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# 2015

.1)
.2)
.3)
.4)
.5) ) ) ) ) )

.1)

= 0,4m
f
:

r1 r2 = N

(1) N = 0,1,2,...

r1 + r2 = d

(2)

(1) (2) :

r1 r2 + r1 + r2 = N + d 2r1 = N + d r1 =

N d
+
2
2

:
0 r1 d 0

N d
d N d
+ d
d N d
2
2
2
2
2

## 1 N 1 1 0,4 N 1 2,5 N 2,5

( N = 0,1,2,... )

, : N = 2,1,0,1,2 ,
5.

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.2)
y

1 y
r

1
1 r1x

2y

2 2 x

x:

m 0 = m1 x + m 2 x 0 = 1 x + 2 x 0 = 11 + 2 2

(1)

y:

0 = m 1 y m 2 y 0 = 1 y 2 y 0 = 11 2 2 (2)
(1) (2):

02 = 12 2 1 + 22 2 2 + 2 1 2 1 2
0 = 12 2 1 + 22 2 2 2 1 2 1 2

(3)
(4)

(3) (4):

02 = 12 + 22 + 2 1 2 (1 2 1 2 )
02 = 12 + 22 + 2 1 2 ( 1 + 2 )

(5)

. :

1
1
1
m 02 = m12 + m 22 02 = 12 + 22 (6)
2
2
2
(5) (6) :

2 1 2 ( 1 + 2 ) = 0 ( 1 + 2 ) = 0 1 + 2 =

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: = 1 + 2 .

r
p1

r
p1

r
p2

= 1 + 2

r
p1

2
1

1
2

r
p1

r
p2

r
r
r
p1 = p1 + p 2

r
x p
1
r
p2

r
p1 1 ,

r
p2 2 ,
r
p1 1 ,
r
p2 2 ,

r
0r

r r
r
r
r r
p1 + p 2 = p1 + p 2 p1 = p1 + p 2 (1)
(1) .
r r r
p1 , p1 , p 2 :

## p12 = p12 + p 22 + 2 p1 p 2 m 212 = m 2 1 2 + m 2 2 2 + 2(m 1 )(m 2 )

m 212 = m 2 1 2 + m 2 2 2 + 2m 2 1 2 m 212 = m 2 (1 2 + 22 + 21 2 )
m 212 = m 2 (1 2 + 22 + 21 2 ) 12 = 12 + 2 2 + 21 2 (1)
.
:
0

1 + 2 = 1 + 2 1 = 1 + 2

1
1
1
m12 = m1 2 + m 2 2
2
2
2

1
1
m12 = m ( 1 2 + 2 2 ) 12 = 12 + 2 2 (2)
2
2

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(1) = (2) :

1 2 + 22 + 21 2 = 1 2 + 2 2 21 2 = 0 = 0 =
1 + 2 =

.3)

k
1
5
f0 =
= Hz
2 M

:

2
1

f1 f 2 f0

f (Hz )

f 2 = 2 f1 =

6
3
Hz f 2 = 2 f 1 = Hz
2

.
A2 > A1 .
.4)
:
..
.
r
F

..

r
N

r
wx
r
wx

r
w

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:
Fx = 0 w x F = 0 w x = kl ,
l .
= 0 T = 0

..
:

..
.

..
x

..

r
N

r
wx

r
T

r
wx

r
w

w x T = Ma (1)
Fx = 0 F

= I T R = I T R =

2T
1
a
1
MR 2 T = Ma a =
2
R
2
M

(2)

(2) (1):
w x T = M
F
T =

kx
3

2T
k (l + x ) w x T = 2T kl + kx w x = 3T
M

(3)

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, :
Fx = T + w x kl kx
Fx = T + w x F

(4)

(3) (4) :
Fx =

2k
kx
kx F =
x F = Dx
3
3

2k
D=
.
3

.1)

U1 = 0

(
Steiner):
2

1
l
I A = I cm + M = Ml 2
3
2
r
r
: L = L
L = m

l Ml
=
2
4

(1)

(2)

2
1 2
1
1

L = I = ( I + I ) = Ml + m = Ml 2 + Ml 2 =
3

8
3

11Ml 2
M M 2
+
(3)

l =
8
24
3

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## (2) (3) (1) :

44l
24 6 ( S . I .) 6 11
Ml 11Ml 2
=
=
=
=
=
4
24
24
44l 11l
11 1

.2)
.
1
1
I 2 m 2
K
K
2
(% ) =
100% = 2
100%
1
K
2
m
2
11l 2 2
11Ml 2 2 M 2

2
(S . I . )
24
2
12
(% ) =
100% (% ) =

100
%

2
M 2

2
11
36 196
33 196
100% 83%
(% ) = 12
100% (% ) =
196
196
(
).

.3)

( .2).
h .

U1 = 0

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,
1
1 11Ml 2 2
I 2

1
K1 + U 1 = K 2 + U 2 K1 = U 2 I 2 = m gh h = 2
h = 2 24

3M
2
m g
g
2
11l 2 2

11 36 11
11l 2 2 ( S . I .)
=
= 0,55m
h = 24
h=
h=
72 10 20
3g
72 g
0

.4)
h = l . h = l
= 0 . ,
0

K 1 + U 1 = K 3 + U 3 K1 = U 2
3M
2
gl

72 g ( S . I .) 2 720
2
m
g
h
1

2
2 =
I 2 = m gh 2 =

2 =

2
11l
11
I
11Ml 2
24

, (1) :
M

l 11Ml 2
11l ( S . I .)
44
=
=
= m / s
4
24
6
3

.1) . ,
F = T = D x
F (max ) = T (max ) = D A

:
F (max ) D A m 2 A m g 2 A g A

2
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0,4 10

g
g
s 2 A 0,025m = 25 `10 3 m
A 2 A 2 2 A
4 f
4 10 4 Hz 2
(2f )
,
Amax = 25 10 3 m
.2) D = m 2 D = m (2f ) D = m 4 2 f 2 = 160 N / m
2

, K = (m + m ) 2 K = D + m 2 m =
m =

K D

K D
m = 0,25kg
(2f )2

.3) t1 :

1
K
(m + m ) 2 + 1 Kx 2 = 1 kA2 =
2 x2
2
2
2
m + m

200 N / m
1,25kg

(10

## m 2 0,25 10 4 m 2 ) = 160 0,75 10 4 m / s

= 120 10 2 m / s
, t1 ,
.
d

= a , (F = ma )

dt

.
,

m
1
1
1
m 2 + Kx 2 = kA2 A = x 2 + 2
2
2
2

A = 0,25 10 4 +

1
120 10 4 m A = 0,85 10 4 m A = 85 10 6 m
200

A = 85 10 3 m

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A < A .
; . t1
:
E=

1 2 1
kx + (m + m ) 2 . :
2
2

1
1
E = kx 2 + m 2
2
2

E < E

1
1
kA2 < kA 2 A < A
2
2

.4)

l1
l1
m g

(+ )

l 2
l 2

(m + m )g

:
Fx = 0 m g = Kl1 l1 =

m g
5
=
m
K
200
10

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:
Fx = 0 (m + m )g = Kl 2 l 2 =

(m + m )g
K

10
m
200

:
= l 2 l1 =

5
m = 0,025m
200

. :
T m g = D x T m g = m 2 x N m g = m 2 x

m g m g = m 2 x m g = m g m 2 x
g 2 x
g = g 2 x =
g
x = A :

K
g
g 2
m + m
=
=
g
g

x = A :

K
g +
2
g +
m + m
=
=
g
g

: =

3
2

:
.
3
... =
.
2
, .

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.5) x = + A / 2 :

1
K
(m + m ) 2 + 1 Kx 2 = 1 kA2 =
2
2
2
m + m

K
m + m

2 x2

3 2
m
= 5 3 A = 125 3 10 3
4
s

(:
, .
2
. )

x = + A / 2 :
F = D x F = m 2 x F = m

K
x F = 2,5 N
m + m

,
x = + A / 2 :
dK
m
J

## = F = ( 2,5N ) 125 3 10 3 = 312,5 3 10 3

dt
s
s

x = + A / 2
(
).
.6) i) :

K
= 0,25m / s
m + m

= max = =

( )
= 0,25m / s .
:
fA =

f S = 1360 Hz

ii)
, 2
.
:
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t =

m + m
T
=
= s
2
K
10

t =

10

s.

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