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In Relation to World Textile Market


Dr. Khaled Ebrahim El-Nagar
Professor of Textile Metrology
Chemical Metrology Division


Table of Contents

2.1. Introduction to Eco-Tex
2.2 Eco-Tex test criteria (parameters)
2.3 Product classifications in Eco-Tex
3.1. Benefits of Eco-Tex for consumers
3.2. Benefits of Eco-Tex for industry and retailers
4.1. Fibers
4.2. Dyeing
4.3. Printing
4.4. Finishing
4.5. Effluent Treatment
4.6. Nanotechnology
4.7. Biotechnology
4.8. Metrology
Annex 1: Tables
Annex 2: Certified Eco-Tex Testing Labs
Annex 3: Labels in The Market Related to Environment
Annex 4: Path to "Eco-friendly" Production, Processing,
Marketing, Selection, Use and Care of Textiles.






Atomic Absorption Spectrometry.
Halogenated Organic Compounds.
Accelerated Solvent Extraction.
Children up to age of three year.
Bureau International des Poides et Measure .
Chemical Abstract Services (or CAS registry number)
Chemical Oxygen Demand.
Certified Reference Material.
European Community.
Egyptian Accreditation Council.
Egyptian Organization for Standardization.
The European Union Eco-Labeling Board.
European Union.
Gas Chromatography.
High Performance Liquid Chromatography.
The International Association for Research and Testing, whilst
working within the field of Textile Ecology.
Inductively Coupled Plasma.
International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation.
International Standardization Organization.
Maximum Allowable Concentration.
National Institute for Standards.
National Research Centre.
It can be expressed as 'Öko' or 'Eco'. It is a series of standards
specifies the general conditions for granting authorization to mark
textiles with “Confidence in Textiles-Passed for harmful
substances” or the standard methods to test the harmful
substances and their limits in the textile products.
Produced with the use of feed or fertilizer of plant or animal origin
without employment of chemically formulated fertilizers, growth
stimulants, antibiotics, or pesticides.
Part Per Million (relative concentration unit).
Part Per Trillion (relative concentration unit).


Reuse of discarded textiles.
Styrene Butyl Rubber.
Super Critical Fluid Extraction.
Standard Reference Material.
Textile Consolidation Fund, Alexandria, Egypt.
Textile Metrology Lab.
Ultraviolet Protection Factor (or Solar Protection Factor -SPF).
Ulta Violet radiation.
Volatile Organic Compounds.
X-ray Fluorescence Spectrophotometer.


Since the early 1980's environmental considerations have assumed
increasing significance for producers, distributors and consumers. In almost all
industrialized countries there has been an accelerated evaluation of
environmental legislation. While much of the legislation is not industry specific,
it is affecting all industries. Whereas it is primarily intended to protect the
environment in the developed countries, it will without doubt, have an impact on
the products trade internationally. World trade in textiles and clothing, of which
developing countries currently account for 28% and 45% respectively, is certain
to be influenced by the legislation [1].

Many customers now expect and seek out environmental well-designed
products. To be competitive in today’s market, textile manufactures need to
adopt a new attitude considering product properties required by the customer,
including environmental aspects at design and raw materials selection stages


. For example, fiber, yarn, and fabric waste must be preplanned to facilitate



. Shades and colors should be selected using the most

environmentally benign dyes. Textile manufactures wishing to improve their
environmental performance need to remember that textile products are not
permanent, and ultimately, every textile product becomes waste.

Thirty percent of world export comprises textiles and garments. On
signing of the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) deal, the quota
requirements for textiles including garments became true. Recently all the
quotas have been removed and textile garment industries have to stand on their
feet to face stiff international market competition. To be able to compete
successfully, it must immediately adopt positive measures to control all stages of
production to comply with the mandatory requirements of the foreign buyers [1].

2. In 1995. International Association for Research and Testing (IART) elaborated the "Öko-Tex Standard 100". All members tested textile products to the same Oeko-Tex standard 100 methods and accordingly used the registered label to certify these products (Eco. which fulfilled the requirements of the Oeko-Tex Standard 100 and was also produced only on sites carrying the Oeko6 . developed by the German Textile Institute (GTI).Label). the Austrian Textile Research Institute ÖTI in Vienna developed a testing scheme for textiles relating to harmful substances namely "ÖTN 100". At the beginning of 1993. This related to a finished product. further renewed textile institutes joined the International Association as members. Manufacturing sites fulfilling a strict set of limiting value criteria. clothing and floor coverings to the testing criteria involved [5-7]. By 1991. the label "Oeko-Tex Standard 100 plus" was awarded for the first time. First organizations were subsequently audited in a pilot project. The requirements for environmentally friendly production were outlined. In 1992. The Institute tested textiles.1 Introduction to Eco-Tex (Oeko-Tex/Öko-Tex) In the late eighties. to enable testing of textiles and clothing for their human ecology properties. addressing areas such as banned chemicals and harmful manufacturing processes were licensed to carry the label namely "Environmentally Friendly Manufacturing Site" and then were able to demonstrate an environmental management system. ten companies were already certified to this human ecological test system. Building on this wealth of knowledge and joining forces with a similar scheme namely "Öko-Check". the first edition of the Oeko-Tex Standard 1000 was issued. In 1999.

7]: i) Produce textile products of all kinds that are safe from a human ecology point of view.) and "Oeko-Tex 103" that list the limit values of Eco-parameters for the clothing with the exception of baby clothing. There are many Oeko-Tex standards e. pH.0 – 7. The key objectives of Oeko-Tex standards are to [6. carcinogenic. ii) Simplify and speed up terms of delivery for manufacturers and retailers who want to offer their customers textile products that are not harmful to health. and iii) Reliable product endorsement for consumers who deliberately look for textiles those are not harmful to health. "Oeko-Tex 200" that demonstrate the testing method used for each Eco. Pesticides. 2. Allergic..0 because it corresponds to the natural conditions of undamaged human skin.g.Tex Standard 1000 license. It is not 7 .2 Eco-Tex Test Criteria (Parameters) Textile products have to be tested for the following parameters before their first use Öko-text standards and the amended decision of European Communities number 1999/178/EC focused on the following parameters [5-7]:- pH: The pH value is of importance for textiles that come into contact with the human skin. The pH value which is determined according to ISO 3071 is restricted to the range of 4.g. irritation of the skin must be avoided. After these dates and up till now there are many updates including new banned harmful substances that showed drawbacks to human health or environment or decrease the accepted limit values that already included. PCP…etc.parameters (e.

In the Eco standards. Formaldehyde: Formaldehyde. it is restricted in consumer products such as cosmetics and textile by law in some countries or by voluntary specifications of textile producers [5. Therefore. lining and other clothing fabrics worn well separated from the skin < 300 mg/kg for clothing fabric such as for blouses and shirts and knitted goods and synthetic worn tightly against the body. distinction is made according to the degree of contact which occurs between the fabric and the consumer’s skin.7]..difficult to achieve it through final acidification of treated fabric or by sufficient rinsing. these must be marked by the declaration:”Contains Formaldehyde. for cloths in direct contact with the skin. 8 . skin irritant & sensitizer and it has shown a nasal carcinogen to rats and mice.It is recommended that this garment should be washed before the first use for better skin compatibility”.e. < 1000 mg/kg for outer fabrics. < 20 mg/kg for baby clothing and other clothing for people who suffer from skin irritation caused by use of formaldehyde. < 75 mg/kg for clothing fabrics which find their application in underwear i. being a toxic chemical. In the case of formaldehyde content above a quantity of 1000 mg/kg in textiles.

fungus. Excessive use of pesticides has caused severe environmental degradation and efforts are being made the world over to curb or find alternatives for harmful chemicals. Almost 50% of the total pesticides used in the country are for the cotton crop. etc. pesticides can be classified according to the various chemical groups present in them. organophosphorous. bacteria. It has been observed that 18% of the world's production of pesticides is used in cotton plantations. HCH. Cadmium (Cd). etc. potato blight. Lead (Pb). These values are primarily applicable to natural fibers which do not receive any wet treatment such as boiling off and washing. Chromium (Cr). The standard has specified the limit values for organochlorine pesticides such as DDT. Although they control the growth of organisms. wireworms. algae. Chemical. fruit and cereal mildews.Pesticides: Pesticides are biological active in compounds which control the growth of organism's viz. pesticides are extremely harmful to mankind. 2. Hence. Cobalt (Co). carbamate.. Other pesticides registered under Öko-tex 100 are DDD. Extractable heavy metals: These include arsenic (As). Nickel (Ni) And Mercury (Hg) whose limit values 9 . Pesticides are generally sprayed on crop during various stages of their growth. 5-T and Toxaphene to less than 1 mg/kg.4. Copper (Cu). their detection and estimation is very important. Dieldrin. The limits of the banned pesticides is shown in Table (1 (Annex 1)) in the Eco-standards. DDE Heptachlor and its epoxide as shown in Table 2 (Annex 1) [8-14] . namely organochlorine. Aldrin. insects or plants and sometimes a broad spectrum of these organisms. Lindan.g..4-D. 2.). Their objective is to improve crop-yield and/or quality by controlling the growth of the organisms that may cause damage and/or loses (e.

Compounds of Cr. blue or navy reactive and direct dyes [6-8]. Hg and Pb on textiles is highly unlikely because generally their compounds are not used in the textile industry. the drinking water standards in EU (European Union) were used as a model. Presence of Cd. In places like Texas and Oklahoma in USA arsenic acid is used as a desiccant to prepare mature cotton plants for harvesting by stripping and is removed during scouring and bleaching. but rather the part which can be extracted with artificial saliva or perspiration solutions used in the corresponding fastness tests. Co and Ni are commonly used in textile processing as metal complex dyes or after chroming of mordant dyes on wool (potassium dichromate). who are totally ban the use of these metal complex dye in their products. Abandoning metal complex dyes would result in a loss of some important shades like turquoise or brilliant green which use copper or nickel phthalocyanates in addition to reduce wet fastness (washing. The concentration of extractable harmful metal on textile is restricted. This does not involve the total amount of metals on the fabrics when dyed with metal complex dyes. Cu. 10 . perspiration) properties of dyed wool or polyamide fabrics (no premetallized or after chroming dyes) and light fastness in the case of violet.Textile" producers. It is important to note that according to Oeko-Tex standard 100 and similar standards the use of metal complex dyes is not prohibited in contrary to some "Greener. The extractions are carried out in liquor to goods ratio of 20:1 at 40oC for one hour. it cannot be harmful to the skin [6]. However. based on the idea that. they may be present as trace impurities. if it is good enough for drinking. Metal concentrations are determined by means of Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS).have been prescribed in the standards. Since no extended experience about the toxicological effects of these metals to the skin depending on their concentration was available.

The major sources of PCP contamination on textile are [7]:  Degradation of pesticides like phenoxyalkanoic acids and hexachlorobenzene on raw cotton. it is not difficult to achieve this limit even in heavy shades. Therefore. Chlorinated phenols: Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is of important anti-mildew agent and has been in use all over the world for the preservation of wood. In lower colour depth this could be possible.  Sized fabric where PCP or its sodium salt has been used as size preservative. Since the limits for adult apparel and other textiles are ten-fold higher. It is very difficult to achieve stringent limits of 5 ppm for baby wear if dyed in heavy shades. It is also released into the environment as a result of the degradation of pesticides such as phenoxyalkanoic acids and hexachlorobenzene. it is listed as toxic and environmental unfriendly chemical. it is removed from the fabric and discharged in the effluent. and it is therefore evident that they cannot achieve the specifications in all cases. Hence direct metal complex dyes should not be used if baby articles are to be given the eco-label (the limits of the different heavy metals are listed in Table 1 (Annex 1) [7] .Reactive dyes on cotton are firmly fixed on the fiber and can be extracted only in traces. commercial polysaccharides. Metal containing direct dyes entail greater problems because of their limited wet fastness. PCP is relatively stable to natural degradation processes and in humans.  Gums containing PCP as preservatives used as adhesive in sizing and as thickener in printing 11 . its bio-accumulation take place. but would require testing from case to case. leather. During scouring/ bleaching of textiles as well as dyeing and printing. etc.

especially for fabrics and articles that were dyed with problematic azo dyestuffs. Similar concern is also being expressed by some other developed countries (Table 3-6.12.g. PVC Plastizers: With the test such as phthalates (Table 8. similar standard may get incorporated in European Union (EU) code also.g. SBR latexes (where PCP is known to be used as dispersants) The concentration limit for PCP on textiles has been fixed at 0.Annex 1) are included which can be used as plasticizers in PVC production and are specified as health risk for babies according to the decision EU-commission number 1999/815/EG dated 7.1999 Azo Dyes Containing Carcinogenic Aromatic Amines: Azo dyes which release aromatic amines classified into groups namely MAK III-A1 and III-A 2. dye stripping) or enzymatic process in the metabolism of organisms. [7] The reasons that these dyes are coming under fire is due to the potential of azo dyes to split into arylamines (Table 3. Annex 1) from which they have been synthesized by chemical reduction (e. Latex based finishes e. The most prominent examples are dyes based on benzidine and congeners. These possibilities arouse the suspicion that azo 12 . Although the basis is presently being affected by Germany. Annex 1).5 mg/kg in the Eco-standards. These amines were prohibited to be imported or sold in Germany starting from 1996.

Manufacture of benzidine based dyes was stopped in 1971. The same holds true for dyes based on MAK III A2 amines [6. dyes that conform to MAK III A1 and III A2 products are restricted.7]. p-chloroaniline. The German textile companies refer to the German MAK list (Threshold Limited Value) which list chemicals that are known to be carcinogenic to humane (MAK III Al). it is not the same in other countries. so that the ceiling 13 . 4 disperse and 2 basic dyes are listed in the Color Index as existing commercial products. Approximately 20% of all dyes used in the textile industry are azo dyes. about 24 acid.3-dichloro. 2naphthylamine and 4-amino biphenyl whereas MAK III A2 consists of amines (o-toluidine. Although German producers have stopped making them. the dyes listed are not permitted to be demonstrable. o-toludine. The reason was mainly to protect the production workers from potentially bladder cancer inducing benzidine. In all. which is the chromophors. Those which are detected to be carcinogenic in animal tests under conditions comparable to the work place (MAK III A2) and those which are suspected to be carcinogenic (MAK III B). MAK III A1 group consisted of aromatic amines such as benzidine. MAK III B arylamines (Table 1. 3.4'-diaminodiphenylmethane). It can be seen from the Color' Index that they are still produced by some companies. Only a certain part of azo dye is carcinogenic.chlor-o-toluidine. Annex 1). 2-amino-4-nitrotolueneand 4. allergic or poisonous and therefore banned by law. In most case.colorants which can release a carcinogenic amine through reductive splitting are potentially carcinogenic too [7]. They are characterized by -N=N. 76 direct. oaminoazo-toluene. o-dianisidine. but rarely dye forming. As a general rule.

Flame Retardants Products: When using flame retardant products it should be distinguished between fiber materials which receive the flame retardant properties in the spinning mass already (copolymers additives) or a finish with flame retardant products in a later processing. Colorfastness: Colorfastness is not a criterion for the harmfulness of textile goods.value is set at 0 mg/kg. perspiration and rubbing. These products may be (a) Fiber materials with biological active properties or (b) Finished with biological active products [5. Some forbidden flame retardant substances are listed in (Table 7. The list of "forbidden arylamines" banned and the corresponding azo dyes based on these amines are given in (Tables 3 and 4. color fastness 14 . There are about 140 azo dyes based on the banned amines.6]. or (b) Finish with flame retardant products. Biological Active Products: When using biological active products it is distinguished between fibre materials where the biological active agents are incorporated into the fibres or a treatment of textiles with biological active products in a later processing step. Annex 1) respectively. A replacement is not difficult because alternatives are on the market. However. but it is not permissible that products with an Eco-label should be very bad color fastness to washing. they may be more expensive. These products may be (a) Fiber materials with flame retardant properties.Annex 1) [6]. For baby clothing.

The other article should be test before the start of other tests and immediately after delivery of the sample but. for denim goods) saliva should also be tested. When the user is expecting that the color will disappear quickly (e. 15 . the stricter the criteria for human ecology which must be met. foam and large coated articles not being used for clothing. sensory odor testing may be a valuable complementally analysis [6-8] . textile floor coverings may emit a more or less perceptible odor.g. but only to avoid problems for the user Öko-tex certified goods [6]. Limits of accepted criteria values are listed in Annex 1 and should be tested by one of the institutes who are members in Oeko-Tex Association (Annex 2). which may produce an odor.3 Product Classifications in Eco-Tex The testing for harmful substances under OekoTex Standard 100 is always determined by the particular purpose of the textiles. mattresses. Sensory Odors: Especially for textile floor covering. This is why the rule is: the more closely a textile is in contact with the skin (and the more sensitive the skin). the colour fastness must not reach the minimum level. 2.if necessary -after storage at increased temperature in a closed system. It must be clear that the minimum levels are not set to have a high quality level. Due to the large number of compounds. After being fitted. This is an inherent initial odor typical of the new products and normally vanishes after several weeks.

etc. terry goods.) Product Class II: Textiles that have a large part of their surface in direct contact with the skin. shirts. (Underwear. romper suits. (Jackets. upholstery) 16 . interlining materials. bed linen.Product Class III 2% Product Class II 57% Product Class I 36% Product Class IV 5% Figure (1) Distribution of certificates in the product classes Textile products are assigned to four different product classes as in Figure (1) [9]: Product Class I: Textiles and textile toys for babies and small children up to the age of three. coats. bedding. curtains. etc. (Underwear. bed linen. (Table linen. socks and stockings. blouses.) Product Class IV: Materials for interior decorating and decorative purposes. etc). Product Class III: Textiles that do not come into contact with the skin or only have a small part of their surface in contact with the skin. soft toys.

modern. the consumer has a reliable product endorsement which helps with making purchasing decisions. leading to improved safety standards in production and a more rapid flow of information. Safety: The fact that the test criteria are constantly being further refined ensures continuing improvements in product safety. Association who are well known test institutes makes it entirely trustworthy. functional textiles with safety from the health point of view. fabric and knitwear producers. The test institutes support this through their intensive work on merchandise testing and research [10]. BENEFITS FOR ALL CONCERNED IN ECO-TEX All companies involved internationally speak with a common language. Manufacturers who have their end products certificated can work with suppliers such as yarn. Benefits of Eco-Tex For Industry and Retailers : Transparency: The fact that the criteria are internationally applicable makes for transparency and comparability. Benefits of Eco-Tex For Consumers: Aid in decision-Making: With the Oeko-Tex label. The manufacturers of dyes and producers of textile auxiliary products also incorporate the Eco-Tex requirements into their product development. 3. 3. consistent conditions for delivery.3.1. dye-houses and accessories manufactures all over the world that are equally proactive when it comes to human ecology. Confidence: Product testing by independent members of the Oeko-Tex (Annex 2) . Convenience: Manufacturers and retailers wishing to provide their customers with textile products those are not harmful to health benefit from having simplified. 17 . Quality: Consumers who are deliberately looking for textiles that are not harmful to their health value the combination of high-quality.2. This progress in development is contributing to the growing internationalism of the Eco-Tex network.

Economy: The modular system offers great potential for cutting costs. Any one of them gives confidence that this product is not harmful to both environment and human. 18 . by using preliminary products that have an Oeko-Tex. Efficiency: The ideal supplement to manufacturers’ and retailers’ own quality control systems. Trust worthiness: The Oeko-Tex label is an additional selling point List of the Oeko-Tex and other eco labels listed in (Annex 3).Success: Certification opens up new markets and selling opportunities.

rice.4. sorghum. performance for selected usages. pesticides.23] Lyocell fiber (regenerated cellulose fiber) [24] The major problems related to fiber origins now are recyclability.1 Fibers The international market is going to use the organic fibers instead of synthetic or contaminated natural fibers due to use of pesticides or harmful chemicals during fiber processing to produce yarn or fabric [15] . sugar cane. and organic (no chemical. Other new biofiber also produced from corn. wheat. barley. carcinogenic chemicals) cultivation or production. Many other fiber producers working hardly to develop new fibers which are eco friendly.19] Organic cotton INGEO™ corn fiber Wool Soy silk Bamboo FORTREL EcoSpun™ Milk silk Chitosan fiber [20] Cori fiber [21] Chitin-silk [19] Bio agro-fibers Carbon nanotubes (CNT) [22. pineapple. CURRENT TRENDS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS TO PRODUCE ECO-FRIENDLY TEXTILE PRODUCTS 4. some of these natural and regenerated fibers are:               Hemp (CRAILAR™) [18. Production of low weight/volume fibers when compared with the 19 . biodegradability. banana and coconut for various industrial applications [17] . New ecofriendly fibers also produced from biomedical chitin fibroin also produced and processed by wet spinning method [16] .

infra-red and plasma) and use liquid free dyeing (dyeing in liquefied CO2) helped the dyers and producers to reduce the quantities of dyes.g.. However the introduction of these clean energies and technologies. The chances of repeat orders are becoming rare. biodegradability and high performance behaviors were obtained Using electrolytic hydrogenation [31] [25. gamma radiation. 4. microwaves. clean energy (e. also reduced the use of reducing chemicals in vat dying. ultrasonic. chemicals and auxiliaries. Moreover antibacterial. Due to these reasons there has to be quick sampling and quick order turnaround. In addition to this average run lengths are rapidly dropping. bi-functional) substantive to many fiber types with high wet/dry fastness properties that consumes low energy and water in addition to be done in a short time. the dyeing field still need more progress research to develop new dyes (e.g. UV. fiber damage in addition to high colour yield with the optimum colour shades and treatment uniformity for natural (with low mordant contents) [25-30] and synthetic dyes.31-35] .3 Printing Textile printing is cyclical business and fashion development. maintaining the physical and mechanical performances is also concerned. Consumers want clothes to express their individuality in homes and the clothes they wear. Customers are demanding great variety of colors and unique designs. processing time.conventional ones. Thus the 20 .2 Dyeing Development in computer aided program technology. 4.

vat. It ruling the scenario of fabric printing as one just to give a print command on the computer and everything that is considered gets printed on the fabric with a hi-tech printer [37]. BOD and TOC than the conventional thickeners with maintain the high fastness properties of the prints. In short. It aims of producing unlimited designs of customer's choice. pigment direct colorants on the natural and synthetic substrates [39-42] . In order to meet such market demands there must a technology which will facilitate mass of textile printing is rapidly changing. disperse. Current researches directed mainly to cause less wastewater coloration. Environmental-friendly and natural thickening agent and modified dyes find great interest in this century [38] for reactive. quick response and ecology aiming at waste minimization and reduced pollution impose substantial demands on the different components of the printing process. However as we move into the digital age developments in digital printing. Globalization. At present the textile industry produces the majority of its 34 billion square yards of printed textile fabric by screen printing. Developing new aqueous binders also studied based on acrylates using copolymerization produced zero VOC for screen printing of all types of textile fabrics using pigment 21 [43] . . in one dies not mass customize one would lose business in today's market [36]. these demands have common denominators: flexibility and versatility. COD. It is a new concept of production which specializes in short runs as little as one unit in which the customer dictates exactly his requirements.

These chemicals. cationization [44. 4. IR. denim washing. Gamma. radiation. scouring. after their use. cotton softening.Other activities went to modify the printed substrates by coating. Many problems accompanied with these finishing processes including released formaldehyde [48] from durable press finishing and conservation of natural textile intermediates. 45] . Textile finishing therefore makes textile raw material usable by creating properties with a useful effect. Among the different natural polymers used in this field. All of these activities and developments in textile finishing have positive impact for textile performance and the biodegradability of these compounds to minimize the environmental pollution. This includes all processes which help to maintain the value or increase the value of the textile material. Enzyme technology used widely to replace chemicals in the textile industry in different processes like sizing. 47]. Nowadays many potential efforts are paid to use the natural polymers and its derivatives in the field of the textile finishing. microwave and ozone as clean energies were also studied and gave high fastness properties with good mechanical and physical behaviours [46. bleaching.4 Finishing Textile finishing processes facilitate production of attractive readyto-sell textiles intended to fulfill requirements for specific use. This problem can be solved by adding formaldehyde acceptor agents to the treatment paths or using formaldehyde free materials [49. etc. cause 22 . 50] .50] . β-cyclodextrine [51-56] . UV. and modified cellulose were used. chitin and chitosan and starches [57-61] [49.

cellulases..pollution in the effluents.5 Effluent Treatments The value of water resources is universally recognized and water shortage is increasing in many countries. medical application [71] and many other applications arrived to the earth causing skin cancer.g. lipases and proteases under different applications also find great attraction to the textile production [64-67]. Producers and researchers nowadays working on producing finished textile materials designed for special usage e. Enzymatic processes have been developed for wet processing of textile goods starting from cleaning preparation to finishing processes [62. 63] . This underwear fiber release undetectable negative ions & infrared rays that destroy odor caused by bacteria [74]. some of them are corrosive which could damage the equipment and the fabric itself. smart fabric [70] [72] . in particular textile production. many researchers and producers worked on producing and developing fabric having ultraviolet protection factor (UPF)[73]. The possibility of replacing alkaline scouring with the enzymatic decomposition of cotton impurities using various types of enzyme e. pectinase.g. Because of ozone depletion and much UV radiations (200-400 nm) . noise reduction [69] . Using super critical liquid treatment in CO2 paths at low pressure and temperature also showed fibers with negligible damage and the textiles do not have to be dried after the process with no pollution problems[68]. wastewater reclamation appears a technically feasible 23 . A Taiwanese nanotech firm Greenshield has created underwear using nanotechnology that fights odor. 4. The need to preserve this resource is the driving force behind the identification and exploitation of non-conventional water sources. For industry..

dyes and intermediates by developed ones produces textile effluents comply with the environmental regulations [67.70] . water and energy consumption. Half a billion people already live in regions prone to chronic drought. Some researchers now working on replacing the conventional chemicals. 1 polluter of clean water (after agriculture). printing.. It takes about 500 gallons of water to produce enough fabric to cover one sofa. Development of dryers can reduces about 90% of the used salt (e. that number is likely to have increased five-fold. effluent. Others are working on developing new flocculating agents (biodegradable. Global consumption of fresh water is doubling every 20 years [66]. recyclable and not harmful to human) [74-79].solution. The textile industry is one of the most chemically intensive industries on earth. and by 2025. auxiliaries. and nano and bio technology can solve the most of problems that are facing dyeing. finishing. These new membranes are suitable for applications such as the recovery of valuable cationic macromolecules in the textile industries or removal of multivalent cations such as dyes and heavy metals from effluents.g. 24 . sole gel. Using emulsion. Membranes and filtration techniques also developed by introducing nano-filtration (NF) membranes. NaCl and NaSO4) in the dyehouse and finishing sections [78]. reverse osmosis and bio-treatment. and the No. to between one-third and one-half of the entire world population. whose interest is proved by the vast literature produced [65] .

This technology can work at the molecular level. UV-protection. self –cleaning. atom by atom to create large structures with improved molecules organization by controlling shape and size at the nano scale. hydrophobic finish.6 Nanotechnology The term `Nano` comes from a Greek word `Nano` which means `Dwarf`. anti-microbial.g. odor fights and flame retardant finishes).g. drug controlled release. self cleaning. high durability fabrics (Figure 2) Figure (2). antimicrobial. Nanotechnology is applied in many textile processing operations e.4.. UV absorbance (blockers). Application of Nanotechnology in Textile 25 .. waterrepellent.g. fire retardancy. nano-dyeing and nano-finishing (e. antipollen. Nanotechnology is of great importance to many textile production stages and final finishing for many end usages e. Dwarf means abnormally small (1nm = 10-9m).

The researches now focused on developing the use of this nanotechnology with avoiding any drawbacks resulted from leaching nanomaterials to the human bodies [80-82]. It also shows a 20–25% reduction in processing time [83. 26 . bleaching. Enzymes showed ecofriendly image in desizing. 84]. v) Garments are good looking and more durable than ordinary material and vi) Manufacturing cost is low.Characteristics of nano-finished Textile materials: i) their protective layer is difficult to detect with the naked eye. Enzymes are proteins. washing. iv) Nano processed products are toxic free. composed of amino acids. ii) Saving time and laundering. These are responsible for number of reactions and biological activities. polishing (Figure 3). adding value to the products [64] . Enzymes not only work efficiently and rapidly also biodegradable. Enzymes come from a Greek word “Enzymos” which means "in the cell‟ or "from the cell‟. iii) The crease resistant feature keeps clothing neat. Using of enzymes makes possible savings of up to 70. this technology embraces environmental friendly properties. Biotechnology Biotechnology mainly based on using enzymes from living organisms in the textile production process (preparation to finishing).000 liters of water. 4.7. scouring. which are produced by all living organisms.

and Nordic) aware with that. isotope dilatation spectroscopy HPLC/DAD and new super critical fluid extraction (SFE) [86] . AAs.Normal cotton fabric Polished cotton fabric Figure (3) Bio polishing of cotton fabric 4. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) methods [87] detect these materials at a very low and PPT scale have the ability to [88] .8 Metrology In 2010 a new nano-metrological field was initiated by Brue International de Poids et Measure (BIPM). Canada. this competency is assured by getting the accreditation from international recognized accreditation body [89]. Paris.g. 27 . the testing laboratories should be competent. In addition. This field enables the metrologist to work on nanoscale measurement. all markets along over the world (EU. XRF. These nano scale metrology will help the scientists to find out accurate and traceable measurement related to nanotechnology in textile industry [85] . America. coupled ICP/MS. ICP and the developed techniques e.g. France. Leachable nanomaterials that might cause hazardous to the human and environment cannot be detected by normal techniques e.

This lab should be supported by sorts of technical regulations and laws applied on all textile importers. Hg. • Flammability testing equipment. Cu. yarns. • Aerosol and P-Track system for measuring the aresoles and particulates from 0. Cr(IV). • Double Beam Spectrophotometer (attached with specular and diffuse sample compartments). Sb. • Many other equipment for testing air and water pollutants and for testing liquid and air membranes/filters. is supplying the Textile Metrology Lab with the equipment that fulfill all the required test (parameters) needed for Eco/Oeko-Tex labeling the textile products and their allied intermediates and auxiliaries. exporters and producers. • Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) attached with ATR unit. Ph. • Soxhlet System for analyte extraction. Ni.02 to 10 micrometer (confirmation for odor). • Microwave Digestion System for extraction of analyte with minute traces.Label to be harmonized with the internationally known Eco-labels in the world markets. Cd. • Atomic Absorption (flame/graphite) equipped with the lamps of Fe. Cr (total). 28 . auxiliaries. • Rubbing tester. This lab will establish The Egyptian Eco-Tex. Rotadyer. FUTURE VISIONS Egyptian textile industry needs to establish a National lab to test the imported and exported textile products including fibers. This equipment includes the following instruments: • Gas Chromatography Spectrophotometer GC with MS/FID/ECD detectors.5. incubators for testing the fastness properties. intermediates and cloths in addition to establish audit protocol of production life cycle (started from fiber to the final product Annex 4). From 2006 to 2012 National Institute for Standards. ovens. Zn.

National Research Centre (NRC).Moreover the Textile Metrology Lab was accredited by EGAC (ILAC) for some physical. Infra red.Alexandria. Federation of Egyptian Industries (FEI). and chemical testing. Textile Consolidation Fund (TCF). Consumer Education Centers should also be established and supported by the Egyptian Media. 29 .g. Many research equipment and personnel facilities are available at Textile Metrology Lab (TML). in addition to many other governmental laboratories e.g. plasma.Cairo and many other Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) should establish database for the alternatives of textile fibers. In addition to tax exemption for producing ecofriendly textile products through non pollutant processing cycles. This accreditation gives confidence that this lab is capable to be good support for Egyptian textile testing. Ultrasound in different textile production stages. Knowledge of the importance of applying the Eco-Tex should be disseminated via direct contact. the National Institute for standards (NIS). Microwave. The experiences of the TML staff in Metrology enable them to produce Certified Standard Reference Materials (SRM) to upgrade the quality of the Egyptian products and developing the testing techniques. Egyptian Organization of Standardization (EOS). free internet website. These facilities could support the Egyptian Textile Industries for developing the use of new clean energies e. workshops and brochures.g.. intermediates and finishing materials that comply with the requirement of Eco-Tex requirements. mechanical. Egyptian Textile Consolidation Fund (TCF).. UV/Ozone. Egyptian textile organizations e.

ii) Simplify and speed up terms of delivery for manufacturers and retailers to offer textile products that are not harmful to health. waste reduced to a minimum and better acceptance of products in the market. précised of the Eco-parameters for better textile goods comply with the eco requirement.6.  Nowadays ultrasonic. natural origin substances. iv) No damages to materials and v) Superior quality of the product.  Metrology always developed for more accurate. digital printing . bio/Nano/plasma technologies used in the production instead of the traditional ones because : i) Replacing harmful chemicals. COINCLUSIONS  The key objectives of Eco/Oeko-Tex Standards is to: i) Production of textiles of all kinds that are safe from a human ecology point of view. 30 .  World go to the organic (no chemicals). solid and liquid wastes. more efficient production leading to reduced costs. iii) Reliable product endorsement for consumers who deliberately look for safe textiles. ii) Require less effluent treatments.  Applying Eco/Oeko-Tex standards are very important to the producers in providing good documentation system proving effectively that the ecological measures taken at a production site have been objectively verified. traceable. iii) Low cost and less energy consumption. low & clean energies in addition to less gas.  The Eco/Oeko-Tex labels or certificates open the doors for worldwide and give companies right along the textile chain access to world markets.

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5 0.0 Heavy Metals in digested Sample (mg/Kg) Pb (lead) Cd (Cadmium) Pesticides Include PCP Chlorinated Phenols (mg/Kg) Pentachlrophenol (PCP) TetraChlorPhenol (TeCP) Sum Phthalate (W %) Di-iso-nonylphthalate (DINP) Di-n-octylphthalate (DNOP) Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) Di-isodecylphthalate (DIDP) Butylbenzylphthalate (BBP) Dibutylphthalate (DIBP) Di-iso-butylphthalate (DIHP) Di-C6-8-branched alkyphthalates (DHNUP) Di-C7-11-branched alkylphthalates (DBAP) Di-n-hexylphthalate (DHP) 0.DBP.05 0.0 1.0 90.5 0.0 4.02 90 50 90.0-9.5 0.5 0.5 0.DIBP.0 25.DIHP.5 4.0 50.02 .0 50.1 2.0 75 300 300 pH – Value Formaldehyde (JAP Law 112) n.0 1.0 0.2 0.0 1.0 0.0 30.0 100.0 1.BBP.0 1.1 0.d Extracted heavy-metals (mg/Kg) Sb (Antimony) As (Arsenic) Pb (Lead) Cd (Cadmium) Cr (Chromium) Cr (VI) Co (Cobalt) Cu (Cupper) Ni (Nickel) Hg (Mercury) 30.0 2.0 100.DMEP Sum Di-(2-methoxyethyl)-phthalate (DMEP) 40 .1 0.5 1.0 Under detection limit 4.05 0.0 50.0-7.0 0.0 90.0 0.0 4.DHNUP.1 0.0 100.5 4.1 2.0 0.0 4.0-7.0 30.0 1.0-9.0 0.5 0.1 (Sum) DEHP.1 1.1 1.02 4.0 0.0 0.02 1.0 4.DHP.0 4.0 1.2 0.Annex 1: Tables Table 1: Eco parameters Limit Values and Fastness Grades Product Class Class I Baby Class II Direct contact With Skin Class III With no direct Contact with Skin Class IV Decoration Material 4.

0 Colorants Cleavable arylamines Carcinogens Allergens Others Not used Not used Not used Not used Chlorinated benzenes and toluenes [mg/Kg] Sum Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) [mg/Kg] Benzo/ Pyrene Sum 1.0 10.0 2.Product Class Class I Baby Class II Direct contact With Skin Class III With no direct Contact with Skin Class IV Decoration Material 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 100.0 1.0 1.1 41 0.0 1.0 0.0 1.0 Biological Active Products None Flame Retardant products General Polybrominated biphenyles (PBB).0 0.1 0.0 10.1 1.0 1.0 2.0 2.0 1.0 1.25 1.0 50.1 .0 1.0 Organic Tin compounds (mg/Kg) Tributyltin (TBT) Triphenyltin (TPhT) Dibutyltin (DBT) Dioctyltin (DOT) Other chemicals residues OrthoPhenyl Phenol (OPP) (mg/Kg) Arylamine (mg/Kg) PFOS (μg/Kg) PFOA (mg/Kg) Short Chained Chlorinated Paraffin (SCCP) (W %) Tris-(2-Chloroethyl) Phosphate (TCEP) (W %) 100.0 1.3-dibromopropyl)-phosphate (TRIS DBPP).1 0.0 1.0 1.0 100.0 1. Tri-(2.0 1.0 1.1 0.0 10.0 2.0 1.N-Dimethylactamide (DMAc) None Not used 0.1 0.0 1.0 1.0 None 1.C13) (SCCP) Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP) Solvent residues [W %] 1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) N.0 1.0 2.1 0.0 1.1 0. Tris-(aziridinyl)-phosphinoxide) (TRIS) Pentabromodiphenylether (pentaBDE) Octabromodiphenylether (octaBDE) Decabromodiphenylether (DecaBDE) Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) Short chain chlorinated paraffins (C10 .5 1.0 2.5 0.0 1.25 1.0 10.0 1.

002 0.1 0.005 0.01 0.01 0.005 0.002 0.002 0.1 0.002 0.03 0.03 0.01 0.002 0.1 0.3 0.1 0. dry Saliva and perspiration Emission of volatiles Formaldehyde [50-00-0] Toluene [108-88-3] Styrene [100-42-5] Vinylcyclohexene [100-40-3] 4-Phenylcyclohexene [4994-16-5] Butadiene [106-99-0] Vinylchloride [75-01-4] Aromatic Hydrocarbons Organic volatiles Determination of odors General SNV 195 651 Modified Banned fibres Asbestos Class II Direct contact With Skin Class III With no direct Contact with Skin 0.002 0.1 0.01 0.002 0.3 0.002 0.3 0.002 0.1 3 3-4 3-4 4 Fast.005 0.03 0.01 0.002 0.1 0.1 0.002 0.1 0.01 0.1 0.03 0.5 0.Class I Baby Product Class Surfactant .1 0.002 0.1 0.01 0.005 0.1 0.01 0.3 0.1 0.Wetting agent residues Octylphenol (OP) Nonylphenol (NP) Octylephenoethoxylates [OP (EO)] Nonylphenolethoxylates [NP(EO)] Color Fastness (Staining) Water Acidic Perspiration Alkaline Perspiration Rubbing.5 0.5 0. 3 3-4 3-4 4 3 3-4 3-4 4 3 3-4 3-4 4 0.1 0.1 0.5 3 No abnormal odor 3 3 Not used 42 Class IV Decoration Material 3 .

72-54-8 3424-82-6.4-D Azinophosmethyl Azinophosethyl Aldrin Bromophos-ethyl Captafol Carbaryl Chlordane Chlordimeform Chlorfenvinphos Coumaphos Cyfluthrin Cyhalothrin Cypermethrin DEF Deltamethrin Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) Diazinon Dichlorprop Dicrotophoshos Dieldrin Dimethoat Dinoseb and salts α.Table (2) List of Banned Pesticides Pesticide Name CAS Number Pesticide Name 2.33213-65-9 72-20-8 Esfenvalerate Fenvalerate Heptachlor Heptachloroepoxide Hexachlorobenzene α. 319-85-7 δ.Endosulfan Endrin 93-76-5 94-75-7 86-50-0 2642-71-9 309-00-2 4824-78-6 2425-06-1 63-25-2 57-74-9 1970-95-9 470-90-6 56-72-4 68359-37-5 91465-08-6 52315-07-8 52918-63-5 53-19-0. 319-84-6 β. 789-02-6 333-41-5 120-36-2 141-66-2 60-57-1 60-51-5 88-85-7 115-29-7 β. Hexachlorcyclohexane δ.4.Endosulfan β. Hexachlorcyclohexane β.5-T 2. 72-55-9 50-29-3. 319-86-8 58-89-9 121-75-5 94-74-6 94-81-5 93-65-2 10265-92-6 72-43-5 2385-85-5 6923-22-4 56-38-2 298-00-0 786-34-7 1218-83-4 1198-08-7 3593-03-8 001-35-2 582-09-8 . Hexachlorcyclohexane Lindane Malathion MCPA MCPB Mecoprop Metamidophos Methoxychlor Mirex Monocrotophos Parathion Parathion-methyl Phosdrin/Mevinphos Propethamphos Profenophos Quinalphos Toxaphene Trifluralin 43 CAS Number 66230-04-4 51630-58-1 76-44-8 1024-57-3 118-74-1 α.

Table (3): List of Arylamines That Are Not Allowed To Be Split Off From Colorants under Reductive Conditions [According to ÖkoTex Standard 100] Actual scientific knowledge does not allow to identify those dyes that may split off 4aminoazobenzene. As soon as there is available and validated method it will be used. 44 .

Table (4) : Dyestuffs Classified To Be Allergenous [According To Öko-Tex Standard 100] and Their Color Index (C.I. Table (5) : Dyestuffs Classified To Be Carcinogenic 45 .) (Generic Name and Structure Number) or CAS Registry number .

Table (6): Chlorinated benzenes and Toluenes [According To Öko-Tex Standard 100] Dichlorobenzenes Trichlorobenzenes Tetrachlorobenzenes Pentachlorobenzenes Hexachlorobenzene Chlorotoluenes Dichlorotoluenes Trichlorotoluenes Tetrachlorotoluenes Pentachlorotoluene Table (7): Forbidden Flame Retardant Substances [According to Öko-Tex Standard 100] Name CAS-Nr.phosphate Tris-(aziridinyl)-phosphinoxide) Pentabromodiphenylether Octabromodiphenylether 59536-65-1 PBB 126-72-7 TRIS 5455-55-1 TEPA 32534-81-9 penta BDE 32536-52-0 octa BDE Table (8): Forbidden Phthalates Substances [According to Öko-Tex Standard 100] Name Di-iso-nonylphtalate Di-n-octylphthalate Di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate Di-isodecylphthalate Butylbenzylphthalate Dibutylphthalate CAS-Nr 28553-12-0 DINP 117-84-0 DNOP 117-81-7 DEHP 26761-40-0 DIDP 85-68-7 BBP 84-74-2 DBP 46 .3-dibromopropyl). Polybrominated biphenyles Tri-(2.

Denmark ASQUAL.Switzerland TESTEX .Chile CITEVE.Turkey Hohenstein .Lithuania AITEX .Ukraine OETI .Tech.Honduras OETI .India Hohenstein .Greece INNOVATEXT.Belarus Hohenstein .Korea (South) TESTEX .Hungary Centrocot.Sweden Secretariat OEKO-TEX® .Peru Hohenstein .Ireland TESTEX .Slovakia CSIR .France Etakei.United Kingdom Centexbel-Belgium NISSEN-KEN.Vietnam Hohenstein .Germany Hohenstein.Indonesia TESTEX .Tech. (Institutes Members in Oeko.Hong Kong TESTEX .Pakistan AITEX .Guatemala OETI.Japan TI – Austria DTI Tekstil .Brasil CITEVE.Dominican Republic Hohenstein .Mexico Hohenstein.Russia Hohenstein .Portugal CITEVE .Bangladesh Hohenstein .Syria Hohenstein .Tex Association and Their Branches) CITEVE Argentina CITEVE.Poland VUTCH.Italy Instytut Wlokiennictwa.Czech Republic OETI .Colombia Hohenstein .Sri Lanka OTEI.Swiss TESTEX .Philippines OETI .Morocco OETI .Singapore Shirley.Spain Shirley.Taiwan Hohenstein .Egypt OETI.USA Hohenstein .France IFTH .United Arab Emirates AITEX.China TESTEX .Romania Hohenstein .Ecuador Hohenstein .Cambodia Hohenstein .South Africa Swerea IVF AB.Thailand Hohenstein .Switzerland 47 . .Germany OEKO-TEX® .Bulgaria Hohenstein .Malaysia TESTEX .Canada AITEX .Tunisia TESTEX .El Salvador Hohenstein .ANNEX 2 Certified Eco-Tex Testing Labs.

Annex 3 Labels In The Market Related To Environment Animal Welfare Approved ABNT Ecolab Anbefalt B Corporation Better Cotton Initiative bluesign® standard Blue Angel BioForum Biogarantie and Ecogarantie Carbon Free Certified Carbon Neutral Certification Carbon Reduction Label BMP Certified Cotton Certified Human Raised & Handel Certified Wildlife Friendly Compostability Mark of European Bioplastics Coop Naturaline: Switzerland China Environmental Labeling Climatop Cradle to Cradle Certification CRI Green Label Degree of Green® Demeter Biodynamic® Earthsure Danish Indoor Climate Label 48 .

Proof Eco.Label (EU) FairWertung Global Recycle Standard Global green tag Certified Good Environmental Choice "Bra Miljöval" Good Shopping Guide Ethical Award Environmental Choice (Australia) Good Weave Green Circle GREENGUARD Green Mark Green Crane (Ukrania) 49 Green Shape .Eco-Logo ECOCERT Eco.Leaf Eco.Mark (India) Eco Warranty EcoMark (Japan) Environmentally Friendly Product (Czech) Environmental Choice New Zealand Envirostar (USA) Etichetta ambientale Fair Labor Practices and Community Benefits Fair Trade Fair for life Eco.

NaturTextil Best Made in Green Ecolabelling in the Slovak Republik Nike Considered Design Eco label (Nordic) NSF/ANSI 140 Sustainability Assessment for Carpet Organic Exchange OEKO TEX 1000 OEKO Tex 100 NSF/ANSI 336: Sustainability Assessment for Commercial Furnishings Fabric OEKO TEX 100+ Ø-label: Norway Oko Control (furnature) Organic Farmers & Growers Certification Oregon Tilth Processed chlorine free See what you buying Into SGS sustainable choice Green label scheme (Singapore) 50 .Green Tick Health Child Health World Gut Eco label (Hong Kong) Label STEP Green Label (Hong Kong) MADE BY National Green Pages™ Seal of Approval IMO certified Eco Label (Korea) Migros Eco Milieukeur: the Dutch environmental quality label Naturland e.V.

Skal Eko Symbol SustentaX SMaRT Consensus Sustainable Product Standards Soil Association Organic Standard Source Map Terra Cycle Texas Organically produced Green Label (Tai) UL Environment Timberland Green land USDA Certified Biobased Tunisia Eco Label Wind Made 51 .

selection. End product should accepted appearance. Reduce expectations to the feasible. comfort (ecofriendly and healthy). use and care of textiles. marketing. durability and finally the cost. processing.Annex 4 Path to "Eco-friendly" production. Correct choice of articles Correct consultation Correct clarification Selection not only according to fashion but appropriateness. 52 .  Fiber Origin Production of Yarns Fabrics Textile Processing and         Clothing Production   Textile Marketing Final Consumer       Selection of fiber consignments of low contamination by submitting requirements Least possible contamination Easily removable sizes Thorough pretreatment Selection of permissible auxiliaries and processes Minimal chemical contamination Removal of reaction products by washing Constant avoiding of ecologically unacceptable requirements Increased use of mechanical and biological finishing Ecologically responsible and technically realizable properties Choice of material according to ecological quality and not only cost. maintenance. Wash all textiles worn close to the body before use. ecological acceptability and care treatments.