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ENGR 271 Materials Science Laboratory Spring 2015 LAB 2 – TENSILE TEST ENGR 271 Stress-Strain Testing Typical tensile test machine extensometer Typical tensile specimen specimen gauge length Adapted from Fig. 6.2, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. . Adapted from Fig. 6.3, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. (Fig. 6.3 is taken from H.W. Hayden, W.G. Moffatt, and J. Wulff, The Structure and Properties of Materials, Vol. III, Mechanical Behavior, p. 2, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1965.) 2 ENGR 271 ENGR 271 ENGR 271 Linear Elastic Properties • Modulus of Elasticity, E: (also known as Young's modulus) Units: E: [GPa] or [psi] • Hooke's Law: s=Ee s F E e Linearelastic F simple tension test ENGR 271 Yield Strength, sy by 0.2% offset method • Stress at which noticeable plastic deformation has occurred. tensile stress, s when ep = 0.002 sy sy = yield strength Note: for 2 inch sample e = 0.002 = z/z  z = 0.004 in engineering strain, e ep = 0.002 Adapted from Fig. 6.10 (a), Callister & Rethwisch 8e. . ENGR 271 ENGR 271 Ductility Lf - Lo x 100 %El = Lo • Plastic tensile strain at failure: smaller %El (Brittle) Engineering tensile stress, s larger %El (Ductile) Engineering tensile strain, • Another ductility measure: Adapted from Fig. 6.13, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. . Lo Ao Af e Ao - Af %RA = x 100 Ao Lf ENGR 271 Tensile Strength, TS • Maximum stress on engineering stress-strain curve. TS = Tensile Strength F = fracture or ultimate strength engineering stress sy Typical response of a metal strain engineering strain Adapted from Fig. 6.11, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. . Neck – acts as stress concentrator ENGR 271 ENGR 271 Why Use True Stress & Strain Specimen area is decreasing Stress calculated on instantaneous area is increasing Adapted from Fig. 6.11, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. ENGR 271 True Stress & Strain • True Stress s T = F Ai • True Strain e T = ln i  o  s T = s 1  e  e T = ln1  e  Valid up to point M Adapted from Fig. 6.16, Callister & Rethwisch 8e. ENGR 271 LAB 2 – TENSILE TEST REQUIREMENTS Fill out the table, show all calculations, graphs Modulus of Elasticity Yield Strength Tensile Strength Fracture Strength Ductility Toughness Experimental Theoretical % Error ENGR 271 LAB 2 – TENSILE TEST REQUIREMENTS Plot the Engineering vs. True Stress and Strain Diagram. Comment on your results and include the discussion points below to your report. • Why does it not make much sense to calculate true stress and true strain using the equations given in the lab notes after the maximum load is reached? • In general, A36 can be categorized as a ductile material, and cast iron as a brittle material. Based on the results of the tensile tests, discuss the differences between the ductile and brittle materials in terms of the overall deformation and fracture behavior.