus  by  Agrippina  .  it  is  probably  fair  to  say  that  none  has  established  his   place  in  the  tradition  so  strongly  as  has  Narcissus.  forced  him  to  retirement   .”   o Narcissus   was   positioned   in   a   strong   standing   along   side   Pallas   under   Agrippinas   influence   “Narcissus   does   seem   to   have   been   genuinely   loyal   to   Claudius'   interests   and   until   the   marriage  to  Agrippina  was  the  most  influential  of  the  freedmen”   o Narcissus  was  loyal  to  Claudius.   o Nero  plagued  Agrippina  with  lawsuits.   o Nero  had  14  years  old  Britannicus  poisoned  at  a  banquet  and  watched  him  die. Burrus and imperial freedmen FREEDMEN:  NARCISSUS  AND  PALLAS       “The  place  of  Agrippina  in  the  Claudian  system  is  so  tightly  bound  up  with  those  of  his  two   most  prominent  freedmen.HSC  STUDY  BUDDY   1 7     o Agrippina  now  realised  Seneca  and  Burrus  were  no  longer  on  her  side  (“Had  little  love  for   her   petticoat   government”   Scullard)   and   befriended   Claudius’   son   Britannicus   and   encouraged  him  to  claim  ownership  to  rule.  telling  the   other  guests  he  was  having  an  epileptic  fit.  Narcissus  and  Pallas”  Barrett     Narcissus   “Of  all  the  Julio-­‐Claudian  freedmen.

    o Nevertheless.   the  controller  of  the  project.   o She  made  use  of  Pallas  as  an  intermediary  to  argue  her  case  with  her  husband.  Nero  was  not  disposed  to  obey  slaves.   Tacitus   points   out   that  he  was  highly  prominent  even  before  her  predecessor  Messalina's  fall.  bestowing  the  praetorian  insignia  on  Pallas.   o Agrippina   took   advantage   of   the   emperor's   gullible   attributes   to   accuse   Narcissus.   feminine  excess  of  ambition.  He  retorted  by  assailing  her  dictatorial.   o Agrippina’s  influence  on  finance  would  have  come  through  Pallas   o Tacitus   says   that   under   Pallas   the   “finances   of   the   imperial   fiscus   were   brought   under  centralised  control”   o   “The  removal  of  Pallas.  Pallas'  surly  arrogance.   Nero   gave:  'The  best  of  mothers..  of  illicit  profits.   who   had   ruined   Claudius   by   instigating   his   incestuous  marriage  and  disastrous  adoption.  But  this  was  the  least  cause  of   arrogance  to  a  man  more  powerful  even  than  Pallas  or  Callistus.   however.  anomalous   in  an  ex-­‐slave.   o It  also  awarded  Narcissus  an  honorary  quaestorship.   the   threat   of   imminent   execution   drove  him  to  suicide.  Agrippina  received  honour  after  honour..     Pallas   ‘[Pallas  proposing  Agrippina]…let  the  Emperor  ally  himself  with  a  noble  race  and  unite  two   branches  of  the  Claudian  house.'     o The  senate  voted  her  two  official  attendants  and  the  Priesthood  of  Claudius.  rather  than  allow  this  lady  to  transfer  the  glorious  name   of  the  Caesar’s  to  another  family…’  (Tacitus)   o Although   Pallas   came   into   his   own   with   Agrippina's   ascendancy.   o Pallas  was  said  to  be  Agrippina’s  lover   o The  influence  of  Agrippina  on  the  senate  would  have  been  considerable.represented  a  serious  blow  to  Agrippina”  BARRET   .     o Pliny   the   Elder   notes   an   occasion   when   they   passed   a   decree   supposedly   on   her   orders.     o When   the   escort-­‐commander   made   the   customary   request   for   a   password.   o Pushed  for  the  adoption  of  Nero     o However.     o She.   was   supported   by   Pallas.   o Narcissus   was   imprisoned   and   harshly   treated.  disgusted  him.  but   we   can   be   sure   that   Claudius   would   hardly   have   allowed   his   mind   to   be   made   up   for   him  on  an  issue  that  lay  at  the  very  heart  of  his  principate.  publicly.

  she   “encountered   their   united   opposition”   (Tacitus)   o Possible   role   in   Agrippina’s   death.   “however   it   was   probably   not   in   Seneca’s   interest   to   remove   Agrippina   a   from   the   scene   completely.  but  extra-­‐marital   affairs   for   the   emperor’s   wife.  on  Agrippina’s  behalf   o In  58.   suggesting   that   she   was   “trying   through   Seneca   to   teach   him   discipline  and  self-­‐restraint”   o Barret  suggests  that  Seneca  could  have  been  somehow  involved  in  the  conspiracy  of   AD  39  in  which  Agrippina  had  become  involved   o Once   Messalina   was   dead   and   Agrippina   was   married   to   Claudius   (50AD).  Seneca  was  accused  of  having  had  an  affair  with  Agrippina.”   o Ordered   to   commit   suicide   in   65   after   becoming   embroiled   in   a   conspiracy   to   kill   Nero     BURRUS   o The  appointment  of  Burrus  left  Romans  in  little  doubt  about  the  strength  of   Agrippina's  position     .     o “Her   motive   in   appointing   Seneca   as   tutor   would   have   been   largely   political.   particularly   one   of   Agrippina’s   intellect   appeared   unlikely   o Seneca   apparently   worked   with   Burrus   to   sway   Nero’s   opinions   of   Agrippina   to   limit   Agrippina’s   power   over   the   state.   Seneca   was  recalled  to  Rome  and  become  praetor  and  Nero’s  tutor.”   Barrett   o Tacitus   describes   Agrippina   as   “trux   and   minax”   ('grim   and   threatening')   in   her   dealings   with   her   son.   better   to   keep   her   around   to   irritate   Nero   who   in   turn   might   feel   a   continuing   need   to   lean   on   Seneca’s  advice.HSC  STUDY  BUDDY   1 9       SENECA   o It  was  Agrippina  who  had  won  Seneca's  reprieve  from  exile  and  had  given  him  the   role  of  Nero's  tutor   o She  engineered  Burrus'  appointment  as  commander  of  the  guard.

 Seneca   and  Burrus  confronted  her   -­‐ Nero   asked   Seneca   and   Burrus   to   help   him   after   his   first   unsuccessful   attempt   at   killing   Agrippina.”  Barrett   -­‐ When  Nero  learnt  of  Agrippina’s  involvement  to  replace  him  with  Rubellius  Plautus.  whatever  her  political  position.”  Barrett   o Burrus   encouraged   the   Guard   to   accept   Nero   over   Britannicus   on   Claudius’   death   o Although   Seneca   and   Burrus   supported   Agrippina   in   Claudius’   lifetime.   -­‐ After  Agrippina’s  death.   o given   sole   control   of   the   Praetorian   Guard   in   AD51   (Agrippina   married   Claudius   in   AD   48)   after   the   removal   of   Geta   and   Crispinus      shows   Agrippina’s  power/influence  over  Claudius   o “Burrus  was  an  old-­‐fashioned  soldier  with  a  strong  sense  of  loyalty  and  his   attitude  towards  Agrippina  seems  to  have  been  ambivalent.  that  was  now  required  of  him.  such  as  the  murder  of   the  emperor's  mother.  Acte  and  Poppaea  Sabina).  they  retained  some  restraint  over  Nero.   -­‐ Both   men   would   surely   have   been   basically   sympathetic   to   her   views.       .   -­‐ “Burrus  possessed  too  much  integrity  to  do  the  kind  of  sordid  job.  They  encouraged  Nero  in  love  affairs  (s.   o Would   have   been   conservative   senators   who   disapproved   of   such   power   in   any  woman.   and   it   is   difficult   to   believe  that  any  profound  ideological  differences  could  have  separated  them.   they   set  about  undermining  her  influence:-­‐   • Seneca   stopped   Agrippina   from   sitting   by   Nero’s   side   during   a   reception  for  some  Armenian  ambassadors     • Pallas  (secretary  and  Agrippina’s  lover)  was  removed  from  office   • Encouraged  Nero’s  love  affair  with  Sabina   • Advised  Nero  to  start  Agrippina’s  downfall   • Chiefly   responsible   or   Roman   government   after   Agrippina’s   influence  had  been  eliminated   • It  is  uncertain  whether  they  were  involved  in  her  death  but  Nero   apparently  asked  for  their  help  after  his  first  unsuccessful  attempt     -­‐ Seneca   and   Burrus   chiefly   responsible   for   Roman   government   once   Agrippina’s   influence   was  eliminated.a.  They   advised  Nero  to  start  Agrippina’s  downfall.

  yearning   to   advance   the   career   of   her   son   but   also   heavily  involved  in  her  sons  life  and  very  influential.  Agrippina  is  presented  as  a  wicked.  (I.  Senators)   • Some   present   her   as   a   seductress   for   the   same   end.   • Most  sources  agree  that  with  her  death  Nero’s  downfall  began.  scheming  manipulative   woman   trying   to   advance   the   career   of   her   son   although   most   sources   are   written   by   powerful   men   who   would   have   felt   threatened   by   such   a   s   powerful  woman.   some   as   an   opposing   woman  trying  to  eliminate  competition.HSC  STUDY  BUDDY   2 1     Impact of her personality on career: public image • Strengths   Weaknesses   Great-­‐granddaughter  of  Augustus   Woman   Julian  blood   No  direct  involvement  in  politics   Great  wealth   Jealous   Strong  and  powerful  character   Vindictive   Ambitious   Ambitious   Eliminated  those  who  stood  in  her  way   Arrogant   Intrigued  to  get  power   Greedy  for  greater  wealth   Influential     Dominating   Keen  intellect   Murderous   Successful     Courageous     Dignified     In  most  sources.e.   • It   should   be   noted   that   in   all   sources   up   to   her   death   she   is   presented   as   a   typical   roman   mother.     .

  was   an   enemy   of   Agrippina.   4.   3.  to   tell  Nero  she  was  safe. The  roof  collapsed  but  not  the  whole  ship.  Agerinus. Agrippina  survived  &  swan  to  shore.   Attempts on her life o Cassius   Dio   states   Nero   continued   to   fear   Agrippina   and   under   the   influence  of  his  advisors  and  mistresses  he  decided  to  have  her  killed.   o Nero  became  panic-­‐stricken  when  he  found  out  she  had  survived   Death: motives.   commander   of   the   fleet   at   Misenun. Nero  invited  his  mother  to  dine  during  the  festival  of  Minerva.   2.   but   before   it   was   finished   Nero   was   flattering   Agrippina   so   nobody   would   suspect   anything   and   he   did   not   “Dare   to   do   anything   in   Rome…for   fear  the  crime  should  be  generally  known”   o Weideman   says   “He   decided   against   poison   because   she   had   reputedly  built  up  a  resistance  to  poison  by  swallowing  antidotes”   o Tacitus  says  Acte  was  instructed  to  tell  Nero  that  Agrippina  was  boasting   of  intimacy  with  him  and  that  it  would  threaten  his  power.   o They   saw   a   boat   that   collapsed   in   theatre   and   built   one   just   like   it.   o Nero’s   old   tutor   Anicetus. manner and impact of death MOTIVES o Agrippina  had  wanted  to  share  imperial  power     .   Nero   set   out   in   the   following   way:     1. He  sent  her  home  across  the  Bay  of  Naples  in  his  ship.  He  decided  to   kill   her   and   Anicetus   (an   ex-­‐slave   who   tutored   Nero)   told   him   that   a   ship   could  be  made  with  a  section  that  would  come  loose  and  hurl  Agrippina   into  the  sea  without  warning.  Agrippina  sent  her  freedmen.     o After  the  collapse  of  the  boat.   He   constructed   a   ship   with   a   detachable   section   which   would   hurl   Agrippina   into   the   sea.

  o Nero   feared   the   public’s   reaction   to   Agrippina’s   death.   Suetonius   caims   Nero  justified  his  mother’s  murder  by  having  her  freedmen  arrested  for   trying  to  kill  Nero  on  Agrippina’s  orders.   He   sent   reports   to   Rome   that   Agrippina   had   attempted   to   kill   him   and   then   proceeded   to   commit   suicide.  senate  and  people”   –Tacitus  14.  she  hated  all  of  them-­army.     o Nero  justified  her  death  by  having  her  freedman  arrested  for  trying  to  kill   Nero  on  Agrippina’s  orders-­‐  established  rumour  that  she  was  involved  in   conspiracy  to  kill  him     Evaluation Impact and influence on her time o Agrippina   set   un-­precented   standards.   He   also   listed   many   of   her   crimes   particularly   that   she   wanted  to  be  co-­‐ruler.     o “She  wanted  to  be  co-­ruler  –to  receive  oaths  of  allegiance  form  the   Guard.   The   most   sacred   duty   of   a   Roman   man   was   to   honour   &   protect  his  mother.1   o While   Agrippina   was   probably   feared   &   hated   by   many   of   the   nobility.   they   didn’t   approve   if   matricide   (killing   of   one’s   mother).   The   Romans   believed   the   home.   hearth   &   motherhood   to   be   the   very   foundation   of   their   society.   and   to   subject   Senate   and   public   to   the   same   humiliation.   Disappointed  of  this.   saying   to   his   murders   “Strike   here”   (pointing   to   her   womb).   she   as   a   woman   broke   down     .     o Agrippina   died.HSC  STUDY  BUDDY   2 3     o Nero  was  threatened  by  her  withstanding  influence  and  power   o Agrippina  strongly  opposed  his  relationship  with  Sabina   o Sabina   had   accused   Agrippina   of   conspiracy/plotting   to   kill   Nero   and   strongly  urged  Nero  to  kill  his  mother   IMPACT AND MANNER o Anicetus   went   to   her   villa   &   repeatedly   stabbed   her.

 Never  before  had  a  woman   played  such  a  crucial  and  influential  role  in  politics. Wealth      as   a   member   of   the   Julio-­‐Claudian   family.  wife  and  mother  of  emperors”-­  Tacitus   o Elevated   political   status   for   women:   Given   title   of   Augusta   (-­‐>   second   woman   to   receive   this   honour).  had  her  birthplace  named  after  her.     o She   was   resented   greatly   for   interfering   in   politics   and   moving   away   from  the  traditional  role  for  women  and  that  of  the  matrona.   wife   of   Claudius   and   mother   of   Nero   (all  emperors)   2.   right   to   use   carpentum.     o Some  historians  believe  Agrippina’s  death  began  the  downfall  of  Nero  &   the  end  of  the  Julio-­‐Claudian  dynasty.   gender  restrictions  on  women  in  politics.   Agrippina   had  great  personal  wealth  which  was  further  increased  by  her  two   marriages  in  which  she  obtained  large  inheritances.     o The   carriage   given   to   her   increased   “reverence   felt   for   a   woman   who   to   this   day   remains   unique   as   the   daughter   of   a   great   commander   and  the  sister.     o “They  offered  Agrippina  the  same  homage  and  gratitude  as  they  had   given  the  Emperor”-­  Tacitus  –  elevation  of  status   o Suetonius:   Nero   “turned   over   all   his   public   and   his   private   affairs   to   Agrippina’s  management”   Assessment of her life and career o A   number   of   factors   contributed   to   Agrippina’s   great   power   and   influence:-­‐   1.   o She  tried  to  broaden  the  role  of  women  in  the  imperial  family. Family   connections      descendent   of   Augustus. Patronage    as  a  wealthy  patrician  and  member  of  the  imperial     .   o Actual   political   power   for   women   was   unheard   of   and   Agrippina   broke   down  this  barrier.   3.   sister   of   Gaius.   daughter   of   Germanicus.   listened   in   on   senate.   o In   the   Julio-­‐Claudian   time   period   women   did   in   general   have   more   personal  freedom  than  at  any  other  time.

  coinage.  Title  of   ‘Augusta’  promoted  her  divinity.   Nero  became  emperor  AND   she   became   the   most   influential.  According  to  Barrett   this   enabled   her   marriage   to   Claudius   to   be   more   like   a   partnership   Agrippina  had  two  important  ambitions  and  she  achieved  both.  She  had  political  allies  at  all  levels…she  knew  how   to  exploit  her  Augustan  lineage  and  descent  from  Germanicus  to  the  full.g.g.   Agrippina   skilfully   used   patronage   to   strengthen   her   position   e.   appearing   on   coins.   imperial   seats.  She  also  enhanced  this  status  by   riding   in   the   Carpentum. Honours   and   position   in   society      position   as   Empress   and   mother  of  an  Emperor  meant  enormous  power/influence.   Agrippina   the   Elder   &   Messalina.HSC  STUDY  BUDDY   2 5     family.   Her  key  achievements  include:-­‐     o Given  the  title  of  Augusta    first  living  empress  to  be  given  this  title   o Was  able  to  manipulate  Claudius  in  order  to  make  Nero  the  heir  over  Britannicus   o Able  to  ride  in  the  carpentum   o Founded  a  colony  in  Germany  named  after  herself    Colonia  Agrippina   o Accompanied  Claudius/Nero  on  political  duties   .   5.g.   Pallas.   powerful   woman   of   her   time.   She   achieved   numerous   honours   and   powers   e.”  -­‐  Griffin     Legacy Assessing  any  legacy  from  Agrippina  is  difficult  as  political  power  was  beyond  female  reach   at  the  time.   Burrus   and   Seneca   owed   their   position   to   Agrippina  and  thus  supported  her  in  her  rise  to  power.   control   of   political   affairs. Own  intelligence  and  political  skill    learnt  many  lessons  from   the   dominant   women   before   her   e.   vestal   virgin.   4.   accompanying   Claudius/Nero  on  their  political  duties  etc.  able  to  ride  in  the  carpentum/litter  etc…  and  was  thus  a  very  successful  individual  in   her  time.   Priestess.   “Agrippina  was  a  formidable  adversary.  and  was  able  to  progress  further.

 especially  as  Empress  of   Rome.   o She  played  a  role  in  the  evolution  of  the  imperial  system.   notably  her  inclusion  on  coins  and  in  reliefs.   o Her  birthday  was  declared  a  black  day  for  Rome   o Agrippina   was   bestowed   with   honours   like   no   previous   Julio-­‐Claudian   woman.   o She  had  am  almost  equal  standing  with  Claudius  and  Nero.  “That  a  woman  should   sit  before  Roman  standards  was  an  unprecedented  novelty.  She  was   able  to  link  herself  with  her  individual  and  family’s  victories  through  coinage  such  as   military  campaigns  or  her  part  in  Nero’s  accession.”  -­‐Tacitus         Ancient and modern images and interpretations of Agrippina the Younger   .   o She  gave  a  definition  to  the  political  power  a  woman  could  achieve.   o For   her   coins   was   a   way   of   emphasising   to   the   Roman   people   that   she   was   an   important  part  of  the  Julio-­‐Claudians  and  at  the  centre  of  family  matters.   o She   revolutionised   women’s   role   and   showed   that   women   could   and   should   have   a   role  in  politics.     She  was  able  to  survive  the  dangers  of  life  in  the  imperial  family  and  was  then  able  to  use   the  system  to  achieve  her  ambitions   o Agrippina’s  impression  on  politics  lasted  long  after  her  death.   o Given  divine  honours  in  the  east   o Detailed  knowledge  of  Roman  law   o Appointed  priestess  of  the  cult  of  Claudius   o Commemorated  on  coins  as  a  partner  in  power   o Secretly   attended   meetings   of   the   senate   (hidden   behind   a   specially   installed   curtain)   o Managed   to   remain   influential   and   powerful   for   many   years   despite   opposition   and   criticism  from  influential  nobles  and  freedmen     Agrippina’s   legacy   lies   within   the   fact   that   she   gained   an   influential   and   powerful   position   in   a  system  dominated  by  men    reflected  in  the  charges  that  Nero  brought  against  her  after   her  death  and  also  by  the  disapproving  views  on  ancient  historians.

  o Is   hostile   towards   Agrippina   although   acknowledges   much   what   is   said   about   her  is  gossip.  Tendency  appears  to  be  to  remove  Agrippina  from  the   stereotype   of   a   Roman   matron   of   kindness   and   charity   and   to   instead   create   her   to   be   the   quintessence   of   corruption   and   ruthlessness.HSC  STUDY  BUDDY   2 7     ANCIENT:       1.   o As   his   aim   is   to   degrade   the   principate   and   therefore   the   emperors   he   uses   Agrippina  to  belittle  them.   3.   o Was  a  scholar  and  biographer.   In   ancient  times  history  was  a  form  of  literature  and  had  a  moral  purpose.  in  doing  so. Cassius  Dio   o Wrote  a  history  of  Rome.  encouraged  her  own  downfall     .   o Applies  the  old  Republican  ideals  to  women. Suetonius:   o Focuses  on  ‘gossip’   o He  had  access  to  imperial  records.   o Quite   hostile   towards   Agrippina   and   indulges   in   the   scandals   such   as   incest   with  Nero  etc.g.   passive   role   of   mother   and   wife   in   Roman  society  and.”     2.   o Draws  parallels  between  powerful  women  e.   did   not   deal   with   her  actions  or  personality  charitably.   It   appears   that   the   ancient   representations   judged   Agrippina   on   her   inability   to   fulfil   the   expected.  Agrippina  and  Livia   o “Her  private  life  was  chaste  unless  power  was  to  be  gained.   as   victims   of   the   ideals   of   their   society.   It   is   evident   that   ancient   historians.   She   used   it   as   a   stepping   stone  to  supremacy. Tacitus:     o His   aim   in   writing   is   to   promote   the   evils   of   one   man   rule   and   to   educate.   o Rarely  analysed  on  historical  events.”   o “Her   passion   to   acquire   money   was   unbounded.   o Note:  status  as  a  Republican   o Is  opposed  to  Agrippina  as  she  is  a  woman  and  achieve  political  status.   o Is  the  main  source  for  this  period.

 one  cannot  help  feeling  a  certain   admiration   for   Julia   Agrippina.  eager  to  enter  the  world  of  male  politics.   there   is   a   tendency   to   portray   Agrippina   the   Younger   as   a   determined  female.  despite  the  restrictions  and   victimization   of   the   Roman   society.   rather   than   her   personality  or  character  that  she  demands  admiration.”   2.   o “In  spite  of  her  many  unpleasant  qualities. Anthony  Barrett:   o Takes  a  middle  ground  between  hostility  and  total  admiration   o “It   is   when   Agrippina   is   judged   by   her   achievements.  using  the  metaphor   that  she  would  “wade  through  slaughter”  in  order  to  secure  the  throne   o Shares   the   ancient   belief   of   her   ruthlessness   and   determination. Salmon   o Idea   that   Agrippina   learnt   her   methods   from   her   peers   and   circumstances   is   shared   by   Salmon   who   states   that   she   “inherited   an…   ambitious   temperament”  from  her  mother   o Bluntly  affirms  that  she  was  “no  paragon  of  female  virtue”.   by   the   evaluation   of   her   actions   within   the   context   of   her   government   system   and  society.         .”     3. Richard  Bauman:   o Not   quite   as   friendly   as   Barrett   but   is   certainly   less   hostile   than   ancient   sources.  The  defence  of  her  flaws  and  unethical  methods  to  achieve  her  ambitions  is   justified.     MODERN:   1.   the   last   of   the   really   great   Julio-­‐Claudian   matrons.   whilst   justifying  it  in  acknowledging  that  she  was  a  product  of  her  time     Within   the   modern   sources.   The   sources   praise   her   for   her   administrative   and   political   skills   as   well   as   acknowledging   that   she   is   a   victim   of   the   system   that   she   is   exploiting.

  An   attempt   to   lead   a   well-­‐developed   investigation   where   previous  interpretations  are  challenged.  in  order  to  recreate  an  individual  rather  than  a   stereotype.   appears   to   be   the   inclination.         .   it   cannot   be   disputed   that   she   was   a   woman   of   immense   vigour.   Regardless   of   her   true   nature.HSC  STUDY  BUDDY   2 9     The  modern  interpretations.   distinction   and   courage   and   her   achievements  are  worth  great  praise  and  admiration.  appear  to  be  more   lenient  and  understanding  in  their  approach  to  history.  as  well  as  the  specific  example  of   Agrippina   the   Younger.  in  comparison  with  the  ancient  sources.