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Ko, Bhing Liok P.

January 21, 2015

CE – 3 | 2011140111

HW # 1

CE133P – B1
I.

Components of Concrete
Concrete is a mixture of sand, gravel, crushed rock, or other aggregates held together in a
rocklike mass with a paste of cement and water. Sometimes one or more admixtures are
added to change certain characteristics of the concrete such as its workability, durability, and
time or hardening.

II.

Structural Properties of Concrete
a. Compressive Strength
 The compressive strength of concrete (f’c) is determined by testing to failure 28day-old 6-in. by 12-in. concrete cylinders at a specified rate of loading. For the
28-day period the cylinders are usually kept under water or in a room with
constant temperature and 100% humidity. Although concretes are available with
28-day ultimate strengths from 2500 psi up to as high as 10,000 to 20,000 psi,
most of the concretes used fall into 3000 to 7000 psi range. Concretes with
strength above 6000-psi are referred to as high-strength concretes.
b. Static Modulus of Elasticity
 Concrete has no clear-cut modulus of elasticity. Its value varies with different
concrete strengths, concrete age, type of loading, and the characteristics and
proportions of the cement and aggregates.
c. Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity
 The dynamic modulus of elasticity, which corresponds to very small
instantaneous strains, is usually obtained by sonic tests. It is generally 20 to 40%
higher than the static modulus and is approximately equal to the initial modulus.
When structures are being analyzed for seismic or impact loads, the use of
dynamic modulus seems appropriate.
d. Poisson’s Ratio
 As concrete cylinder is subjected to compressive loads, it not only shortens in
length but also expands laterally. The ratio of this lateral expansion to the
longitudinal shortening is referred to as Poisson’s ratio. Its value varies from 0.11
for the higher-strength concretes to as high as 0.21 for the weaker-grade
concretes, with average values of about the values of items such as the watercement ratio, amount of curing, aggregate size, etc.
e. Shrinkage

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Creep  Under sustained compressive loads. In a related fashion a humid atmosphere means less shrinkage. and other large items in small sections. the additional deformation is called creep. Structural Properties of Steel a. E  The slope of the initial straight-line proportion of the stress strain diagram. if concrete is subjected to a considerable amount of wind during curing. it is desirable to: (a) keep the amount of mixing water to a minimum. Poisson’s Ratio. the tensile strength of concrete members has a definite reduction effect on their deflections. To minimize shrinkage. aggregates. Tensile Strength  This varies from about 8 to 15% of its compressive strength. (5) use shrinkage reinforcement. For instance. g. (2) cure the concrete well. Furthermore. The tensile strength of concrete in flexure is quite III. Yield Stress. 2 . A major reason for this small strength is the fact that concrete is filled with fine cracks. concrete will continue to deform for long periods of time. Fu  Largest unit stress that the materials achieve in a tension test. The amount of shrinkage is heavily dependent on the type of exposure. (3) place the concrete for walls. Modulus of Elasticity. Toughness  Ability of the material to absorb energy and is characterized by the area under a stress strain curve Weldability  Ability of steel to be welded without changing its mechanical properties g. it is nevertheless an important property that affects the sized and extent of the cracks that occur. or plastic flow. whereas a dry one means more. b. Although tensile strength is normally neglected in design calculation. E steel= 200. Tensile Strength.. µ f. important when considering beam cracks and deflections. floors. (4) use construction joint to control the position of cracks. After the initial deformation occurs. The cracks have little effect when concrete is subjected to compression loads because the loads cause the cracks to close and permit compression transfer.000 MPa d. its shrinkage will be greater. Ductility  Ability of the material to undergo large inelastic deformation without failure e. and (6) use appropriate dense and nonporous f. c. Fy  Unit tensile stress at which the stress strain curve exhibits a well defined increase strain (deformation) without an increase in stress.

reinforced concrete structures can be used indefinitely by the fact that the strength of concrete does not decrease with time but actually increases over a very long period. and similar applications. Ratio of the transverse strain to the longitudinal – strain h. members with a satisfactory cover of concrete over the reinforcing bars suffer only surface damage without failure. concrete takes advantage of inexpensive local materials (sand. and water) and requires relatively small amounts of cement and reinforcing steel. Steel in Construction a. measure in years. which may have to be shipped in from other parts of the country. Under proper conditions. an important consideration for tall buildings and long-span structures. Advantages of concrete in construction  It is a low-maintenance material. in fact. It is often called Modulus of Rigidity. due to the lengthy process of the solidification of the cement paste. 3 . IV. the low strength per unit of volume of concrete means members will be relatively large. G  Ratio of the shearing stress to shearing strain during the elastic behaviour. beams.  It is usually the only economical material available for footings. is the best structural material available for situations where water is present. and columns to great arches and shells.  It has a very long service life.  Forms are required to hold the concrete in place until it hardens sufficiently. piers. basement walls. During fires of average intensity. b.  Reinforced concrete structures are very rigid. Advantages and Disadvantages of Concrete vs.  A lower grade of skilled labor is required for erection as compared to other materials such as structural steel. Shear Modulus.  In most areas. gravel.  Its ability to be cast into an extraordinary variety of shapes from simple slabs. requiring the use of tensile reinforcing. Disadvantages of concrete in construction  Concrete has a very low tensile strength.  The low strength per unit of weight of concrete leads to heavy members. This becomes an increasingly important matter for long-span structures where concrete’s large dead weight has a great effect on bending moments. Similarly.  It has a considerable compressive strength as compared to most other materials  Reinforced concrete has a great resistance to the actions of fire and water and.

This deliver time saves in the build programme compared to a concrete frame. lasting longer before refurbishment is required. Time related savings can easily amount to between 3% and 5% of the overall project value. This property is referred to as ductility. Offsite fabrication of components and rapid on-site assembly by skilled personnel make steel an inherently safe construction material. Advantages of steel in construction  Steel structures can be erected speedily. thus providing a large reserve strength. which is an important characteristic for resisting shock loading such as blasts or earthquakes. c.  Steel structures in general can be repaired quickly and easily. the placing and curing of concrete is not as carefully controlled as is the production of other materials such as structural steel and laminated wood.  Steel-framed structures are highly durable and do not age or decay as quickly as other construction materials.  Concrete’s shrinkage and creep. Industry surveys consistently demonstrate that steel is the safest material choice. Thus. Steel’s inherent adaptability and flexibility also means that future changes or extensions – even vertically – can be carried out with minimal disruption and cost.  In inflation adjusted terms. In fact. Buildings that can be easily adapted avoid costly and environmentally harmful demolition and redevelopment.  Steel has a high strength/weight ratio. Properly designed steel structures can have high ductility. Furthermore. A ductile structure has energy-absorbing capacity and will not incur sudden failure.  Health and Safety is a key business driver in construction. Huge productivity advances have also been achieved throughout the steel supply chain and the cost saving benefits shared with customers. speed of erection is often one of the main criteria for selecting steel. It usually shows large visible deflections before failure or collapse. the dead weight of steel structures is relatively small. The predictability and accuracy of steel components speeds up the process and allows follow-on trades to get to work sooner. Its properties vary widely due to variations in its proportioning and mixing. steel has fallen in price since 1980 and is cheaper than it was 15 years ago. reducing the client’s requirements for working capital and improving cash flow.  Steel can undergo large plastic deformation before failure.  Steel is highly suitable for prefabrication and mass production. This property makes steel a very attractive structural material for 4 .

structures located on soft ground and structures located in highly seismic areas where forces acting on the structure due to an earthquake are in general proportional to the weight of the structure.  Fireproofing. steel conducts and transmits heat from a burning portion of the building quite fast. steel is not available in abundance and its initial cost is very high as compared with the other structural materials. Consequently. d. reinforced concrete compression members. Disadvantages of steel in construction  General cost. long-span bridges. such as bridges. Steel structures exposed to air and water. The strength of steel is reduced substantially when heated at temperatures commonly observed in building fires. Also. As a result. like Pakistan. steel compression members are in general more slender and consequently more susceptible to buckling than. Application of weathering and corrosion-resistant steels may eliminate this problem. Due to high strength/weight ratio.  Higher initial cost / Less availability. considerable materials may have to be used just to improve the buckling resistance of slender steel compression members. steel frames in buildings must have adequate fireproofing. say. In few countries.  Maintenance.  Susceptibility to buckling. That is the reason why steel structures are not very common in these countries.high rise buildings.  Steel can be reused after a structure is disassembled. Steel structures may be more costly than other types of structures. are susceptible to corrosion and should be painted regularly. 5 .

and James Nelson.eng. Reinforced Concrete Design 2nd Ed. p.htm http://www.rigtech.References: Leet. United States of America: John Wiley & Sons. 2006.co.. 1991. Design of Reinforced Concrete 7th Ed.com/steel-structures/disadvantages-of-steel-structures-demerits-ofsteel-construction/ 6 . http://www. p.35.ohio-state. 13-15.edu/~ceg532/chap1/chap1_2.za/blog/4-advantages-of-steel-structure-construction/ http://hcgl.. New York: Mc-Graw-Hill. 22-28. K.civilengineeringterms. McCormac. J..