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A granular materials that are composed of sand, gravel, crushed stone,

crushed hydraulic-cement concrete, or iron blast-furnace slag defines aggregates. It
is utilized with a hydraulic cementing medium to develop either concrete or mortar.
Other than that, aggregate is also a broad category of coarse particulate material
utilized in construction, including sand, gravel, crushed stone, and slag, recycled
concrete and geo-synthetic aggregates. The aggregates additionally are the most
mined materials in the world, a component of composite materials such as concrete
and asphalt concrete and accommodates as reinforcement to integrate vigor to the
overall composite material.

Coarse and fine are two types of aggregates. The particles that are
predominantly retained on the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve are kenned as coarse
aggregate whereas fine aggregate are those particles passing the 9.5 mm (3/8 in.)
sieve, virtually entirely passing the 4.75 mm (No. 4) sieve, and predominantly
retained on the 75 m (No. 200) sieves.

There are varieties of utilization of aggregates. It increments the volume of
concrete and the cost is therefore reduced and it provides dimensional stability for
the buildings. Apart from that, it also influences hardness, abrasion resistance,
elastic modulus, and other properties of concrete in which, make it more durable,
vigorous and more frugal. Concrete that is a coalescence of aggregates, cement and
water is customized to provide a rigid skeletal structure and to reduce the space
occupied by the cement paste. It is utilized for the foundations, walls, floors, roofs
and partitions of buildings, as well as bridges, dams, power stations and many other
kinds of physical structures. Asphalt and roadstone do not only tackle just roads, but
also pavements, airport runways, school playgrounds, car parks, most footpaths,
and any other homogeneous structures. Mortar consists of sand, cement and water.
Lime is also integrated, in some cases, together with admixtures, otherwise kenned
as chemicals to control setting and workability. Railway ballast is a very tough
aggregate that is essential to fortify railway weight and distribute the load of a
passing train to eschew earnest damage to the ground, or other structures


Lightweight aggregate contains aggregate that is natural or synthetic which

weighs less than 1100 kg/m3. Lightweight is due to the cellular or high internal
porous microstructure, which gives this type of aggregate a low bulk concrete
gravity and have high absorption values, which requires a modified approach to
concrete proportioning. Mundane-weight aggregates are obtained by draining
riverbeds or mining and crunching formational material. Generally weighs about
144 lb/ft3. Furthermore, normal-weight aggregate is also a natural or synthetic
which typically weigh more than 2080 kg/m3 and can range up to 4485 kg/m3.
These are most commonly utilized for radiation shielding, counterweights, and other
applications where a high mass to volume ratio is desired.
Fine aggregate is the aggregate most of which passes 4.75 mm IS sieve and
contains little coarser as is sanctioned by specification. Meanwhile, natural sand is
the aggregate resulting from the natural disintegration of rock that has been
deposited by streams or glacial agencies. Crushed stone sand is the fine aggregate
produced by crushing hard stone. Crushed gravel sand is the fine aggregate
engendered by crushing natural grave. Coarse aggregate is the aggregate most of
which is retained on 4.75 mm IS sieve and contains only so much finer material as is
sanctioned by designation. Uncrushed gravel is a stone that results from natural
disintegration of rock, crushed gravel is a stone that results from crushing of gravel
or hard stone whereas partially crushed gravel is a product of the coalescing of both
crushed and uncrushed aggregate. Last but not least the all in aggregate, the
aggregate that is composed of both fine aggregate and coarse aggregate.