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Calculation paper on transformers

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**computational, measurement and simulation methods, despite harmonic loads
**

M.H. Amrollahi 1, S. Hassani2

1

**Electrical Engineering Department
**

Urmia University of Technology ,Urmia, Iran, Amrollahi_mh @yahoo.com

2

West Azerbayjan Power Distribution Company, Urmia, Iran, sh592b@yahoo.com

**Abstract. Transformers are the basic and valuable
**

equipment of electricity network. Transformers correct

function has important role in reliability of network

.distribution transformers are designed for work at

nominal frequency and full sinus current. Application of

nonlinear loads in recent decades, such as power

electronic loads, caused higher levels of harmonic. This

kind of load can lead to creating heat, losses and

therefore cause wear of insulation and aging of

transformers. To prevent these problems, nominal

capacity of transformers that will feed the nonlinear load,

should be reduced.

In this paper the parameters affecting the loss of a single

phase 15 KVA transformers with harmonic loading

measurement and will be calculated with standards then

The transformers with harmonic loads are simulated in

MATLAB software for calculating losses Finally, the

obtained results are compared. The reduction of nominal

power (Derating) and transformer life and flow rate limits

and losses are calculated.

Key words

losses, harmonic loads, measuring transformer losses,

transformer harmonic model

Introduction

Increasing nonlinear loads, harmonic distortion, and the

issue of power quality problems in recent years has been

an important debate. Nonlinear loads and equipment in

the network that having nonlinear characteristic is the

main cause of distortion in sinusoidal voltage and current

waveform and changing of waveform can cause

harmonic. With increasing nonlinear loads measurement,

exact analysis of harmonics seems essential to prevent

energy losses, injuries, and its destructive effects on the

network equipment. In recent decades by increasing

nonlinear loads, harmonic levels in distribution networks

has greatly increased, and increases in harmonic load

current cause additional losses and increases in winding

hot spot temperature and stress on insulation , and finally

reducing the useful life of insulation and transformer

capacity .The aim of this paper to determine losses and

estimate life of distribution transformers under harmonic

loads with three computational, simulation and

measuring methods . First loss and capacity useful life of

transformer under harmonic loads are determined and

then the distribution transformers losses have been

compared with three, Computational, measurement and

simulation methods in software environments

**1. Transformer losses in harmonic loads
**

Transformer losses under linear and harmonic loads are

divided two categories no load and loading loss.

Where

loading losses that is divided ohmic losses

and eddy loss,

**no load is due to voltage induced in
**

is total loss of the transformer.

the core and

**Transformer losses in harmonic loads Transformer losses
**

under linear and harmonic loads are divided two

categories no load and loading loss

Where

loading losses that is divided ohmic losses

**and eddy loss,
**

the core and

**no load is due to voltage induced in
**

is total loss of the transformer.

Loading losses: loading loss can be stated as follows:

**Is an ohmic loss due to coil resistance and
**

eddy current losses and

PEC

is other eddy loss. The

total losses

and

refers to the total

dispersion, it is calculated from ohmic losses minus of

loading loss that obtained from short circuit test.ohmic

losses, wending eddy loss and other losses is proportional

to the current therefore in this paper effect of harmonic

current is calculated.ohmic loss is proportional to square

of the current therefore if the effective current increase

because of harmonics the ohmic losses are increased.

**Eddy losses of coil with nonlinear load is changed with
**

square of current and frequency

**Considering the above equation loss factor can be based
**

on effective value of current

Determine and compare the losses in a transformer with two methods of measurement and calculation in harmonic loads Two transformers of the same specifications as are connected back to back was used in the experiment. the maximum allowable current for determine transformer nominal power reduction value is equal to: The harmonic loss factor for other eddy losses obtained from main component of effective current In fact in harmonic loads. this loss proportional with frequency and maximum flux density in the core and are independent of load..75 AMP Rated secounder y current 65. electronic power supplies. increasing use of such devices is created concern for power grid Number of non-linear loads that injected non-sinusoidal current into the network are increased. which can create harmonics and reduce the network capacity. this circuit fed by an autotransformer and in the output a harmonic load is placed amount of losses on both sides is measured and recorded by datalogger. In transformers. Transformer capacity and life with harmonic loads In recent years.for estimate reduced transformer life.12 WATT Secondery voltage 231VOLT FULL LOAD LOSS 550. Most important factor in reducing the life of transformers is point temperature.In non-linear and harmonic load: Therefore.82 WATT Rated primery current 0.50% reduction of transformer life is due by thermal stress is caused by harmonic currents. One of the ways to overcome this problem is that the transformer design so strong and large to bear this kind of loss. discharge lamps. rectifiers. Loading losses in linear load case and nominal conditions are shown (per unit): PEC-R: winding eddy losses in nominal condition POSL-R :other eddy losses in nominal condition PLL-R: lodding losses Therefore the maximum allowed current for decreasing rated power and capacity of transformers with harmonic load can be determined that this action be called derating. Reduction of life and real life of a transformer can be calculated from the following relations: 3. harmonic currents cause increase of Foucault flow and disorganization of leaking fields. they has very growing trend.. which typically are less than 5%. Because of the harmonic voltage.) are increasingly into electrical networks.12 OHM Rated frequancy 50HZ SECONDERY WIDING RESISTENT 0. Numerous experiments show that increasing the core temperature is not a limiting factor in determining the permitted current in the transformer with nonlinear loads [2]. More losses create more heat in transformers and transformer temperature increases that made damage or Extreme Burnout of insulation and reduce the useful life transformers or Transformer work under rated capacity (de-rate). eddy losses of coils and other eddy losses must be multiplied by above factors No load losses: No load losses is caused from Foucault and hysteresis losses in the transformer core In this equation is a hysteresis loss and is Foucault losses. and induction furnaces. motor controllers. Nonlinear loads considerably causing disturbance.2 AMP AVERAGE ENVIRNEMENT TEMPRETURE Permissible winding temperature rise 35C 65 C .0412 OHM Primery voltage 20000VOLT NO LOAD LOSS 120. Table 2: technical characteristic of transformer Characteri stic value Characteristic value Rated power 15KVA PRIMERY WIDING RESISTENT 435. non-linear loads (computers.degradution rate of insulation material must considered . we can use only the main components of the voltage for determining no load losses this has led to only a few errors and will be negligible 2.

1.15.no.1-3 Dec. Transaction B.No. Deniz Yildirim “ Measured Transformer Derating and Comparison with Harmonic Loss Factor Approach “ IEEE Trans. Nims. S . IEEE Recommended Practice for Establishing Transformer Capability when Supplying NonSinusiodal Load Currents A Girgis.Dargahi.9w 7% 1% 150.3w 21% 185. Increasing transformer losses because of nonlinear load current cause increase in transformer temperature.1265-1269 . E .9w 167. Sharifian .B.1.4w 165. Jan 1990.1w 166. The result show harmonic orders and there altitude directly impact on transformer losses also effect of harmonic load on ohmic losses and other eddy losses is low. burnout. B .January2000. Transformer equivalent circuit in Harmonic environment Table 3 shows Comparison of three methods applied with harmonic and sinusoidal load. A . B . but its effect on winding eddy current losses is high. table 2 shows the result of measurment and calculation values for transformer losses Table 2 Results of loss measurements for different loads difference calculations with test results(percent) Calculatio n result Measured losses result(test result) Harmonic losses Loss Increase ( percent) Losses with harmonic load Losses with sinusoida l load 1. 11th IEEE International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment OPTIM 2008. PP. J.pp.56% 188. H . Fakheri . M . Darvishi . Youefi “ Comparison of Distribution Transformer Losses and Capacity under Linear and Harmonic Loads “PECon 2008.B3 .5w The above table shows the percentage difference between the calculations with test results is less than 2%. A . E. Romania. The computational method is less accurate than simulation and measurement method . Electric Power Systems Research.4w 153.60% 152.110-1998. B . In calculation method eddy losses in coils estimated with square of frequency but this method standard not enough accurate.pp. PP.Vol.The diffetrences of mesurment data that mesured by two device.28. "Derating of transformers under Non-sinusoidal Loads". S .263268. Drgahi . A. no. S. and early fault in insulation and finally reduce transformers insulation life. The transformer hot spot temperature.Vol.Tahani. M. Based on simulation results Transformers according figure 1 equivalent circuit is simulated are simulated and harmonic loads are modeled by connecting multiple current source with different frequencies [2] [3] [4] [5] Figure 1. M. "Evaluation of temperature rise of distribution transformer in the presence of harmonic distortion".9w 141.2w 1.B .pp. Brasov. c To calculate the reduction of transformer life θa=35 C c and θTO-R=60 and Reference temperature 110 Be considered: with above transformer equivalent has acceptable accuracy.Because in computational method loss factor proportional to square of harmonic order also simulation [6] IEEE Std C57. strongly depend on size and winding eddy current distribution. Simulation methods using transformer harmonic equivalent circuit has good precision.186-191 .Jafari. eddy current losses of coil increase with the square of frequency are considered and the standards in this field accuracy are not enough. Losses of each transformer is half the amount recorded. SabetMarzooghi “ Derating of distribution transformers for nonsinusoidal load currents using finite element method “ Iranian Journal Of Science & Technology.IEEE 2nd International Power and Energy Conference 2008. Conclusions this article has been shown that the effect of harmonic loads on the ohmic losses and other eddy losses were small. in these conditions is essential to avoid reducing transformer life.86% 0. capacity (nominal power) of transformers will be reduced References [1] 4. Tahani .315-322 . Faiz . Simulation method with equivalent circuit in harmonic environment has enough accuracy. Sadati . In computing. J. vol.Sadati. M .on Power Delivery. Makram.2008. 20.transformers losses is achieved. Therefore.1522.

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