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INSTITUT KEMAHIRAN BELIA NEGARA


KEMENTERIAN BELIA DAN SUKAN

KERTAS PENERANGAN
(INFORMATION SHEET)

KOD DAN NAMA


PROGRAM /
PROGRAMS CODE &

HT-013-2:2011 BAKERY PRODUCTION

NAME
TAHAP / LEVEL

2 (TWO)

KOD DAN TAJUK UNIT


KOMPETENSI /
COMPETENCY UNIT

HT-013-2:2011(C06) MUFFIN PREPARATION

CODE AND TITLE

NO. DAN PENYATAAN


AKTIVITI KERJA / WORK
ACTIVITIES NO. AND
STATEMENT

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

IDENTIFY MUFFIN PREPARATION REQUIREMENTS


PREPARE MUFFIN MISE EN PLACE
CARRY OUT MUFFIN PREPARATION
CHECK MUFFIN QUALITY AND QUANTITY
CARRY OUT MUFFIN FINISHING WORK
RECORD MUFFIN PREPARATION ACTIVITIES

ID UNIT KOMPETENSI /
COMPETENCY UNIT ID

HT-013-2:2011(C06)/KP(1/7)

TITLE

: SAFETY, HEALTH AND HYGIENE PRACTICES GUIDELINES

OBJECTIVE

: TO OBTAIN KNOWLEDGE ON MUFFIN SAFETY, HEALTH AND HYGIENE


PRACTICES GUIDELINES.

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INFORMATION:
1. Introduction to Food Safety.

The bakery business can be an enjoyable and rewarding profession, but some bakery
processes can also be hazardous. Persons who work in bakery operations should be
instructed in how to avoid or prevent potential hazards and be properly trained to follow
recommended safe work practices.
Slips and falls are common bakery accidents due to wet floors, spilled dough, batter,
and dry ingredients, as well as uneven or obstructed floor surfaces. Stack materials
neatly to keep walkways and production areas clear. Immediately clean up spills and
post warning signs when floors are wet or slippery. Use a degreasing solution on oil and
grease spills. Gets safety training on use of ladders and stepstools. Slip-resistant floor
coverings and shoe soles prevent slips and falls.
Bakery equipment such as moving blades, mixing arms, and conveyors on dough
brakes, pie and tart machines, mixers, rollers and dividers pose cutting and
caught/crush hazards. Maintain equipment in good condition. Guard moving and sharp
parts. Keep equipment clearances to avoid accidentally bumping into moving parts. Use
safety devices such as power interlocks, two-handed controls, and emergency-stop
bars. Practice lockout/tag out during maintenance and cleaning. Place warning signs on
equipment with moving equipment dangers.
Breathing flour dust can cause asthma and nose, throat, and eye irritation. Repeated
exposure to flour and dough can sensitize skin. Control flour dust with enclosed storage
bins, adequate ventilation, and enclosed mixing. Dont sweep flour from floors; use a
high-efficiency vacuum cleaner or wet mopping. Clean work surfaces throughout the day
to prevent dough and flour buildup. Use a nuisance dust mask if flour dust cannot be
controlled. Gloves and long sleeves protect your hands and arms from dough and flour
exposure.
2. OSHA

2.1 Definitions
OSHA or Occupational Safety and Health Administration, founded in 1993 was
initially formed to provide a general occupational safety & health consulting & training
offerings to the business within Malaysia. The Occupational Safety and Health Act is an
Act which provides the legislative framework to secure the safety, health and welfare
among all Malaysian workforces and to protect others against risks to safety or health in
connection
with
the
activities
of
persons
at
work.
This Act was gazette on 24th February 1994 and was cited as the Occupational Safety
and Health Act 1994. This Act is a practical tool superimposed on existing safety and
health legislation.
The aims of this Act are to:
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secure the safety, health and welfare of persons at work against risks to safety or

health arising out of the activities of persons at work


protect person at a place of work other than persons at work against risks to safety or
health arising out of the activities of persons at work
promote an occupational environment for persons at work which is adapted to their
physiological and psychological needs
Provide the means whereby the associated occupational safety and health legislation
may be progressively replaced by a system of regulations and approved industry
codes of practice operating in combination with the provisions of this Act designed to
maintain or improve the standards of safety and health.
OSHA's mission is to "assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men
and women by setting and enforcing standards and by providing training, outreach,
education and assistance

2.2 OSHA Standards


OSHA standards are rules that describe the methods that employers must use to
protect their employees from hazards. These standards limit the amount of hazardous
chemicals workers can be exposed to, require the use of certain safe practices and
equipment, and require employers to monitor hazards and keep records of workplace
injuries and illnesses.
Examples of OSHA standards include requirements to: provide fall protection, prevent
trenching cave-ins, prevent infectious diseases, ensure that workers safely enter
confined spaces, prevent exposure to harmful substances like asbestos, put guards on
machines, provide respirators or other safety equipment, and provide training for
certain dangerous jobs.
Employers must also comply with the General Duty Clause of the OSH Act, which
requires employers to keep their workplace free of serious recognized hazards. This
clause is generally cited when no OSHA standard applies to the hazard.
The Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 is enforced by the Department of
Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), a government department under the Ministry
of Human Resources Malaysia.
Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) will ensure through enforcement
and promotional works that employers, self-employed persons, manufacturers,
designers, importers, suppliers and employees always practice safe and health work
culture, and always comply with existing legislation, guidelines and codes of practice.
Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) will also formulate and review
legislation, policies, guidelines and codes of practice pertaining to occupational safety,
health and welfare as a basis in ensuring safety and health at work.
Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) is also the secretariat to
National Council for Occupational Safety and Health, a council established under
section 8 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994.
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The National Council for Occupational Safety and Health shall have power to do all
things expedient or reasonably necessary for or incidental to the carrying out of the
objects of this Act.
3. Environmental Quality Act 1974 (Act127)
3.1 Definition
The legislation is related to the prevention, abatement, control of pollution and
enhancement of the environment in compliance with the government standards.
Malaysia has had environmentally-related legislation since the early 1920s But the
legislation is limited in scope and inadequate for handling complex emerging
environmental problems. So through EQA, 1974, a more comprehensive form of
legislation and an agency to control pollution was established.
EQA is an enabling piece of legislation for preventing, abating and controlling pollution,
and enhancing the environment, or for other related purposes. Pollution, as declared in
EQA, includes the direct or indirect alteration of any quality of the environment or any
part of it by means of a positive act or act of omission.
Pollution is controlled through the mechanism of licenses issued by the Department of
Environment. The mode of control is by prescribing, by means of a ministerial
regulation, that licenses are mandatory for:

The use and occupation of prescribed premises;


Discharging or emitting wastes exceeding acceptable conditions into the
atmosphere, as well as noise pollution, polluting or causing the pollution of any soil
or surface of any land;
Emitting, discharging or depositing any wastes or oil, in excess of acceptable
conditions, into inland waters or Malaysian waters.

The provision of "acceptable conditions" is controversial because the polluter is not


liable for prosecution if the discharges are within those acceptable conditions, even if
the effluents are sufficient to severely damage the environment. Most people adversely
affected by pollution do not want to seek legal remedy through common law because of
the prolonged nature of such hearings and the costs incurred.
Currently, 16 sets of regulations and orders are enforced by the Department of
Environment under EQA. Despite government efforts to implement environmental laws
and regulations, it has been found that enforcement measures need to be further
enhanced to ensure the full compliance with laws and regulations. With regard to
monitoring and enforcement, surveillance capability will be strengthened. The penalty
structure related to environment offences will be revised to ensure a more effective
deterrent, especially in the case of repeat offenders. The enforcement function of
agencies such as the Department of Environment, Health Department, Pesticide Board
and local authorities will be rationalized and streamlined, and adequate training will be
provided for their enforcement staff.
Environmental laws and regulations
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One of the three strategies embodied in EQA, 1974, is for the regulation of pollution.
The other two strategies are for preventing and abating any form of pollution. To bring
the law and other environmentally-related laws into effect, the laws and regulations
listed below have been introduced and are strictly enforced by the Department of
Environment.
(i)

Control of agro-based water pollution


Environmental Quality (Licensing) Regulations, 1977
Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises) (Crude Palm Oil) Order, 1977
Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises) (Crude Palm Oil) Regulations,

1977, and (Amendment) 1982


Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises) (Raw Natural Rubber) Order, 1978
Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises) (Raw Natural Rubber) Regulations,

1978
(ii) Control of municipal and industrial waste water pollution
Environmental Quality (Sewage and Industrial Effluents) Regulations, 1979
Environmental Quality (Prohibition on the Use of Controlled Substance in Soap,

Synthetic Detergent and Other Cleaning Agents) Order, 1995


(iii) Control of industrial emissions
Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulations, 1978
Environmental Quality (Compounding of Offenses) Rules, 1978

(iv) Control of motor vehicle emissions


Motor Vehicles (Control of Smoke and Gas Emission) Rules, 1977 (made under

the Road Traffic Ordinance of 1958)


Environmental Quality (Control of Lead Concentration in Motor Gasoline)
Regulations, 1985
Environmental Quality (Motor Vehicle Noise) Regulations, 1987
(v) Control of toxic and hazardous waste management
Environmental Quality (Scheduled Wastes) Regulations, 1989
Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises) (Scheduled Wastes Treatment and

Disposal Facilities) Order, 1989


Environmental Quality (Prescribed Premises) (Scheduled Wastes Treatment and

Disposal Facilities) Regulations, 1989


Promotion of Investments (Promoted Activities and Products) (Amendment) (No.
10) Order, 1990 (made under the Promotion of Investments Act, 1986)

4. HACCP
4.1 Definition

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Hazard Analysis And Critical Control Points, or HACCP, is a systematic


preventive approach to food safety and pharmaceutical safety that identifies
physical, chemical, and biological hazards in production processes that can
cause the finished product be unsafe, and designs measurements to reduce
these risks to a safe level. In this manner, HACCP is referred as the prevention
of hazards rather than finished product inspection.

4.2 Hazard Analysis


A hazard is anything which may cause harm to your customers.
There are three types of hazards: biological
chemical
physical

4.2.1 Biological Hazards


Biological hazard include food poisoning bacteria such as
Salmonella, E-coli and Bacillus cereus, which are hazardous
because they can: Survive inadequate cooking
Multiply to harmful levels in food given the right conditions
Spread from raw foods to ready to eat foods (cross contamination)

4.2.2 Chemical Hazards


Chemical hazards may be present on certain foods in the form of
pesticides or cleaning residues.
Chemical hazards may also arise from incorrect storage and misuse of
cleaning chemicals or rodent bait. Not using food grade equipment may
also contaminate the food.

4.2.3 Physical Hazards


Physical hazards include contamination from foreign bodies like glass,
wood, metal, hair, flies etc.
To identify all the hazards associated within your business, you may
wish to consider what
process steps are applicable to your business.
You will then need to think about the three hazards at each
stage/ process step of your operation.

4.3 Process steps


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This is a stage in the business operation to produce a certain food.


You will need to think what stages are applicable to your business and either
takes a generic or specific approach to the foods you produce.
For example; purchase/ receipt/ collect
delivery
storage
preparation
cooking
cooling
storage
service
4.3.1 Critical Control Points (CCPs)
CCPs are the stage of your process where the hazards must be
controlled for the food to be safe to eat.
a. Critical Limit
Critical limits are specified safety limits at your CCPs
which separates acceptable (safe food) from unacceptable
(unsafe food).
Critical limits are usually numerical values based on
scientific finding. Example: Critical limit for the storage of
food in a fridge.

0-5C
8C
10C

this is good practice but the food stored at


this temperature is not critical
this is the critical limit
this has exceeded the critical limit and is
potentially

4.3.2 Monitoring
Monitoring produces would need to be established to ensure
hazards are controlled at CCPs. Such monitoring activity
may involve temperature checks, visual inspection and time
recording.
4.3.3 Corrective Action
Corrective action are produces to be taken when monitoring
(at CCPs) has identified that the critical limit has been or is
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likely to be exceeded.
Such action must either make the food safe or prevent its
entry into the food chain.
For example, the fridge temperature is 10C. Your corrective
action may state to; re-monitor in one hour, relocate the food
to another fridge operating at or below 8C, call the
Manager/owner, call the fridge engineer.
4.3.4 Verification
This involves taking an overview of your HACCP based system to
ensure it is working effectively.
It is checking that the checks already done at true and effective at
controlling your hazard.
For example, Managers weekly checks and food sampling would
be
verification procedures.
4.3.5 Documentation
A HACCP based system must have appropriate documentation to
demonstrate it is working effectively.
These will usually incorporate HACCP charts, work instructions,
written procedures/ policies,
training record, monitoring records, sampling records, invoices,
receipts etc.

4.3.6 Review
To ensure the HACCP is working effectively, it is important to review
the food safety system at regular intervals. This may be when there is
a change of menu, a complaint, a new product, a new premise or a
visit from the Environmental Health Officer. It is good practice to
review the system at least once a year.

Establishing an HACCP system


Identify hazards and assess their severity and risk
Determine critical control points (CCPs)
Establish critical limits
Establish a system to monitor the control of the CCPs)
Establish corrective action to be taken whenever monitoring indicates that a CCP is not under
control)
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Establish procedures to verify that the HACCP system is working effectively


Confirm documentation in place for all procedures and records needed for an effective HACCP
system

5. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)


5.1 Definitions
Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) certification is a scheme which can assist
manufacturers of food products and food related products to provide assurance
to their customers that their products are manufactured in a hygienic manner and
in accordance to best practices in manufacturing.
Since GMP is one of the pre-requisite programmes (PRP) required to be
established before Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) can be
implemented, having GMP certification would definitely pave the way to an easier
HACCP implementation and certification.
Generally, GMP consists of aspect such as design and facilities in the
establishment, control of operations by equipment, temperature, time, pH or
water activity control, maintenance and sanitation, personal hygiene, personnel
training, transportation, conveyors, product information and consumer
awareness. In short, it comprises the basic requirements of a manufacturing
facility covering establishment, infrastructure, equipment design, construction,
maintenance, process controls and personnel hygiene and awareness.
MS 1514 is the standard for prescribing the requirements of pre-requisite
programmes which is required to be established before the implementation of
HACCP. The standard is applicable to all food manufacturers, primary and
secondary processors, food catering and service operators, food retailers and
food related industries

A good manufacturing practice (GMP) is a production and testing practice that helps to
ensure a quality product. Many countries have legislated that pharmaceutical and
medical device companies must follow GMP procedures, and have created their own
GMP guidelines that correspond with their legislation. Basic concepts of all of these
guidelines remain more or less similar to the ultimate goals of safeguarding the health of
the patient as well as producing good quality medicine, medical devices or active
pharmaceutical products. In the U.S. a drug may be deemed adulterated if it passes all
of the specifications tests but is found to be manufactured in a condition which violates
current good manufacturing guidelines. Therefore, complying with GMP is a mandatory
aspect in pharmaceutical manufacturing.
Although there are a number of them, all guidelines follow a few basic principles:
Manufacturing processes are clearly defined and controlled. All critical processes are

validated to ensure consistency and compliance with specifications.


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Manufacturing processes are controlled, and any changes to the process are

evaluated. Changes that have an impact on the quality of the drug are validated as
necessary.
Instructions and procedures are written in clear and unambiguous language. (Good
Documentation Practices)
Operators are trained to carry out and document procedures.
Records are made, manually or by instruments, during manufacture that demonstrate
that all the steps required by the defined procedures and instructions were in fact
taken and that the quantity and quality of the drug was as expected. Deviations are
investigated and documented.
Records of manufacture (including distribution) that enable the complete history of a
batch to be traced are retained in a comprehensible and accessible form.
The distribution of the drugs minimizes any risk to their quality.
A system is available for recalling any batch of drug from sale or supply.
Complaints about marketed drugs are examined, the causes of quality defects are
investigated, and appropriate measures are taken with respect to the defective drugs
and to prevent recurrence.

GMP guidelines are not prescriptive instructions on how to manufacture products. They
are a series of general principles that must be observed during manufacturing. When a
company is setting up its quality program and manufacturing process, there may be
many ways it can fulfil GMP requirements. It is the company's responsibility to determine
the most effective and efficient quality process.

QUESTION :
1. What is OSHA?
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
2. Explain in simple sentence about HACCP.
____________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________________
3. What is MS 1514?
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
4. List three types of hazards

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5. Complete the Establishing of HACCP system


Identify hazards and assess their severity and risk

Determine critical control points (CCPs)

Establish critical limits

Establish a system to monitor the control of the CCPs)

Establish corrective action to be taken whenever monitoring indicates that a CCP is not under
control)

Establish procedures to verify that the HACCP system is working effectively

Confirm documentation in place for all procedures and records needed for an effective HACCP
system

RUJUKAN:
1. Courtine R.J. & Larousse The Hamlyn Publishing Group (1988) Gastronomique Cookery
Encyclopedia, ISBN 0-749-30316-6
2. Friberg B., John Wiley & Sons (2002), The Professional Pastry Chef: Fundamental of
Baking and Pastry (4th edition)
3. Gail Sokol Thomson Delmar Lerning (2006). About Professional Baking. 2nd Edition
4. Geerts R., Vantage House (1989), Belgian Sweet and savouries
5. Gisslen W., John Wiley & Sons Inc (2009), Professional Baking. 5th Edition
6. John C., Hodder Education (2008), Practical Cookery. 11th Edition
7. Joseph Amendola, Nicole Rees, John Wiley & Sons (2002) The Bakers Manual
FifthEdition , ISBN 0-471-40525-6
8. Karangkraf, Bakeri. ISBN: 978-967-5234-98-9
9. Labensky, S.R., Tenbergen, K.G., VanDamme, E & Martel P., Prentice Hall (2004), On
baking: A Textbook of Baking and Pastry Fundamentals
10. Lian M., Times Book International (1981), Guide to Hotel & Catering Services, ISBN 9-97165093-2
11. Oppeneder R. (1995). Simply Sweet and savoury. Robert Oppeneder
12. Peter P, John Wiley and Sons (2007).Sweet and savoury & Confections
13. Roux M.&A., Mcdonald & Co. Ltd, The Roux Brothers on Patisserie, ISBN 0-356-12379-0
14. Y.H.Hui, Harold Corke, Wiley Blacwell (2006), Bakery Products, Science and Technology,
ISBN: 9-780-81380187-2

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