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63413

ATLAS OF GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT

,....:
Collins

THE WORLD BANK

Washington, D.C.

2007 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank
1818 H Street NW
Washington DC 20433
Telephone: 202-473-1000
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Printed and bound by Imago, Singapore

Contents
4

Acknowledgements

Foreword

Classification of economies

Rich and poor

Measuring income I Growth and opportunity I How poor is poor?


24

People
The world's growing population I Demographic transitions
People on the move

38

Education
Education opens doors I Gender and development

46

Health
Children under five-struggling to survive

Improving the health ofmothers

Communicable diseases-too little progress

58

Economy
Structure ofthe world's economy I Infrastructure for development
Investment for growth I Improving the investment climate
Governance I The integrating world
Aid for development I External debt

92

Environment
The urban environment
Feeding a growing world I A thirsty planet gets thirstier
Forests I Energy use and a warmer world

122

Statistics

Key indicators of development


Ranking of economies by GNI per capita
The need for statistics
Millennium Development Goals, targets and indicators
Definitions, sources, notes, and abbreviations
143

Index

Acknowledgements

The text and data of the Atlas of Global Development were prepared by the Development
Data Group of the World Bank under the management of Shaida Badiee. The team consisted
of Mehdi Akhlaghi, Uranbileg Baljargal, David Cieslikowski, Mahyar Eshragh-Tabary, Richard
Fix, Amy Heyman, Masako Hiraga, Raymond Muhula, Sulekha Patel, William Prince,
Changqing Sun, Eric Swanson, and K. M. Vijayalakshmi. Sebastien Dessus, Shahrokh
Fardoust, Jeff Lecksell, Jeff Lewis, M. H. Saeed Ordoubadi, and Giovanni Ruta made valuable
contributions. Denise Bergeron, Valentina Kalk, Stephen McGroarty, and Santiago Pombo
from the World Bank's Office of the Publisher oversaw publication and dissemination of
the book.
The Publishing, Design, Editorial, Creative Services, and Database teams at Collins
Reference, HarperCollins Publishers, provided overall design direction, editorial control,
mapping, and DTP origination.

Picture credits
Curt Carnemark/World Bank 10, 14, 20, 22, 30, 68, 84, 106, 108, 117, 118; Kevin CoombsjReuters/
Corbis 86; Francis Dobbs/World Bank 80; Douglas Engle/Corbis 111 (top); J. Emilio Flores/Corbis 36;
Alan Ginoux/World Bank 82; Masuru Goto/World Bank 56; Louise Gubb/Corbis 102; YosefHadar/
World Bank 18; Collart Herve/Corbis Sygma 93; Tran Thi Hoa/World Bank 52; Arne Hoel/World
Bank 71; Anvar nyasov/World Bank 100; Ed Kasbi/Corbis 76; Kazuyoshi/Corbis 114; Bob Krist/
Corbis 24; Frans LantingfCorbis 112; Bill Lyons/World Bank 64; Stephanie Maze/Corbis 96; Gideon
Mende1/Corbis 59 (bottom); Eric Miller/World Bank 63,72,89 (top); Viviane Moos/Corbis 89 (bottom),
94; Stephen Morrison/epa/Corbis 74; Shehzad Noorani/World Bank 54; Charles O'Rear/Corbis 75;
Anatoliy Rakhimbayev/World Bank 99, 105; Gennadiy RatushenkojWorld Bank 44; Reuters/Corbis 33;
Trevor SamsonjWorld Bank 13, 40; Dominic Sansoni/World Bank 79; Alfredo Srur/World Bank 48;
Shannon StapletonjReuters/Corbis 34; Eberhard Streichan/Zefa/Corbis 120; Wendy Stone/Corbis 26;
William Taufic/Corbis 59 (top); UNEP 111 (bottom); Ami Vitale/World Bank 39; Scott Wallace/World
Bank 60; Ray WitlinjWorld Bank 47, 51; Adam Woolfitt/Corbis 90.

Foreword

Development is a multidimensional
process characterized by economic growth,
investment and technological progress,
transformation of natural resources,
demographic change, advances in health
and education, and evolution of social and
political institutions. The results of
development should be measurable by
increases in output, improvements in the
welfare of people, greater efficiency in the
use of scarce resources, and a balance
between human needs and the capacity of
the environment to provide for those needs.
Because development is a complex process,
it cannot be measured by a single yardstick.
Simply measuring the size ofan economy
or its rate ofgrowth tells us little about
who benefited from growth, whether they
are better educated and healthier, or ifthe
air, water, and land around them have been
degraded. Furthermore, there is no simple
or unique path to development. Countries
have different endowments and different
opportunities. Some have first developed
their agricultural sectors and then
industrialized; others with great mineral
wealth have remained primary commodity
producers; and some are rapidly developing
their service sectors. Export-led growth is a
recent prescription for development, but
small countries have always needed to trade
for the goods and services they need, while
large countries with large hinterlands can
remain more self-sufficient.
Development is a process that never ends.
We speak loosely of developed and
developing countries, but no country or
society ever stops developing. Rich
countries as well as poor countries face the
challenge of meeting their current needs

while ensuring that future generations


inherit a better and more productive world.
Statistics, it has been said, are the eyes of
the policy maker. They are also the eyes of
citizens. Through them we can see
development in action. We can identifY
places of great need, we can set goals for
improvement, and we can measure success
or take stock offailures. Statistics,
therefore, are an important means of
enforcing accountability on governments,
businesses, and other actors.
To be useful, statistics must be reliable. And
to help us understand the global process of
development, they must be comparable
across countries and over time. This book
seeks to provide a comprehensive picture of
the world's development at the beginning
ofthe 21st century. It draws on the large set
of statistical indicators that have been
collected by the World Bank to guide its
development programs. These indicators
come from many sources. Most have been
collected by agencies of the United Nations
and shared by them as part oftheir
mandate to increase knowledge and
understanding. But all have their origins in
work carried out in countries, usually by
statistical offices or other public agencies,
sometimes under very adverse conditions,
in order to provide the basic information
needed to manage their economies and
provide services to their citizens.
We hope that readers ofthis book will find
it informative, that it will expand their view
ofthe world. And that they will recognize
both the formidable challenges and the
great successes that have been achieved in
creating a better world for all.
FTan~ois

BOUTBui,gnon

Senior Vice President and Chief Economist


World Bank

Classification of economies
Low- and middle-income economies

East Asia
Europe

&: Pacific

&: Central Asia

Latin America

&. the Caribbean

Middle East 8( North

AfrlCd

South Asia

Sub-Saharan Africa
High-income economie(
OEeD
Other

"

U n i t ed

S t ate s

no data

\'> .

The World Bank classifies economies as low


income, middle income (subdivided into lower
middle and upper middle), or high income
based on gross national income (GNI) per
capita. Low- and middle-income economies
are sometimes referred to as developing
economies. It is not intended to imply that all

economies in the group are experiencing


similar development or that other economies
have reached a preferred or final stage of
development.
The regions used in this atlas are based on
the regions defined by the World Bank for

. ...

.....

N~w ~.'"

Au S1r

lr-~'

i1

I i a

(olttfon(o

IF,)

b'
Following its referendum on independence in May 2006, Montenegro
declared its independence from the union of Serbia and Montenegro,
resulting in both states becoming separate nations
/

analytical and operational purposes. These


regions may differ from common geographic
usage or from the regions defined by other
organizations. Regional groupings and the
aggregate measures for regions include only
low- and middle-income economies.

Data are shown for economies as they were


constituted in 2005. Additional information
about the data is provided in World Development
Indicators 2006 or on the World Bank website
(www.worldbank.orgfdata).

6,000

,--
,--
5,000

,--
4,000

,--
3,000

,--
2,000

1,000

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

2005

High.income

High-i ncome

countries

countries

54%

79"';'

Life expectancy at birth (years) 2004


100
80

_ 1U~~qlitJ5Sb ~o
~

dlJllbI3 cP

I:b

DeB Dca

00

oUnited Stat es

- - - 0 - - - - - - - - - - - -S~b-Saha;a~ ~o~~trie~ ~ith high pr~~le-n~e-of ~

[J
CC
C HIV/AIOS: Botswana, Equatorial Guinea, GClbon ,1
~ ~ _ _ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _~ ____ ~s..?~~ ~~~i~a..: ~o~t~ ~f~c~I:~d_S~~i~a~~ ~

200~----~~~~~~1~------------~~~~----------~~--------------~~--------------~
10,000

20,000

40,000

50,000

Under-five mortality rate (deaths per i ,OOO children) 2004


300
DEquatorial Guinea

o
o

Norway
50000

Net enrollment rate for secondary school (%) 2004


100
80
60

40
20

.. , ..

Tajikistan

........;.,. ..
/

.(1 II.! ~.

r!I Y

C - Mozambique

.#

., ..

Each square represents one country

Iceland

Income
GNI per capita, World Bank Atlas method, 2005
Low-income countries ($875 or less)
Lower-middle-income countries (S876--S3,46S)

-J...

Upper-middle-income countries ($3,466-$l0,7~)


High-income countries (SlO,726 or more)

no data

Un I t ed

Latin America 8{ Caribbean

$4,010

GNI per capita


2005

Europe

8t Central Asia

$4,110

East Asia

8t Pacific

$1,630

~
e .
Nrw

','.
.

,~

CalrdoniQ .
(F'i

N~ ZeOlf~nd

," +<'/

J!. 1

...

/
Low-income countries are concentrated in Sub-Saharan Africa
and Asia .
Of the poorest 40 countries, 29 are in Sub-Saharan Africa, 10 are in
Asia, and one is in Latin America and Caribbean.

World Development Indicators

I www.worldbank.org/data

OECD Statistics

www.oecd.org/statistics

Most economies in Latin America and the Caribbean, Europe and Central

Asia, and the Middle East and North Africa regions are middle-income.

United Nations System of


National Accounts

u nstats.u n.org/unsd/
nationalaccount/nasp.htm

Variations within each region can also be large. For example, in 2005

Botswana's GNI per capita surpassed $5,000, while its neighbor

Zimbabwe's GNI per capita was only $340.

IMF Dissemination Standards


Bulletin Board

dsbb.imf.org/Applications/
web/dsbbhome

International Comparison
Project

www.worldbank.org/data/icp

Since 1989, 16 economies have moved from developing to high


income status and four high-income economies have been
re-classified to developing country status.

Rich and poor ~

High-income countries
Developing countries

1960-1970

1970-1980

1980-1 990

1 990-~OO O

200 0- ~OOS

Source: World Development Indicators database

I
I

-- --

--------

--

-~~---------

'

I
12 , -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --

----- - - - - - -

Growth incidence curve, China, 1993-1996

~ ~ r",,::===~=====~~~===~,
--.............

-~~ 10

..c..r:!

~-o.

e~
Oll t

~ "c::
c::

__

Growth incidence curve, China, 1990-1999

_ __ L_ __ L_ _
20
30
40
50

OL-_~L__~

10

_ ___"
90
100

_ _~_ _L__~L__~

60

70

Population ranked by income per capita (%)


Source: Ravallion and Chen, Measuring pro-poor growth, Economics letters (2003)

80

A growth incidence curve


shows how fast income
grew at each income level.
In China, between 1990 and

1999, the incomes of the


wealthiest people grew
fastest.
But for a brief period,
between 1993 and 1996,
poor people's income grew
faster (yellow line).

School participation rate (%), age 6-11, by wealth quintile


120 ,---------------------------- - - - - - - ---

DVietnam

l00 ~----------_===~--_.===o----_=~----~==~

80
60

40
20

Poorest

Second

Third

Fourth

Riches!

quintjl ~

quintil ~

quintile

quintil ~

quintile

Source: Demograph ic and He.lth Survey. Benin 2001 ;md Vietnam 200 1

-" Rom ani a, 1996-2002

~~

Burkina Folso, ~94-2003

Q. ~

.s

00
.."e: 8e:"
..c:

~~

g~
e:

o Indonesia 1996-2002

0
Zambi., 1991-1998

.1:i

Bol via, 1989-2002 ~


-2

Brazil,1993-2001 ""...
Ghana, 1992-1999

-4

-6

[I

~'99 ~~~~8

-8
-10

/
/ "to! /

-4

Seneg, I,1994-- 001


Banglade h,1992-2000

~~

-2

Annual growth in gross domestic product (%)


Source:World B.l nk. Pro -poor growth in the J990s-I~sons and insightsfrom 14 countries, 2005

. India, 1994-2000

""'""Tunisi , 199()"-2000
Ug.nd ,1992-2002

_.JlJ

Vi nam, 1993-2002

Economic growth
average annual growth of GDP per capita, 2000-2005
less than 0.0%
0.G-1.9%
2.0--3.9%

4.0-5.9%
6.0% or more
no data

F"","PoIy""",!") )

Chile

3.1%-----~

____ Argentina
1.2%

Federation

8.9%
Vietnam

6.3%
( N. MaritlllrzlsJDnds (US))

("-(US))

--
I.l"ID

\~ <

.....\

",

~b mbiqUe

Nt''''

Crzlnioll/a

(h)

,.

South Africa

3.2%

I>

All six developing regions grew faster in 2005 than their


average growth rate between 1990 and 2004.

I>

Nearly 60 percent of all developing economies grew faster in 2005


than their average growth rate between 1990 and 2004.

I>

95 percent of Europe and Central Asian economies and 75 percent


of Sub-Saharan African economies grew faster in 2005 than their

:--~S~(Ul

~i

..

'

N~Z"" od)r

World Bank - Global Economic


Prospects

www.worldbank.org/prospects

IMF World Economic Outlook

www.imf.org/weo

previous average performance.


I>

The last 15 years saw a surge of growth, especially among countries


that opened their economies to trade and investment, maintained
sound monetary and fiscal policies, and strengthened the rule of law.

I>

OECD statistics

www.oecd.org/statistics

Rich and poor ~

Inequality
share of income or consumption going to the poorest quintile
1983-2004, most recent year available
less than 3.0%

3.0--4.9%
5.0-6.9%
7.()...l!.9%

9.00..6 or more
no data

One commonly used measure of income inequality is the


inequality ratio, calculated as the ratio of income or
consumption shares of the richest 20 percent to the poorest
20 percent of the population. A ratio of 10 means that the
top 20 percent of the population earns (or spends) ten times
as much as the bottom 20 percent of the population.
Generally the higher this ratio, the more unequal the income
distribution. Countries with high inequality ratios are mostly
in Latin America and Africa . The highest inequality ratio
among Asian countries is 12.

- .~

@3
\

(SOlo"""' ......)

(--N5I j

~~

(v'"- r i '-J.

News"t,.;.'
COlrrlOf1lD .

(f1

;,'

Income inequality between countries increased until the


onset of rapid economic growth in China and India in the past
two decades.

~ World Development Report

www.worldbank.orgfwdr

2006

~ Inequality within countries has increased in many parts of the

world, including Bangladesh, China, Russia, the United Kingdom,


and the United States.

~ Human Developme"nt Report

hdr.undp.org

~ World Development Indicators

www.worldbank.orgfdata

~ Inequality in access to schooling has fallen as school participation

rates have risen inmost cou ntries.


~ Different groups of citizens within an economy, defined by such

characteristics as race or gender. often face quite different


opportunities for economic and social mobility.

Rich and poor

[1LJ

People living on more than $1


a day and less than $2 a day
_

All developing regions

People living on less than $1 a day

Other developing country regions

South Asia,

2002

East Asia

Sub-Saharan Africa

&: Pacific

Lack of physical, human, social, and environmental assets, which leaves poor
people at risk, vulnerable to natural and man-made disasters

1.00 , -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Limited or no access to basic infrastructure-particularly roads (in rural areas),


transport, and water and sanitation
~

Inadequate access to services such as health care and education

Sub-Saharan Africa

O ther developing countries

0.80 f - - . - - - -

.. Lack of voice, power, and independence, which subjects poor people to


exploitation
Inability to maintain cultural identity and fully participate in community life

35

Proportion of deaths associated


with being underweight

30

25

-,

20

15

Share of population living on less than $1 a day (%)

50,----------------------------------------------

10
r-

r-

40f------------------f~' --------------

1-

'

'

30f-~~ -------1~ ~r--,---------

n~r-1

Poverty
share of population living on less than SI a day,
1989-2004, most recent year available
40.0% or more
20.0-39.9"/0
10.0-19.9%
5.0-9.9%
less than 5.0%
no data

'/

Latin America 8( Caribbean


47 million

- ------ --- --

Europe 8/. Central Asia


10 million

R u ss ian

Federa t I on

_.......

East Asia 8/. Pacific


214 million
(~

. .,

N~

Calt:donia .
(Fr)

Australia

New

Z e~ l.JIn d

Population lilliny on
less than $1 a day
/

Africa has more high poverty countries than any other developing
country region, but Asia has the most people living in extreme
poverty.

World Bank: PovcalNet

Although extreme poverty occurs mostly in rural areas, urban slum


populations can also have a high poverty ratio.

World Bank: Country poverty


estimates

If economic growth rates in developing countries are sustained,


global extreme poverty will fall to 10 percent by 2015.

World Bank: Millennium


Development Goals

Many developing countries are not on track to achieve the poverty


reduction target of the Millennium Development Goal of halving
poverty by 2015.

United Nations Millennium


Project

iresearch.worldbank.org/
PovcaINet/jsp/index.jsp

Iwww.worldbank.org/data
Iwww.developmentgoals.org

www.unmillenniumproject.org

Rich and poor

CID

Malnouri'shed children
proportion of children under five who are
underweight,l995-2004, most
recent year available
30% or more

20-29%
10-19%
5-9%
less than 5%
no data

'"

- ~-

lA.;...-----China
7 million

Pakistan
8 mil/ion

Ban91adesh
7 million

Vietnam
2 mil/ion

Philippines
3 mil/ion

Indonesia
6 mil/ion

N~~~

C(1/~dQn;a

(Fr)

Au s t r a Ii a

Oem. Rep. ofCon90


3 mil/ion

. ,

[7
Countries with most
underwei9ht children

~ Large

disparities exist for underweight prevalence between urban and


rural children and between children in rich households and poor

households in the developing world.

Around 146 million children in developing countries are


underweight, based on the most recent estimates.
Between the periods 1995-1997 and 2000-2002, the rate of increase
in the number of undernourished people slowed from 5 million per
year to 1 million per year in SubSaharan Africa.

UNICEF Monitoring the

Situation of Children and


Women
World Health Organization

~ Food

www.childinfo.org

Iwww.who.intfnutgrowthdbfen

and Agriculture
Organization

I www.fao.org

World Bank

Iwww.worldbank.orgfdata

~ During

the same period , the proportion of undernourished people


in Sub-Saharan Africa fell from 36 percent, where it had hovered
since 1990-1992, to 33 percent.

Rich and poor

OIJ

The 20th century saw rapid popu


lation growth. It began with 1.6
billion, and ended with 6.1 billion
living in the world. The largest
increase came after 1950. The
momentum created by this growth
could carry the world's population
beyond 7 billion by 2015, and to
over 9 billion by 2050.
This population growth was the result of
rapidly plummeting death rates, followed by
more gradual declines in birth rates, first in the
more developed, then, since 1950, in develop
ing countries. Nearly all the population growth
occurred in developing countries, but because
of different demographic situations, there were
large regional variations.

grew much more slowly. As a result, their


share ofthe world population fell from
22 percent in 1965 to 16 percent in 2005.
Even as world population grew, the pace
ofgrowth decreased. Between 1965 and
1980, population grew by 1.9 percent a year;
between 1980 and 2005 it grew by
1.5 percent. Every region experienced a
slowdown during this period, but Sub
Saharan Africa still grew fastest, at
2.6 percent a year. By contrast, the growth
rates in high-income economies and
Europe and Central Asia fell sharply, to well
below 1 percent a year.

Asia, with over half the world's population in


1965, added over 1.7 billion people to its
population over the next 40 years. But Sub
Saharan Mrica, whose population nearly tripled
in the same time period, had the highest
growth rate. The populations ofrich countries

Population growth rates are highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. followed by the Middle East and North Africa
Population growth, annual %
3.5,--3.0

- - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --

- --

~---------____:::;_ _=;:IIl"""c:a.c::::::::::~~~-o;;;,;;j~----------

2.5 ~~~~=_~~~===_

2.0

~~1--------~,-----~::::~=:::::=:"~c:::=::5:;z:'

1.5 r-r......,~::;;::::_---------==-~=-"'----------'~,=_--=="""--;;;;;;;;;;:;:;;::;;:::~

0.5
0.0

I---t:-+----------------------~-----------

Europe &: Centloll Asia

Source: World Bank esti mOl tes

24

Latin Ameria 8{ c<rribbean

South Asia

Middle East &: North Africa

Sub~Saharan

Africa

Patterns for absolute population Increase and annual growth rates differ

Absolute population Increase by country.

by regions
.
' f Ions
an d thei r demograplhic situa

East Asia &. Pacific


Europe &. Central Asia
Latin Am~ric3 Be: Caribbean
Middle East &. North Africa
South Asia
SubSaharan Africa
High Income
World

1965

Number (millions)
1980

980.6
364.6
247.1
111.4
631.5
254.3
727.7
3,317.2

1,359.0
425.6
357.2
168.2
898.0
385.0
839.8
4,432.7

2005
1,885.3
472.9
551.4
305.4
1,470.0
741.4
1,011.3
6,437.8

Most of the projected rncrease 1n the

Growth rates (%)


1965-1980 1980-2005
2.18
1.03
2.46
2.74
2.35
2.77
0.95
1.93

1.31
0.42
1.74
2.39
1.97
2.62
0.74
1.49

coming years will be in the poorest countries.


Top 10 population increase countries, change in millions,
2000-2015

250 , - - -- -- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

200

Source: World Bank estimates

The next billion

ISO

These trends not only shaped the current demographic


profile of countries, but will influence their demographic
futures. Between 2000 and 2015, an additional 1 billion people
will be added to the world's population. More than half of
them will be in Asia, with South Asia projected to increase by
over 350 million people, and East Asia and Pacific by
230 million people. Europe and Central Asia will add a scant
3 million people. During this period, the population of
Sub-Saharan Africa will continue to grow rapidly, with
fertility rates remaining at over 3.5 births per woman,
producing a youthful age structure. It is almost certain that
the fastest population growth will be in poor countries, among
the poorest population groups within these countries, and
that urban areas in these regions will absorb most ofthe
additional people. In these countries a "youth bulge" will
ensure that births will continue to rise even as couples have
fewer children.

100

SO

Source: World Bank estimates

Top 10 population decrease countries, change in millions,


2000-2015

The next billion people: where will they be?


-2

Increase in population between 2000 and 2015 (millions)


72.2

East Asia 8( Pacific

Europe &: Central Asia

Latin America 8{ Caribbean

Middle East &. North Africa

-4

-6

3.0

98.1
South Asia

-8

Sub-Saharan Africa
High income

10 ,- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Source: World B.nk estimates

Source: World Bank. estimates

People

25

Population growth
annual average growth rate, 2000-2005
3.0% or more

2.()-2.9%
1.5-1.9%
1.0--1.4%

less than 1.0%


no data

/r---4_ _

~- -

--

:..--

N. _ _

-'
Nt';'

'. ,

CaledMJa
(Fr)

.. In most countries fertility rates, rather than mortality rates, will


determine future population size.

.. UN Population Information
Network

,. It took human history up to the early 1800s to reach 1 billion people;


today the world gains 1 billion people every 12-14 years.

.. UN Population Fund

-----------------

,. The gap between countries with rapid and slow population growths
is linked to disparities in wealth and opportunities.
.
... Sub-Saharan Africa will experience the largest proportional increase
in population, from 13 percent of the world's population today
to 20 percent by 2050.

I www.unfpa.org
-------------1

... Demographic and Health


Surveys
,. Population Reference Bureau

,. World Bank

I www.measuredhs.com

I www.prb.org
www.worldbank.org

(Click on Topics then on


Health, Nutrition and Population)

People

27

Demography will shape the world


ofour children and grandchildren.
Failure to slow population growth
in the poorest countries is likely to
mean a lower quality oflife for
millions of people. The key
determinants ofpopulation size
and structure are fertility,
mortality, and migration.

The world experienced a population


explosion in the middle ofthe 20th century,
most of it in developing countries, when
two demographic trends converged-high
birth rates and rapidly declining death
rates. In the 1960s a preference for large
families kept fertility rates high, especially
in low-income countries. Children were
seen as an investment-working during
childhood and supporting aging parents as

Most people in developing countries are living longer


Life expecta ncy, yea rs

East Asia &: Pacific

Latin America 8{ Caribbean

South Asia

Europe &: Central Asia

Middle East 8{ North Africa

Sub-Saharan AfriCiii

75,-- - - - - - - - -- - - - - - -- -- - - -- - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

70~~~~

65

60

--

55
50

45
40

,,--

35r-- - - - - - - - - - - - - --

- -- -- - - - - - - - -- -- - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - -

30,~-L~~-L~~~-L~~-L~~~-L~~-L~~~-L~~-L~~~-L~~~dbd-~

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

World Bank estimates

A failing birth rate, but II steady death rate in high-inc:ome countries


Crude rate, per 1,000 people

Crude birth rate


Crude death rate

45.----------------------------------------------------------------------

0'Ll~96~0~-L~19~65~~~-19~70~~-Ll~97~5~~-Ll~98~0~-L~19~8-5~-L~19L90~~~-19~95~~-L2~00-0~~~2005
World Bank estimates

Falling birth and death rates in developing countries


Crude rate, per 1,000 people

Crude birth rate


Crude death rate

45.----------------------------------------------------------------------
..

30.t==~~--------~~
.........

151~--...........~~;;;;;;;;;;;~:::::+=:;::~_=;:::=;::;;::=:;:::;:=;::::;:;~

O~-L~~-L~~~_L~~-L~~~-L~~-L~~~-L~~-L~~~-L~~-L~~~

1960
worfd Bank estimates

28

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

adults. When mortality rates declined, so


did desired family size, but in many
countries, failures in health, education, and
reproductive health services kept fertility
rates higher for much longer.
Fertility and mortality trends have
shaped the current population profiles
ofcountries and will influence their
demographic futures. In the high-income
countries, increasing life expectancy has
coincided with income growth and
healthier lifestyles. But with a fertility rate
of 1.7 births per woman, well below replace
ment level, the average age of the popula
tion will rise (currently 15 percent are over
the age of65) and population size may fall
in the absence ofimmigration. In fact,
large increases in migration will be needed
to stabilize the labor force and maintain
current levels ofwelfare.
In developing countries fertility rates
have also declined, but at 2.8 births per
woman, they remain well above those in
high-income countries. The rates vary
considerably by region, but remain very
high in Sub-Saharan Africa. Life expectancy
at birth increased steadily for the
developing regions as a whole, from
41 years in 1950 to 65 years in 2004. But in
Sub-Saharan Africa the HIV/AIDS epidemic
has caused life expectancy to fall from
49 years to 46 years since 1990.

change, migration is also important. A majority of


international migrants are from developing
countries. They make up a significant part of
population growth in industrialized countries
where fertility is so low that annual deaths exceed
annual births. The departure ofhighly-skilled
workers has affected some smaller economies but
the total number of emigrants is too small to have
much impact on population growth in most
developing countries.

In h1aMncome countries, the depe~ burden is

Inc::rea$lIlIW that of the elderly popl$.lation I I bIf'th

rates decline

Dependency ratio (as a proportion of working-age population)

1.0 .------ - - - - -- - -
Young (ages 0-14)
0.8 1 -

--

0.6 1 - - - -

1970

Old (ages 65+)

----

1980

Source: World B.ank estimates

In contrast. the worIdng-;ap population in d~


countries will continue to su pport~ng child r.en:(6i
some time to come
Dependency ratio (as a proportion of working-age population)

1.0 .------ - - - -- - --
0.8 1 - - - - - - -

Decreases in life expectancy in Sub


Saharan Africa are offset by stubbornly high
fertility. With over 40 percent ofthe popula
tion below age 15, the working-age popula
tion will bear the burden of dependent
youth for some time.
Although fertility and mortality are the
largest factors affecting demographic

0.4

0.1

Source: World Bank estimates

People

29

Life expectancy
life expectancy at birth, 2004
less than SS years
55-64 years
65--69 years

70-74 years
7S ye;Jr"S or more
no data

co
U n i t ed

S t .tes

Achild in Botswana can only expect to reach,


on average, the age of 35

and lowest life

Central African Republic


Zambia
Zimbabwe
36

( N.

MtJritfllffl lsltHHis ~

("""'(US))

Over 190 million people are international migrants who live in a


country other than the country of their birth.
.. The world's population currently grows by over 200,000 people
each day.
Population growth over the next few decades will be determined by
two factors that are difficult to predict: the pace of fertility decline in
some developing countries and the course of the AIDS epidemic.
.. In 11 countries population grew by three percent or more between
1990 and 2004; at this rate, a population will double in size
every 23 years.

us

r a

I j

UN Population Information
www.un.org/popin

Network

~------------------~-www.unfpa.org
UN Population Fund

------ Demographic and Health


Surveys

.. Population Reference Bureau

The World Bank

---------.

Iwww.measuredhs.com

I
I

- ---I

www.prb.org
www.worldbank.org/data

People I 31

The movement of people across


national borders is a visible and
increasingly important aspect of
global integration. Three percent
ofthe world's population-more
than 190 million people-are now
living in countries in which they
were not born. The forces driving
the flow of migrants from poor
countries to rich countries are
likely to grow stronger in the
future.
Rem itta ncC!$ to developing countries continue to
increase
Current US$, billions
250 , -- - - - - -- - - - : - - - - - -

Foreign Direct Investment, net infl ows


Remittances, received (US$)

200 -

- Aid
150 1-- - - --+- - -

100

- --,,"'"-

1------7"~----_____=7'_~--

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

Source: Intern ;l tion.illl Monetary Fund B.iII l4I nce of P. yments, OECD, World B.mk Debt

Migration is on the rise, especially from


poor countries to rich countries. One
reason is the large wage gap between
developed and developing countries. Also
increasing is the flow of remittances
currency transfers plus wages and salaries
earned abroad-from migrants back to
their country of origin, which has become
an important source of foreign exchange
for many developing countries.
Remittances have tripled since 1990,
reaching ahnost $249 billion in 2004, with
$179 billion going to developing countries.
Already more than twice the size of foreign
aid, remittances are expected to continue
growing. Empirical studies have found that
remittances can raise income levels,
especially among, but not limited to, the
poor. Remittances may have reduced the
number of poor people in the population
by 11 percent in Uganda, 6 percent in
Bangladesh, and 5 percent in Ghana. In
addition to benefiting households through
higher levels of educational attainment,
better health outcomes, and increased
investment, they can also lead to
improvements in the overall economy.

Reporter System

Alarger share of all remittance flows are now going to developing countries
Workers' remittances and compensation of employees, received

$248.9 billion

$68.6 billion

Europe 8{ Central Asia


10%
High income
54%

M iddle East

&. North AfriGl

17%

Middle East &. North AfriGl

10%
Source: International Monetary Fund B.I.ncc ofP. yments databa_se_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

32

Demographic trends in both high


income and developing countries may
encourage migration. In many developed
countries the population is aging fast, while
in many developing countries the
population is young and growing rapidly.
This imbalance is likely to create strong
demand in high-income labor markets for
developing-country workers, especially to
provide services that can be supplied only
locally. The share of immigrants in the total
population ofhigh-income countries
increased to 11 percent in 2005, up from
7 percent two decades before.

Myanmar refugee children at their


camp in Thailand

Migration may also have negative effects.


Among international migrants are millions
ofhighly educated people who have moved
to developed countries from developing
countries. By migrating they improve their
own prospects and provide valuable services
in high-income economies, but the loss of
human capital, the so-called "brain drain",
from developing countries may increase the
concentration of poverty and reduce the
social benefits of migration. The regions
most affected by the brain drain are Sub
Saharan Africa and small island economies.
For example, 87 percent of Guyanese and
85 percent ofJamaicans with degrees live
outside oftheir country.

Immigrants in DECO countries are better educated


Working-age immigrants by level of education, 1990 and 2000 (millions)

Sourc(!: Ozd(!n -"lnd Schiff, 200 5

Immigrant populations have been growing in high-income


countries since 1960 but very little in developing countries
International migration stock (total. millions)
120,-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
High income

Middle income

100

- - Low income

wr--------------~~-----

wr-----------~~--------

1960

1965

1970

1975

1980

1985

1990

1995

2000

2005

Refugees are an important component of


the migrant stock. At the end of2005, the
number of refugees stood at 8.4 million
-the lowest level since 1980-accounting
for 4.4 percent ofthe migrants in the world.
In 2005, Pakistan and Iran hosted the
largest number ofrefugees. Other major
countries ofasylum included Germany,
Tanzania, and the United States.

Source:: World Bank staff estimates based on United Nations Population Division data

People

33

Migration
migrants as share of population, 2005
less th an 1.0%
1.0--2.9%

3.0--5.9%

6. 0--14.9%

15.0% or mo re

no ddtOl

13 percent ofthe- - -
population ofthe
United States was born
in another country

..

Ene dor .'

,
Bra z i I

0I::::1

Only 0.2 percent of East Asia 81.


Pacific's population is made
up of migrants

----------,Vietnam has the smallest


immigrant population as a
share ofits total population

(6OPercent ofthe world's migrants

live in high-income countries

Facts
In the 1960s, the majority of migrants lived in developing countries. Today,

the largest number resides in high-income countries.

78 million migrants are living in developing countries (about 1.4 percent


of their population), compared to 112 million in high-income countries

;,'

Internet links
www.un.orgjesaj
populationjunpop.htm

.. United Nations
Population Division

(a bo
l -,--_
_ ent_ _
of_t_heir
_ _-'p_o-'-_
pulat
_ _ _io_n).
-'.._ _-,---_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _- I .. I nternational Organ ization
I--,--_
_ _ut_ _l _
perc--"_
The number of migrants in the world grew from about 70 million in 1960
for Migration

to more than 190 million in 2005. But this remained about 3 percent of the

world's population.

.. United Nations Refugee


Of the immigrants in the world, 95 million are female, and 96 million are male.
Agency

Five countries have immigrant populations that make up more than half of

their total population: Andorra, Kuwait, Monaco, Qatar, and United Arab

Emirates.

.. OECD
L-'~_ _-::-"'-""""_-::-_---'-~:-:-:--:-_-::--:-:--,:"_____ "-:--_--I
There were 8.4 million refugees in 2005, down from 14.9 million in 1995.

www.iom.int

www.unhcr.org

www.oecd.org
Click on department, then ELS

People

CIT]

Remittances
remittances received as share of GOP, 2004
6.0% o r mo re

3.0-5. 9%
1.0-2.9%
0.5-0.9",6
Jess than 0.5%

no data

(5emittances r~ceived in
2605 in the United States-~-
.only totaled 0.03 percent
of the fountry 's GDP

"

U n it e d

Latin America tq Caribbean


receives the largest amount
of remittances ($46 billion)

\'.

Immigrant workers gather strawberries on a farm in


California, United States
$ billions

36 J

Eu.rope 8l. Central Asia


remittances are about 1 percent ofthe region's GDP

(~

'.

N~w "- '

C<7/e dolllll .
(h)

Australia

Sub-Saharan Africa
receives remittances that total
onlY 1 percent ofits GDP

At $1 million, Lao P.D.R., Malawi,


the Republic of Congo, and sao Tome
and Prfncipe receive the smallest

As a share of GDP, countries such as Moldova (32 percent), Tonga (31 percent),
and Lebanon (26 percent) have the largest receipt of remittances. Chile
(0.01 percent), Republic of Congo (0.02 percent), and Japan (0.02 percent) have
the smallest.

.. World Bank

econ.worldbank.org
(search for 'remittances')

Remittances to developing countries increased from 0.8 percent ofGDP in 1990


to 1 percent in 2005. In high-income countries it remained constant at 0.2 percent.
At the beginning of the 1990s, more than half of remittances went to high
income countries. In 2005, middle-income countries received more than half
of all remittances, and low-income countries received 18 percent.

International Monetary Fund

www.imf.org

In 2005, remittances were the second largest source of external financing to


developing countries, after foreign direct investment, and were twice the size of aid.
High-income countries are the principal source of outward remittance flows. The
United States is the largest, with $40 billion in outward flows. Saudi Arabia
is the second largest, followed by Switzerland and Germany.

Migration Information Source

www.migrationinformation.org

People

37

Primary completion rates, circa 1991 and most recent year,


2000-2005 (%)
100

Primary gross enrollment rates, 1991 and 2004 (%)


120
f--

100

f-

80

1-

f--

60

f-

f-

40

f-

o f

8-

~-

20

<'if
~

Grade completion by gender,


ages 15-19, Ethiopia 2000 (%)
100 ,---------------

80

f-

f-

I-

'--

f--

60

f-

r--

f-

f-

40

~f-

20

S
8~

8
~
~

'i

r- ~

Grade completion by wealth,


ages 15-19, Ethiopia 2000 (%)

Grade completion by urban/rural residence,


ages 15-19, Ethiopia 2000 (%)

100

100 ,--------------------

80

o
f-=,.---

60 f----------------------

60

f--------~~~------------

60~------------~--------

40 f-~~.r------------------

40

f---------------~~-------

40 ~----------~__-

20f-----~~,~~~----------

20

f-~~~------------~r_--

20~--~~~----------~._

.
80

f--------------

male
female

richest quintile

3456789>9

Grade completed

80

~.~~---------

Out of school children of primary school age


(millions) 2001-2002

JO r---------------------~----~~~-------

25 ~------------------~--

~~

__~------

20 ~----------------~
15~----------------~

Secondary gross enrollment ratios, 1991 and 2004 (%)


100

80
60

f-=

40

20

1~-

Tertiary gross enrollment ratios, 1991 and 2004 (%)

~J.l
r;~1

~=t ~

=:Qg:Fl

_8

.~ El l I ;'n

Education for all


primary completion, 2000-2005, most recent year available
less than 50%

50--74%
75-84%
85-94%
95% or more
no data

tilt

e s

Mexico

9996----------~
' ~~--

Honduras

79%----'=~1I

Argf:ntill:l

'>

Federation

'

-,:"

-_.

"

Africa
96%

/
/

Almost one in five (18 percent) of all primary school-age children


in the world are not in school.

UNESCO Institute for Statistics

www.uis.unesco.org

Globally, 62 million girls of primary school age are not in school,


accounting for 53 percent of the total number of children out of
school.

World Bank's EdStats

www.worldbank.orgf
educationfedstats

Women are less literate than men: worldwide, only 88 adult women
are considered literate for every 100 men.

Demographic and Health


Surveys (DHS)

132 million of the 771 million people without literacy skills are ages
15-24 years.

DHS data on education


indicators

19 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have primary completion rates


of 50 percent or less.

Organisation for Economic


Co-operation and Development

I
I

www.measuredhs.com
devdata.worldbank.orgf
edstatsftd16.asp

1www.oecd.org
Education

20L-----~==========================================
1980

1985

1990

2000

1995

200S

120.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
7S

ltlll

2004

200 ,..-
ISO

- - -

- .

1-1. - ---- 0

~~

Primary complete /
some secondary

Some primary

Secondary complete /
higher

'11-<

c'JO

,o~"r
t.i5'~'tI

<J

No education

t!
".1:<J
:.::1::

..:y

~I)

.r~""

'<i".

.:sfJ?J

l~o

i::;~

".

:s

c.;0"

~~<1

~~....

';l;f~
c.;"

/p

v~

f.:;:,t::

~~8

Gender equity
ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary
education, 2000-2005, most recent year available
less than 90%
90-94%

95--99%

100-104%
105% or more:
no data

'j.

Latin America

8{ Caribbean

100%

Women Center, Dushanbe, Tajlkistan.Women

empowerment project.

----------------~

Countries with the lowest ratios of


female to male enrollment. 2OOO-2OOS

Europe If{ Central Asia

96%

' ~ -~'

East Asia If{ Pacific

99%

(- - Wj
~

N~
,
Ca/#drm ia

(F'J

Sub-Sana ran Africa


83%

",.

.. Mothers' education has a bigger impact on children's malnutrition


than access to safe water.

.. World Bank
Gender Stats

.. Nearly half of the 39 million adults liv ing with HIV are women.

.. Demographic and
Health Surveys

.. Girls in both Asia and Latin America take on more child and elderly
care responsibilities than boys, resulting in increased household
chores and lower levels of schooling.
,. In three Sub-Saharan African countries, women spend between 300
and 800 hours a year collecting fuel wood; in contrast, men spend
less than 50 hours.

.. UNESCO Institute
for Statistics
.. Inter Parliamentary
Union
,. International
Labour
Organization

I hUp:/Igenderstats.worldbank.orgfhome.asp

I www.measuredhs.com

www.uis.unesco.org

www.ipu.org

www.ilo.org

Education ~

GJ

.s
....8r

Each year, more than 10 million


children die before their fifth
birthday, the vast majority from
causes preventable through a
combination ofgood care, nutri
tion, and simple medical treat
ment. Child mortality is thus
closely linked to poverty, with child
malnutrition implicated in more
than half the deaths worldwide.

Child mortality has declined in ev~


region since 1960, when 1 in 5 childreD diecl
before the age of s. By 1990, this rate bad
fiillen to 1 in 10 children. Since then,
progress has slowed, and a few countri
actually experienced increases in child
mortality. In 2004, 47 countries had under
five mortality rates greater than 100 per
1,000. meven countries-all ofthem in
Sub-Saharan Africa-had under-five mor
tality rates greater than 200. In low-income
countries today, 1 child in 8 dies before its
fifth birthday, compared with 1 in 143 in
high-income countries.

'=

t3

Under-five mortality rate, per 1,000


300.-------~--~-------------------------------------------------------------

250 fJIIt-__,-------'--=:...>L-...-:::-=--------
- - . __ .. .. ... ...

--.

East Asia
-

&: Pacific

Europe 8( Central Asia

- - Latin America

Be Caribbean

- - Middle East Il( North Africa

- - South Asia

- - - Sub-Saharan Africa

200~,-------------~~~--~~------~-~~~~~~-------------------------------

----- .:!-

----.-----.----------
-- .....

~::.........
------- 0 _ ........ _

.- ... ___ . .

1 50~~~_~_~
_~~,~---------------~~~------~-~~
~Ch~~-----------------------------

~.... .... --...

D ~

]0<

__

100~--------------------~~__~----------~~~,___--------------C-----=-~-~~~~~

"qb"

"qb'>

"q1"

"q1'>

Source : Harmonized estimates ofWHO, UNICEF, and World Bank

Child immunization, measles (% of children aged 12-23 months)

100,-----------------------------------------------------------------------
80

60

40

20

Source : WHO and UNI CEF estimates of n:ltion:ll immunization coverage

Estimated impact ofAIDS on under-~ve mortality rates,


2002-2005, selected countries in Sub-Saharan Africa
Botswana

1= 1

withAIDS

Kenya

DwithoutAIDS

Lesotho

Namibia
South Africa

F===l
F===l

Swaziland
Z<lmbia
Zimbabwe

SO
LOO
ISO
Underfive mortality r.te (pe r 1,000)

Source: UNICEF, 200S. A

Just five diseases-pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, measles


and AIDS-account for halfof all deaths in children under
five. Children in Sub-Saharan Africa are hardest hit by AIDS,
and in countries such as Botswana, Swaziland, and South
Africa, it is estimated that child mortality more than
doubled as a result ofAIDS. Malnutrition is implicated in
more than half of all child deaths worldwide. It weakens
children and reduces their resistance to disease. It often
begins at birth, when poorly nourished mothers give birth
to underweight babies. Improper feeding and child care
practices also contribute to worsen malnutrition.
Low-cost treatments such as antibiotics for respiratory
infections, oral re-hydration for diarrhea, immunization for
measles, and the use oftreated bed nets in malarial regions
have contributed to reducing deaths ofchildren. In 2004,
almost 75 percent ofchildren in developing countries were
immunized against measles, and deaths from measles
declined by nearly two thirds in the last decade. Studies
show that children from wealthier households and those
living in urban areas have better access to health services
and immunization, are better nourished, and so are less
likely to die.

200

coli to action. Childftn, the

Children ages 12-23 months who have received


measles vacci nation (%)

By wealth/asset quintiles

poorest
richest

100

80

60

40

20

o
\.').r;;t;fl

'I-<<<,e~

r-

r--

r-

l-

I-

l-

I-

, ').r;;r;;r;; \.').r;;r;;r;;

,<-'b"'~ ,<-""o~

.'').r;;r;;....

",e~

~.<"

').t;flr;;

').r;;r;;r;;

""e'''''

By urban/rural residence
100

80

60

r- r--

r-

40

r-

I--

'-

20

I-

rr

I-

o
').r;;r;;r;;

....<<f'e(\\1#

urban
rural

').r;;r;;r;;. l-r;;r;;r;;

~~\. ~~\o\~

~l-r;;r;;....

~efi'''

\>t.{'I>

').r;;r;;r;;

l-r;;r;;r;;

~\,,\.(\')~

Source: Dem ographic and Health Surveys

Health

Child mortality
under-five mortality rate per 1,000,2004
100 or more

50-99

20--49

10-19

less than 10

no data

-'

'-.

~"'-"(h)j

Kazalchstan

U- -t<t---:=====-

.:..-~

Lao

(N'''''''''''''''".''IUS)J, 40%
(c - (lIS))'

A u s t r ., Ii ..

,.

,/

Prellalence ofchild malnutrition


1995-2004, most recent year

b'

30,000 children a day die before their fifth birthday.


~------------------------------------------------~

UNICEF

www.childinfo.orgJindex2.htm

World Health Organization

www.who.intJen

Demographic and Health


Surveys

www.measuredhs.com

Of the 10.5 million child deaths under five every year, almost half
occur in Sub-Saharan Africa .

Almost half the children under age five in South Asia are underweight.

In 2020 the number of malnourished children will have fallen


everywhere except in Sub-Saharan Africa, where there are likely to be
more than in 1997.

Health ~

Complications from pregnancy and


cbndbirth are a leading cause of
death and disability among women
ofreproductive age in developing
countries. Every year more than
500,000 women die during preg
nancy or cbndbirth, and at least
10 million women suffer injuries,
infection, and disabilities. A
majority ofdeaths occur in Asia
and AfDca, which account for
95 percent oftotal deaths.

-- .... _---..

-
) -_ _ _-;300

maternal m o rtality rate


200

100

High-income countries

Materna l mort ality rat e


(per 100 000 li ve birth s)

Women in high-fertility countries in


Africa have a 1 in 20 lifetime risk ofdying
from pregnancy or childbirth, compared
with women in low-fertility countries in
Europe, who have a 1 in 2,000 risk ofdying,
and in North America, who have a 1 in 3,500
risk. And risks to women from the poorest
families are still greater.
High mortality rates for mothers in many
countries are the result ofinadequate health
care during pregnancy and delivery. Only
70 percent ofpregnant women in developing
countries had at least one prenatal care visit
during pregnancy. The rate is even lower
in South Asia, where only half ofthe
pregnant women get prenatal care. Access
to skilled care is lower still, with only
60 percent ofbirths in developing countries
being attended by skilled health staff,
compared to 98 percent in high-income
countries. Only about 40 percent ofbirths
are assisted in South Asia and Sub-Saharan
Africa.
Compounding the risks that high fertility
poses to maternal health are poorly timed
and inadequately spaced births, which
expose women to frequent pregnancies in
short intervals. Greater access to family
planning can help reduce these risks to
maternal health.

500

total fertility rate

maternal mortality rate

400

300

.--~---~--.----~- - ~

100.---- - -- - - - - - - -- _.200

80
60

....

100

40
20

o '-l---L--_
. ~~

e~

. ')~

\~

~')~\~~c."\c. ~v.(o~ "...'": 0\')\l'-'e;~~e~~o.\e'(..'~(\C.'\,Ou.\~


e{\\( \\('.
C
\.?

c.'(\

Source: U NI CEF's Stott

~\ o.~

'r~\'

\(\c,'

(~{\ .,.::

S'~'

<'' ' <:1

World's Children 2006 and Chi

(0t.

~;\(\(.~\(\e"

y.\~ cPu

Adolescent fertility rate, 2004

births per 1,000 women ages 15-19

East Asia

Europe

8c Pacific

8c Central Asia

latin America

8c Caribbean

Middle East 8( North Africa

South Asia

Sub-Saharan Africa

Teeuage mothers
High-income countries

About 15 million babies are born to young women ages


15 to 19 each year. When girls have children early, they usually
cannot continue their education and so cannot join the
productive workforce. The result-they have more children
than women who start families later. Teenage pregnancies are
high-risk for both mother and child and lead to other prob
lems including sexually transmitted diseases, unsafe abortion,
and maternal death. In some countries in Sub-Saharan Africa,
more than 40 percent ofteenage girls have at least one child
before the age of18. Teenage girls in developing countries
have twice as many children as girls in high-income countries.

30

60

90

120

ISO

Source: World Bank estimates

Women ages 20--24 who gave birth by age 18,


various years (%)

Niger

Nicaragua

~,!!!!!!~~!!!!!!,~.~.,
~~!!!!!!,.,.,~~,

Pregnant women receiving prenatal care, 2000-2004 (%), most recent year
100 , ----------------------------------------------------

80

Kenya

60
Bolivia

40

_'!!!!!!1I.,.,.,
~~~!I".'

20 K IIIII----I

30
Source: UNFPA. Stote

Source: Demographic Olnd He.,lth Surveys

40

poorest quintile
richest quintile
SO

60

70

80

Total ferHlity rate


births per woman, 2004
4.5 or more

35-4.4
25-3.4
1.5-2.4

-/

less than lo S
no data
/

.....

A mother and child receive free vitamin Aat a government


health clinic, Hanoi

Sweden
2

Croatia

Russia

--

Lao P.D.R.

~~_--rr-~~::~650
C"' - " " ''''''(!JS) ),

Ethiopia
850

'.

NhII
.'
ColdQnio

(F,!

Maternal mortality rates for year 2000


(maternal deaths per 100,000 live births)

Every minute of the day, a woman dies from complications related to


pregnancy or childbirth, most often in a developing country.

.. UNICEF

www.childinfo.org/index2.htm

For every woman who dies in childbirth , 30 to SO women suffer injury, 1-- - - - --- - - - - - - - ' - -- -- - -- - - - - - - 1
infection, or disease,
r - -- -- - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - -- - - I .. World Health Organization

www.who.intfen

Women's lifetime risk of maternal death is almost 40 times as


high in the developing than the developed world.

Severe bleeding is the leading cause of maternal deaths,

.. Inter-agency Group on
Safe Motherhood

www.safemotherhood.org

Health

CJIJ

Communic:able diseases take a


em"hle ton in developing coun
tries. The spread ofHIV/AIDS, the
resurgence oftuberculosis, and
increasing morbidity and mortality
from malaria (mostly due to drug
and insecticide resistant parasites),
have had their greatest impact on
poor countries and poor people,
shortening life spans and curtail
ing economic growth.
An estimated 99 percent ofall deaths
from AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria
occur in developing countries. Worldwide
there are 39 million people currently
living with HN/AIDS. In many countries
the disease is undoing the development
achievements ofthe past 50 years by dispro
portionately infecting young people and
killing adults in their prime. Adolescent
girls and young women are especially
vulnerable to HN and account for
60 percent ofthe 10 million HN-positive
youths ages 15-24. More recently, however,

countries such as Kenya and Uganda have


shown a decline ofHN prevalence among
young, pregnant women attending prenatal
clinics.
Tuberculosis is the main cause ofdeath
from a single infectious agent among adults
1545 years old. More than 80 percent ofall
tuberculosis patients live in Africa and Asia,
but the epidemic is worsening in Europe and
Central Asia. Poor people are especially
vulnerable because oftheir underlying health
problems and limited access to treatment.

Adults Il{ children living with HIV (thousands)

. ... . .. ,
.

f t ",

'.

p . ..",\

'

. ...

.'

. :

'

and Central Europe 720

n America 1,600

...

South and
Southeast Asia
7,600

'

So ur~~

54

; UNAIOS and WHO

HIV prevalence rate, adults ages 15-49,2003 and 2005 (%)

..

'

Sour'" : UNAIDS .nd WHO

Inc idence of tuberculosis by reg ion , 1990 and 2004 (per 100,000 people)

400,------------------------------------------ -- -- -- -- ------------------------
350 ~------~--~--------------------------------------------~

300 ~--------------------------------------------------------~

250 r-----------------------------------~--~----------------~

200~----------~--------------------------------------------~
150
100

50

Source : WH O

And people with weak immune systems are at greater risk


in some Sub-Saharan African countries up to 60 percent of
tuberculosis patients are HIV-positive.

Malaria is endemic in more than 100 countries in tropical


and subtropical regions, killing more than 1 million people
each year. Most deaths from malaria are among children
younger than 5 years old, accounting for about 9 percent of all
childhood deaths. Studies have shown that sleeping under an
insecticide-treated mosquito net is an effective prevention
strategy. However, the use oftreated bed nets among children
under five is extremely low-in Sub Saharan Africa it is only
3 percent.

Children sleeping under treated bed nets,


most recent year available, 2000-2005 (%)

35
30
25
20
15
10

mll n ~ ~ ~

EcoDomic impact ofdiseases


Estimates suggest that tuberculosis can cost up to
30 percent ofannual household income in lost wages.

Workforce lost to AIDS by 2005 and 2020, selected African countries, (%)

40,----------------------------------------
30~~_.--------------------------------~~

20
10

Malaria slows economic growth in


Africa by some L3 percent a year.
Compounded over 35 years in countries
where malaria is endemic, this means
that gross domestic product is about a
third lower than it might have been.
And when HlV/AIDS prevalence
reaches 8 percent-about where it is
for 11 African countries today-the cost
in economic growth is estimated at
about 1 percent a year.

Source: UNAIOS

Health

HIV/AIDS
adult HIV prevalence, 2005
20.0% or more
10.{}-19.9"";
1.{}-9.9%
0.5-0.9"";

less th;m 0.5%


no dOlttl

t-.

HIV/AIDS has a devastating effect on families and on the


economies of tne developing world

' ---

(~ -_(VSI~

(","",(usI)

filii......." '

(SoIomon'_ )

~\\

(-~(US)l
Fiji ---:\.

..>.

.s

IY",,~,

CokdotriQ .

("1

1./

New ZCOJlln,d

Over 90 percent of all children living with HIV, and about 80 percent
of all the children orphaned by AIDS, live in Sub-Saharan Africa.

World Health Organization

www.who.int/topics/en

About half of all new HIV infections are in young people ages 15-24.
1 - -- - - -- - -- - - -- - -- -- - - --1 UNAIDS
~

Approximately 60 percent of all deaths from malaria occur among

the poorest 20 percent of the world 's population.

95 percent of tuberculos is cases and 98 percent of deaths occur in


the developing world.

Demographic and Health


Surveys

www.unaids.org/en

www.measuredhs.com

Health

CJ[]

.. . .ndil4~~ goods.

mitdag
soa:rces:of
oping

However, agrildll1tare
cODtinueto

income for

_.ftV

economies.

Value added in services (% of GDP)


80

60

40

..

..

II

:::Jill
- ...

-U '

20

1980

1990

1985

1995
-

High income

2003

2000
Low income

2004

- . - Middle income

Source: World Development Indicators database

Value added in services 1990-2005 (199Q=,lOO)


350,-- - - - - - - - - - - -- -- -- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --

50 ~------------------------------------------------------------------------1990

1995

Source: World Development Indicators database

2000

2001

2002

2003

Middle East &. North Africa

East Asia 8{ Pacific

South Asia

- . . . latin America &: Caribbe.1n

2004

2005

Sub-Saharan Africa

___ Europe 8{ Central Asia

Agricultural employment as share of total employment 2000--2003 (%)


Tanzania

Madagascar
Papua New Guinea
Cambodia

Uganda

Bangladesh

Vietnam

Ghana
Georgia

Indonesia

Thailand
Armenia

China

Morocco
Kyrgyz Republic

Moldova

Pakistan

Mongolia

20
Sourc~:

International labor

40

60

80

100

A1thcmgh the smice

c:tor'

growiDg ~

_ltQU~umafus ofgreat~ce to cleveloping

lJl200S, vatu added in agriculture aJ a

,...,~!. ofGDP was over 40 percen

in eli!m1 ~- come
ApiCUltme is alSo an
i'DJ'i~:aD..t SoutCe ofemployment. It employs over 40 percent
JabOrfOtce in 18 countries, over CiO percent in seven
._lts,:md.as much as 82 percent fu '])nzmja. Ot only
~~ nine ofthan inAfiica.

_ _OJtUfe~~~~.es"1 'but also somemiddle-incoJne


~i);Oli_~dcpendent on agri

EvcniD ChiDa.

api(uljt'-. accountsmr44pm:ent of

total ~lo.ym~

~~emp1oymentaccountedror

of

.,loymenUnthe United tatei aDd


.G.fm~, anden1y 1 pm.:ent in the UrdtCd xmg:dOm

Agricultural output
share of value added in agriculture in GOP,
2000-2005, most recent year available
25% or more

15-24%
8-14%

,-

.'

3-7%
less than 3%

no data
/

'"

Urrl t ed

Latin America 8{ Caribbean


8%

" ,

-.

Agriculture is still a major part of the economy of Sub-Saharan


countries such as Senegal
%ofGDP

Europe 8( Central Asia

8%

East Asia 8( Pacific

13%

. ..

,,~

CtNtdoniQ

"

rrr)

17%

".
/

The world agricultural sector grew by 1.9 percent from 1990 to 2005.
The service sector grew by 3.1 percent and the industrial sector by
2.3 percent over the same period.

.. World Bank

The highest rate of growth in agriculture from 1990 to 2005, of


3.5 percent, was registered by the Sub-Saharan African countries,
where the service sector grew by 3.1 percent and the industrial
sector by 2.6 percent.

.. International Labour Organization


Key Indicators of the Labour Market

In the East Asia and Pacific region, industry was the fastest growing
sector with 9.7 percent growth for the period 1990 to 2005. Services
were second with 7.9 percent, and agriculture grew by 3.3 percent.
In South Asia, the fastest growing sector was services, with
7.2 percent growth, followed by 6 percent in industry, and
2.7 percent in agriculture for the same period.

www.worldbank.org

www.ilo.org

International Monetary Fund


Data and statistics

www.imf.org

United Nations

www.un.org/external/
data.htm

Economy

[ill

euergy~ water

do aQd to~ODS
tedmology--aJe the hackboite ofa

IDfi

fanc:ti0DiDg econ~ tadJjtatfng


growth and 1rincB.... coDUlNDitieS
together, SOJ:be iDfiaIttoctare is
built and maiutained by govern
ments; some is prtvately owned;
and some comes about through
pubUc-private partnerShips.

m:mllfii~ c;aDD() ~)D::~~$;

marlc.ds;
tions are

amlh~aticm and ~~~~~ ,

entia1 in miDt~. 'WDI'IIL,


~ surices playakej m1etii

mostimpOrtmtdev~

reducmg p01etty and hrinp,81!W


UnpJ'Ovenwtts in th lives ~of
people in developmg countri
Physical isolatioD is a strong c:cmtribtlt*
to poverty. People liVUlg in TeJilOte P
have less access to ht:altb and educatioa

% of rural population, average of latest available data from


1994 to 2004 for each regio'n
Sub Saharan
Africa

services. employment-and ~ Prob


lems are particularly severe in nu:al are8$.
An estimated 900 ~ rural dwellerS in

Middle East &.


N. Africa

Latin America

&.

developmg countries, most ofthem pc;mj


are without reliable- access to aftimtable
means oftraMpottation. They also have

Caribbean

South Asia

less reliable elec:tridty supplieJ md.:in

Europe &.

Central Asia

many cas ,laclc access to clean water md


basic sm.itation.

East Asia

20

40

60

80

100

Source: Transport 8{ Urban Development Departm ent, World Bank

Public and private investment in developing countries in which


the private sector has the operating risk,2000-2004, $ billions
200

150

~ Improved

water supply reduces diarrhea morbidity by


25 percent if severe outcomes (such as cholera) are
included

~ Improved

sanitation reduces diarrhea morbidity by


32 percent

100

50

.. Hygiene interventions including hygiene education


and promotion of hand washing leads to a reduction
of diarrheal cases by 45 percent
Source: WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Progrdmme for Water Supply and
Sanitation. 2005. Water Jor Life: Making it

So urce: World B:l nk's Private

i i

in In{rastructure datab. se

Access to an improved water source,


% of population, 2004
100

60

r-

I-

I-

I-

20

I-

I-

'-

'-

Access to improved sanitation facilities,

% of population, 2004
lOO
80
60

I-

40

- .

,-
1---

20

I-

global ~ improvements in water and sanitation infra


~ have barely kept pace with population inaease and
tmgration in the developing world. 'lhe challenge in leduring
diSeue transmission is not only in providing better water and
tanHation &cilities, but also in promoting good hygiene
p~ such as band washing.

40

ofclean water and basic sanitation the main reason


ft\1!I1'W!ldtlerbome bacterial infections such as cholera ate so
c~m deve1o.ping countries. More than 2.5 billion
pepple. thewor1c;llack safe water anel samtation senices.
~ts in abou 2 million deaths per year and undreds
Cif'DiilUQDS ofcases ofintestina1 i.n1ection, Which con.trib\lte
IiIlDificantly to malnutrition mostly among children. Despite

r- -

80

'-

Source: WH O i1nd UNI CE F's Mf!ding th l! MOG Drinking Water and

SDnitDtNm

lDJi>rmation and communic:ation eclmology bas vast


.~~Il1f ~growth in deve1op~ countries. Mobile
~_keep &mi1ies and communities in contact and

et il2fbrmation for farmers and buSiness people.


~ temet deJiVm information to schools and hospitals,
aitd tomtnrtm'l improve public and private services and
~ productivity and participation.

global supply ofinftastructure services is not ab1 to


:ftti!tf!t:thfl'DeedS of~, and the cha11enge oftomorrow. With
_~a tumcm. p ople in the n
25 years. wm be even
~_~.'Ib meet this chalIcmge.investmeJlt in ~
"'~I~l~'~~~s~H~~
;lWImaI~.~~

imp!Ovh&peopIe lives.

Internet access, per 1,000 people, 2004


ISO ,--- - - - - - - - - - - -
120
90
60

30

Source.: InternaUc nJ.l

T~~ mrrw n bt lo n

Union.

Telephones
fixed-line and mobile phone subscribers per 1,000 people,
2004 or latest available data
less than 50
S()-199

/'

200--499
SO()-999
1,000 or more

no data

'"

Unll ed

Latin America 8{ Caribbean

499

SI, le<

Europe 8{ Central Asia

536 (2003)

(.v: _-IV$J, (~East Asia 8{ Pacific


431

Nn4'

.-

- ',

CI1/edonl(1

(h)

, ,
""7

471

World
Low-income
Middle-income
High-income

71

482
1.309

Access to telephone networks (fixed-line and mobile) increased more


than 10-fold between 1990 and 2004.
2004. all developing country regions had greater access to mobile
than fixed-line phones.
1.6 billion people lack access to modern energy services.
In Sub-Saharan Africa. four times as many people have access to
mobile phones than to fixed-line phones.
Among developing countries. Europe and Central Asia has the
highest percentage of paved roads (74 percent). followed by the
Middle East and North Africa (66 percent). South Asia (54 percent).
East Asia and Pacific (32 percent). Latin America and the
Caribbean (27 percent). and Sub-Saharan Africa (13 percent).

~ International

Telecommunication Union

~
~

International Road Federation


World Resources Institute
Earth Trends
World Bank

I www.itu.int
I www.irfnet.org

earthtrends.wri.org

(click on Energy and Resources)

www.worldbank.org

II

(click on Topics, then In(ormation and


Communication Technologies)

~ Organisation for Economic


www.oecd.org
.
(click on By Topic, then Information and
Co-operation and Development Communications Technologies)
World Health Organization
Economy

WithoutimestrDeDt there would not


be
ecGQOmic IP.OW& On

The lM1 Of'investiDent in the East Am

Physical investment takes many fOrms


build. IQafoinery and equipnmt,
improvemems t() ~perty, and additions
to inventoties.lnvesbnent JS financed
out ofsa~.1 or 01itp whkh allOt
consumed or ..,ortecl Gomitries that
have high ~ indinvestmentrates
are likely to haVe high mes ofeconomic
growth. Growtb.it alio Spur:red by
improved dficiGcy as a result of
tecJuu,1ogical a~es and investments
in people, through better edw:ation and
health care.

and Pati1icreatcm:was tightlybel tlud: of


the Latin Atneric:a and the Quibbem t'e8l
in 1990. but: tlO'tf t invests more tbata.
as xa.udL Stmil;tJ'1y, uth Asia _d .l\1.1G~.
East ~Norlh A&1cabaQ: about_
level ofinvestlnent . 1990, but now: South
Asia invpts 31 pelWlt ~tha.D.
Middle EastiUlcl orth Afiia regl0.n.

Investment need not be fin:mreCt py


c1.omestie savJn8S atone. Pordp-&ed:
mvestDi~ t1iroD8h loanS and equity
investment has ~ an impMaJit iOUtte of
funding fOr many loW- and middle-4nc:ome
economies. Along with financial resources,
foreign direct invesbnent often briDp with
. access 0 newtedmologies and ~
ment skills. But to attract fOreign direct
in: estm
co1JDtrlcs need to create a
filvotable investment climate. Countrles

Gross capital formation ($ billions)


1,000 , - -- - - -- - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - -
800 I--_
O_

.......0

E'st
_ _AS_i' I!{
_ P_,ci_"C _ __
_ __
Middl_e E"t
_ ---,_
I!{ No_rth_A_
friQ_ __
_ __
Sub-S'h,"n
_ _ _ Afric'
_ _ _ _ _ _ _---=~n
- u--_

South Asia
latin America 8{ Caribbean
Europe &c Central Asia
600 I--_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~_cr:::::-----

400
200

--

~.~-----~~_O""--IO
]---IO~
--~~~==~
- -~~~-I~~-e~~==~~~--~- ~ ......----.l ~=~~
.,...

--..
i!!iI
~
~

,GG<:J

,GG'

Source: World Development Indicators database

...

Foreign direct investment ($ billions)


250 ~~------~----~----------------------------------------------~

o East Asia &. Pacific

200

Europe &. Central Asia

Sub-Saharan Africa

South Asia - - - - - - - -- - - - - -- -- - - -- -- - - - - -- - - - - - - -- - - -

Latin America &. Caribbean


150 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,

100

I-------------------~

50 1 - - - - - - -

Source: World Development Indic;:!tors d;;ltOlb;;lse

~'1leitbera high &a~ rate nor the a'biliq-to

:_ let fbJ:ei&n direct investmmt iac1:'.~r:asel.


mmted oppcntmiitiu for giowtho
~ ~biDion wasinvested~~

aeatrtwo-thiriU1M','S4U biDion gomg l1iaJi


~ economies. Deveto';" economies
bi1Iioi1 ~ dbect m eatDient

2OG4; and their share has been climbing stead..

Between'l99Ocand 2004t fOreign dire invest

mtht developmg~'lUlt'riI$ mcreased


tcmlblct fi:om $21 billion to S2l1billion (in
~cloDats~

Amtmtthe developu. ~s .East Asia and


benc60ny oO.rge ~QUXlts
oE~ direct investmentmnce the 199Os. The
tatmAmerlea.a the Caribbean region was the
Jaes)%leGipimt between 1997 aild2000 But
~ md cent:ralAsia' growiDghi
tmportaDc:e, douhJing its share ~een 2003 and
2004; md cl.imbing to second place .2004.
Pa~_ been tile

GDP growth rate (%), average of 1995-2004


8

East Asia 8( Pacific 0

South Asia
V

~ China and some oftheOtber~~1t

. tUEait Asia and Pacific regiQJl have obttined


iP~i:taC1~ 'pc)wth rate high levels finVestment
do 2lOt guarantee high growth rates.Inwstment
pmdUcesgrowth butinvestil1ent also thaSa
..,~ l\ilo':re inv.estment is 1ibly in p1ites Where
hW~iU'iJjuepossible OVer

perlbd 1990

SubSaharan Africa

1 -- -

!O

15

.Middle E>st 8{ North Africa

~ Europe 8{ Central Asia

~ High income
Latin America 8{ Caribbean

20

Gross capital (ormation

25

30

35

ofGDP). avera ge of 1990--1999

40

Investment for growth


gross capital formation as share of GOP,
2005 or latest available data
less than 15%

15-19",6

20-24%

25-29%

30% or more

no data

-.

China's rapidly growing economy has benefited from


foreign investment

--

..:

-~ - ~

N~"

'I,

Cakdoni(J
(hi

/ World

Low income
Middle income
Low 8{ middle income
High income

21%
27%
26%
26%
20%

Capital formation has been the fastest in the East Asia and Pacific
region. Between 2000 and 2005 it increased at an average rate
of 13 percent a year.

.. World BankData and Statistics

Capital formation has been the slowest in the Latin America and the

Caribbean region, growing at less than 1 percent a year between

2000 and 2005.

.. Organisation for Economic


www.oecd.org
Co-operation and Development (clic k on Stat istics)

About 30 countries saw their investment levels decline between

2000 and 2005 .

.. United Nations Conference on


r---In
-v-e-st-m-e- n-t-g-r-ew- a-t -an- av- e-r-ag- e- 4-g-p-er-c-e-nt- a- -ye-a-r-b-et-w-e-e-n-2-o-o-o-a-n-d- --I Trade and Development
2005 in Azerbaijan.

In China investment grew at an average of 15 percent a year


between 2000 and 2005.

.. International Monetary Fund


Statistics

www.worldbank.org/data

I
I

www.unctad.org/statistics

www.imf.org/external/data.htm

Economy

[:E:J

'11te quality ofthe mvestmmt~


contributes strollgly to growth, prpc1ud:i
and employmm creatiOn--4U ofWliUli_
essentiaJ fOr sustainable reductions
income poverty.

create an invesbnent clbnate that


lJenefits society as a .hole.

Managers who lack confidence in the courts to uphold property


rights, 2000-2005 (%)

Government poliei5 mel behaYiOn pay &


key role insbaping the investment c1im;m.,
They iDfluence the security ofpropert'f
rights, approaclles to regulatienand
taxatiODt the provision of~the
tUncti.oDiug offinmdal and 1abormarlt~
and broader governance features such as
corruption. hDproving govmunentpolid'es
and behaviors that shape the mvestmalt
climate an growth and reduces pOVerty.
In the past several years. the World Bank
and other multilateral deve1.Qpment banks

Bangladesh

have increased collection ofdata on the


investment climate through the Brit~e
Surveys and Doing Business surveys.
Together, these survey programs help
countries to idetttUY major bottlenecks to
private sector growth and to concentrate
reforms to improve the busmess enmtm
ment

Guatemala

Moldova

Czech Republic

Kenya

In Enterprise Surveys senior managers


ranked pollcy uncertainty as the main
business constraint, but every country. is

Kyrgyz Republi c

different. For example, in Bang1ad~ the


top business constraint' lack ofte1iable
electricity, whereaS in Hungary the main
business i:mstraint reported is lUgh tu
rates. In Guatemala, the main problem is
crime. theft, and disorder.

Brazil

Zambi a

Algeria

Malaysia

20

Source: Enterprise: Surveys, Wo rld Bank

40

60

80

100

These surveys tell us that, compated With


other developing country regions. SUb..
Saharan Africa is a high-cost, high-riSk place
to do business resulting in less investment,
less employment. lower incomes, less

Countries that made at least one reform in 2005-2006


by region (%)

Eastern Europe

Central Asia

OEeD high income

Sub-Saharan Africa

powth and competitiveness, and higher poverty. But data for


2OOS4OO6 alIo showtbat the pace ofreform in ub-Sabatan
~has acwerated. moving the region from last to third place

Middle East &.


North Africa

utin America

COUnt1i.es dUfer signific:antly in how they ~e the entry


ew businesses. According to the mo cent Doing
Bua:inetI.s survey oDlytwo countrl made:' more difficult to
start a busines in 2006. During the same time, 43 countries
mtroduc:ed reforms to make it easi start a business. Some
COlDltdei, like Rwanda, are finding that refOrms in the
bliSiDess environment are paying of[ Beginning in 2001
l\w2Dda introduced new company and bbot Jaws. fOllowed
by laJid titling reforms in 2002. streamlined custOms
procedure bnproved credit registries, and simplifiedjudid.al
~ures. inee initiating reform, Rwanda has bad economic

8t

Caribbean

East Asia

&. Pacific

South Asia

20

40

60

80

100

Source: Doing Busintss database.

growth a eraging 3.6 percent a year-among the highest fOr


non-oil-producing tates in Africa.

Time to start a business (days)


80

60

.-

low and middle income average

e-
~

40

20

~,

;-

r.

2D84

Belarus

Source: Doin9 BUSintss 2006

.- -
- iOCI&

Burkina Faso

r=-

...
:tiiI'ii

i-

.20116

China

I'

~~

20iIl

Czech RepubliC

- -

EI Salvador

ii

r-:

MeXICO

Starting

a business

time required to s tart a new b usiness April 2006


100 days or more

.~~

7(}"99 d,ys
S(}"69 d,ys

/'
;P,;

-~

2()...49 d,ys

less thOin 10 days

---

no datil

. h-income countries

Hig

;..,......._ _

21 days

Latin America

Jl.

"I.

Caribbean

73 da s

to.

Europe If{ Central Asia


32 days

R.~.s,.~

Fe-der.lloo

East Asia If{ Pacific


46 days
(~

Au , tr .ll .

Sub-Saharan Africa
62 days

b'
In Canada, it takes only three days to start a business and requires two procedureS..

In Republic of Korea there are 12 procedures needed to start a business, a process that takes 22 days to complete.

In EI Salvador, business start-up time now takes 14 fewer days than in 2004.

Suriname's business start-up time is the highest-694 days to complete the required procedures.

usiness
rms
save their entrepreneurs time, and fewer applications are rejected
for flawed or insufficient paperwork.

Doing Business Project


World Bank

Enterprise Surveys
World Bank

Private Participation in
Infrastructu re Database

Privatization database

www.doingbusiness.org

rru.worldbank.org/
EnterpriseSurveys/

Ippi.worldbank.org

rru.worldbank.org/Privatization

Economy

DO

Gotelllmc:e cle!lCt.lbes.

aDd exe:.dse
authority. and how they praride
and manage pub ~ and
semces.
diDjJ e delivery of
basic serri~ iDfiast:ructttr and a
soancl iDvestmeD dlma Good
governance is associated with
citizen participadoD, and 0 eraII
improved accountabDity ofpubJic
ofBdalsbydtizeos. lt
fimdament;i1 to development and
economic powth.
states Ie

Control of corruption in South Asia, percentile ranking 2005


I

Bhutan

Maldives

Sri Lanka

India

Ne pa I

Pakistan

~ l
~

Ban glades h Ii=""I

IIoiii;;I

Afgha nista n

I- --1

The percentile rank indicates the percentage of


countries worldwide that rate below the selected
country (subject to a margin of error). Higher values
indicate better governance ratings. The statistically
likely range of the governance indicator is shown as a
thin black line. For instance, a bar extending to
75 percent with thin black lines showing a range of
60 to 85 percent means that an estimated 75 percent
of countries rate worse and an estimated 25 percent
rate better than that country. At the 90 percent
confidence level, only 60 percent of countries rate
worse, while 15 percent of countries rate better
. Kra.ly;md M. Mastruui 2006: GovtrflOn,e Matters V:
1996-2005

Governance has several dtinenli.oDs:


prQCe5S by which governments are

monitored, and replaced; the cap:itJ or


government to e&ctive1y formulate
implement ~d policies; and the~~
ofcitizenS and the state fOr the in'~lfiOJ:t8
that govern inferactionS between
Peatures ofgood governance such as fief:
and &ir dedions,mpec:t for individual
liberties and property rights, a &ee and
Wmnt pre open and bnpartialjudiciary,
and weIl4.nfbrmedand drectm ~
~ allconttibute to strong and.
capable institutions oft:be state.
Corrupti~ abuse ofpu,blic Oftite fOr

private gain.-.is only one aspect of


aovemam:e. others include poor
bumuc:r.itic: capability and irleftktiv
checks aDd balances. Cormptioli ~
affectS the prcMsi'01l ofsocia1 serif
PUbJi
sector programs Ch as e~ health.
water and sauitationare underminedWbm
public 1Und$ earmarked 1br their prm)iion
are diverted for private use. This CODlt dtn:rtcS
to low enrollment and graduation ~ and
poor health outcomes. Corruption ~
increase the cost ofdoing business: firiDs

Average score of public sector and institutions cluster for selected countries, 2005
4.0 1 -- -- - - -- - - - -- -- - -

ij

3.S

3.0

.r:

'".9"
1;;

2.5

2.0

1.5

~ 1.0

!i
'"

0.5

0.0

Tanzania

India

BolivIa

Indonesia Nigeria

Lao
PDR

Uzbekistan

Central
Africa
Rep.

Source: World Bank, Resource Aliocation Index

Unofficial payments to the government (% of sales) 2005

3.0 . - - - - - - -- - - -- - - - --
2.S
2.0
1.5
1.0

O.S

Source: World Bank, Enterprise Surveys 2005

have to make unofiidal payments to "set things done" with


regard to CUitoJD1l, taxes aJUi licenses, and business m8DaFfS
have to spend too much time on ed tape.
~ the quaJityi)fbtitutionsPldgovemance

outcomU' clli1icu1t, and often subject to large margbl$ of


error.
for one dimension ofgo\UJ18DC~on.trQ of
couUptiOll-ce p~ented in the map. The dataue an
~e measure derived:&om. several sources ofiDfOnnecl
w~ 1iom both the private and public sector.

nata

'11le ~ repres.eDts data on control ofcorruptionJ;y


~ fi:om the best performing ~~) to the
pooratperfomnng (low. quatti1e).
that some d~"
c:ountdes
better scores em some ___~

than ~ countries.

The World Bank's Country Policy


and InstitutioJW Assessmen (CPIA) is
an annual exercise by World Bmk staff'
to measure the extent to which a
country's policy and institutional
framework supports sustainable growth
and poverty eduction. Note that CPlA
indicators examine policies and institu

tions, not development outcomes,


which can depend on forces Outiide a
country' control There are 16 Crlterla
grouped info four chisterS =one ofthe
clusters (sbown.m the chart OD the eft)
is th -public seCtor ~ement and
institutiOlll cluster. This d et
iDclud five aiterla: propeity~
and ru1e-based government,
.:Of
budget and financial manageal
efficiency ofrevenue moblli@tion,
d
quality ofpQlic
transparency. acCOtm~ and
corruption in the public sector.

Controlling corruption
control of corruption from the Worldwide Governance
Indicators, percentile rank, 2005
Best qu art il e (75 th ilnd above)

Second best quartile (50th and above per ~ ntil e)

Th ird best quartile (25th and above percentil e) .....


Bottom qu,rtile (below 25th qu'rtile)
no d ata

co
U nit e d

S tat e s

(" .. v.~)

( N.~,*IIitInrh(US)~

("'-'(US))'

N~III

(I.

C(1/~dQnla

(h)

Austrilii

~ ,-"

;"'-7'

N~'::'9

~'
,

Nine Sub-Saharan African countries rank in the second-best quartile


in control of corruption,

World Bank: Governance and


Anti-Corruption

I www.govindicators.org

Countries that tackle corruption and improve rule of law can


increase national incomes by as much as 4 times in the long term
and child mortality can fall by as much as 75 percent.

.. Tran sparency International

I www.transparency.org
Economy

[]I]

Bconomies have 'beco0le

'n.ctit:iotfa1 p~

produ~

~have~
:a,ew,!~~
~~dkmmd~.~~~

~r~OD

other for goods. sari... Jabor, and


capitaL ~ iDCoUPatioD
ana cOImnupicadons bdmolQlft
expandiag fiDandal mar'ke..,."
cheaper transportatioJl ~
have embled easter JDOVement of
Iahor and capital between CO'UDtdes,
acee1.era11ng BloW intepatiOD, but
many bani i'eJrt8iD. The . . .ts
from global mtegratiOD :need to be
equitably shared ~countries

With JDslietmums. $killed as we11 as


UDskillfdJabor seekingemp1oy:m.ent:
fOrdgD cOu2lt1':id:in pursuit ofhighet
wages. mp.-mcomt economies are
1o~ atthe developing world to meet e
increasec1 demand fol' technoloSf work.er.s,

as weD as wlthiil a ~

45~ 0 ~gt0S8 c1omestiePl4uct

~
ti~~i~.~~~;
countrieS aft~f~camw
m~m~in_tit8 ,

the global ~n~ beco-. ~


integrat~the1'elative ~e

mde
bas increased. u..aae in ~was ~to
(GDp)in2004 p fioin 32 ~in ~

Merchandise trade (% of GDP)


80 ~------------------------------------------------

60

f--~

1- -----/

40
20

East Asia
Pacific

&:

Europe &:
Central Asia

Latin America 8{
Caribbean

Middle East &:


North Africa

South Asia

Sub-Saharan
Africa

High Incom e

Source: World Developm ent Indicators database

Overall and agricultural trade restrictive index (%) 2005


40 ~------------------------------------------------

II

Overall

Agriculture

30 f - -- - - - - - - - -I,

20

f - - - - - - - - - - -f

10 f - - - -t

Canada

European
Union

Source-: World Bank, Global Monitoring Report 2006

J'p,n

United States

High income

Migrant population (% of total population)

14 , ---------------------------------
12 f - -

10 f -

High incom e

High incom e:
OECD

Source: World Dcve!opme nl lndicators

European
Union

data b;li ~

Foreign direct investment (% of total investment)

20 , -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
15 ~------~, -~
10 1--,..,--"'--'6-

~~-----------------

1
Source: World Development Indicators database

Over the:same period, trade in Benices incrU$ed


from 8 percent to 11 percent ofglobal GDP. But
agri
and industrial goods still dominate
wOrld trade, accounting for 80 percent oftotal
trade (exports plus 1lllp0rts) in 2004.
While some developing countries, such as China
and. India, are making rapid progress as exporters
of goods and services, the high-income economies
mn account for 72 percent ofworld merchandise
exports, of which exports to the developjng
co\U1tries amounted to 16 percent in 2004 Between
1994 and 2004 merchandise exports ofthe high
income countries grew at 1.2 percent a year in

nominal terms. Developing country exports grew


at u.s percent a year during this period.
I\ec1uctiOllS in tariffand non-tarift"barriers have
helped 0 spur trade,1mt many trade barriers
rem.atn. 'lhese barriers are costly to bOth CODSUm
. ~pecl countries and producers in
d~ coUiltries. The poorest countries

impose the most restric:t:ions to protect their


producers and raise revenues fur their.governmm
But rich countries often impose their highest
barriers on the exports of developing countries,
especially agricultural products. Total agric:u1ttmal
support in OSCD countries exceeded $385 bilUon
in 2005, encouraging greater production in OECD
countries and undercutting developing c:<nmUy
producers.
Effective global integration inchldes the free flo
ofgoods, services, inv~ labor) and tedmology
transfers, notjust reduction ofta.riflS and iDlpc:t
quotas. An open and equitabl trading mtem
enhances growth opportunities and encuunges
domestic and foreign investment. As cmmtries haVe
reduced restrldions on foreign iilvestnient} capital
flows have incteased, accounting.for an increasing
proportiOn ofdomestic investmeu

Merchandise trade
exports and imports as a share of GDP, 2004
less than 40%

4()-S9%

60-74%
75-99%
100% or more

..:..-

no data

,. .

Brazil
207%

% ofGDP

2004

Russian Federation

- ~.

' <.

NfW

'

CaiMorria
IF,)

Low income
Middle income
High income

;,'

37%
61%
42%

./

Facts
Many small countries such as Singapore and Equatorial Guinea are
highly dependent on trade. In 2004, Singapore's merchandise trade
was more than 300 percent of its GOP.

Internet links
~

World Bank

www.worldbank.orgftrade

The United States, with a merchandise trade to GOP ratio of only


20 percent, exports and imports more goods than any other country.

.. Organisation for Economic


Co-operation and Development

www.oecd.org

Cambodia increased its trade by more than 5 times in nominal


terms between 1990 and 2004.

.. International Moneta ry Fu nd

www.imf.org

38 countries had a lower ratio of trade to GOP in 2004 compared


to 1990.

-. World Trade Organization

(go to Resources, select Trade Statistics)

East Asia and Pacific region had the highest trade to GOP ratio, with
71 percent, whereas South Asia had the lowest , with 28 percent.

.. United Nations Conference on


Trade and Development

www.wto.org

www.unctad.org

Economy

O[J

Trade in services
exports and imports of services as a share of GDP, 2004
less than 10%

10-14%
15-19%
20-34%
35% or more

no data

Brazil

5%

Trade in computer services is an increasingly important


contribution to many countries' economies

.~

~-~ .

( Marshall IslandS)

N~

"

Ca''''rmlD
(Ft)

,i

South Africa
9%
Low income
Middle income
High income

World exports of services grew from $815 million in 1990 to over


$2 billion in 2004.
Developing countries increased their exports of services from
$111 million in 1990 to $424 million in 2004.

10%
11%

11%

World Bank

www.worldbank.orgftrade

I
I
I

Organisation for Economic


www.oecd.o
Co-operation and Development
rg

Albania increased its trade in services by more than 20 times in


nominal terms between 1990 and 2004.

International Monetary Fund

But 29 countries had a lower ratio of trade in services to GOP in


2004 compared to 1990.

World Trade Organization

Luxembourg had the highest ratio of trade in services to GOP


(169 percent) in 2004.

United Nations Conference on


Trade and Development

www.imf.org
www.wto.org

(go to Trade Topics, select Services Gateway)

www.unctad.org

Economy

QD

Source: Org:lnis:ltion for Economic

Co~oj>eration

iIInd Development, Development Assistillnce Committee

Denmark
France
Germany

Italy
Luxembourg
Netherlands
Spain
Sweden
United Kingdom
Other EU membersl
EU members, tota,1
Canada

J.pan
Norway
United States

Other DAC
DAC

2,037
8,473
7,534
2,462
236
4,204
2,437
2,722
7,883
4,899
42,886
2,599
8,906
2,199
19,705
3,218
79,512

0.85
0.41
0.28
0.15
0.83
0.73
0.24
0.78
0.36
0.36
0.35
0.27
0.19
0.87
0.17
0.30
0.26

2,185
H ,IlO
15,509
9,262
328
5,D70
6,925
4,025
14,600
9,206
81,221
3,648
1l,906
2,876
24,000
4,477
128,128

O.SO
0.61
0.51
0.51
1.00
0.80
0.59
1.00
0.59
0.60
0.59
0.33
0.22
1.00
0.18
0.37
0.36

148
5,638
7,975
6,SOI
93
867
4,488
1,303
6,717
4,306
38,335
1,049
3,000
677
4,295
1,260
43,616

67

106

276

39

21

184

48

85

88

89

40

34

31

22

39

-r-\--.. .

Net ODAas a
s hare of donors' GNI (%)

Net ODA ($ billions)

120 , - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - -- - , 0.35

" r- - - - - - - - -- -t. i 0.30

100

80t-----~~~

/1

0.25

61

0.20
60~~~--~~----------~~~~.1

0.15

0.10

Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development ,

~-

... ~I

---

---~

Selected net flows, 2004 ($ billions)

.~

Remittances

Trade [

rivate

~~~

d
~

Aid

United States 26%

Multil .teral

frn ance

-50

50

Source: World Bilnk estimiltes

-'.-'.

100

150

200

25 0

Aid
aid per capita, 2004
donated

received
S7S or more

5200 or more

530-7S

$lO0-200

SIS-29

5S0-99

less than SIS

Less than 5S0

, ;.-

net repayer

no dat.a

Tbe United States


is the largest donor oftotal aid

'" The small island of Montserrat

received the highest aid per capita in 2004--=""O;;;;~Ci~~~"~s(:::'_-_~__

In 2004, aid per capita in the world


was $14, upfrom $11 in 1990.

Norwa'y gives the largest aid


as a percent of donor GNI

l.

-~

East Asia 81. Pacific received the


smallest aid per capita of any region

(N._,.-.ru5JJ.,

(__Wli j
e-;. _

..

Sub-Saharan Africa received the


highest aid per capita of any region

Official development assistance to developing countries from


member countries of the OECD's Development Assistance

Committee rose to $106.5 billion in 2005 - a record high.

Official development assistance represents 0.33 percent of the


Development Assistance Committee members' combined gross
national income in 2005, up from 0.26 percent in 2004.

,,

10

10

Organisation for Economic

Co-operation and
Development

World Bank

!-_
In_19_5_0_- _19_5_5_,_n_et_a_id_ w_a_s _$_1._9_5_b_iI_Iio_n_._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _i .. International Monetary Fu nd
Since 1990, aid per capita increased by $17 in Europe &. Central Asia
(from $8 to $25). Aid to the Middle East and North Africa fell by $11
during the same period, from $46 to $35.

.. The European Commission

www.oecd.org

I
I
I

www.worldbank.org

www.imf.org

ec.europa.eu/europeaid

Economy

OD

Total external debt ($ billions)

Source: Global D~lopment Finance 2006

Total debt service, selected HIPC countries (% of exports)

Total debt service (% of exports)

60 r---------------------------------

so
40

30

20

10

Latin
Am~ric.1

Asiil

SQurce: Global

&:

Asia

Caribbeiln

f iolncc 2006

Source; Globifl Development Fi mlll1ct: 2006

* Benin
*Bolivia

* Burkina Faso

930

Burundi

1,465

* Cameroon

4,917

Chad
Congo, Oem . Rep.
Congo, Rep. of
* Ethiopia
The Gambia
* Ghana

260
10,389
2,881
3,275
90
3,500

Gu inea

800

Guinea-Bissau

790

* Guyana

1,354

* Honduras

1,000

* Madagascar

1,900

Malawi
*Mali

1,000
895

* Mauritan ia

1,100

* Mozambique

4,300

* Nicaragua

4,500

*Niger

1,190

* Rwanda

1,3 16

Sao Tome and Principe


* Senegal
Sierra Leone
*Tanzania

460
2,060

200
850
950
3,000

*Uganda

1,950

*"Zambia
Total

3,900
61,221

External debt
debt service as share of exports. 2004
20% or more

15-19%

11}-14%

5-9%

c. Cy..

less than S%

no data

S t

'"

.1

t e s

" ..:,.

Au St r

,~

~Hil;md

iii

I i

_..... .

iii

/
,l IS0lho

Low 8t middle income 14%


Low income
10%

Middle income
15%

For the 26 Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) the ratio of debt service
to exports fell from IS.1 percent in 1999 to 6.5 percent in 200S.

Bank for International


Settlements

The gains are expected to continue through 2008. It is projected that HIPC
debt service ratios will fall to 3.2 percent by 2008.

World Bank

As a percentage of government revenue, debt service fell from 21.8 percent


to 11.7 percent for HIPC, between 1999 and 2005.

www.oecd.org
Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development

The HIPC initiative has contributed to an increase in poverty-reducing


expenditures in the HIPC which rose from 41.6 percent to 49.9 percent of
government revenue between 1999 and 2005.

International Monetary Fund

Joint External Debt Hub

Iwww.jedh.org

The cost of the HIPC initiative for creditors in net present value terms is
estimated to be $41.3 billion at the end of 2005.

www.bis.org

I
I

www.worldbank.orgfdebt

www.imf.org

Economy

00

Cities em be tremendously
efficient. It is easier to provide
water and sanitation services to
people living closer together in
urban settiDgs than in dispersed
rural communities. Access to
health, education, and other social
and cultural services is also much
more readDyavaDable. However,
as cities grow, the cost ofmeeting
basic needs increases, as does the
demand on the environment and
natural resources.

Cities, now home to almost half the


world's people, are growing rapidly in size
and number, especially in developing
countries. People flock to cities for work,
access to public services, and a higher
standard ofliving. In 2004 there were
20 megacities with populations ofmore
than 10 million. Among developing coun
tries, urbanization has gone farthest in
Latin America, where 77 percent of the
people live in urban areas. South Asia
remains rural by comparison, with only
28 percent ofits people in urban areas.
(Definitions of urban areas vary by country
and may not be fully comparable.) By 2030,
60 percent ofthe world's people wi11live in
urban areas, in some countries ballooning
beyond the capacity ofthe environment to
support them adequately. The resulting

Population living in urban areas (millions)


800

East Asia 8{ Pacific


Europe 8( Central Asia

600

Latin America &c. Caribbean

South Asia

Middle East 8( North Africa

High.income countries

500
400

300
200
100

o
....q<,<:>
Source: UN World Urbanization

Countries with the lowest level of


PMIO concentrations in 2002
Belarus
Papua New Guinea
R.B. de Venezuela
Gabon
Sweden
France

2005 revision

Urban-population weighted PMI0

(microgram per cubic meter)

9
II

12
13

14
IS

Countries with the highest level of


PMIO concentrations in 2002
Sudan
Iraq
Pakistan
Bangladesh
Uruguay
The Gambia

Urban-population weighted PMI0

(microgram per cubic meter)

219

167
165
157
154
138

Share of global urban population, 1950 and 2005 (%)

environmental consequences are poor living conditions,


especially with the growth ofslums, destruction ofhabitat,
and water and air pollution.
UrbaDization and the environment
Urbanization by itself is not an environmental issue, but
urban environmental problems are a result ofurban life. The
cost ofurbanization to human health comes from a variety of
sources. Diarrheal diseases from inadequate sanitation
account for an estimated 4 percent ofthe global burden of
disease. The proximity to industrial works and roadways and
the use ofinefficient and polluting sources ofenergy can
result in exposure to high levels ofsoot and small particles
(PM10-fine, suspended particulates less than 10 microns in
diameter) and contribute to respiratory diseases, lung cancer,
and heart disease.

Air and water pollution in many ofthe world's major cities


cause moderate to severe sickness and death, and cost billions
ofdollars in lost productivity and damages. Although all the
world's megacities share these problems, water pollution
tends to be most serious in south, southeast, and central Asia,
and air pollution has the biggest impact in China, Latin
America, and eastern Europe. Not only are the human and
financial costs ofpollution large, they tend to f.ill
disproportionately on poor people, so addressing pollution
is justified on equity grounds as well as on economic and
environmental grounds.

Lower middle income

High income

Source : UN Wortd Urb4l nization PrO$peds 2005 revis-ion

Particulate matter concentration, 1990 and 2002


(Urban-population weighted PMlO micrograms
per cubic meter)

Low income

Lower-middl e
income

Upper-middle
Income

F=======j"

F = = ==;

F=="'1

High income

30

60

90

110

150

SaufU:: World Bank ~ l.l miltes b .1i ~ Cln tilt study Ambitn! Particulate
MaHer Concen!ra troo.J in Residential and ~tutron Hotspot Areas of
Wqf'd Cirits: Nt lJl Est /m att!" Based on 'hI!' GlDlMl Model

Po rtiruiatu

2006

of Ambient

Urbanization

urban population as share of total population. 2005


less than JS%

35-49%
50-64%
65-79",i,
80% or more

no data

latin America 8{ Caribbean


77%

Mumbai. India. is one of the fastest growing cities


in the developing world

Europe 8{ Central Asia


d

64%

e:

'':''-

East Asia 8{ Pacific

41%
(""",,,r!Jj '

../

.y
-~.~--

Nr..,

'0.

Caledonia
(hi

36%

In most developed countries, urbanization coincided to a great extent


with the Industrial Revolution in the 19th century, as farm-workers,
displaced by mechanization of agriculture, flooded into cities.
In 2001,924 million people were living in slums worldwide; at present
growth rates of urbanization, about 2 billion people will be living in
slums in 2030.

UN Population Information
Network

www.un.org/popin

1-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --1

1----- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --1

Population Reference Bureau

www.prb.org

World Bank-Urban development

www.worldbank.org/urban

In Latin America, the share of urban population is as high as in


high-income Europe.

The world's urban population is expected to rise to 5 billion by 2030.

Environment

DIJ

~n(tlnd (Chn)

Particulate matter
urban-population weighted PMIO,
micrograms per cubic meter, 2002
70 or more

so - 69
30 - 49

20 - 29

Less than 20

--
/

Latin America 8{ Caribbean

43

World )

~60

Europe 8{ Central Asia

35

--

East Asia 8{ Pacific

80

\, .;_ ..... ..- J

. . ~\ _ I5iiiF-/ilIjj

~ ~
tt
Ntw

t'l

"

S
.~

CIII,dtm
(h)

Sub-Saharan Africa

73

./

The world's urban-population weighted particulate matter


concentrations (PM10) are estimated at 60 micrograms per cubic
meter in 2002.

World Bank Environment

econ.worldbank.org/
environment

,.. World Bank

www.worldbank.org
(search for PMIO)

Particulate matter concentration has decreased globally and in all the


regions and income groups between 1990 and 2002.
Nine out of ten countries with the highest levels of PM10
concentrations are among the lower-income economies.

Particulate matter concentration levels in low-income countries were


three times those of the high income countries in 2002.
t - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - ---1 ,.. U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency
The ten cities with the lowest level of particulate matter are

located in Venezuela and Belarus.

www.epa.gov/oar/aqtmd97/
brochure/pmlO.html

Environment

Over the past 2S years agricultural


output has grown more rapidly
than population, diminishing
concerns of a global food shortage.
But malnutrition and food short
ages take a pervasive toll in devel
oping countries, especially in
Sub-Saharan Africa. Meeting the
growing demand for food and
improving the quality oflife of
those who depend on land for
their subsistence requires increas
ing the productivity offarmers
and their land.

Population and food production indexes (1980;100)


200 , - - - - - - - - - -- - -

ISO

World population

World food production

Sub-Saharan Africa population

Sub-Saharan Africa food


production

By 2050 there will be 9 billion people


living on earth, almost 3 billion more than
today. Most will live in cities, but all will
depend upon rural areas to feed them.
Although the amount ofarable land per
capita has declined in most developing
countries, yields have increased In the past
25 years, the food supply has expanded
faster than population, and there is every
reason to think that it will continue to do
so. But in Sub-Saharan Africa, with some of
the highest rates ofundernourishment,
food production has barely kept pace with
population increase. Intensified cultivation
through the use offertilizers, pesticides,
irrigation, and new plant varieties, can make
limited land more productive but may also
worsen environmental degradation, while
expansion into new lands destroys natural
habitats and decreases biological diversity.
The effects ofclimate change represent a
further challenge to efforts to raise the
productivity ofplants and animals.

Prevalence of undernourishment (% population)


40 r - - - - -- - - - - - - - -

301 - - - - - - - - - - - -

160

20 1 -- - - - - -- --{j1l-l

H O I-------~~---~"'--

120

1-----~P____7""=--------

loo ~_~

1980

__

1985

__

1990

Sour('e; Food and ~grlcultun: 0fla n i~ t ion

L-_~_~

1995

2000

2005
Source: Food ;a nd "'gricuhur;al Organjz;r,tlon

Arable land (hectares per 1,000 people)


500 .---- -- - - - - - - - - -- - - --
400 1 - - - - -
3001 -

---

100
100

Sub-Saharan

Developing

High-income

Africa

countries

countries

Source: Food and Agricultural Org41nization

Many poor farmers subsist on fragile lands,


poorly suited to intensive fanning. They lack access
to fertilizers, farm equipment, irrigation systems,
high yielding plant varieties, and markets for their
produce. Overgrazing, deforestation, improper crop
rotation, and poor soil and water management
contribute to land degradation. The degradation of
land reduces its productivity, encouraging growing
populations to move on to new and poorer land,
converting forests and fragile, semi-arid areas into
low-productivity cultivated areas.
In 2002, almost 1.4 billion people were living on
fragile lands, more than three-quarters ofthem in
Asia and Africa, where yields are low, the risks of
crop failure are high, and a large portion ofthe
population is undernourished. Many, especially in
Africa, are vulnerable to climate variability and
associated floods and droughts that are likely to
become more pronounced as a result of climate
change, leading to local famines and increased
levels ofmalnutrition. Sustainable production
methods, based on environmentally sound prac
tices, along with the development ofmore efficient
markets for farm inputs and outputs and off-farm
activities, are the key to improving rural livelihoods
and expanding the global food supply.

Cereal yield (metric tons per hectare)

Sub-Saharan

Africa

High-income
countries

Developing
countries

Source: Food and Agricultural Organization

Tractors per 1,000 hectares of arable land


50 .-- - - -

-------

-----

40 ~----------------~

301- - - - - - - - -

--

101-------~~~~~-

Sub-Saharan

Developing

High-income

Africa

countries

countries

Source: Food and Agricultural Organization

Environment

Arable land

hectares per cap.'ta 2001-2003


less than 0.10
0.100.19
0.200.29
0.300.49
0.50 or more
no data

Unite~ States_--,_+_ u ;
0.596

I I c d

Haiti -~:-==~--r-~:::::~:
0.094
Jamaica -~~--::~roi::If;;-'~;;;,.

0.066

Angola

0.219

Brazil

- - --0.325

Argentina

0.734

Kazakhstan
1.513

'

:---=~

---..

-,:"

__ China
0.111

-'
--_/

'--____ Kenya
0.142

Tanzania

0.108

" '.

NnP '

Cn/tlionia .
(Fr)

Aus l r ~ lI .

Australia _ _+-__
2.395
-~ ,
.- '
~South Africa
0.322

b'
.,
/

Arable land areas of the world comprise approximately 11 percent


of the total land area.
J - -- - - -- -- - - - - - - - - - -- - -- - - I
Europe and Central Asia, with 0.57 hectares per person, has the
highest arable land available per capita.

Food and Agriculture


Organization

Over the past two decades arable land per capita has declined by
19 percent in low income countries.
~ International Food
Policy Research Institute
J---'------ - - - - - - - -- -- - - - - -- -- --I
During the past 30 years, Africa has experienced at least one major
drought each decade.
J-T
_ h_e_w
_ o_ r_ld_'s_ t_o_ta_l_a_ra_b_le_l_an_d_ ar_e_a _is_1_.4_ b_ill_io_n_h_e_ct_a_re_s_. _ __ _--I ~ Consultative G rou p
on International
Fertilizer use per hectare is highest in East Asia and Pacific and
Agricultural Research
lowest (by a factor of 17) in Sub-Saharan Africa.

www.fao.org/default.aspx

www.ifpri.org

www.cgiar.org

Environment

[ill]

Undernourishment
prevalence of undernourishment,
share of population, average, 2001-2003
30%or more

10-19%

10-19%

5-9%

less than S%

no data

Latin America 8{ Caribbean

10%

Feeding centers are important in preventing


uncfernourishment in many countries

-..--

tilt e s

Europe 8{ Central Asia


6%

.t.

..... . - , .

East Asia 8{ Pacific


12%

(--<m

ID-;.
.:>-.
Nr,u

' ~.

.~

Cal~dom'a

(Fr)

32%

b'

Among developing regions, only Latin America and the Caribbean has
reduced the prevalence of hunger quickly enough since 1990 to reach the
Millennium Development Goal target of halving hunger by 2015.

www.fao.org/faostat/
foodsecurity/index_en.htm

... Food and Agricultural


Organization

www.worldbank.org

Maternal mortality ratios are more than 10 times higher in countries where ... World Bank
over 35 percent of the population is undernourished, compared with
countries where less than 5 percent of the population is undernourished.
~----------------------------------------------~ ~ WHO
~ The rural poor make up an estimated 80 percent of the world's 800 million
hungry people
~ World Food Programme
~

... A large proportion of the hungry are concentrated in areas that are
vulnerable to environmental degradation and climate change.

~ International Fund for

Agricu Itura I Deve Iopment

www.who.int/en/

www.wfp.org

www.ifad.org

Environment

O.QU

Water is crucial to ecooomic


growth and deve1opment-and to
the survival ofboth terrestrial and
aquatic ecosystems. More than
670 million people live in
countries fadng chronic and
widespread water shortages and
more than a billion people lack
access to safe drinking water.

Freshwater resources per capita (thousand cubic meters) 2004

Freshwater supplies are declining With


the projected growth in population and
economic activity, the share ofthe world's
population facing water shortages will
increase more than fivefold by 2050. These
trends pose a significant challenge for
meeting the Millennium Development
Goals and sustaining the growth of
developing countries.
Although the earth's water resources are
estimated at 1,400 million cubic kilometers,
only a tiny fraction is usable for human
needs. Freshwater is only 3 percent oftotal
water resources, or about 44 million cubic
kilometers. Most freshwater occurs in the
form ofpermanent ice or snow, locked up
in Antarctica and Greenland, or in deep
groundwater aquifers. The principal
sources ofwater for human use are lakes,
rivers, soil moisture and relatively shallow
groundwater basins. The usable portion of
these sources is less than 1 percent ofall
freshwater and only 0.01 per cent of all
water on earth, and much ofthat is located
far from human populations.

Source: Based on t he data from World Resource Inst itu te and FAO's AQ UASTAT

Share of freshwater withdrawals, most recent year available (%)


d domestic

i indus try

OJ

ag ricul ture

Irrigated land (% of cropland)


40
3 S ~------------------~

30 f---- - - - - j

2S f - - - -

--

20 f - - - - - -

IS

1---- -

10

104

Note: Data are not available fo r East Asia a nd Pacifi c.

Source: World ~elopme nt Ind icators 2006 based on dab (ro m FAO

Access to an improved water source (% of population)


I

I
World

I
I

2004

East Asia 8( t990


Paci fi c 2004

20

40

Europe 8(
Centra l Asia 12004

Lat in America

&:

Ca ri bbean 12004

Middle East 8(

North Africa
2004

South Asia

IlWIt

2004

Humans compete with ecosystems in the use offreshwater.


Extraction ofwater for human needs diminishes the total
available to maintain the ecosystems' integrity. Pollution of
water bodies leads to the further degradation ofnatural
systems. The three m~or factors leading to increased water
demand over the past century have been population growth,
industrial development, and the expansion ofirrigated
agriculture. Agriculture accounts for more than 70 per cent
offreshwater withdrawn from lakes, rivers, and underground
sources. This share is about 88 percent in low-income
countries. Most is used for irrigation, to provide about
40 percent ofworld food production.
Although domestic use ofwater for drinking and washing
is the smallest source ofdemand, providing safe water for
human consumption is ofgreat importance for health and
wellbeing. Water supplies should be free ofchemical and
biological contaminants and should be delivered in such a
way that their cleanliness is protected and they are regularly
and conveniently available. At present more than 1 billion
people lack access to an adequately protected source of
water within 1 kilometer oftheir dwelling, most ofthem in
rural areas.

Sub-Sahara n
Africa

12IIIM

60

80

100

Source: World H ea lth

People without access to improved water


(millions) 2004

Euro pe 8(
Centra l Asia

Latin Ameri ca

Be

Cari bbea n

Middle East 8(
North Africa

Sub -Saharan
Africa U

High-inco me

rur.. 1
urban
100

Source: World Health

200
i

300

400

500

and World Bank databa50e

EnvirollJllCDt

600

Freshwater
internal freshwater resources per capita
(cubic meters) 2004
less than 1,000
1,00()-1,699
1,70()-3,999
4,00()-9,999
10,000 or more

no dat.a

Latin America

Be Caribbean

~,

24,702
Bra z i I

,., 1

The lowering of the watertable as a result of drought requires


the digging of deeper and deeper wells

;'

Europe 8t Central Asia


11,122

_..

Federation

_ J-" .

East Asia 8t Pacific I


5,062
~)

N~ '
Co/,donio
(hi

A u s t rill i a

Sub-Saharan Africa
5,353

The world's total volume of freshwater utilization has been over


3,800 billion cubic meters per ye.ar.

AQUASTAT, Food and


Agricultural Organization of
the United Nations

www.fao.org
click on 's tatistical databases'

Agriculture uses 70 percent of freshwater globally.


Latin America, with 31 percent, and Asia with 27 percent, have more
than half of the world's freshwater resources.

UN Environment Programme

www.unep.org

World Resource Institute

www.wri.org

The Middle East and North Africa region has the lowest per capita
freshwater resources: 760 cubic meters.
By the year 2020 an estimated two-thirds of the world 's population
will be living in water-stressed countries - that is, less than
1,700 cubic meters per person per year.

)
Environment

c::IQD

Access to water
share of population with access to improved water source, 2004
less than 50%

5(H;9%
70--89%
90-99%
100%
no data

Latin America

lit Caribbean
91.0%

A standpipe such as this is often the only freshwater supply


to communities in the developing world

--------:1_

Europe 8{ Central Asia


91.9%

.:..

--

East Asia 8{ Pacific


78.5%

NtlIt,

"..

ClIledonia
(,,)

b'
/
/

Internet links

Facts
Globally, around 1.1 billion people do not have access to improved
water supply sources. Of those, 30 percent or about 322 million live
in Sub-Saharan Africa.

WHO/UNICEF Joint
Monitoring Programme UMP)
for water supply and sanitation

www.wssinfo.org/en/
welcome.html

WHO water, sanitation and


health

www.who.int/
watecsanitation_health/en

UNICEF Childlnfo

www.childinfo.org

In developing countries about 20 percent of the population do not


have access to an improved source of water.
In Sub-Saharan Africa about 55 percent of the rural population do
not have access to an improved source of water.
The richest 20 percent of the households in developing countries are
twice as likely to use drinking water from an improved sou rce
as the poorest.

Environment ~

Forests contn"bute to the live


lihood of many ofthe one billion
people living in extreme poverty.
They nourish the natural systems
supporting the agriculture and
food supplies on which many
more people depend. They also
account for as much as 90 percent
ofterrestrial biodiversity. But in
most countries they are shrinking.

Forests meet many people's basic, every


day needs, providing food, fuel, building
materials, and clean water. Forests also
provide essential public goods ofglobal
value: they facilitate the hydrological and
nutrient cycles and act as carbon sinks,
contributing to reduction ofthe green
house gases.
Forest loss is taking a terrible toll on
both the natural and economic resources of
many countries. Many ofthe world's rural
poor directly depend on forest products for

Forest coverage (% of land area) 1990-2005


50 r------------------------------ -----------------------------~==~-----

40 ~------------------------------------------------------------

30~-------------------------

20 ~-------------------------

lO~----------~

19'JO

Middle East Il(

South Asia

North Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa

2005

2005

East Asia

Pacific

&:

Europe 8{

Latin America 8{

Central Asia

Caribbean

Source: FAO Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005

Source: United N.tions Environment Programme ;;and WCMC

their livelihoods. In addition, deforestation is the


main cause ofbiodiversity loss. Biodiversity refers to
the variety oflife on Earth, including the variety of
plant and animal species, the genetic variability
within each species, and the variety ofdifferent
ecosystems. 1i'opical deforestation is a major source
ofthe loss ofecosystems. In addition, forest loss in
the tropics alone is responsible for 10-30 percent of
global greenhouse gas emissions.
Deforestation is largely driven by economic
development and human actions. For example, forests
are cleared to expand agricultural land and timber is
used to provide fuel and raw material for manufac
turing and construction. Because many services
provided by forests are not valued, they are subject to
more destructive and unsustainable activities than is
economically or environmentally justified.
In order to stop deforestation, incentives and
regulations are key aspects ofpolicy making. One of
the most widely used approaches is to designate
forests as protected areas. The total area ofprotected
sites (both terrestrial and marine) has increased
steadily in the past three decades. It is estimated that
about U percent ofthe forest areas worldwide have
been under protection. Designating land as
protected, however, does not necessarily mean that
protection is in force.

Environment

Forest area
share of total land area, 2005
Ie" than 10.0%
10.0-19.9%
20.0-29.9%
30.0--49.9%
50.0% or

mor~

no d3t3

Latin America 8{ Caribbean


46%

Europe 8{ Central Asia

---

38%
-

East Asia 8{ Pacific

28%

~)

South ASia)

17%

'------_/

. ~

27%

Internet links

Facts

The world's total forest area is about 3.9 billion hectares, which is
roughly 30 percent of the total land area.

1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -1

Five countries, Russian Federation (20%), Brazil (12%), United


States (8%), Canada (8%), and China (5%) contained more than half
of the world's total forest area in 2005.

_ _ _ _ __ -1

China added about 4 million hectares of forest each year from


2000 to 2005.

Europe and Central Asia has the highest level of forest area
per capita-l.8 hectares. Latin America and the Caribbean is
second with l.6 hectares per capita.

United Nations Food and


Agricultural Organization

United Nations Environment


Programme and World
Conservation and Monitoring
Centre

World Resou rces Institute

www.fao.org
(click on forestry)

www.unep-wcmc.org

www.wri.org
(dick on rese_rch topics)

Environment

lliD

Forest lost and gained


average annual change in forest area, between 1990 and 2005
Decrease of 2.0% or more

Decrease of 0.1-2.0%
No Significant change

Incre.se ofO.l%--2.0"A>
Increase of over 2.0%
no data
/

Brazil
2,822

Tropical rainforest cleared to make way for an airstrip


in Sarawak, Borneo

Myanmar

466
Sudan

589

(...""'>Il I.....)

~;;;;;~~~~L_'ndonesia
1,871

Nigeria
---410

Tanzania

~~O=::----412

..

S>---:l.

=----::--~:..:..::~_Zambia

445

N"'\::'

C(l/~do",o

(Fr)

c.",triu with h;g"'''f''''' I~. 1990-2005 ' )


Allerage annual forest loss, 1990-2005
(thousand hectares)

Between 1990 and 2005, the world lost about 8 million hectares of
forest each year or a total of 125 million hectares.
African forest area diminished by more than 65 million hectares, or

about SO percent of the world total forest loss, from 1990 to 2005.

~------------------------4
Forest area in Brazil decreased by more than IS million hectares,
about 40 percent of the world total forest loss, between 2000 and
2005,
At the global level, deforestation seems to be slowing; theestimate
of forest cover change indicates an annual loss of 8.4 million hectares
during the years 2000 to 2005, compared with 9.4 million hectares
annually between 1990 and 2000.

United Nations Food and


www.fao.org
Agricultural Organization (FAO) (click on fo""try)

... The World Conservation Union

World Wildlife Federation

FAO's Global Forest Resources


Assessment 2005

www.iucn.org

www.wwf.org

www.fao.org/forestry

Environment

Clill

Developing countries use less than half of


the world's energy, but their demand is
growing faster than in the richer countries.
In 2004, global energy consumption
increased by 4.4 percent. In fast-growing
East Asia and Pacific, consumption grew by
12.3 percent. As economies grow, two forces
are at work: technological progress and a
shift away from energy intensive activities,
increasing energy efficiency. But rising
incomes and growing populations increase
the demand for energy. As a result, world
wide energy use increased by 30.5 percent
between 1990 and 2004, compared to a
population growth ofonly 21.1 percent.

Growing economies and expand

ing populations require more

energy, most ofwhich comes from

fossil fuels. Burning fossil fuels

and cutting forests have increased

the levels ofgreenhouse gases in

the atmosphere, changing the

Earth's climate. Producing the

energy needed for growth while

mitigating global climate change

is a challenge for everyone living

on earth.

~
-

'~~,'I'

.'-

::+

..

~:,

. .

. . .' .
--

~_~',

_'

--

Carbon dioxide emissions per capita (metric tons)

14,--------------------------------------------------------------------
12~----------------------------------------------------------_===~

1------- - -

10

2002

Source: CDIAC and Wo rld Bank estimates

... :

';.,

':-'"

,-

.'

:.

'.

,.':.

'

..

. - ", : ' .
.

',

Carbon dioxide emissions (billions of metric tons)


6,--,-,-------------------------

'.

~ '- - - - - - - - - =-------------;;;.-'-

--

Carbon dioxide emissions per capita (metric tons)


20 , - - ,- , - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

15

10

United
StCltes

Chin..

Russian

Japan

India

Federation

Sou ret: Carbon Dioxide Inform atio n Analysis Center (CD lAC) and World Bank estimates

116

United

States

China

Russian
Federiltion

Japim

India

The way energy is generated determines the


environmental damage done. The extensive use
offossil fuels in recent decades has boosted
emission ofcarbon dioxide (C02), the principal
greenhouse gas, which traps heat in the atmos
phere. Burning coal releases twice as much carbon
dioxide as burning the equivalent amount of
natural gas. The amount ofcarbon released each
year by human activities is estimated to be 6 to
7 billion tons. Some 2 billion tons are absorbed
by oceans, and another 1.5 to 2.5 billion by plants,
with the rest released in the atmosphere. Clearing
offorests has decreased their ability to trap carbon
dioxide.
The level ofcarbon dioxide in the atmosphere
has increased by 30 percent since the beginning
ofthe industrial revolution. According to the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the
rate and duration ofglobal warming in the 20th
century are unprecedented in the past thousand
years. The global average surface temperature has
increased by about 0.6 degrees Celsius, with the
1990s being the warmest decade since 1861 when
instrument records became available. Increases in
the maximum temperature and the number of
hot days have been observed over nearly all regions.
And warming is expected to continue, with
increases in the range of1.4 to 5.8 degrees Celsius
between 1990 and 2100.
Global warming shrinks glaciers, changes the
frequency and intensity ofrainfall, shifts growing
seasons, advances the flowering oftrees and
emergence ofinsects, and causes the sea level to
rise. The magnitude and effect ofclimate change
vary across regions, but developing countries are
likely to suffer most because oftheir dependence
on climate-sensitive activities such as agriculture
and fishing. They also have a more limited capacity
to respond to the effects ofclimate change.

"

~:..-~~~'-'-'

--'_:

\~I

_.

Energy use (million kilotons of oil equivalent)


12

l0l-__------------------------

_...

1995

1996

1997

High
O income

l-

1998

1999

2000

Upper middle
O Income

____

2001

2002

Lower middle
Income

2003

2004

Low
income

Source: I nternational Energy Agency (lEA)

.'

I ' '-

: . '

:1" '.".' _.. ,

.~~!.

I ". .

,,' . , " . .

--:'--"-~\

---------=- -

Global primary energy supply by source, 2004

Combustible renewables
;md waste
10%

Source: International Energy Agency (lEA)

Environment

Energy use
energy use per capita,
kilograms of oil equivalent, 2004
5,000 or more

2,500-4,999
1,000- 2, 499
500-999
less th.n 500

no data

Latin America

Caribbean

1,185 kilograms

Between 1970 and 1990, 800 million people in rural

areas gained access to electricity

-----

Europe & Central Asia


2,848 kilograms
:

...... ..

"

East Asia & Pacific


1,124 kilograms
( M~rsh.11 IsI.nds)

\~

South Asia
486 kilograms

::.-,=
(- -..N1)j

("
S,:,''''
:::m':cn.:.:
,.,=,.~---..,.-.:~~"~'
...
..

'..

If-'').

Sub-Saharan Africa
703 kilograms

Facts
~

High-income economies used 5.5 trillion metric tons of oil


equivalent of energy in 2004, an amount equal to half of the world's
total energy use.

In tfle developing world, more than 2 billion people do not have


access to modern energy services and 2.4 billion people rely on
traditional biomass for their basic energy needs. The indoor air
pollution caused by the use of biomass in inefficient stoves is
responsible for 1.S million deaths per year-mostly of young
children and mothers.
China, Canada, Brazil, and the United States produce about half of
the world's hydropower energy.

Internet links
~

Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change

International Energy Agency

United Nations Statistics


Division

II>

U.S. Energy Information


Administration

The World Bank Group


Energy Program

I
I

www.ipcc.ch

www.iea.org

www.unstats.un.org/
unsd/energy

I
I

www.eia.doe.gov

www.worldbank.org/energy

Environment

Q![J

Greenhouse gases
carbon dioxide emissions per capita. 2002
15.0 metric tons or more

10.0-14.9 metric tons


5.0-9.9 metric tons

1.0-4.9 metric tons


less than 1.0 metric tons

no data

/..--

Latin America Be Caribbean


2.4 metric tons

-,*"",,1") )

Coal-fired power stations are major contributors


to atmospheric pollution

Europe 8{ Central Asia


6.7 metric tons

" ':"

-_.

East Asia 8{ Pacific


2.4 metric tons

South Asia
1.0 metric tons

~
ct

Sub-Saharan Africa

0.7 metric tons

.'
/

/
/~
/

Between 1990 and 2002, the world 's C02 emissions rose by almost
15 percent, to 24.4 billion metric tons.

Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change

The rapidly expanding economies of China and India are showing a


swift increase in C02 emissions. China increased its emissions by
33 percent between 1992 and 2002, while India's emissions grew by
57 percent in the same period.

Carbon Dioxide Information


Analysis Center (CD lAC)

cdiac.ornl.gov/home.html

Europe and Central Asia cut C02 emissions from 10 metric tons
per capita in 1990 to 6 in 2002 but still remains highest among
developing regions.

World Resource Institute

climate.wri.org

World Bank Prototype


Carbon Fund

www.prototypecarbonfund.org

As well as contributing to global warming, regional climate changes,


and accelerated sea-level rise, atmospheric C02 directly affects plant
photosynthesis and water use, potentially altering vegetation and
ecosystems.

Environment ~1

Economy
Afghanistan
Albania
Alleria
American Samoa
Andorn
Angola
Antiaua and Barbuda
Argentina
Armenia
Aruba
Australia
Austria
.berbaijan
Bahamas, The
Bahrain
Bangladesh
Barbados
BelaNs

Belgium
Belize
Benin
Bermuda
8hubln
Bolivia
Bosnia and Herzeaovina
Bolswana
Brazil
Brunei Darussalam
Bulpria

Burlcina Faso
Burundi
Cambodia
Cameroon
Canada
Cape Verde
Cayman Islands
Central African Republic
Chad
Channel Islands

Chile
China
Hong Konl, China
Macao, Chin.
Colombia
Comoros
Congo, Oem. Rep. of
ConSO, Rep.
Costa Rica
C6te d'ivoire
C~tia

Cuba
Cyprus
Czech Republic
Denmarlc
Djibouti
Dominica
DomlniCln Republic
Ecuador
EIYPI. Arab Rep. of
1 Salvador
Equatorial Guinea
Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Faeroe Islands
Fiji
Fi nland
France
French PolyneSia
Gabon
Gambia, The
Georgia
Germany
Ghana
Greece

Greenland
Grenada
Guam
Guatemala

Total population
millions

Life expectancy at birth

Under-five mortality rate

ye~rs

2005

2004

per 1,000
2004

3.1
32.9
0.1
0.1
15 .9
0.1
38.7
3.0
0.1

74
71

19
40

41
75
75
71

260
12
18
32

20.3
8.2
8.4
0.3

80

0.7
141.8
0.3
9.8
10.5
0.3
8.4

0. 1
0.9
9. 2
3.9
1.8
186.4
004
7.7
1l.2
7.5
14 .1
16.3

n.3
0.5
0.0
4.0
9.7
0. 1
16.3
1,304.5
6.9
0.5
45 .6
0.6
57 .5
4.0
4.3
18.2
404
11.1
0.8
10.2

79
72
70
75
63
75
68
79
72
55
78
64
65
74
35
71

77
72
48
44
57
46
80
70
39
44
79
78
71
82
80
73
63
44
52
79
46
75

5
90
13
11

77
12
11
39
152
80
69
15
116
34
9
15
192
190
141
149

39
96
85

100
53
91
96
92
100
100
100

77

2005

2005

7.0
8.1
89.6

2,580
2.730

21.5
0.9
173.0
4.4

1,350
10,920
4,470
1,470

654.6
303.6
lOA

32,220
36,980
1,240

97
74
100
100
100
91
67

10.3
66.2

14,370
470

27 .0
373.8
1.0
4.3

2,760
35.700
3,500
510

62
85
97
95
90

0.8
9.3
9.5
9.1
644.1

870
1.010
2,440
5,180
3,460
3,450
400
100
380
1,010
32,600
1,870

36

80

26.7
5.2
0.7
5.3
16.5
1,051.9
0.9

193
200

75
42

104
3.9

350
400

II

95
77

95.7
2,263.8
192.1

5,870
1,740
27,670

93

104.5
0.4
6.9
3.8
19.9
15.3
35.8

2,290
640
120
950
4,590
840
8,060

13.6
109.2
256.8
0.8
0.3
21.1
34 .8
92.9
16.8

16.510
10,710
47.390
1.020
3.790
2.370
2.630
1,250
2,450

1.0
12.2
11.1

220
9,100
160

21
70
205
108
13
194

77
79
76

77

0.8
0.1
8.9
13.2
74.0
6.9
0.5
404

53

77

126
14

68
75
70
71
43
54

32
26
36
28
204
82

l.l

71.3

42

166

68
79
80
74
54

20

56
71
78
57
79
69
73
75
68

2004

Gross national income (GNI}a


per capita
S billions
S

99
61
79
41
66
100

SA

0.0
0.8
5.2
60.7
0.3
104
1.5
4.5
82.5
22.1
11.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
12.6

Access to an improved
water source
% of population

91
122
45
5
112

86

46
58
97
84
100
91
100
100
100
73
97
95
94
98
84
43
60
100
22
47
100
100
100

88

6.9

82
82
100
75

0.4

5
21
45

2.8 g
196.5
2,177 .7

95
100
95

3,280
37,460
34.810

6.0
2.852.3
10.0
218.1

5,010
290
1,350
34.580
450
19,670

0.4

3,920

30.3

2 400

Merchandise trade
% ofGDP
2()()S

2.6

14.8

28.5
8.0

5.2

5.2
5.2
2.1
62.5
7.6

18.6
3.7
1.2
46.8

52.5
39.4
63.0

lll.5
73.7
37.5
55.4
50.7
33.0
8l.5
68.1
39.7
135.9
38.5
63.0
llO.6
178.2
87.7
36.9
77 .3
52.2
102.9
88.7
2'.7

17.1
1l.9

ll2.2
32.3

66.0
0.8

'8.8
126. 1
29.1
60.9

5.3

4'.7

3.5

net inAows, % of GOP


200'

5.7
1.0

7.'
2.7
6.1
16.0
6.7
l.'
41.0

SQrting a business
time required in d ays
Apri l 2006
39
2.

0.1
1.3
7.2
0.5
3.0
8.3
0.7
0.5
2.7
0.0
0.6
2.2

' .0
7.3
6.9

27.2

10.5

9.7

6.'
36.0
7.6
8.8
3.1
15.7
5.3

29
53

1,'38
333

1,359

1.023
37
69
27
.5
31
62
50

'65
38
1,337
53
269

5'

6.6

15.9

0.5

American Samoa
Andom
Anlola

'.7

Antigua and Barbuda

3.5
l.0

Argentina
Armenia
A",ba

IS.I
7.9
l.4
6.7

Aust,..li.

30.6
0.3

Bahrain
Bangladesh

' .6

Barbados

6.0
S.9
3.0
0.3

Belarus
BellJium
Belize

7.7
0.5

108
152

396
587
660

2.l

32
34

966

Bosnia and Herzegovina


Botswana
Brazil
Brunei Darussalam
Bulgari.

'3
86

.0

37
3
52

103
1,053
281

l.S
17.7
5.3
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.2
16.5
0.3

37
12

62.5
63.8
333.6

8.0
2.8
20.5

27
35

799

.99

l.6
2.7
5.2

3.2

44
23
155
71
77
'5
'5

3.4

Ll
3.6

41. 8

7.2

127.0
63.8
53.0
73.8
53.2
53.6
30.1
59.5

'.1

278.6
5Ll
134.6
44 .9

-3.6
5.0
6.8
3.5
3.5
l.6
2.9
5l.'
3.2
9.3
5.6

75. 1
53.4
52.5
62.7
7l.2
33.3

86.3

11

24
37
19
73
65
19
26
136
76
35
16

'.0
0.1

37
102

0.0
0.6

Congo, Oem. Rep. of


Congo. Rep.

5ll

1.4
0.4

COSQ Ria
Cate d'ivoire

98
l.06S
75
1.282

l.l92
1.599
43
879
396

.72
235
'02
106

I'
1,260

8
1,224

'6
14
8

1,'07
1,299

'.5

60

S86
388

15.0
9.7
-1.3
l.6
0.7

27

99

16

337
1,525
93
1,465
800

52

Canada
Capev.rd.
Cayman Islands
Central African RepubliC

26

l.7
l.2

81
38

BUNndi
Cambodia
Cameroon

1,733
1.326
. 27

-0.'

2.

Burtlina Faso

Ch.d
Ch.nnellslands
Chile
China
HonllCon& China
Macao, Chin.
Colombia
Comoros

254

9.7

BhuQn

Bolivia

0.1
0.0

6'.0
B7.1
86.6
73.9
7J.l

Benin
Bermuda

4.7

18
14

0.5
2.8
5.6

Bahamas. The

507

I'
75

34.7
24.9

Austria
Azerbaijan

1.2

3.6

1l.2

1.175
37
1,249
578
1,333

0.8
2.9

-l.0
ll.l

8'.0
6'.6
'5.3
10.9

23
154
215

2'

7l.6
33.0

2()()4

54
1,149
579
260

12.
21
32

J.5
0.8
l.8
0.7
1l.4
l2.3
1.5

Fixed-line and mobile


b
phone subscribers
per 1,000 people

7'.6

22.3

2'.2

f oreisn direct

I.l

4.7

Croatia

2.1
8.3
11.2
8.8
0.5
l.7
2.5
2.0
2.1
l.0

Cuba
Cyprus

0.'
0.2
11.7
0.1

CzocII Republit
Oenmar~

pjiboutl
Dominica
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
Egypt, A.-.b Rep. of

EI Salvador
Equatorial Guinea

Eritrea
Estonia
Ethiopia
Faeroe Islands
Fiji
Finland

l.6
12.0
6.2
2.9
2.6
0.2
0.7
10.3
0.4
8.5

G.....,..

10.0
2_2

Greenland
G... nad.

France
French Polynesia
Gabon
Gambia. The

Georgia
Germany

Ghana

Economy

Total population
millions
2005

life expedancy at bir1h


years
2004

GWnu

9,'

54

Guinea-Bissau
Guy.n.
Haiti
Honduras
Hungary
Iceland

1.6
0.8
8.5
7.2

45

India

Indonesia
Inn, Islamic Rep. of
Iraq
Ireland
tsle of Man
Israel

Italy
Jamaica
apan

Madagascar
Malawi
",.Iaysla
Maldives

Mali
Mllta
Marshall Islands
Mauritania
Mauritius

Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Fed. Sts. of

Moldova
Monaco
Mongolia

Morocco
Mozambique
Myanmar
Namibia
Nepal

Netherlands
Netherbnds Antilles
New Caledonia

Now Zeallnd
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria

Northem Mariana lliand.


Norway
Om.n
Pakistan
Palau

Panama
Plpul New Guinea
Paraguay

......

Philippines

Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Qatar
Romania

Russian Federation

1004

2005

2005

370

3.5
0.3

64

64

52
68

117

83
54
87

0.8
3.9
8.6

10.1

73

99

0.3
1,094.6

80

100

IOU
\3.7

63
67
71

85

86

793.0

46,320
720

38
38

77
94
81

282.2
187.4

1,280
2,770

166.6
2.1
128.7

40,150

220.6
67.7
4.2
0.1
6.9
57.5

78

2.7
118.0

71

34.1

Luxembourg
Macedoni., FYR

perc.. pil..

S billion~

59

fCenya

Kyrgyz Republic
Lao P.D.R.
latvia
Lebanon
lesotho
liberia
Ubyl
liechtenstein
Uthuania

Gross national income (GNlt

% of population
SO

5.4
15.1

~uwait

Access to an improved
water source

155
203

ordan
Kazakhstan
l'iriblll
Korea, Oem. Rep.
Korea, Rep. of

Under-five mortality rate


per 1,000
2004

78
79

82
72

0.1

22.5

64

48.3

77
77

1.8
3.3
5.9
0.0
3.4

68
55
71

72
36
42
74

20
4

27
73
120
65
55

12
68
83
l2

3\
112
235

72
78

2.0
18.6
12.9

74
56
40

14
113
175

25.3
0.3
\3.5
0.4
0.1
3.1

7J

12
46
219

0.1
4.1
0.0
2.6
30.2
19.8
50.5
2.0
27.1
16.3
0.2
0.2
4.1

5.5
14.0
131.5

67
48
79
65
53
73
75
68
68
65
70
42
61
47
62
79

\3.5
44.4

77
51
99

100
79
61

46
73

23
2.6
15.5
22.1
1.7
0.4
32.4
24.1
30.0
5.8
5.4
2.1
125.8
0.8
5.1
5.5
0.2
1.7

7,050
65,630
2,830
290
160
4,960

6.6

2,390
380
\3,590
2,930
560
5,260

97
94

75lA
0.3

1,300

92
100
62

3.2

880

1.8
52.3
6.1

690
1,710
310

81
43
78
87
90
100

6.1

7,llO

7.3

2,990
270

598.0

36,620

106.7
5.0

25,960
910

76
75
79
70
45
44

38
259
197

79
46
48

3.3

240

74.2

560

275.2

59,590

99
4

9.0

15,830
24,040
440
440
6,760
6,180
960
130
5,530

1,724.9
9.0
4,988.2

59.1

28
52
43
152
106
63
76

\3
101

0.8
21.6
143.2

764.7

28
23

75
65

10.6
3.9

92

6
59
l25
15

80

28.0

1,390

99
83
50
100
87
53
100

2.6
155.8

83.1
38.2

0.1

86

100

0.1
4.6

0.0
3.2
5.9
6.2

18.0

93
100
97

20

O.S

U
0.2
103.1

61
65
100

27,770
18,620
30,010
3,400
38,980
2,500
2,930
530

100

80

65
48
63

2.5
5.2
5.9
2.3
3.6

41

180
1,010
450
1,190
10,030

27

100

23.0

9,070

91

107.3
0.2
15.0

690
7,630
4,630
1,280

75

24

85
90

56
71

93
24

39
86

3.9
7.9

70
71
74

29

l4

83
85

73.0
108.3
271.4

7,110

170.7

16,170

82.9
639.1

4,460

2.1

230

77
77
74
71
65
44

21
20
21
203

660
2,610
1,300

100
57
97
74

3,830

Total debt service


% of exports of goods,
services i m d income
2004

F-ix: ed ~li ne

Merchandise tnde
%o(GDP
2005

direct
net inflows, % of GDP
2004

Starting a business
time required in diJys
April 2006

2.6
1.9
3.8

49

233

46

0.2
4.0
4.6

203

44

38

19.9
16.1
5.8
4.0
7.8
25.2

65.3
66.4
177.5
45.8
77.5
117.2
53.6

18.9
22.1

28.2
54.0

2.5
0.8
0.4

10.7

50.9

0.3

35

97

47

155.9
89.6

6.1

14.8
8.2
38.0
8.6

14.2

9.0
21.1

14.J
10.\

6.0
7.6
7.9
4.6
5.8

11.0

34

1,499

IJ

1,541
1.021
1,176
419

69.3
82.3
72.9
36.4
87 .2

1.2

22

0.0
3.5
0.7

35

21

163

5.1

16

46

115.1
91.4
45.6
72.2
196.4
110.5

52.0

1.4

57

1,425

9.5
0.3

107.0

1.2

77

19

80.6
54.6
7J.3

143.5
250 .7
97.0

64

153

1.217
1,650
85

184

0.1
0.2
2.2
0.2
0.9
5.6
7.7

5.5

1.4
1.0
6.8
0.2
5.4

329

~rciJpitiJ

metric tons

2002

270

72.5
43.3
62.4
24.7
114.6

50.5
4.5

and mobile
b
phone subscribers
per 1,000 people
2004

23

18

20

54

21

350

85

52

41

1,103
1,015
106

48

937

10.6
7.5
4. 1
9.4

3.3
9.9
0.2
0.3
6.5
9.4

25.6
1.0
0.2
2.7
4.7

4.0

0.1
9.1

J.4
246.9

26

156

1.338
1,235
1,998

2.9
1.0
0.8
3.9

18

21

37

30

1.8
3.7

42

105.5
103.2

73

IJ

642

19

25

766

3.6
21.3
5.1
0.1
0.1
6.3

Inn, Islamie Rep. of


Ireland
Isle orMan
Israel

Italy
Jamaica

Jopon
Jordan
Kazakhstan
Kenya

Kiriblti
Korea, Dem. Rep.
Korea, Rep. o(
Kuwait

Ky'1l'fZ Republic
Lao P.[).R.

Latvio
Lebanon
Liberia
libya
Liechtenstein

Lithuania
Luxembourg

Macedonia. FYR
Madagasar

Malawi
Malaysia

3.4
0.0
7.4

Mali
Malta

17

IJ5
700

1.1
2.6

Mauritania
Mauritius

7.4

0.2

22.9

58.0

2.5

27

554

1.8

Il.l

62.5
117.1

3.1

16

30

226

391

1.6

2.9

116.5

5.8

20

18.

3.4

14.0
4.5
3.8

59.1
63.5

1.5
4.1

12

113

357

27

1.5
0.1
0.2

10

206

95

31

10

1,393

22

5.8

57.0
44.0
70.3

2.3
5.6

12

19

738

1,189
177

7.5
8.2

39. 1
59.3

0.5
2.6

24

43

13

79

55 .7

0.2
0.1

13

34

1.2

24

MlldiYes

Marshall Islands

82

46

0.3
0.1

Iceland
India
Indonesia

451

36

1,249
86

19.6

72.5
36.6
127.6

Haiti
Honduras
Hungary

Lesotho

60.9
82.4

5.5

Guinea~Bissau

Guyana

lroq

429

109

1.3
9.0

Economy
Guin..

l.l
0.2
9.3
27.8
8.2
8.6
0.7
0.1
0.4

Mayotte
Mexico
Micronesia, Fed. Sti. of
Mold.,..
Monoco
MonJOlia

Morocco
Moumbique
Myanmar
Namibia

Nlp.1
Netherlands
Nethertands Antilles
New Caledonia

NewZ..land
Nicaragua
Niger
Nigeria

Northem Marionalslands

21.2

6.9

91.4
17.1

14.3

34.0

7.1

12.7

101.0
51.7

0.6

1.530

13.9

Norway

413

63

12.1

Oman

0.7

Pakisun

P:illau

388

2.0

Panama

19

344

0.4

Papua New Guinea


Paraguay

28

13.5
17.1
20.9
34.6

37.9
89.0
63.3
56.6

1.3
2.6
0.5
5.0
0.5

19

56

74

72

48

223

31

777

1,384

446

974

86.8

17.1

69.2

877

7.2

II

28

673

0.7
1.0
0.9

7.7
6.0
3.5
53.0
4.0

IWu
Philippines

Poland
Portugal

Puerto Rico
Qatar

Economy

Samoa
5an Marino
510 Tom' and Principe
5audi Arabia
Senepl

*5erbia and Montenegro


l5eycheUes
:5ierra Leone
l5ingapore
'5Iovak Republic
Slovenia
150lomon Islands

Somali..
South Africa
$pain
;5riLanb

St. Kitts and Nevis


St. lucia
St. Vinunt and the
Grenadines
Sudan
Suriname
Swaziland
Sweden
Switzerland
Syrian Arab Republic
iajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
Timor- Leste
logo
Tonga
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia

Turkey
Turkmenistan
Uganda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela, R.B. de
Vietnam
Virgin Islands (US.)
West Banlc and Gaza
Yemen, Rep. of
Zambia
Zimbabwe

World
low income
Middle income
Lower middle income
Upper middle income
Low and midd~ income
East Asia &: Pacific
Europe &: Central Asia
Latin America 8( the
Caribbean
Middle East 8{ North
Africa
South Asi ..
Sub-Saharan Africa
High income
European Monet.. ry
Union

Total population

Life eJtpecUncy at birth

millions
2005

y~ars

Underfive mortality rate


per 1,000

Access to an ImprO'fed
water source
% of population

2004

2004

2004

Gross national Income (GNl)'


per apita
S billions
2005

0.2

70

30
4

88

0.0
0.2
24 .6

0.4
0.7

63

ll8

79

72
56

27
117

76

73
73

IS

93

0.1
289.2
8.2
26.8 i

14

88

41

283

57

79
74

100
100

ll9.6
42.8
34.7

8,290
220
27,490
7,950
17,350

0.3

590

11.7
8.2 i
0.1
5.5
4.4
5.4
2.0

0.5
8.2
45.2

77

56

70

225

29

45

67

88

224.1

4,960

14

100
79

1.100.1
22.8
0.4

25,360
1.160
8,210
4,800

0.0

71
13

74

14
22

71

36.2

57

0.4

69
42

l.l

91
39
156
4

80
81
74

19.0
6.5
38.3
64.2

99
98

640

92

l.l

62
100
100
93
59
62

2.6
370.5
408.7

2,540
2,280
41,060
54,930

99

176.9
0.7

80

58

55

140

72

25
20

52
100
91

70

13

28.8
47.1
4.5
60.2
296.5

26.3
2.2

1,380

12.7 k

340
2,750

2.2
0.2

750

13.6
29.0
342.2

2,890
4,710

96

49

103
138

72
60

68

18

79

96
100

79
77

100
100

102.7
2,263.7
12,969.6

93

no

350
2,190
10,440

25
32

70
63

3,590

23 .3

71

10.0
72.6
4.8

0.8
0.4

70

16
93
126
21

64
46

1.0
6. 1
0.1

390
11,770
710
3,280 i

63
47

80

9.0
7.4

2,090

43.4
19.6
0.2
0.1

0.7
l.2

7.9
71.4

280
1,520
23,770
37,600
43,740
4,360

3.5

75

17

100

15.1

26.6

67

1.3 .5

5 10

69

6'
40
19
23

82

0.2
26.6

60
83
85

0.3
127.8
51.7

1.600
4,810
620

92
67
58
81

3.8
12.7
5.7
4.5

74
70

83.0
0. 1
3.6
21.0
11.7

79

13

III

61
38
37

13.0

6,437.8

67

2,353.0

59
70

3,On5

182
129

79 w
122
39
42

83 w

44,983.3 t

75
84

1,120
600
490
340

6,987 w

1,363.9

580

8,lll.1

2,640

4,746.5

1,918

2,474.7

70

598.7
5,426.4

69

28

65

86
37

80

3,367.9
9,476.8

5,625
1,746
1,627
4,113

82
94

1,885 .3

70

79

3,067.4

472.9

34

92

551.4

69
72

31

91

1,945.0
2,209.7

305.4

69

55

89

684.6

1,470.0
741.4

63

92

46

168

l.OIU

79

..
......... . .

.......... ..... ...

31M

79

84

1,005.3

56

552.2
35,528.8

100
100

9,912.4

""""................................--...

..

S
2005

".,..

1li0000"'.... h~UIIIiIft."...._I...
M..I~~ . . . . . . . . _ _ _ _ _ _

c,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . .ID......... ~.....

~.,

II.7U).

4,008
2,241

684
745
35,lll
31,914

Tolal debl service


% of exports of goods,
services ~nd income

2004

Merchandise trade
% o(GDP
2005

foreign direct
net inflows, % of GOP
2004

Starting a business
time required in d.ys
April 2006

144
39
58
18 j
38
26

94.1
75 .8
59.3
61.7
136.2
41.9
368.0
144.9
114.1
85.1

94.5

6.4

49 .3
41 .3

8.5

24.5

65.0
70.6

7.9
7.3

81.2
84.3

0.3
1.6
1.2
15.5
14.6
13.8

35
47
50
47
40
12

6.0

40.6
136.1
150.3
67.9
67.5
52.3
96. 3

7.0

39
694
61
16
20
43
67
30

25.6
10.3
8.1
10.9

13.8

1.7

3.5
6.8
5.3
10.6
2.0
2.5
3.8
13.7
35.9

6.9
10.7

34.2
129.3
81.9
50.3
91.6
82.5
52.2
125.8
30.8
86.2

0.9
4.0
5.3
2.4
14.9
2.7
2.5
1.9

2.7
-0.2
0.2

l.i
13.1
2.2
0.9
2.9
0.0
8.1
2.1
0.9
3.3
2.6

138.5

34.9
1.4
16 .0
6.0

40 .1
21.2
40.8
61.1
52.9
58.4
131.9

3.5
20.2

63.7
61.6
11 0.3

10.1
15.0
13.1
17 .0
14.5
6.8

41.1

47.1 w

JJ
92
53
32
43

II

30

JJ
63
18

3.4
0.9
2.4
1.2
6.9
1.4
3.6

43
29
39
141
50

1.1
6.2
l.l

93
63
35
96

1.342
79
537
72
910
842
27
1.350
1.027
1,278
17
88
473

I,m
165
745
411

0.6
15 ,0
0.4

7.6
7.4
0.5
2.4

2.4

642

1.6

58
659
119
1,743
1.560
269
46

0.3

32
537
48

144
745
480
751
82
44
545
1,128
1,584
1.223
465
79
83
450

III
1,010
380
92
34
55

5.1
0.9
5.8
5.6
2.8
0.7
0.1
3.7
0.3
1.0
31.8
2.3
3.0
9.1
0.1
6.4
25.0
9.2
20.2
1.2
4.8
0.4
4.3
0.8
92.8
0.7
0.2
1.0

32
73

2.4
6.7
2.4

l.l

41

219

3.2

0.8

3J
62
21
22

76
84

1.0
0.7

26.4

62.2
58.8
66.7
59.3
74.7
68.7
44.0

10.6

57.0

12.4
7.9

31.0
58.8
43.6
61.9

2.2
1.4
1.7

48 u
59
51
57
42
54
46

San Marino
510 Tom' and Principe
Saudi Arabia

Sen..al
Serbia and Montenegro

6.4
0.1
13.7
6.8
7.7
0.4

471 w
71
482
431
563
307
431
536
499

1.6 w
1.4
2.7
2.6
2.9
2.5
2.5
3.S
3.0

19.6

25
60
57

Fixed-line and mobil.


b
phone subscribers
per 1,000 people
2004

3.9 w
0.8
3.3
2.6
6.2

Seychelles
Sierra Leone
Sinlapore
Sloyak Republic
Slovenia
Solomon Islands
Somalia
South Africa

Spain
Sri unn
St. Kith: and Nevis
St.lucia
St. Vincent and the
Grenadines
Sudon
Suriname
Swaziland

Sweden
Switzerland

Syrian Anb Repubroc:


Tajikistan
Tanzania
Thailand
nmor-Leste
TOlD
Tonp
Trinidad and Tobalo
Tunisia
Turkey
Turkmenistan
lJa:anda
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kinldom
United States
Uruguay
Uzbekistan
Vanuatu
Venezuela, R.B. de
Vietnam

Virgin Islands (U.S.)


W.st Bank Ind Gau
Yemen, Rep. of
Z.mbi.
Zimbabwe

World
Low income
Middle income
Lower middle income

2.2
E~st Asi. 8{ Pacific
Europe &t Centr.1 Asia
utin Amcria &t the
C.ribbc.ln
Middle East /I{ North
Afric.a
South Asi.
Sub-Saharan Africa

Rank

....

as

e;
~Q

.:

~=

~:

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
26
28
29
31

32
33
34

38
41

I ~

1
1
I ~

I
I ~

1
1
1

I
I

1
11-

1
-

44

46
48

49

SO
53
55
56
57
58

60
62
63
65
66

67

68
70

71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
80
81
82
82

U8

Country

1
I
1
I~

1
I ~

1
1

1
I

1
I
I
1

--

luxembourg
Norway
Switzerland
Bermuda
Denmark
Iceland
United States
Liechtenstei n
Sweden
Ireland
Japan
United Kingdom
Finland
Channel Islands
Austria
Netherlands
Belgium
France

Rank

65,630
59,590

84
85

54,930
.. a
47,390
46,320
43,740
.. a

86

41,060
40,150
38,980

92

37,600
37,460

95

--

36,980
36,620
35,700
34,810 b
34,580
32,600
32,220
27,770 c

Italy
Ho ng Kong, China

30,010
27,670
27 ,490
25 ,960
24,040 c

Malta
Saudi Arabia
Antigua and Barbuda
Czech Republ ic
Trinidad and Tobago
Hungary
Oman
Estonia
Seychelles
St. Kitts and Nevi s
Croatia
Slovak Republic
Palau
Mexico
Poland
Lithuania
Latvia
Lebanon
Chile
Libya
Mauritius
Botswana
Gabon
Malaysia
South Africa

25,360
23,770 c

--

19,670
18,620
16,510 c
17,350
16,170
15,830
14,370 c

13,590
11,770
10,920
10,710
10,440
10,030
9,070 c
9,100
8,290
8,210
8,060
7,950
7,630
7,310
7,110
7,050
6,760
6,180
5,870
5,530
5,260
5,180
5,Dl0
4,960
4,960

87

88
89

90
91

I
1'

93
94

Germany
Canada
Australia
Isle of Man

Singapore
New Zealand
Kuwait
Spain
United Arab Emirates
Greece
Israel
Cyprus
Slovenia
Po rtugal
Korea, Rep. of
Bahrain

Country

96
97
98

99
100
100
102
103
103
105
106
107

lOS
109
110
112
113
114
115
116
117

1
1

128
129
130
131
132
134

1. I~

11

I~

142
143
144
145

146

4,590
4,470
e_

Uruguay
Grenada
Romania
Dominica
st. Vincent and the Grenad ines
Belize
Brazil
Bulgaria
Jama ica
Fiji
Serbia and Montenegro
Namibia
Kazakhstan
Marshall Islands
Tunisia
Macedonia, FYR
Iran, Islamic Rep. of

Belarus
Thailand
Algeria
Ecuador
Peru
Albania

4,460
4,360
3,920
3,830

3,790
3,590
3,500
3,460
3,450
3,400
3,280
3,280 d

Suriname
Jordan
EI Salvador

1
1

I
1

Guatemala
Maldives
Dominican Republic
Micronesia , Fed. Sts. of
Colombia
Swaziland
Tonga
Samoa
Cape Verde
China
Morocco
Vanuatu

Kiribati
Syrian Arab Republic

Philippines
Indonesia

1
I
I

Paraguay
West Bank and Gaza
Egypt, Arab Rep. of
Azerbaijan
Honduras
Sri Lanka
Djibouti

2,280
2,190
2,090
1,870
1,740

1,730
1,600

Ukraine
Armenia

2,990
2,930
2,930
2,890
2,830
2,770
2,760
2,750
2,730
2,630
2,610
2,580
2,540
2,500
2,450
2,440
2,400
2,390
2,370
2,300

2,290

1,520
1,470

--

Angola
Georgia

Bosnia and Herzegovina

135
136
136
138
139
139
139

4,8 10
4,800
4,710
4,630

Venezuela, R.B. de
St. lucia
Turkey
Panama
Costa Rica
Argentina
Russian Fe deration

118

119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127

1,390

1,380
1,350
1,350
1,300
1,280
1,280
1,120 c
1,250
1,240

1,190
1,160
1,020

'1

Rank

Country

147
147
147
150
151
152
153
155
156
158
159
160
161
161
163
164
164
166
167
168
169
169
171
172
172
174
175
176
176
178
178

BolIVIa
Cameroon
Guyana
Lesotho
Congo, Rep.
Nicaragua
Moldova
Bhutan
Cote d'ivoire
Timor-Leste
India
Senegal
Mongolia
Pakistan
Papua New Guinea

ISO
ISO
182
183
183
185
186
186
188
188
190
191
192
192
194
195
196
197
199
199
201
202
202
206
207
208

Comoros

Sudan
Vietnam
Yemen, Rep. of
Solomon Islands
Mauritania
Nigeria
Kenya
Benin

Uzbekistan
Zambia
Bangladesh
Ghana
Haiti
Kyrgyz Republic
Lao P.D.R.
Burkina Faso
Chad
Silo Tome and Principe
Cambodia
Mal i
Guinea
Central African Republic
Togo
Tanzania
Zimbabwe
Tajikistan
Mozambique
Gambia, The
Madagascar
Uganda
Nepal
Niger
Rwanda
Eritrea
Sierra Leone
Guinea-Bissau
Ethiopia
Malawi
Liberia
Congo, Oem. Rep. of
Burundi

$
1,010
1,010
1,010
960
950
910
880e
870
840
750

no
no
690
690
660
640
640
620
600
590
560
560
530
510
510
490
470
450
450
440
440
400
400
390
380
380
370
350
350
340 f
340
330
310
290
290
280
270
240
230
220
220
180
160
160
130
120
100

Note: Rankings include all 208 economies presented in the key


indicators table, but only those that have confirmed World Bank
Atlas GNI per capita estimates or rank in the top twenty are shown.
Estimated ranges for economies that do not have confirmed World
Bank Atlas GNI per capita figures are:
High income (S10,726 and above):
Andorra
Aruba
Bahamas, The
Brunei Darussalam
Cayman Islands
Faeroe Islands
French Polynesia
Greenland
Guam
Macao, China
Monaco
Netherlands Antilles
New Caledonia
Puerto Rico
Qatar
San Marino
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Upper middle income ($3,466 - SI0,725):
American Samoa
Barbados
Equatorial Guinea
Mayotte
Northern Mariana Islands
Lower middle income ($876 - $3,465):
Cuba
Iraq
Turkmenistan
Low income ($875 or less):
Afghanistan
Korea, Oem. Rep. of
Myanmar
Somalia
a. Data not available; ranking is approximate.
b. Data include the French overseaS departments of French
Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Reunion.
c. Data are for earlier year; ranking is approximate.
d. Data exclude Kosovo.
e. Data exclude Transnistria.
f. Data refer to mainland Tanzania only.
Following a refe rendum in May 2006, Montenegro declared its
independence from the union of Serbia and Montenegro, resulting
in both states becoming independent countries. Data are for both
states prior to independence.

The need for statistics


This book would not be possible without
the efforts of statisticians, who conduct
surveys, collect data, and compile statistics
to produce estimates ofthe indicators
shown here. Although statisticians rarely hit
the headlines, the statistics they produce
often do. The growth ofthe economy, the
rate of unemploymeJ;lt, the prevalence of
diseases-these and many other statistical
indicators regularly make the front pages in
countries around the world.
Most of the statistics included here are
produced by governments or other public
authorities. They describe the social and
economic conditions of people, how they
have changed over time, and how they
compare to other countries. They are
shared through a network of international
agencies which work together to assemble a
global database that describes the state of
the world. Published and distributed in
many forms, they are used by governments,
the private sector, and non-governmental
organizations to guide their decision
making.
Statistics make the detailed analysis of
complex social and economic problems
possible, helping policy makers to choose
the best interventions and then to monitor
the results. Rates of poverty, economic
growth, mortality, literacy, and
employment, are all affected by the
actions of governments. Good quality
statistics, produced by professionals using
sound methods and reliable data, and free
from political interference, provide
information to citizens about the successes
and failures of public policy. Good
statistics promote debate about the best
policy choices.

When the United Nations met in


September 2000 to set goals for the new
millennium, the goals for social and
economic development were defined by
specific, quantifiable, time-bound targets
reducing poverty by half, ensuring all
children complete primary school,
achieving gender equality in education,
reducing child mortality rates by two
thirds, cutting maternal mortality rates by
three quarters, and increasing access to safe
water and sanitation, all by 2015. These are
ambitious goals. They are intended to draw
public attention to the need for faster
progress and firm commitments to
achieving development results. Reliable
statistics are needed to monitor progress
and encourage greater effort.
The use of statistics for improving the lives
of people is not new. Well over a century
ago, Charles Booth produced detailed maps
illustrating wellbeing and social class
differences in London, using data gathered
over a period of 20 years. These maps
informed a famous policy debate which
contributed to the development of radically
new programs aimed at the alleviation of
poverty in London. Earlier in the 19th
century, John Snow, a London doctor,
discovered a statistical pattern among
cholera cases which led to the removal of a
pump that was the source of contamination
of a water supply.
Statistics are a public good. Once they have
been produced, they can be used for many
purposes. For instance, most countries
compile statistics from surveys of prices
paid by consumers, which are in turn used
to estimate rates of price inflation. These
statistics have widespread uses, but two in
particular are familiar to many people: rates

of inflation often figure in wage and salary


negotiations and are used for pension
adjustments. And financial markets
monitor inflation to gauge the strength of
demand or anticipate changes in monetary
policy.
The example of prices is interesting,
because statistics are also used to set prices.
Take the case of agricultural products.
Harvest sizes are estimated by governments
from sample surveys of farms. These
production statistics help market operators
assess levels of supply, which wholesalers
and retailers compare to demand for those
products during the price bargaining
process. Thus, public statistics make private
markets more efficient.
Although statistics are vitally important for
efficiently allocating scarce resources, in
many of the world's poorest countries the
statistics produced by governments are of
poor quality. In over 50 countries,
policymakers don't know how many people
live in poverty, and in over 100 countries
they can't determine whether the number is
shrinking or growing.
In very poor countries the administrative
systems that produce official statistics are
fragile. Record-keeping is not always given
high priority in places where governments
lack resources and struggle to provide the
most basic services. Surveys and censuses
are carried out irregularly. And the
professional statisticians, who manage
statistical processes and provide the
technical know-how needed to produce
good quality statistics, are often underpaid
and in short supply. When statistics are
unreliable, policymakers cannot make use
of them in their decision making, leading

to poor decisions and poor outcomes.


Recent innovations have helped improve
statistics at relatively low cost. Combining
the extensive information collected on
households from sample surveys with the
finer spatial disaggregation obtained from
population censuses provides a method of
estimating poverty levels for small areas.
Combined with information about the
location of public facilities, this technique
has been very useful for policy makers and
program managers, because it helps them
identify vulnerable and underserved
populations. It does not require additional
data collection activities because it
combines existing sources. Providing
researchers with access to survey and
census datasets, under controlled
conditions to protect the confidentiality of
survey respondents, is another way in which
some countries have expanded the use of
statistics. Electronic dissemination tools
have dramatically reduced the costs of
publishing statistical data and have enabled
them to reach a far wider audience.
The international community increasingly
recognizes the role that good data and
statistics play in development, and the
importance of encouraging their use. There
is a global effort underway to improve the
capacity of developing countries to produce
and analyze statistical data. The key aim is
to improve the data for monitoring
progress towards the Millennium
Development Goals. A sustained effort will
be needed to put statistical capacity at the
center of development policy, to increase
investment in data collection,
dissemination, and technical capacity, and
to improve the use of existing datasets.

Statistics

(]![]

Millennium Development Goals


Goals and targets from the Millennium Declaration

Indicators for monitoring progress

Goall Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger


Target 1 Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the
proportion of people whose income is
less than one dollar a day

1. Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per dar


1a. Poverty headcount ratio (percentage of population below
the national poverty line)
2. Poverty gap ratio (incidence x depth of poverty)
3. Share of poorest quintile in national consumption

Target 2 Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the


proportion of people who suffer
from hunger

4.
5.

Prevalence of underweight children under five years


of age
Proportion of population below minimum level of
dietary energy consumption

Goal 2 Achieve universal primary education


Target 3 Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere,
boys and girls alike, will be able to complete
a full course of primary schooling

6.

Net enrollment ratio in primary education

7. Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5b


8. Literacy rate of15-24-year-olds

Goal 3 Promote gender equality and empower women


Target 4 Eliminate gender disparity in primary
and secondary education, preferably by
2005, and in all levels of education no
later than 2015

9.

Ratio ofgirls to boys in primary, secondary, and


tertiary education
10. Ratio ofliterate women to men, ages 15-24 years
11. Share of women in wage employment in the non
agricultural sector
12. Proportion of seats held by women in national
parliament

Goal 4 Reduce child mortality


Target 5 Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and
2015, the under-5 mortality rate

13. Under-five mortality rate


14. Infant mortality rate
15. Proportion of one-year-old children immunized
against measles

Goals and targets from the Millennium Declaration

Indicators for monitoring progress

Goal 5 Improve maternal health

Target 6 Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990


and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio

16. Maternal mortality ratio


17. Proportion of births attended by skilled health
personnel

Goal6 Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

Target 7 Have halted by 2015, and begun to reverse,


the spread ofHIV/AIDS

18. HIV prevalence among pregnant women ages


15-24 years
19. Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence rate C
19a. Condom use at last high-risk sex
19b. Percentage of population ages 15-24 years with
comprehensive correct knowledge ofHIV/AIDSd
19c. Contraceptive prevalence rate
20. Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school
attendance of non-orphans ages 10-14 years

Target 8 Have halted by 2015, and begun to reverse,


the incidence of malaria and other
major diseases

21. Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria


22. Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using
effective malaria prevention and treatment measures
23. Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis
24. Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured
under directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS)

Goal 7 Ensure environmental sustainability

Target 9 Integrate the principles of sustainable


development into country policies and
programs and reverse the loss of
environmental resources

25. Proportion ofland area covered by forest


26. Ratio ofarea protected to maintain biological diversity
to surface area
27. Energy use (kilograms of oil equivalent) per
$1 GDP (PPP)
28. Carbon dioxide emissions per capita and consumption
of ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (ODP tons)
29. Proportion of population using solid fuels

Target 10 Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people


without sustainable access to safe drinking
water and basic sanitation

30. Proportion of population with sustainable access to an


improved water source, urban and rural

Target 11 By 2020, to have achieved a significant


improvement in the lives ofat least
100 million slum dwellers

32. Proportion ofhouseholds with access to secure tenure

31. Proportion of population with access to improved


sanitation, urban and rural

Statistics

mu

Millennium Development Goals


Goals and targets from the Millennium Declaration

Indicators for monitoring progress

Goal 8 Develop a global partnership for development


Target 12 Develop further an open, rule-based,
predictable, non-discriminatory trading
and financial system.
Includes a commitment to
good governance, development and
poverty reduction-both nationally and
internationally
Target 13 Address the special needs of the least
developed countries
Includes: tariff- and quota-free access
for the least developedcountries' exports;
enhanced programme of debt relief for
heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC)
and cancellation of official bilateral debt;
and more generous ODA for countries
committed to poverty reduction
Target 14 Address the special needs of landlocked
countries and small island developing
states (through the Programme ofAction
for the Sustainable Development of Small
Island Developing States and the outcome
of the 22nd special session of the
General Assembly)
Target 15 Deal comprehensively with the debt
problems of developing countries through
national and international measures in
order to make debt sustainable in the
long term

Some cd'the indicators listed below are monitored


separatelyfor the least developed countries (LDes),
Africa, landlocked countries and small island
develoPin9 states.
Official Development Assistance
33. Net ODA, total and to the least developed countries, as a
percentage ofOECD/DAC donors' gross national income
34. Proportion oftotal bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of
OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic
education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water
and sanitation)
35. Proportion ofbilateral official development assistance
ofOECD/DAC donors that is untied
36. ODA received in landlocked countries as a proportion of
their gross national incomes
37. ODA received in small island developing states as
proportion oftheir gross national incomes
Market access
38. Proportion oftotal developed country imports (by value
and excluding arms) from developing countries and
from the least-developed countries, admitted free of
duty
39. Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on
agricultural products and textiles and clothing from
developing countries
40. Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a
percentage of their gross domestic product
41. Proportion ofODA provided to help build trade capacity
Debt sustainability
42. Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC
decision points and number that have reached their
HIPC completion points (cumulative)
43. Debt relief committed under HIPC Initiative
44. Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods
and services

Target 16 In cooperation with developing countries,


develop and implement strategies for
decent and productive work for youth

45. Unemployment rate of young people ages 15-24 years,


each sex and total f

Target 17 In cooperation with pharmaceutical


companies, provide access to affordable
essential drugs in developing countries

46. Proportion of population with access to affordable


essential drugs on a sustainable basis

Target 18 In cooperation with the private sector,


make available the benefits of new
technologies, especially information
and communications

47. Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 people


48a. Personal computers in use per 100 people

48b. Internet users per 100 people

Note: Goals, targets, and indicators effective 8 September 2003.


aFor monitoring country poverty trends, indicators based on national poverty lines
should be used, where available.
hAn alternative indicator under development is 'primary completion rate'.
CAmong contraceptive methods, only condoms are effective in preventing HIV transmission. Since
the condom use rate is only measured among women in union, it is supplemented by an indicator
on condom \lse in high-risk situations (Indicator 19a) and an indicator on HIV/AIDS knowledge
(Indicator 19b~ Indicator 19c (contraceptive prevalence rate) is also useful in tracking progress in
other health, gender, and poverty goals.
dThis indicator is defined as the percentage of15- to 24-year-olds who correctly identifY the two
major ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV (using condoms and limiting sex to one
faithful, uninfected partner), who reject the two most common local misconceptions about HIV
transmission, and who know that a healthy-looking person can transmit HIV. However, since there
are currently an insufficient number of surveys to be able to calculate the indicator as defined
above, UNICEF, in collaboration with UNAIDS and WHO, produced two proxy indicators that
represent two components ofthe actual indicator. They are:
the percentage of women and men ages 15-24 who know that a person can protect

himfherself from HIV infection by 'consistent use of condom'; and

the percentage of women and men ages 15-24 who know a healthy-looking person

can transmit HIV.

ePrevention to be measured by the percentage of children under age five sleeping under
insecticide-treated bednets; treatment to be measured by percentage of children under age
five who are appropriately treated.
fAn improved measure ofthe target for future years is under development by the International
Labour Organization.

Statistics

rnD

Definitions, sources, notes, and abbreviations

obtain necessary permits and licenses and to


Access to an all-season road The number of
complete all inscriptions, verifications, and
rural people who live within 2 Ian (typically
equivalent to a 20-minute walk) of an all
notifications to start operations. Data are for
season road. An 'all-season road' is a road that businesses with specific characteristics of
is motorable all year by the prevailing means
ownership, size, and type, and type of
of rural transport. Predictable interruptions
production. (World Bank).
of short duration during inclement weather Business, time to start up The time, in calendar
(e.g. heavy rainfall) are accepted, particularly
days, needed to complete all the procedures
on low-volume roads. (World Bank)
required to legally operate a business. If a
procedure can be speeded up at additional
Adolescent fertility rate The number ofbirths
cost, the fastest procedure, regardless of
per 1000 women aged 15-19.

(United Nations Population Division)

cost, is chosen. Time spent gathering


information about the registration process
Agricultural machinery Wheel and crawler
is excluded. (World Bank)
tractors (excluding garden tractors) in use in
agriculture. (FAO)
Carbon dioxide emissions Emissions stemming
from the burning of fossil fuels (including
Agricultural productivity The ratio of
the consumption of solid, liquid, and gas
agricultural value added, measured in
fuels and gas flaring) and the manufactttre of
constant 2000 US dollars, to the number of
cement.
workers in agriculture. (FAO)
(Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center)
Agricultural products Plant and animal
products, including tree crops but excluding Cereal yield The production ofwheat, rice,
maize, barley, oats, rye, millet, sorghum,
timber and fish products. (FAO)
buckwheat, and mixed grains, measured in
Agriculture The output of the agricultural
kilograms per hectare ofharvested land.
sector corresponds to International Standard
Refers to crops harvested for dry grain only.
Industrial Classification (ISle) divisions 1-5
(FAO)
(includes hunting, forestry, and fishing).
Children out of school, primary school age
Aid dependency ratios Net official aid and
children The number of primary school age
official development assistance, each
children not enrolled in primary or
expressed as a share of GNI aid per capita
secondary school. (UNESCO Institute for Statistics)
provide a measure ofthe recipient country's
Children with acute respiratory infection taken
dependency on aid. Calculated using values
to a health provider The proportion of
in US dollars converted at official exchange
children under age five with acute respiratory
rates. (OECD)
infection in the two weeks prior to the survey
Aid, net Aid flows classified as official
who were taken to an appropriate health
development assistance or official aid, net
provider. (UNICEF)
of repayments. (OECD)
Control of corruption Measures the
Births attended by skilled health staff The
perceptions of corruption, conventionally
proportion of deliveries attended by
defined as the exercise of public power for
personnel trained to give the necessary
private gain. (World Bank)
supervision, care, and advice to women
Crop production index Agricultural production
during pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum
for each period relative to the base period
period, to conduct deliveries on their own,
1989-91. It includes all crops except fodder
and to care for newborns. (UNICEF)
crops. (FAO)
Business, number of procedures to start up
Crude birth and death rates Number ofbirths
The number of procedures required to start
and deaths that occur during the year, per
a business, including interactions required to

admission, the successful completion of

1,000 population, estimated at mid-year.


education
at the secondary level.

Debt, total external Debt owed to


(UNESCO Institute for Statistics)

nonresidents repayable in foreign currency,


Electric power consumption The output of
goods, or services. It is the sum of public,
power plants and combined heat and power
publicly guaranteed, and private
minus transmission, distribution, and
plants
nonguaranteed long-term debt, use oflMF
transformation
losses and own use by heat
credit, and short-term debt. Short-term debt
and
power
plants.
(lEA)
includes all debt having an original maturity
of one year or less and interest in arrears on Energy use, commercial The apparent
consumption of commercial energy equals
long-term debt. (World Bank)
domestic production plus imports and stock
Debt service, total The sum of principal
changes, minus exports and fuels supplied
repayments and interest actually paid in
to ships and aircraft engaged in
foreign currency, goods, or services on long
international transport. (lEA)
term debt, interest paid on short-term debt;
and repayments (repurchases and charges) to Enrollment rate, gross The ratio of children
who are enrolled in an education level,
the International Monetary Fund.
(World Bank)
regardless of age, to the population of the
Deforestation The permanent conversion of
corresponding official school age, as defined
by the International Standard Classification
natural forest area to other uses, including
of Education 1997 (ISCED97).
shifting cultivation, permanent agriculture,
(UNESCO Institute for Statistics)
ranching, settlements, and infrastructure
Enrollment rate, net The ratio of children of
development. Deforested areas do not
official school age, as defined by the
include areas logged but intended for
regeneration or areas degraded by fuelwood
International Standard Classification of
Education 1997 (ISCED97), who are enrolled
gathering, acid precipitation, or forest fires.
in school, to the population of the
Negative numbers indicate an increase in
corresponding official school age.
forest area. (FAO)
(UNESCO Institute for Statistics)
Dependency ratio The ratio of dependents
people younger than 15 and older than 64 Exchange rate, official The exchange rate (local
currency units relative to the US dollar)
to the working-age population. (World Bank)
determined by national authorities or the
Education, primary The level of education that
rate determined in the legally sanctioned
provides children with basic reading,
exchange market. It is calculated as an
writing, and mathematics skills along with
annual average based on monthly averages.
an elementary understanding of such
(IMF)
subjects as history, geography, natural
Female to male enrollments in primary and
science, social science, art, and music.
secondary school The ratio of female to male
(UNESCO Institute for Statistics)
gross enrollment rates in primary and
Education, secondary The level of education
secondary school. (UNESCO Institute for Statistics)
that completes the provision of basic
Fertility rate, total The number of children
education. It is aimed at laying the
that would be born to a woman if she were
foundations for lifelong learning and
to
live to the end ofher childbearing years
human development by offering more
and
bear children in accordance with
subject- or skill-oriented instruction using
current age-specific fertility rates.
more specialized teachers.
(UNESCO Institute for Statistics)

Education, tertiary The level of education,

whether or not leading to an advanced


research qualification, that normally
requires, as a minimum condition of

(World Bank)

Fertilizer consumption The plant nutrients


used per unit of arable land. It includes

nitrogenous, potash, and phosphate


fertilizers (including ground rock phosphate).
Statistics ~

The time reference for fertilizer consumption


level ofinventories, and net acquisitions of
valuables. Fixed assets include land
is the crop year auly through June). (FAO)
improvements (fences, ditches, drains, and so
Financing from abroad (obtained from
on); plant, machinery, and equipment
nonresidents) and domestic financing
purchases;
and the construction ofroads,
(obtained from residents) The means by which
railways,
dwellings,
and the like.
a government provides financial resources to
(World Bank, OECO. UN)
cover a budget deficit or allocates financial
Gross domestic product (GDP) The sum ofgross
resources arising from a budget surplus.
value added by all resident producers in the
Includes all government liabilities-other than
economy plus any product taxes 0.ess subsidies)
those for currency issues or demand, time, or
not included in the value ofthe products. It is
savings deposits with government-or claims
calculated using purchaser prices and without
on others held by government, and changes in
deductions
for the depreciation of fabricated
government holdings of cash and deposits.
assets
or
for
the depletion and degradation of
Excludes government guarantees ofthe debt of
natural
resources.
(World Bank)
others. (IMP)
Gross domestic product (GDP) per capita Gross
Food production index Covers food crops that
domestic product divided by midyear
are considered edible and that contain
population.
(World Bank)
nutrients. Coffee and tea are excluded because,
Gross national income (GNI) Gross domestic
although edible, they have no nutritive value.
product (GDP) plus net receipts of primary
(FAO)
income
(compensation of employees and
Foreign direct investment, net inflows Net
property
income) from abroad. Data are
inflows ofinvestment to acquire a lasting
converted
to dollars using the World Bank
management interest (10 percent or more of
Atlas
method.
(World Bank)
voting stock) in an enterprise operating in an
Gross national income (GNI) per capita Gross
economy other than that ofthe investor. It is
the sum of equity capital, reinvestment of
national income divided by midyear
population. (World Bank)
earnings, other long-tenn capital, and short
tenn capital as shown in the balance of
Gross national income (GNI), PPP Gross
payments. (IMP)
national income converted to international
Forest area Land under natural or planted stands
dollars using purchasing power parity rates. An
oftrees, whether productive or not. (FAO)
international dollar has the same purchasing
power over GNI as a US dollar has in the
Freshwater resources Total renewable resources
United States. (World Bank)
in the country and river flows from other
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC)
countries. (World Resources Institute)
Initiative A program ofofficial creditors
Freshwater withdrawals, annual Total water
designed to relieve the poorest, most heavily
withdrawals, not counting evaporation losses
indebted
countries oftheir debt to certain
from storage basins but including water from
multilateral
creditors, including the World
desalination plants in countries where they are
Bank
and
IMF.
(World Bank)
a significant source. Withdrawal data are fQr
single years between 1980 and 2000.
High-income economies Those with a gross
Withdrawals can exceed 100 percent oftotal
national income (GNI) per capita of$10,726 or
more in 2005.
renewable resources where extraction from
nonrenewable aquifers or desalination plants is HIV, adults and children living with All people
considerable or where there is significant water with HIV infection, whether or not they have
reuse. (World Resources Institute)
developed symptoms ofAIDS. Adults are
defined as those aged 15 and over and children
Gross capital formation (commonly called
'investment') Outlays on additions to the fixed
as aged 0-14. (UNAIDS)
assets ofthe economy, net ofchanges in the
HIV, adult prevalence ofThe proportion of

people aged 15-49 who are infected with HIV.


(UNAIDS)

Immunization rate, measles, child Percentage


of children aged 12-23 months who received
vaccination for measles before 12 months or
at any time before the survey. A child is
considered adequately immunized against
measles after receiving one dose of vaccine.
Industry The output ofthe industrial sector
corresponding to International Standard
Industrial Classification (ISle) divisions
40-45.
Interest payments Payments of interest on
government debt-including long-term
bonds, long-term loans, and other debt
instruments-to both domestic and foreign
residents. (World Bank)
Internet access Proportion of people with
access to the world wide network.
(International Telecommunication Union).

Land, arable Land under temporary crops


(double-cropped areas are counted once),
temporary meadows for mowing or for
pasture, land under market or kitchen
gardens, and land temporarily fallow. Land
abandoned as a result of shifting cultivation
is excluded. (FAO)
Land under cereal production Refers to
harvested areas, although some countries
report only sown or cultivated areas. (FAO)
Life expectancy at birth The number ofyears a
newborn infant would live if prevailing
patterns of mortality at the time of its birth
were to stay the same throughout its life.

corresponding to International Standard

Industrial Classification (ISle) divisions

15-37.

Merchandise trade The sum of merchandise


exports and imports measured in current
US dollars. Also referred to as trade in goods.
(WTO)

Middle-income economies Those with a gross


national income (GNI) per capita of more
than $875 but less than $10,726 in 2005.
Migration, stock the number of people born in
a country other than that in which they live. It
includes refugees. (UNSD)
Mortality rate, infant The number ofinfants
dying before reaching one year of age, per
1,000 live births in a given year.
(Harmonized estimates ofthe World Health Organization,
UNICEF, and the World Bank)

Mortality rate, children under-five The


probability that a newborn baby will die
before reaching age five, if subject to current
age-specific mortality rates. The probability is
expressed as a rate per 1,000.
(Harmonized estimates of the World Health Organization,

UNICEF, and the World Bank)

Mortality ratio, maternal The number of


women who die from pregnancy-related
causes during pregnancy and childbirth, per
100,000 live births. The data shown are
modeled estimates based on an exercise by
the World Health Organization, the United
Nations Children's Fund, and the United
Nations Population Fund.
(WHO, UNICEF and UNFPA)

Nationally protected areas Totally or partially


(World Bank)
protected areas of at least 1,000 hectares that
Low-income economies Those with a gross
are designated as national parks, natural
national income (GNI) per capita of$875 or
monuments, nature reserves or wildlife
less in 2005.
sanctuaries, protected landscapes or
seascapes, or scientific reserves with limited
Malnutrition, underweight children,
public
access. The data do not include sites
prevalence ofThe percentage of children
protected
under local or provincial law. Total
under five whose weight for age is more than
land
area
is
used to calculate the percentage
two standard deviations below the median for
oftotal area protected.
the international reference population aged
(World Conservation Monitoring Centre)
0-59 months. The reference population,
adopted by the World Health Organization in Official Aid Grants and loans (net of
repayments) that meet the criteria for official
1983, is based on children from the United
development assistance and are made to
States, who are assumed to be well nourished.
countries and territories in part II ofthe
(WHO)
Development
Assistance Committee's list of
Manufacturing The output of industries
Statistics

[TID

aid recipients. (OECD)


Official development assistance (ODA) Grants
and loans (net of repayments of principal)
that meet the Development Assistance
Committee (DAe) definition of ODA and are
made to developing countries and territories
in Part I of the DAC's list of recipients. (OECD)
Official development assistance (ODA)
provided for basic social services Aid
provided for basic health, education,
nutrition, and water and sanitation services
as reported by Development Assistance
Committee members. (OECD)
Particulate matter (PMIO) Fine suspended
particulates less than 10 microns in diameter
that are capable of penetrating deep into the
respiratory tract and causing significant
health damage. (World Bank)
Permanent cropland Land cultivated with crops
that occupy the land for long periods and
need not be replanted after each harvest. It
includes land under flowering shrubs, fruit
trees, nut trees, and vines, but excludes land
under trees grown for wood or timber. (FAO)
Phones, fixed lines and mobile phone
subscribers Telephone mainlines connecting
a customer's equipment to the public
switched telephone network, and users of
portable telephones who subscribe to a
service that uses cellular technology to
provide access to the network. (ITU)
Population, average annual growth rate The
exponential rate of change in population for
the period indicated. (World Bank)
Population, total Includes all residents
regardless oflegal status or citizenship
except for refugees not permanently settled
in the country of asylum, who are generally
considered part of the population of their
country of origin. (World Bank)
Population below 81 a day The proportion of
the population living on less than $1.08 a day
at 1993 purchasing power parity prices.
(World Bank)

Population density Midyear population divided


by land area in square kilometers.
Population, rural Calculated as the difference
between the total population and the urban
population. (World Bank)
Population, urban The population of urban
agglomerations-contiguous inhabited
territories defined without regard to
administrative boundaries. (World Bank)
Pregnant women receiving prenatal care The
proportion of women attended at least once
during pregnancy by skilled health personnel
for reasons related to pregnancy. (UNICEF)
Primary completion rate The proportion of
students completing the last year of primary
school, calculated by taking the total number
of students in the last grade ofprimary
school, minus the number of repeaters in
that grade, divided by the total number of
children of official graduation age.
(UNESCO Institute for Statistics)

Private capital flows, net Private debt flows


including commercial bank lending, bonds,
and other private credits; and nondebt flows
including foreign direct investment and
portfolio equity investment. (IMF)
Private participation in infrastructure
Infrastructure projects in telecommunica
tions, energy, transport, and water and
sanitation that have reached financial closure
and directly or indirectly serve the public. All
investment (public and private) in projects in
which a private company assumes the
operating risk is included. (World Bank)
Property rights, lack of confidence in the
courts to uphold The share of managers who
do not agree with the statement: "I am
confident that the judicial system will enforce
my contractual and property rights in
business disputes". (World Bank)
Purchasing power parity (PPP) conversion
factor The number of units ofa country's
currency required to buy the same amount of
goods and services in the domestic market as
a US dollar would buy in the United States.

Population below 82 a day The proportion of


(World Bank)
the population living on less than $2.15 a day
Services
Corresponds to International Standard
at 1993 purchasing power parity prices.
Industrial
Classification (ISle) divisions
(World Bank)

chamber occupied by women. (IPU)


5~99. Value added from this sector is derived
as a residual (from GDP less agriculture and Women's participation rate in the labor force
industry) and may not properly reflect the
The proportion ofthe female population
output of services, including banking and
aged 15-64 that is economically active. (ILO)
financial services.
Workers' remittances and compensation of
Tariff, simple mean The unweighted average of
employees, received Current transfers by
the effectively applied rates for all products
migrant workers and wages and salaries
subject to tariffs. (World Bank, UNCfAD, WTO)
earned by nonresident workers.
(World Bank and IMF)
Trade As used in this book, trade refers to the
two-way flow of exports and imports of goods World Bank Atlas method A conversion factor
used by the World Bank to convert national
(merchandise trade) and services (service
trade).
currency units to US dollars at prevailing
exchange
rates, adjusted for inflation and
Treated bednets, use ofThe proportion of
averaged over three years. The purpose is to
children aged ~59 months who slept under
reduce the effect of exchange rate fluctuations
an insecticide-impregnated bednet the night
in
the cross-country comparison of national
before the survey. (UNICEF)
incomes.
Tuberculosis, incidence ofThe estimated
number ofnew pulmonary, smear-positive,
and extrapulmonary tuberculosis cases. (WHO)
Unpaid family worker Unpaid workers who
work in a business operated by a relative and
live in the same household. (ILO)
Unofficial payments to get things done: Average
value of gifts or informal payments to public
officials to 'get things done' with regard to
customs, taxes, licenses, regulations, services,
etc. The values shown indicate a percentage of Data sources
The indicators presented in this Atlas are compiled by
annual sales. (World Bank~
international agencies and by public and private
Value added The net output of an industry after
organizations, usually on the basis of survey data or
adding up all outputs and subtracting
administrative statistics obtained from national
governments. The principal source of each indicator is
intermediate inputs. The industrial origin of
given in parentheses following the indicator definition.
value added is determined by the
The World Bank publishes these and many other
International Standard Industrial
statistical series in World Development Indicators, available
Classification (ISle) revision 3.
in print, CD-ROM, and online. Excerpts from this atlas,
additional information about sources, definitions, and
Water source, access to an improved The share
statistical methods, and suggestions for further reading
of the population with reasonable access to
are available at www.worldbank.orgJdata.
water from an improved source, such as a
household connection, public standpipe,
borehole, protected well or spring, or
rainwater collection. Unimproved sources
include vendors, tanker trucks, and
unprotected wells and springs. Reasonable
access is defined as the availability of at least
20 liters a person per day from a source
within one kilometer ofthe dwelling.
(WHO)

Women in parliament The percentage of


parliamentary seats in a single or lower
Statistics

[]i[]

Data notes and symbols


The data in this book are for the most recent year unless otherwise noted.
Growth rates are proportional changes from the previous year unless otherwise noted.
Regional aggregates include data for low- and middle-income economies only.
Figures in italics indicate data for years or periods other than those specified.
Data are shown for economies with populations greater than 30,000 or less if they are members of the World
Bank. The term country (used interchangeably with economy) does not imply political independence or official
recognition by the World Bank but refers to any economy for which the authorities report separate social or
economic statistics.
The regional groupings of countries include only low- and middle-income economies. For the income groups,
every economy is classified as low income, middle income or high income. Low-income economies are those with
a GNI per capita of$875 or less in 2005. Middle-income economies are those with a GNI per capita of $876 or
more but less than $10,725. Lower-middle-income and upper-middle income economies are separated at a GNI
per capita of $3,465. High-income economies are those with a GNI per capita of $10,726 or more.

Symbols used in data table


__ means that data are not available or that aggregates cannot be calculated because of missing data.

o or 0.0 means zero or less than half the unit shown.

S means current US dollars.

The methods used to calculate regional and income group aggregates are denoted by:

m (median), s (simple total), t (total including estimates for missing data), u (unweighted average), and w (weighted

average).

Abbreviations
CPIA
DAC
DHS
FAO
FDI
GDP
GNI
HIPC
ICf
IDA
ILO
IMF
lTV
MDGs
MDRI

Country Policy and Institutional Assessment


Development Assistance Committee of the Organisation
for Economic Co-operation and Development
Demographic and Health Surveys
Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations
Foreign Direct Investment
Gross Domestic Product
Gross National Income
Heavily Indebted Poor Countries
Information and Communications Technology
International Development Association
International Labour Organization
International Monetary Fund
International Telecommunication Union
Millennium Development Goals
Multilateral Debt ReliefInitiative

ODA
OECD

Official Development Assistance


Organisation for Economic Co-operation
and Development
PPI
Private Participation in Infrastructure
PPP
Purchasing Power Parity
UN
United Nations
UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV!AIDS
UNDP
United Nations Development Programme
UNEP
United Nations Environment Programme
UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and
Cultural Organization
UNFPA
United Nations Population Fund
UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund
UNIFEM United Nations Development Fund for Women
WCMC
World Conservation Monitoring Centre
WDI
World Development Indicators
World Health Organization
WHO

For more information


Visit www.worldbank.orgJdata to find out more about these and other publications:
World Development Indicators and WDI Online The World Bank's premier compilation of data about
development. This atlas complements World Development Indicators by providing a geographical view
of pertinent data.
Global Development Finance and GDF Online The World Bank's comprehensive compilation of data on
external debt and financial flows.
African Development Indicators The World Bank's most detailed collection of data on Africa, available in
one volume.
Global Economic Prospects The World Bank's publication that outlines steps that rich and poor countries
can take to accelerate growth rates and poverty reduction.
www.deve]opmentgoa]s.org The Millennium Development Goals and the data and indicators required to
track progress toward them.
www.parisn.org The PARIS21 Consortium and how it promotes evidence-based policymaking and monitoring.
www.worldbank.orgfdata/tas Tools and advice for statistical capacity building in developing countries.
www.worldbank.orgfdata/icp The International Comparison Program and progress on the 2003-2005 round.

Index
Note: page numbers in bold refer to maps, page numbers in italics refer to information
presented in graphs and tables.
African Development Fund 89

agriculture

economies dependent on 59, 100-1

and food shortages 98-9, 98--9,

100-3

and global economic structure 58-9,

59-61,60--1

international trade in 78, 79

machinery 99

sustainable production 99

and trade restrictions 78, 79

and water supplies 104, 105

aid 84--5, 84--7

per capita 86-7, 86-7

sources of finance 85

AIDS see HIV/AIDS

air pollution 92-3,93, 96-7,96-7

antibiotics 47

arable land

degradation of99

fragile 99

per capita levels 98, 99,100-1

yields 98, 99

asylum 33

bed nets, insecticide treated 55, 55

biodiversity 110, 111

birth rates 24, 28, 28

"brain drain" 33

business

climate refonns 71, 71

start-ups 71, 72-3, 72-3

capital fonnation 68-9

carbon dioxide emissions 116, 117,

120-1,120-1

child malnourishment 19, 19,22-3

child mortality rates 46-7, 46-9, 48-9

declining levels of 29

and gross national income per

capita 9, 9

and maternal education 42, 43

and poverty 19, 19

childhood diseases 46,47

cholera 63

cities see urbanization

climate change 116-17

communicable diseases 46, 47, S4-5,

54-5,56--7,93

communication systems 13, 62-3, 62,

64-5,64-5

conservation, protected areas lID, 111

contraception 52-3

corruption, control of 74-5, 74-7, 76-7

Country Policy and Institutional

Assessment (CPIA) 75

debt 88-9,88-91,90-1

debt crisis 88-9

debt relief84, 89, 89

external debt 88-9, 88-91, 90-1

debt servicing ratios 88

deforestation 110-11, 110, 114-15,

114-15,117

fertility rates 25,29,50, 50,52-3

demographic transitions 28-9, 28-31,

food shortages 98-9, 98-9, 100-3

foreign investment 67, 79, 79

30-1,33

see also population growth

forests 110-11, lID, 112-15, 112-15, 116

fossil fuels 116, 117, 117

developed (high-income) economies 6

income measures for 8-11, 8, 10-11


fragile land 99

developing (low- and middle-income)

free market 79

economies 6-7

G-8 countries 85, 85

definition 8

gender issues 42-3

gross domestic product of 8,9

education 38, 39, 42-3, 42, 44-5, 44-5

income measures for 8-9, 8, 10-11

Development Assistance Committee 84

inequality 42-3, 43-5,44-5

diarrhea 47, 93

political participation 43, 43

direct foreign investment 67, 79, 79

wages 43

diseases

global integration 78-9, 78-9, 80-3, 84

childhood 46,47

global warming 117

communicable 46,47, S4-5, 54-5,

governance 74-5, 74-5, 76-7

governments, and investment 70

56--7,93

water-borne 63

greenhouse gases 110, Ill, 116, 117

gross domestic product (GDP) 8, 55, 58,

see also specific diseases


Doing Business surveys 70-1

60-1

and aid 85

and international trade 78-9, 78,

economic growth 12-13,14-15, 14-15

80-3,80-3

effect of disease on 55

and investment for economic growth

investment for 66-7, 66-7,68-9

66,67

economic structure, global 58-9, 58-9,

ratio to external debt 88

60--1

gross national income (GNI) per capita 6,


economies, classification of 6-8, 6-7

ecosystems 105, 111

8-9,10-11, 84--5
education 9, 9, 38-9, 38

and gender 38, 39, 42-3, 42, 44-5,

healthcare

gender-based inequality ofaccess to

44-5

42, 43

inequality of opportunity in 13,42-3,

prenatal 50, 50, 51

44-5,44-5

maternal 42, 43

Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC)

initiative 89, 89

migrant 33, 33

out of school children 39, 39

high-income economies 6

and poverty 13, 38, 39

income measures for 8-11, 8, 10-11

HIV/AIDS 29, 47, 47, 54-5, 54-7

primary 38, 38, 40-1, 40-1,44-5

prevalence rates 54, 56-7, 56--7

completion rates 38, 38, 40-1,40-1

enrollment rates 38

hygiene 62

secondary 39, 39, 44-5

tertiary 39, 39

IDF see International Development


elderly population, increasing 29

Association (IDA)

electricity supplies 62

illiteracy 42

energy consumption 116-17, 116-19,

immunizations 47, 47

118-21

income

environmental issues

average daily of the extreme poor 19

air pollution 92-3,93, 96-7,96-7

comparisons 8-9, 8, 10-11

deforestation 110-11, 110, 114-15,

see also gross national income (GNI)

114-15,117

per capita; wages

energy consumption 116-17, 120-1,


industrial development 105

120-1

industry 58, 79

urbanization 92-3, 92-5, 94-7


inequality 12-13, 12-13,16-17.16-17

gender 42-3, 43-5,44-5

water pollution 93, 105

infonnation and communications

exchange rates 8, 9

exports 78, 79

technology 62-3, 62, 64-5, 64-5

ratio to debt servicing 88

infrastructure 62-3, 62-3,64-5

Index

WI]

and water supplies 105


integration, global 7&--9, 7&--9, 80-3, 84
mortality rates 24, 28, 28, 29

International Development Association


maternal 50, 50, 51

sanitation systems 13, 62-3, 63, 93

(IDA) 89

see also child mortality rates

savings 66, 67

International Monetary Fund (IMF) 89


mothers

international trade 7&--9, 7&--9, 80-3

health of 50-1, 50-1

service sector 5&--9, 58

Internet 63, 63

mortality rates 50,50,51

international trade in 79, 82-3, 82-3

sustainable production, agricultural 99

investment

teenage 51, 51

Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative

direct foreign 67, 79, 79

for economic growth 66-7, 66-7, 68-9


(MDRI)89

teenagers

improving the climate for 70-1, 70-1,

and HIV/AIDS 54

and parenthood 51, 51

official development assistance (aDA) 84,

72-3
telephones 64-5, 64-5

in infrastructure 62, 63

85

trade, international 7&--9, 78--9, 80-3

Investment Climate Surveys 70-1

opportunity, equality/inequality of

12-13,12-1~ 16-17,16-17, 43

trade barriers 78, 79

irrigation 104, 105

transportation 13

oral re-hydration therapy 47

labor

Organisation for Economic

roads 62, 62

tropical deforestation 111

agricultural 59

Co-operation and Development

tsunami relief 84

female 42, 43, 43

(OEeD) 79, 84

tuberculosis 54-5, 55

migrant32-3,32,36-7,36-7,78,79
out of school children 39, 39

land

undernourishment 19, 19, 22-3,9&--9, 98,

PM10 92-3, 93, 96-7,96-7

arable 98, 99, 99, 100-1

102-3,102-3

pneumonia 47

degradation of99

see also malnutrition

see also property rights

political participation 43, 43

United Nations International

law, rule of13

pollution

life expectancy 9, 9, 28, 29, 30-1, 30-1

arr92-3,93,96-7,96-7

Conference on Financing for

Development, Mexico, 2002 85

low-income economies 6-7

water 93, 105

poor countries &--9, 8, 10-11,10-11

urbanization 92-3, 92-5, 94-7

definition 8

gross domestic product of 8, 9

population decline 25, 29

population growth 24-5, 24-7, 26-7, 2&--9


wages

income measures for &--9, 8, 10-11

women's 43

and energy supplies 116

see also income

and food shortages 98

malaria 47,54,55,55

water pollution 93, 105

maInutrition 19, 19,22-3,47,63,98

and water supplies 105

water supplies 13, 62-3, 63, 104-5, 104-7,

see also undernourishment

poverty 1&--19, 18--21, 20-1

and child mortality rates 46

104-9,106-9

manufacturing 58

access to lOS, 106-7,108-9

maternal health 50-I, 50-1

and communicable diseases 54-5

maternal mortality rates 50, 50, 51

water-borne diseases 63

definition 19

measles 46, 47, 47

women 42-3, 42-3

and economic growth 12, 13

see also gender issues; mothers

and education 13, 38, 39

megacities 92, 93

rural 62

merchandise trade 80-1, 80-1

World Bank

classification ofeconomies 6-7,8

poverty line 18

middle-income economies 6-7

definition 8

Country Policy and Institutional

pregnancy 50-I, 50-1

prenatal healthcare SO, 50, 51

gross domestic product of8, 9

Assessment 7S

property rights 13, 70, 70, 74, 75

income measures for &--9, 8, 10-11

and debt 89

and investment 70

protected areas 110, 111

migration 29, 32-3, 34-5, 34-7

purchasing power parity (PPP) 8, 9

website 7

migrant labor 32-3, 32, 36-7,36-7,

78,79

World Development Indicators 7

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)


refugees 33

world economic structure 5&--9, 58--9,

19,19

remittances 32, 32,36-7,36-7,85

60-1

and aid 85

rich countries &--9, 8--9, 10-11

and debt 88

"youth bulge" 25

roads 62, 62

and gender equality in education 43


rural populations

dependence on forests 110-11

and water shortages 104

mobile phones 63, 64-5, 64-5

poverty of 62

I S B N 978-0-8213-l>856-5

till ,..IJ