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Chapter 3

Network Planning

Fajar Hidayat, ST, MsMM, CPIM

Outline
What is it?
Methodology
Modeling
Data Aggregation
Validation

Solution Techniques

The Logistics Network


The Logistics Network consists of:
Facilities:
Vendors, Manufacturing Centers, Warehouse/ Distributi
on Centers, and Customers
Raw materials and finished products that flow betw
een the facilities.

Sources:
plants
vendors
ports

Regional
Warehouses:
stocking
points

Field
Warehouses:
stocking
points

Customers,
demand
centers
sinks

Supply

Production/
purchase
costs

Inventory &
warehousing
costs
Transportation
costs
Inventory &
warehousing
costs

Transportation
costs

Decision Classifications
Strategic Planning: Decisions that typically inv
olve major capital investments and have a long
term effect
Determination of the number, location and size of n
ew plants, distribution centers and warehouses
Acquisition of new production equipment and the d
esign of working centers within each plant
Design of transportation facilities, communications
equipment, data processing means, etc.

Decision Classifications
Tactical Planning: Effective allocation of
manufacturing and distribution resources
over a period of several months
Work-force size
Inventory policies
Definition of the distribution channels
Selection of transportation and trans-shipme
nt alternatives

Decision Classifications
Operational Control: Includes day-to-da
y operational decisions
The assignment of customer orders to indivi
dual machines
Dispatching, expediting and processing orde
rs
Vehicle scheduling

Network Planning
The process by which the firms structures and
manages the supply chain in order to:
Find the right balance between inventory, transport
ation and manufacturing cost
Match supply and demand under uncertainty by po
sitioning and managing inventory effectively
Utilize resources effectively by sourcing products fro
m the most appropriate facility

3 Steps Network Planning


Network Design: decision on the numbe
r, locations, size of plants, warehouse, o
utlets etc.
Network Positioning: identifying stockin
g points.
Resources Allocations: decision on plant
s sourcing strategies

Network Design: Key Issues


Pick the optimal number, location, and
size of warehouses and/or plants
Determine the location of each facility
Determine the size of each facility
Determine best distribution channels
Which warehouses should service which cust
omers

Network Design: Key Issues


The objective is to balance service level against
Production/ purchasing costs
Inventory carrying costs

Facility costs (handling and fixed costs)


Transportation costs
That is, we would like to find a minimal-annual-cost co
nfiguration of the distribution network that satisfies pr
oduct demands at specified customer service levels.

Network Design Tools:


Major Components
Mapping

Mapping allows you to visualize your supply chain and solutio


ns
Mapping the solutions allows you to better understand differe
nt scenarios
Color coding, sizing, and utilization indicators allow for further
analysis

Data

Data specifies the costs of your supply chain


The baseline cost data should match your accounting data
The output data allows you to quantify changes to the supply
chain

Engine

Optimization Techniques

Mapping Allows You to Visualize Your Supply


Chain

Displaying the Solutions Allows you To Comp


are Scenarios

Data for Network Design


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

A listing of all products


Location of customers, stocking points and sources
Demand for each product by customer location
Transportation rates
Warehousing costs
Shipment sizes by product
Order patterns by frequency, size, season, content
Order processing costs
Customer service goals

Aggregating Customers
Customers located in close proximity are
aggregated using a grid network or clust
ering techniques. All customers within a
single cell or a single cluster are replaced
by a single customer located at the centr
oid of the cell or cluster.
We refer to a cell or a cluster as a custo
mer zone.

Impact of Aggregating Customers


The customer zone balances
Loss of accuracy due to over aggregation
Needless complexity

What effects the efficiency of the aggreg


ation?
The number of aggregated points, that is th
e number of different zones
The distribution of customers in each zone.

Why Aggregate?

The
The
The
The

cost of obtaining and processing data


form in which data is available
size of the resulting location model
accuracy of forecast demand

Recommended Approach
Make sure each zone has an equal amou
nt of total demand
Place the aggregated point at the center
of the zone
In this case, the error is typically no m
ore than 1%

Testing Customer Aggregation


1 Plant; 1 Product
Considering transportation costs only
Customer data
Original Data had 18,000 5-digit zip code sh
ip-to locations
Aggregated Data had 800 3-digit ship-to loc
ations
Total demand was the same in both cases

Comparing Output
Total Cost:$5,796,000
Total Customers: 18,000

Total Cost:$5,793,000
Total Customers: 800

Cost Difference < 0.05%

Product Grouping
Companies may have hundreds to thous
ands of individual items in their producti
on line
Variations in product models and style
Same products are packaged in many sizes

Collecting all data and analyzing it is imp


ractical for so many product groups

A Strategy for Product Aggregation


Place all SKUs into a source-group
A source group is a group of SKUs all sourced from
the same place(s)

Within each of the source-groups, aggregate t


he SKUs by similar logistics characteristics
Weight
Volume
Holding Cost

Within Each Source Group, Aggregate P


roducts by Similar Characteristics
70.0

60.0

Weight (lbs per case)

50.0

40.0

30.0

Rectangles illustrate
how to cluster SKUs.

20.0

10.0

0.0
0.000

0.010

0.020

0.030

0.040

0.050

0.060

Volume (pallets per case)

0.070

0.080

0.090

0.100

Test Case for Product Aggregation

5 Plants
25 Potential Warehouse Locations
Distance-based Service Constraints
Inventory Holding Costs
Fixed Warehouse Costs
Product Aggregation
46 Original products
4 Aggregated products
Aggregated products were created using weighted
averages

Sample Aggregation Test:


Product Aggregation

Total Cost:$104,564,000
Total Products: 46

Total Cost:$104,599,000
Total Products: 4

Cost Difference: 0.03%

Transport Rate Estimation


Huge number of rates representing all co
mbinations of product flow
An important characteristic of a class of r
ates for truck, rail and other trucking co
mpanies is that the rates are quite linear
with the distance.

Other Issues
Future demand
Facility costs
Fixed costs; not proportional to the amount
of material the flows through the warehouse
Handling costs; labor costs, utility costs
Storage costs; proportional to the inventory
level

Facilities capacities

Sources:
plants
vendors
ports

Regional
Warehouses:
stocking
points

Field
Warehouses:
stocking
points

Customers,
demand
centers
sinks

Supply

Inventory &
warehousing
costs
Production/
purchase
costs

Transportation
costs
Inventory &
warehousing
costs

Transportation
costs

Minimize the cost of your logistics network without


compromising service levels

Optimal
Number
of Warehouses

$90

Cost (millions $)

$80
$70
$60

Total Cost
Transportation Cost
Fixed Cost
Inventory Cost

$50
$40
$30
$20
$10
$-

Number of Warehouses

10

Warehousing Cost
Handling Cost: proportional to annual flow trough the
warehouse
Fixed Cost: proportional to warehouse size.
Storage Cost: inventory holding cost, proportional to av
erage inventory

The Impact of Increasing the Number of


Warehouses

Improve service level due to reduction of average service


time to customers
Increase inventory costs due to a larger safety stock
Increase overhead and set-up costs
Reduce transportation costs in a certain range

Reduce outbound transportation costs


Increase inbound transportation costs

Industry Benchmarks:
Number of Distribution Centers

Pharmaceuticals

Avg.
# of
WH

Food Companies

14

- High margin product


- Service not important (or
easy to ship express)
- Inventory expensive
relative to transportation
Sources: CLM 1999, Herbert W. Davis & Co; LogicTools

Chemicals

25
- Low margin product
- Service very important
- Outbound transportation
expensive relative to inbound

A Typical Network Design Model


Several products are produced at several plants.
Each plant has a known production capacity.
There is a known demand for each product at each cu
stomer zone.
The demand is satisfied by shipping the products via r
egional distribution centers.
There may be an upper bound on total throughput at
each distribution center.

A Typical Location Model


There may be an upper bound on the distance
between a distribution center and a market are
a served by it
A set of potential location sites for the new fac
ilities was identified
Costs:

Set-up costs
Transportation cost is proportional to the distance
Storage and handling costs
Production/supply costs

Complexity of Network Design Problems


Location problems are, in general, very d
ifficult problems.
The complexity increases with
the number
the number
the number
ouses, and
the number

of customers,
of products,
of potential locations for wareh

of warehouses located.

Solution Techniques
Mathematical optimization techniques:
Exact algorithms: find optimal solutions
Heuristics: find good solutions, not necessa
rily optimal

Simulation models: provide a mechanism


to evaluate specified design alternatives
created by the designer.

Inventory Positioning
Answer questions: how much and where
to keep the inventory

Inventory Positioning and Logitics


Coordinations
Firms that operates multiple facility.
Objective is to manage inventory and re
duce system wide cost.
Strategic Safety Stocks: where to keep th
e safety stock?

Resources Allocations
Answer the Questions: how much capacity each
plants have to meet the demand.

Resource Allocations
Supply Chain Master Planning: process
of coordinating and allocating productio
ns and distibutions strategies and resour
ces to maximize profits or minimize cost
systems-wide.

Thank You