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OptiStruct Optimization
Analysis, Concept and Optimization
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HyperWorks 11.0 Release Notes
Trademark and Registered Trademark Acknowledgments
Listed below are Altair HyperWorks applications. Copyright Altair Engineering Inc., All Rights Reserved for:
HyperMesh 19902011; HyperCrash 20012011; OptiStruct 19962011; RADIOSS 19862011; HyperView
19992011; HyperView Player 20012011; HyperStudy 19992011; HyperGraph 19952011; MotionView 1993
2011; MotionSolve 20022011; HyperForm 19982011; HyperXtrude 19992011; Process Manager 20032011;
Templex 19902011; Data Manager 20052011; MediaView 19992011; BatchMesher 20032011;
TextView 19962011; HyperMath 20072011; ScriptView 20072011; Manufacturing Solutions 20052011;
HyperWeld 20092011; HyperMold 20092011; solidThinking 19932011; solidThinking Inspired 20092011;
Durability Director 20092011; Suspension Director 20092011; AcuSolve 19972011; and AcuConsole
20062011.
In addition to HyperWorks trademarks noted above, GridWorks, PBS Gridworks, PBS
Professional, PBS and Portable Batch System are trademarks of ALTAIR ENGINEERING INC., as
is patent # 6,859,792. All are protected under U.S. and international laws and treaties. All other marks
are the property of their respective owners.
Table of Contents
OptiStruct Optimization
Analysis, Concept and Optimization
Table of Contents.................................................................................................................... II
Chapter 1: Introduction ............................................................................................ 1
1 HyperWorks Overview ............................................................................................... 1
1.1 HyperWorks Tool Descriptions ............................................................................... 2
1.2 OptiStruct Integration with HyperWorks .................................................................. 4
2 OptiStruct Overview .................................................................................................. 5
2.1 Finite Element Analysis .......................................................................................... 5
2.2 Multibody Dynamic Analysis .................................................................................. 6
2.3 Structural Design and Optimization ........................................................................ 6
2.4 Case Studies .......................................................................................................... 9
2.4.1 Lightweight SUV Frame Development ................................................................. 9
2.4.2 Optimization Process of a Torsion Link.............................................................. 10
Chapter 2: Theoretical Background...................................................................... 11
1 Optimization ............................................................................................................ 11
1.1 Design Variable .................................................................................................... 12
1.2 Response ............................................................................................................. 13
1.2.1 Subcase Independent Response ....................................................................... 13
1.3 Objective Function ................................................................................................ 20
1.4 Constraint Functions............................................................................................. 21
2 Gradientbased Optimization ................................................................................... 23
2.1 Gradient Method................................................................................................... 24
2.2 Sensitivity Analysis ............................................................................................... 25
2.3 Move Limit Adjustments ....................................................................................... 29
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2.4 Constraint Screening ............................................................................................ 29
2.4.1 Regions and Their Purpose ............................................................................... 31
2.5 Discrete Design Variables .................................................................................... 32
Chapter 3: HyperMesh Optimization Interface ..................................................... 33
1 Model Definition Structure ....................................................................................... 33
1.1 Input/Output Section ............................................................................................. 34
1.2 Subcase Information Section ................................................................................ 37
1.3 Bulk Data Section ................................................................................................. 37
2 Optimization Setup .................................................................................................. 38
2.1 Optimization GUI .................................................................................................. 38
2.2 Design Variable [ DTPL] ....................................................................................... 39
2.3 Responses [DRESP1] .......................................................................................... 40
2.4 Dconstraints [DCONSTR] ..................................................................................... 41
2.5 Obj. reference [DOBJREF] ................................................................................... 42
2.6 Objective [DESOBJ] ............................................................................................. 43
2.7 Table entries [DTABLE] ........................................................................................ 44
2.8 Dequations [DEQATN] ......................................................................................... 45
2.9 Discrete dvs [DDVAL] ........................................................................................... 46
2.10 Opti. control [DOPTPRM] ................................................................................... 47
2.11 Constr. Screen [DSCREEN] ............................................................................... 47
3 How to Setup an Optimization in HyperMesh .......................................................... 48
Chapter 4: Concept Design ................................................................................... 53
1 Topology Optimization ............................................................................................ 53
1.1 Homogenization method....................................................................................... 54
1.2 Density method .................................................................................................... 54
Exercise 4.1 Topology Optimization of a Hook with Stress Constraints ...................... 57
Exercise 4.2 Topology Optimization of a Control Arm................................................. 65
III
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Exercise 4.3: Pattern Repetition using Topology Optimization....................................... 71
2 Topography Optimization ........................................................................................ 79
2.1 Design Variables for Topography Optimization ..................................................... 79
2.1.1 Variable Generation........................................................................................... 80
2.1.2 Multiple Topography Design Regions ................................................................ 81
Exercise 4.4 Topography Optimization of a Slider Suspension ................................... 83
3 Freesize Optimization............................................................................................. 89
Exercise 4.5 Freesize optimization of Finite Plate with hole ...................................... 93
4 Design Interpretation  OSSmooth ......................................................................... 101
4.1 OSSmooth Input Data ........................................................................................ 103
4.2 Running OSSmooth ........................................................................................... 105
4.3 Interpretation of Topography Optimization Results ............................................. 106
4.4 Shape Optimization Results, Surface Reduction and Surface Smoothing........... 107
Exercise 4.6 OSSmooth surfaces from a topologic optimization ............................... 109
Chapter 5: FineTuning ........................................................................................ 111
1 Size Optimization .................................................................................................. 111
1.1 Design Variables for Size Optimization ............................................................... 112
Exercise 5.1 Size Optimization of a Rail Joint........................................................... 113
Exercise 5.2 Discrete Size Optimization of a Welded Bracket .................................. 123
2 Shape Optimization ............................................................................................... 131
2.1 Design Variables for Shape Optimization ........................................................... 132
2.2 HyperMorph ....................................................................................................... 133
2.2.1 The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing ....................................................... 133
Exercise 5.3 Cantilever Lbeam Shape Optimization ................................................ 135
Exercise 5.4 Shape Optimization of a Rail Joint ....................................................... 143
3 Freeshape Optimization ....................................................................................... 161
3.1 Defining Freeshape Design Regions ................................................................. 161
3.2 Freeshape Parameters...................................................................................... 163
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3.2.1 Direction type .................................................................................................. 163
3.2.2 Move factor ..................................................................................................... 164
3.2.3 Number of layers for mesh smoothing ............................................................. 164
3.2.4 Maximum shrinkage and growth ...................................................................... 165
3.2.5 Constraints on Grids in the Design Region ...................................................... 166
Exercise 5.5 Freeshape optimization Compressor Bracket ..................................... 169
Exercise 5.6  Shape Optimization of a 3D Bracket using the Freeshape Method .... 177
Appendix A ........................................................................................................... 187
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Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 1
Introduction
1 HyperWorks Overview
HyperWorks, A Platform for Innovation, is an enterprise simulation solution for rapid
design exploration and decisionmaking. As one of the most comprehensive CAE solutions
in the industry, HyperWorks provides a tightly integrated suite of bestinclass tools for:
o
Modeling
Analysis
Optimization
Visualization
Reporting
Performance data management.
Based on a revolutionary payforuse tokenbased business model, HyperWorks delivers
increased value and flexibility over other software licensing models.
Below we list the applications that are part of HyperWorks, for extra information about them
go to www.altairhyperworks.com web page or go to HyperWorks online documentation.
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Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 HyperWorks Tool Descriptions
Finite Element Meshing and Modeling
HyperMesh
Universal finite element pre and postprocessor
HyperCrash
Finite element preprocessor for automotive crash and
safety analysis
BatchMesher
Geometry cleanup and automeshing in batch mode for
given CAD files
Multibody Dynamics Modeling
MotionView
Multibody dynamics pre and postprocessor
Solvers
RADIOSS
Finite element solver for linear and nonlinear problems
MotionSolve
Multibody dynamics solver
OptiStruct
Design and optimization software using finite elements
and multibody dynamics
Postprocessing and Data Analysis
HyperView
High performance finite element and mechanical
system postprocessor, engineering plotter, and data
analysis tool
HyperGraph
Engineering plotter and data analysis tool
HyperGraph 3D
Engineering 3D plotter and data analysis tool
HyperView Player
Viewer for visualizing 3D CAE results via the Internet
or desktop
Study and Optimization
HyperStudy
Integrated optimization, DOE, and robustness engine
Data Management and Process Automation
Altair Data Manager
A solution that organizes, manages, and stores CAE
and test data throughout the product design cycle
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Chapter 1: Introduction
Process Manager
Process automation tool for HyperWorks and third
party software; Processes can be created with the help
of Process Studio.
Assembler
A tool that enables CAE analysts to manage, organize,
and control their CAE mesh data
Manufacturing Environments
Manufacturing Solutions
A unified environment for manufacturing process
simulation, analysis, and design optimization
HyperForm
A unique finite element based sheet metal forming
simulation software solution
HyperXtrude
An hpadaptive finite element program that enables
engineers to analyze material flow and heat transfer
problems in extrusion and rolling applications
Molding
Provides a highly efficient and customized environment
for setting up models for injection molding simulation
with Moldflow
Forging
Provides a highly efficient and customized environment
for setting up models for complex threedimensional
forging simulation with DEFOM3D
Friction Stir Welding
Provides an efficient interface for setting up models
and analyzing friction stir welding with the HyperXtrude
Solver
HyperWorks Results Mapper
Process Managerbased tool that provides a
framework to initialize a structural model with results
from a forming simulation
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Chapter 1: Introduction
1.2 OptiStruct Integration with HyperWorks
OptiStruct is part of the HyperWorks toolkit, as described early this is a design and
optimization software that is based on finite element and multibody dynamics modeling of
the structure or mechanical system. Analysis results are provided by RADIOSS analysis
capabilities and the integration with MotionSolve.
The solvers consist of loosely integrated executables (see picture below). To the user the
integration is seamless thru the run script provided. Based on the file naming convention the
right executable or combination of executables is chosen.
Solver Overview
The preprocessing for OptiStruct is made using HyperMesh and the postprocessing using
HyperView and HyperGraph. HyperStudy is another HyperWorks tool that can be used
with OptiStruct for Robust design, DOE and Optimization.
During the next sections the HyperWorks integration with OptiStruct will be showed in detail,
and for more about it the user should go to our online documentation.
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Chapter 1: Introduction
2 OptiStruct Overview
OptiStruct is a finite element and multibody dynamics software which can be used
to design and optimize structures and mechanical systems. OptiStruct uses the
analysis capabilities of RADIOSS and MotionSolve to compute responses for
optimization.
The graphical interface for OptiStruct within HyperWorks allows you to perform complete
modeling, optimization problem setup, job submission, and postprocessing quickly and
easily.
2.1 Finite Elements Analysis
Different solution sequences are available for the analysis of structures and structural
components, these include:
Basic analysis features
Linear static analysis.
Normal modes analysis.
Linear buckling analysis.
Thermalstress steady state analysis
Advanced analysis features
Frequency response function (FRF) analysis
o
Direct
Modal
Random response analysis
Transient response analysis
Direct
Modal
Transient response analysis based on the Fourier method
o
Direct
Modal
Nonlinear contact analysis
Acoustic Analysis (Structure and Fluid)
Fatigue Analysis (N and N)
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Chapter 1: Introduction
Inertia relief analysis is available with static, frequency response, transient response, and
nonlinear gap analyses. All standard finite element types are available. All elements fulfill
the usual patch tests as well as the full suite of MacNealHarder tests. OptiStruct can be
used as a standalone finite element solver and it provides multithreaded solutions on multiprocessor computers.
2.2 Multibody Dynamics Analysis
Different solution sequences for the analysis of mechanical systems are available. These
include:
o
Kinematics
Dynamics
Static
Quasistatic
Systems with rigid and flexible bodies can be analyzed. Flexible bodies can be derived from
any finite element model defined in OptiStruct. The multibody solution sequence is the
implemented as an integration of Altair MotionSolve.
Multibody dynamics is an advanced analysis feature.
2.3  Structural Design and Optimization
Structural design tools include topology, topography and free sizing optimization. For
structural optimization sizing, shape and free shape optimization are available.
In the formulation of design and optimization problems the following responses can be
applied as objective or constraints: Compliance, frequency, volume, mass, moments of
inertia, center of gravity, displacements, velocities, accelerations, buckling factor, stresses,
strains, composite failure, forces, synthetic responses, and external (user defined) functions.
Static, inertia relief, nonlinear gap, normal modes, buckling, and frequency response
solutions can be included in a multidisciplinary optimization setup.
Topology: is a mathematical technique that optimized the material distribution for a
structure within a given package space
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Chapter 1: Introduction
Topologic optimization of a control arm
Topography: Topography optimization is an advanced form of shape optimization in which
a design region for a given part is defined and a pattern of shape variablebased
reinforcements within that region is generated using OptiStruct.
Topographic optimization of a plate
Free Size: is a mathematical technique that produces an optimized thickness distribution
per element for a 2D structure.
Freesize optimization (Laminate total thickness)
Shape: is an automated way to modify the structure shape based on predefined shape
variables to find the optimal shape.
Cantilever beam Shape optimization
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Chapter 1: Introduction
Size: is an automated way to modify the structure parameters (Thickness, 1D properties,
material properties, etc) to find the optimal design.
Size optimization (shell thickness and material properties)
Gauge: is a particular case of size, where the DV are 2D props (Pshell or Pcomp)
Free Shape: is an automated way to modify the structure shape based on set of nodes that
can move totally free on the boundary to find the optimal shape.
Freeshape optimization result for a cantilever beam
Composite shuffle: is an automated way to determine the optimum laminate stack
sequence. DVs are the plies sequence of stacking. It is used for composite material only
defined using PCOMP(G) or PCOMPP.
Laminate stack sequence optimization using composite shuffle
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Chapter 1: Introduction
Topology, topography, freesize, size, shape and freeshape optimization can be combined
in a general problem formulation.
All these optimizations methods will be discussed in detail on the next chapters.
2.4 Case Studies
2.4.1 Lightweight SUV Frame Development
OptiStruct Application
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Chapter 1: Introduction
2.4.2 Optimization Process of a Torsion Link
OptiStruct Application
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Chapter 2: Theoretical Background
Chapter 2
Theoretical Background
1 Optimization
Optimization can be defined as the automatic process to make a system or
component as good as possible based on an objective function and subject to certain design
constraints. There are many different methods or algorithms that can be used to optimize a
structure, on OptiStruct is implemented some algorithms based on Gradient Method, this
method will be discussed in detail later on this book.
Models used in optimization are classified in various ways, such as linear versus
nonlinear, static versus dynamic, deterministic versus stochastic, or permanent versus
transient. Then it is very important that the user include apriori all of the important aspects
of the problem, so that they will be taken into account during the solution.
Mathematically an optimization problem can be stated as:
Objective Function:
0(p) min(max)
Subject to constraint Functions:
i(p) 0
Design Space:
pl pj pu where l is the lower bound and u is
the upper bound on the design
variables
(target)
where:
0(p) and i(p) represent the system responses or a target value for system
identification study, and pj represents the vector of design variables
(p1,p2,,pn).
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Chapter 2: Theoretical Background
1.1 Design Variable
Design Variables or DVs are system parameters that can vary to optimize system
performance. For OptiStruct the type of parameter or DV defines the optimization type:
o
TOPOLOGY:
is a mathematical technique that optimized the
material distribution for a structure within a given
package space. DVs are defined as a fictitious density
for each element, and these values are varied from 0
to 1 to optimize the material distribution.
TOPOGRAPHY:
Topography optimization is an advanced form of
shape optimization in which a design region for a
given part is defined and a pattern of shape variablebased reinforcements within that region is generated
using OptiStruct
FREESIZE:
This is a special method designed by Altair to optimize
2D structure where the design variables are the
thickness of each element. This method is very useful
for aerospace structures where shear panels are
preferable to truss structures.
SHAPE:
is an automated way to modify the structure shape
based on predefined shape variables to find the
optimal shape. DVs are used to modify the geometry
shape of the component, on HyperMesh it is used
HyperMorph to define this parameter.
SIZE:
is an automated way to modify the structure
parameters to find the optimal design. DVs are any
Scalar parameter (Thickness, 1D properties, material
properties, etc) that affects the system response.
GAUGE:
Particular case of size optimization when the DV are
PSHELL thickness.
FREESHAPE:
is an automated way to modify the structure shape
based on set of nodes that can move totally free on
the boundary to find the optimal shape. DVs are
defined based a set of nodes.
COMPOSITE SHUFFLE: is an automated way to determine the optimum
laminate stack sequence. DVs are the plies sequence
of stacking. It is used for composite material only
defined using PCOMP(G) or PCOMPP.
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Chapter 2: Theoretical Background
1.2 Response
Response for OptiStruct is any value or function that is dependent of the Design
Variable and is evaluated during the solution.
OptiStruct allows the use of numerous structural responses, calculated in a finite
element analysis, or combinations of these responses to be used as objective and constraint
functions in a structural optimization.
Responses are defined using DRESP1 bulk data entries. Combinations of
responses are defined using either DRESP2 entries, which reference an equation defined
by a DEQATN bulk data entry, or DRESP3 entries, which make use of userdefined external
routines identified by the LOADLIB I/O option. Responses are either global or subcase
(loadstep, load case) related. The character of a response determines whether or not a
constraint or objective referencing that particular response needs to be referenced within a
subcase.
1.2.1  Subcase Independent Response
o
Mass, Volume [ mass, volume]
Both are global responses that can be defined for the whole structure, for
individual properties (components) and materials, or for groups of
properties (components) and materials.
Fraction of mass, Fraction of design volume [ massfrac, volumefrac]
Both are global responses with values between 0.0 and 1.0. They describe
a fraction of the initial design space in a topology optimization. They can be
defined for the whole structure, for individual properties (components) and
materials, or for groups of properties (components) and materials.
Vi D
Vf = D
V0
where:
Vf : Volume fraction
Vi D : Designable volume at current iteration;
V0D : Initial Designable volume;
Mi
M0
Mf =
where:
Mf : Mass fraction
Mi : Total mass at current iteration;
M0 : Total Initial mass;
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Chapter 2: Theoretical Background
If, in addition to the topology optimization, a size and shape optimization is
performed, the reference value (the initial design volume in the case of
volume fraction, or initial total mass in the case of mass fraction) is not
altered by size and shape changes. This can, on occasion, lead to
negative values for these responses. If size and shape optimization is
involved, it is recommended to use Mass or Volume responses instead of
Mass Fraction or Volume Fraction, respectively.
In order to constrain the volume fraction for a region containing a number of
properties (components), a DRESP2 equation needs to be defined to sum
the volume of these properties (components), otherwise, the constraint is
assumed to apply to each individual property (component) within the region.
This can be avoided by having all properties (components) use the same
material and applying the volume fraction constraint to that material.
These responses can only be applied to topology design domains.
OptiStruct will terminate with an error if this is not the case.
o
Center of gravity [ cog ]
This is a global response that may be defined for the whole structure, for
individual properties (components) and materials, or for groups of
properties (components) and materials.
Moments of inertia
[ inertia ]
This is a global response that may be defined for the whole structure, for
individual properties (components) and materials, or for groups of
properties (components) and materials.
o
Weighted compliance
[ weighted comp ]
The weighted compliance is a method used to consider multiple subcases
(loadsteps, load cases) in a classical topology optimization. The response
is the weighted sum of the compliance of each individual subcase
(loadstep, load case).
CW = wiCi =
1
wi uTi fi
2
This is a global response that is defined for the whole structure.
o
Weighted reciprocal eigenvalue (frequency)
[ weighted freq ]
The weighted reciprocal eigenvalue is a method to consider multiple
frequencies in a classical topology optimization. The response is the
weighted sum of the reciprocal eigenvalues of each individual mode
considered in the optimization.
fw =
wi
with [K i M ]ui = 0
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Chapter 2: Theoretical Background
This is done so that increasing the frequencies of the lower modes will have
a larger effect on the objective function than increasing the frequencies of
the higher modes. If the frequencies of all modes were simply added
together, OptiStruct would put more effort into increasing the higher modes
than the lower modes. This is a global response that is defined for the
whole structure.
o
Combined compliance index
[ compliance index ]
The combined compliance index is a method to consider multiple
frequencies and static subcases (loadsteps, load cases) combined in a
classical topology optimization. The index is defined as follows
wj
S = wiCi + NORM
This is a global response that is defined for the whole structure.
The normalization factor, NORM, is used for normalizing the contributions
of compliances and eigenvalues. A typical structural compliance value is of
the order of 1.0e4 to 1.0e6. However, a typical inverse eigenvalue is on the
order of 1.0e5. If NORM is not used, the linear static compliance
requirements dominate the solution.
The quantity NORM is typically computed using the formula
NF = Cmax min
where Cmax is the highest compliance value in all subcases (loadsteps, load
cases) and min is the lowest eigenvalue included in the index.
In a new design problem, the user may not have a close estimate for
NORM. If this happens, OptiStruct automatically computes the NORM
value based on compliances and eigenvalues computed in the first iteration
step.
o
Von Mises stress in a topology or freesize optimization
Von Mises stress constraints may be defined for topology and freesize
optimization through the STRESS optional continuation line on the DTPL or
the DSIZE card. There are a number of restrictions with this constraint:
o
The definition of stress constraints is limited to a single von Mises
permissible stress. The phenomenon of singular topology is
pronounced when different materials with different permissible
stresses exist in a structure. Singular topology refers to the
problem associated with the conditional nature of stress
constraints, i.e. the stress constraint of an element disappears
when the element vanishes. This creates another problem in that
a huge number of reduced problems exist with solutions that
cannot usually be found by a gradientbased optimizer in the full
design space.
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Chapter 2: Theoretical Background
Stress constraints for a partial domain of the structure are not
allowed because they often create an illposed optimization
problem since elimination of the partial domain would remove all
stress constraints. Consequently, the stress constraint applies to
the entire model when active, including both design and nondesign regions, and stress constraint settings must be identical for
all DSIZE and DTPL cards.
The capability has builtin intelligence to filter out artificial stress
concentrations around point loads and point boundary conditions.
Stress concentrations due to boundary geometry are also filtered
to some extent as they can be improved more effectively with local
shape optimization.
Due to the large number of elements with active stress
constraints, no element stress report is given in the table of
retained constraints in the .out file. The iterative history of the
stress state of the model can be viewed in HyperView or
HyperMesh.
Stress constraints do not apply to 1D elements.
Stress constraints may not be used when enforced displacements
are present in the model.
[ beadfrac ]
Bead discreteness fraction
This is a global response for topography design domains. This response
indicates the amount of shape variation for one or more topography design
domains. The response varies in the range 0.0 to 1.0 (0.0 < BEADFRAC <
1.0), where 0.0 indicates that no shape variation has occurred, and 1.0
indicates that the entire topography design domain has assumed the
maximum allowed shape variation.
Static Subcase
o
Static compliance
[ compliance ]
The compliance C is calculated using the following relationship:
C=
1 T
u f
2
with Ku = f
or
C=
1 T
1
u Ku = Tdv
2
2V
The compliance is the strain energy of the structure and can be considered
a reciprocal measure for the stiffness of the structure. It can be defined for
the whole structure, for individual properties (components) and materials, or
for groups of properties (components) and materials. The compliance must
be assigned to a static subcase (loadstep, load case).
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Chapter 2: Theoretical Background
In order to constrain the compliance for a region containing a number of
properties (components), a DRESP2 equation needs to be defined to sum
the compliance of these properties (components), otherwise, the constraint
is assumed to apply to each individual property (component) within the
region. This can be avoided by having all properties (components) use the
same material and applying the compliance constraint to that material.
o
Static displacement
[ static displacement ]
Displacements are the result of a linear static analysis. Nodal
displacements can be selected as a response. They can be selected as
vector components or as absolute measures. They must be assigned to a
static subcase (loadstep, load case).
o
Static stress of homogeneous material
[ static stress ]
Different stress types can be defined as responses. They are defined for
components, properties, or elements. Element stresses are used, and
constraint screening is applied. It is also not possible to define static stress
constraints in a topology design space (see above). This is a static
subcase (loadstep, load case) related response.
o
Static strain of homogeneous material
[ static strain ]
Different strain types can be defined as responses. They are defined for
components, properties, or elements. Element strains are used, and
constraint screening is applied. It is also not possible to define strain
constraints in a topology design space. This is a subcase (loadstep, load
case) related response.
o
Static stress of composite layup
[ composite stress ]
Different composite stress types can be defined as responses. They are
defined for PCOMP components or elements. Ply level results are used,
and constraint screening is applied. It is also not possible to define
composite stress constraints in a topology design space. This is a subcase
(loadstep, load case) related response.
o
Static strain of composite layup
[ composite strain ]
Different composite strain types can be defined as responses. They are
defined for PCOMP components or elements. Ply level results are used,
and constraint screening is applied. It is also not possible to define
composite strain constraints in a topology design space. This is a subcase
(loadstep, load case) related response.
o
Static failure in a composite layup
[composite failure ]
Different composite failure criterion can be defined as responses. They are
defined for PCOMP components or elements. Ply level results are used,
and constraint screening is applied. It is also not possible to define
composite failure criterion constraints in a topology design space. This is a
subcase (loadstep, load case) related response.
o
Static force
[ static force ]
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Different force types can be defined as responses. They are defined for
components, properties, or elements. Constraint screening is applied. It is
also not possible to define force constraints in a topology design space.
This is a static subcase (loadstep, load case) related response.
Normal Modes Subcase
o
Frequency
[ frequency ]
Natural frequencies are the result of a normal modes analysis, and must be
assigned to the normal modes subcase (loadstep, load case).
Buckling Subcase
o
Buckling factor [ buckling ]
The buckling factor is the result of a buckling analysis, and must be
assigned to a buckling subcase (loadstep, load case). A typical buckling
constraint is a lower bound of 1.0, indicating that the structure is not to
buckle with the given static load. It is recommended to constrain the
buckling factor for several of the lower modes, not just of the first mode.
Frequency Response Subcase
o
Frequency response displacement
[ frf displacement ]
Displacements are the result of a frequency response analysis. Nodal
displacements can be selected as a response. They can be selected as
vector components in real/imaginary or magnitude/phase form. They must
be assigned to a frequency response subcase (loadstep, load case).
o
Frequency response velocity
[ frf velocity ]
Velocities are the result of a frequency response analysis. Nodal velocities
can be selected as a response. They can be selected as vector
components in real/imaginary or magnitude/phase form. They must be
assigned to a frequency response subcase (loadstep, load case).
o
Frequency response acceleration
[ frf acceleration ]
Accelerations are the result of a frequency response analysis. Nodal
accelerations can be selected as a response. They can be selected as
vector components in real/imaginary or magnitude/phase form. They must
be assigned to a frequency response subcase (loadstep, load case).
o
Frequency response stress
[ frf stress ]
Different stress types can be defined as responses. They are defined for
components, properties, or elements. Element stresses are not used in
real/imaginary or magnitude/phase form, and constraint screening is
applied. It is not possible to define stress constraints in a topology design
space. This is a frequency response subcase (loadstep, load case) related
response.
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Frequency response strain
[ frf strain ]
Different strain types can be defined as responses. They are defined for
components, properties, or elements. Element strains are used in
real/imaginary or magnitude/phase form, and constraint screening is
applied. It is not possible to define strain constraints in a topology design
space. This is a frequency response subcase (loadstep, load case) related
response.
o
Frequency response force [ frf force ]
Different force types can be defined as responses. They are defined for
components, properties, or elements in real/imaginary or magnitude/phase
form. Constraint screening is applied. It is also not possible to define force
constraints in a topology design space. This is a frequency response
subcase (loadstep, load case) related response.
All FRF responses can be output as:
All freq
All evaluated points on the freq range. Vector = {
Freq =
Argument value on a specific frequency f. Scalar =
yi }
y( f )
sum
Sum of all arguments. Scalar
= yi
i =1
= yi / m
avg
Average of all arguments. Scalar
ssq
Sum of square of the arguments. Scalar
i =1
= yi2
i =1
rss
max
min
Square root of sum of squares of the arguments. Scalar
y
i =1
max ( yi )
Minimum value of arguments. Scalar = min( y i )
Maximum value of arguments. Scalar =
maxabs
m
= yi / m
i =1
Maximum of absolute value of arguments. Scalar = max ( y i )
minabs
Minimum of absolute value of arguments. Scalar =
sumabs
Sum of absolute value of arguments. Scalar
avgabs
2
i
Average of absolute value of arguments. Scalar
min( yi
= yi
i =1
Fatigue
[ fatigue ]
It is the life or damage evaluated in a fatigue sequence for a group of
elements or properties.
o
Function
[ function ]
It is a generic equation defined using the dequations panel [DEQATN].
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1.3 Objective Function
The Objective function is a model response to be maximized or minimized.
There are two ways to specify an objective in OptiStruct. Either a single response
can be minimized or maximized or you can choose to minimize the maximum value, or
maximize the minimum value, of a number of normalized responses.
In the first instance, where a single response is defined as the objective, a DESOBJ
card must be included in the Subcase Information Section of the input file. The DESOBJ
card references a response, (DRESP1 or DRESP2), which is defined in the Bulk Data
Section of the input file. If the response, to which the DESOBJ card refers, is associated
with a single subcase, the DESOBJ card must be placed within that subcase definition. If
the response is associated with more than one subcase, the DESOBJ card must appear
before the first SUBCASE statement.
Example: Objective is to minimize the value of the response with ID 1.
DESOBJ(MIN) = 1
The second instance, where the objective references multiple responses, requires
DOBJREF bulk data entries and MINMAX or MAXMIN subcase information entries. The
DOBJREF cards reference responses (DRESP1 or DRESP2) and provide positive and
negative reference values for these responses. Multiple DOBJREF cards may occur in the
input file and they may or may not use the same Design Objective IDs. The reference
values allow for normalization of different responses. The value of the response is divided
by the appropriate reference value. When the value of the response is positive, the positive
reference value is used. When the value of the response is negative, the negative reference
value is used.
The MINMAX or MAXMIN cards reference the DOBJREF cards. If all DOBJREF
cards use the same DOID, only one occurrence of MAXMIN or MINMAX is required. If
different DOIDs are used on the DOBJREF cards, multiple occurrences of MINMAX and
MAXMIN cards may be required, but a MINMAX statement cannot appear in the same input
file as a MAXMIN statement. MINMAX or MAXMIN statements must appear before the first
SUBCASE statement.
Example: Objective is to minimize the maximum of all DOBJREF's with DOID 1 and
DOID 2.
MINMAX = 1
MINMAX = 2
Example: Design objective for MINMAX (MAXMIN) problems  DOID 1  references design
response 10 in subcase 2  negative reference value = 1.0, positive reference value = 1.0.
$(1)$(2)$(3)$(4)$(5)$(6)$(7)
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DOBJREF
10
1.0
1.0
1.4 Constraint Functions
On all almost every engineering design there are constraints that need to be
satisfied. These constraints can be defined as a lower bound or an upper bound on any
response that is dependent of the design variable. To better understand it lets proposal a
model where there are 3 constraints.
A cantilever beam loaded with force F=24000 N. Where the crosssection
parameters: Width b[20,40] and height h[30,90] can vary on their range to minimize the beam
weight, subject to these constraint:
1) Max normal stress can not exceed the max value,
2) Max shear stress can not exceed the max and
3) Height h should not be larger than twice the width b.
Mathematically this problem can be stated as:
Objective:
min Weight(b,h)
Design Variables:
bL < b < bU,
20 < b < 40
hL < h < hU,
30 < h < 90
Design Constraints:
(b,h) = 6F/(bh2) max,
with
max = 70 MPa
(b,h) =F/(bh) max,
with
max = 15 MPa
h 2*b
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This problem can be described graphically as showed below:
h (mm)
BEAM
100.0
90.0
80.0
70.0
60.0
50.0
40.0
30.0
20.0
10.0
0.0
0.00
=70
=15
< 15
FEASIBLE
DOMAIN
>70
<70
OPTIMUM
W = 11
> 15
W=9
W=7
UNFEASIBLE
DOMAIN
10.00
20.00
30.00
W=5
40.00
50.00
b (mm)
Cantilever beam problem (Optimum (b=24.9, h=64.3) W = 8).
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2 Gradientbased Optimization
OptiStruct uses an iterative procedure known as the local approximation method to
solve the optimization problem. This approach is based on the assumption that only small
changes occur in the design with each optimization step. The result is a local minimum.
The biggest changes occur in the first few optimization steps and, as a result, not many
system analyses are necessary in practical applications.
The design sensitivity analysis of the structural responses (with respect to the design
variables) is one of the most important ingredients to take the step from a simple design
variation to a computational optimization.
The design update is computed using the solution of an approximate optimization
problem, which is established using the sensitivity information. OptiStruct has three different
methods implemented: the optimality criteria method, a dual method, and a primal feasible
directions method. The latter are both based on a convex linearization of the design space.
Advanced approximation methods are used.
The optimality criteria method is used for classical topology optimization formulations
using minimum compliance (reciprocal frequency, weighted compliance, weighted reciprocal
frequency, compliance index) with a mass (volume) or mass (volume) fraction constraint.
The dual or primal methods are used depending upon the number of constraints and
design variables. The dual method is of advantage if the number of design variables
exceeds the number of constraints (common in topology and topography optimization). The
primal method is used in the opposite case, which is more common in size and shape
optimizations. However, the choice is made automatically by OptiStruct.
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2.1 Gradient Method
This is an optimization algorithm that can be called Gradient descent method, or just
Gradient Method. It is used to find a minimum of a function using the gradient value; the
algorithm can be described as:
1. Start from a X0 point
2. Evaluate the function F(Xi) and the gradient of the function F(Xi) at the Xi.
3. Determine the next point using the negative gradient direction: Xi+1 = Xi  F(Xi).
4.
Repeat the step 2 to 3 until the function converged to the minimum.
The picture below shows how this work:
X0
X1
X2
X3
This is a very simplified overview of this method, if the user needs more information it can be
found on any Optimization text book
Gradientbased methods are effective when the sensitivities (derivatives) of the
system responses, with respect to the design variables, can be computed easily and
inexpensively.
The local approximation method is best suited to situations where:
Design Sensitivity Analysis (DSA) is available.
The method is applied to linear static and dynamic problems integrated mostly with
FEA Solvers (i. e. OptiStruct).
Gradientbased methods depend on the sensitivity of the system responses with
respect to changes in design variables in order to understand the effect of the design
changes and optimize the system.
For linear structural analysis codes, you can implement the derivatives of the
structural responses using either finite difference or analytical methods (such as the Adjoint
Method). Here, the responses are written as explicit algebraic equations with the needed
continuity requirements and are easily differentiable.
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For example, using first order finite difference method, you can calculate the gradient
of i(p) as:
In finite element based structural optimization, you can state the linear static
equation as KU = F, where K is the stiffness matrix and U is the displacement vector to be
determined, and F is the applied force vector. Differentiating this with respect to the design
variable X yields the following:
Rearranging terms gives the following equation:
You can obtain gradients of stresses and strains, etc, by chain rule differentiation.
2.2 Sensitivity Analysis
The response quantity, g, is calculated from the displacements as:
The sensitivity of this response with respect to the design variable x, or the gradient
of the response, is:
Two approaches to sensitivity analysis, the Direct and Adjoint variable method are
possible. Given the equation of motion:
and its derivative with respect to design variable x,
one can calculate the sensitivity of the displacement vector u as:
Using this equation, the largest cost in the calculation of the response gradient is the
forwardbackward substitution required for the calculation of the derivative of the
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displacement vector with respect to the design variable. This is called the direct method.
One forwardbackward substitution is required for each design variable.
If constraints are active in more than one load case, and the load is a function of the
design variable (say body force or pressure loads for shape optimization), then the set of
forwardbackward substitutions must be performed for each active load case. If the loads
are not a function of the design variables, but there are active load cases with multiple
boundary conditions, then the set of forwardbackward substitutions must be performed for
each active boundary condition.
For the Adjoint variable method of sensitivity analysis, the vector (adjoint variable) a
is introduced, which is calculated as:
Then the derivative of the constraint can be calculated as:
When the adjoint variable method for sensitivity analysis is used, a single forwardbackward substitution is needed for each retained constraint. This forwardbackward
substitution is needed to calculate the vector a.
There are typically a small number of design variables in shape and size optimization
(say 5 to 50) and a large number of constraints. The large number of constraints comes
from stress constraints. If there are 20,000 elements, each with a single stress constraint,
and 10 load cases, there are a total of 200,000 possible stress constraints.
There are typically a large number of design variables in topology optimization
(between 1 and 3 per element) and a small number of constraints. Because stress
constraints are not usually considered in topology optimization, it makes sense that the
Adjoint variable method of sensitivity analysis be used for topology optimization (in order to
reduce computational costs).
For shape and sizing optimization, it is often beneficial to use the Direct method for
sensitivity analysis. However, in some cases, when there are a large number of design
variables and a small number of constraints, the adjoint variable method should be used.
For example, in a topography optimization, the number of constraints that gradients need to
be calculated for can be reduced using constraint screening. With constraint screening,
constraints that are not close to being violated are ignored. Only constraints that are
violated, or nearly violated, are retained. Also, if there are many stress constraints that are
retained in a small region of the structure, say at a stress concentration, only a few of the
most critical need to be retained.
The sensitivities of responses with respect to design variables can be exported to an
Excel spreadsheet (see OUTPUT, MSSENS) or plotted in HyperGraph (See OUTPUT,
HGSENS). For contouring in HyperView, the sensitivities of topology and gauge design
variables can be exported to H3D format. (See OUTPUT, H3DTOPOL and OUTPUT,
H3DGAUGE, respectively).
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The Excel spreadsheet allows the modification of design variables and then
computes approximated responses. This can be used to make design studies without
running OptiStruct again. See the image below.
Example spreadsheet output showing that modification of field C10 yields approximate results in
the lower right of the spreadsheet, identified by a border surround here.
File Creation
This file is only created when size or shape optimization is performed. Output of this
file is controlled by the SENSITIVITY and SENSOUT I/O options.
File Format
The only values that can be changed in this file are those listed in the "New" column.
All other values are either fixed or their calculation is fixed. When the .slk file is created, the
values in the "New" column match those in the "Reference" column. These values may be
adjusted, but should always remain within the design variable's bounds.
Each size and shape design variable in the model is listed in the lefthand column of
the sensitivity table. Information concerning a particular design variable is given in the row
where its label is listed. The current value and the upper and lower bounds of the design
variables are given in the columns, "Reference," "Lower," and "Upper" respectively.
Each referenced response in the model has its own column. These response
columns are on the righthand side of the sensitivity table. The calculated sensitivity of a
response to changes in a design variable at the current iteration is given in the row
corresponding to that design variable and the column corresponding to that response.
Beneath the list of design variables, in the lefthand column, are the headings
"Response lower bound," "Response reference," and "Response upper bound". If a
response is constrained, the constraint value will be given in either the "Response lower
bound" or the "Response upper bound" row of the column corresponding to that response.
The value given in the "Response reference" row is the calculated value of the response
using the design variable reference values.
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At the bottom of the lefthand column are the headings: "Response linear," "Response
reciprocal," and "Response conservative". The response values in these rows are the
predicted values of the responses for three different approximations. Initially, these values
will match one another and the "Response reference" value for each response. This is
because these are the predicted values of the response at the given variable settings, which
initially are the same settings used to calculate the "Response reference" value. Once the
design variable values in the "New" column are altered, these values will change.
The "Response linear" row predicts the response value using linear approximation. This is
calculated as:
where:
R1
is the predicted response value.
R0
is the response reference value.
v1, v 2,..., vn
v10 , v 2 0 ,..., vn0
dR dR
dR
,
,...,
dv1 dv 2
dvn
are the new values of the design variables.
are the reference values of the design variables.
are the sensitivities of the response to the design variables.
The "Response reciprocal" row predicts the response value using reciprocal
approximation. This is calculated as:
where:
R1
is the predicted response value.
R0
is the response reference value.
v1, v 2,..., vn
v10 , v 2 0 ,..., vn0
dR dR
dR
,
,...,
dv1 dv 2
dvn
are the new values of the design variables.
are the reference values of the design variables.
are the sensitivities of the response to the design variables.
The "Response conservative" row predicts the response value using a combination
of the above approximations where linear approximation is used, when the sensitivity is
positive, and reciprocal approximation is used when the sensitivity is negative. Therefore, if
all sensitivities are positive, the conservative prediction will match the linear prediction. If all
sensitivities are negative, it will match the reciprocal prediction, but if there is a mixture of
positive and negative sensitivities for a given response then the conservative prediction will
match neither the linear nor the reciprocal prediction.
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The normalized values simply show the predicted response as a fraction of the response
reference value.
2.3  Move Limit Adjustments
As the design moves away from its initial point in the approximate
optimization problem, the approximate values become less accurate. This can lead
to slow overall convergence, as the approximate optimum designs are not near the
actual optimum design. Move limits on the design variables, and/or intermediate
design variables, are used to protect the accuracy of the approximations. They
appear as:
Small move limits lead to smoother convergence. Many iterations may be
required due to the small design changes at each iteration. Large move limits may
lead to oscillations between infeasible designs as critical constraints are calculated
inaccurately. If the approximations themselves are accurate, large move limits can
be used. Typical move limits in the approximate optimization problem are 20% of
the current design variable value. If advanced approximation concepts are used,
move limits up to 50% are possible.
Even with advanced approximation concepts, it is possible to have poor
approximations of the actual response behavior with respect to the design variables.
It is best to use larger move limits for accurate approximations and smaller move
limits for those that are not so accurate.
Note that the same set of design variable move limits must be used for all of
the response approximations. It is important to look at the approximations of the
responses that are driving the design. These are the objective function and most
critical constraints. If the objective function moves in the wrong direction, or critical
constraints become even more violated, it is a sign that the approximations are not
accurate. In this case, all of the design variable move limits are reduced. However,
if the move limits become too small, convergence may be slowed, as design
variables that are a long way from the optimum design are forced to change slowly.
Therefore, the move limits on the individual design variables that keep hitting the
same upper or lower move limit bound are increased. Move limits are automatically
adjusted by OptiStruct.
2.4  Constraint Screening
During the optimization process at each iteration the objective function(s) and all
constraints of the design problem are evaluated. Retaining all of these responses in the
optimization problem has two potential disadvantages:
1.
This can result in a big optimization problem with a large number of responses
and design variables. Most optimization algorithms are designed to handle either
a large number of responses or a large number of design variables, but not both.
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2.
For gradientbased optimization, the design sensitivities of these responses need
to be calculated. The design sensitivity calculation can be very computationally
expensive when there are a large number of responses and a large number of
design variables.
Constraint screening is the process by which the number of responses in the
optimization problem is trimmed to a representative set. This set of retained responses
captures the essence of the original design problem while keeping the size of the
optimization problem at an acceptable level. Constraint screening utilizes the fact that
constrained responses that are a long way from their bounding values (on the satisfactory
side) or which are less critical (i.e. for an upper bound more negative and for a lower bound
more positive) than a given number of constrained responses of the same type, within the
same designated region and for the same subcase, will not affect the direction of the
optimization problem and therefore can be removed from the problem for the current design
iteration.
Consider the optimization problem where the objective is to minimize the mass of a
finite element model composed of 100,000 elements, while keeping the elemental stresses
below their associated material's yield stress. In this problem, we have 100,000 constraints
(the stress for every element must be below its associated material's yield stress) for each
subcase. For every design variable, 100,000 sensitivity calculations must be performed for
each subcase, at every iteration. Because design variable changes are restricted by move
limits, stresses are not expected to change drastically from one iteration to the next.
Therefore, it is wasteful to calculate the sensitivities for those elements whose stresses are
considerably lower than their associated material's yield stress. Also the direction of the
optimization will be driven primarily by the highest elemental stresses. Therefore, the
number of required calculations can be further reduced by only considering an arbitrary
number of the highest elemental stresses.
Of course there is tradeoff involved in using constraint screening. By not
considering all of the constrained responses, it may take more iterations to reach a
converged solution. If too many constrained responses are screened, it may take
considerably longer to reach a converged solution or, in the worst case, it may not be able to
converge on a solution if the number of retained responses is less than the number of active
constraints for the given problem.
Through extensive testing it has been found that, for the majority of problems, using
constraint screening saves a lot of time and computational effort. Therefore, constraint
screening is active in OptiStruct by default. The default settings consider only the 20 most
critical (i.e. for an upper bound most positive and for a lower bound most negative)
constraints that come within 50 percent of their bound value (on the satisfactory side) for
each response type, for each region, for each subcase.
The DSCREEN bulk data entry controls both the screening threshold and number of
retained constraints. Different DSCREEN settings are allowed for all of the response types
supported by the DRESP1 bulk data entry. Responses defined by the DRESP2 bulk data
entry are controlled by a single DSCREEN entry with RTYPE = EQUA. Likewise, responses
defined by the DRESP3 bulk data entry are controlled by a single DSCREEN entry with
RTYPE = EXTERNAL. It is important to ensure that DRESP2 and DRESP3 definitions that
use the same region identifier use similar equations. (In order for constraint screening to
work effectively, responses within the same region should be of similar magnitudes and
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demonstrate similar sensitivities, the easiest way to ensure that is through the use of similar
variable combinations).
In order to reduce the burden on the user, it is possible to allow the screening criteria
to be automatically and adaptively adjusted in an effort to retain the least number of
responses necessary for stable convergence. Setting RTYPE=AUTO on the DSCREEN
bulk data entry will enable this feature. Region definition is also automated with this setting.
This setting is useful for less experienced users and can be particularly useful when there
are many local constraints. However, there are some drawbacks; experienced users may
be able to achieve better performance through manual definition of screening criteria, more
memory may be required to run with RTYPE=AUTO, and manual underretention of
constraints will require less memory and may, therefore, be desirable for very large
problems (even with compromised convergence stability and optimality).
2.4.1 Regions and Their Purpose
In OptiStruct, a region is a group of responses of the same type.
Regions are defined by the region identifier field on the DRESP1, DRESP2,
and DRESP3 bulk data entries used to define the responses. If the region identifier
field is left blank or set to 0, then each property associated with the response forms
its own region. The same region identifier may be used for responses of different
types, but remember that because they are not of the same type they cannot form
the same region.
Example 1
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
DRESP1
label
STRESS
PSHELL
(6)
(7)
(8)
SMP1
(9)
(10)
DRESP1 with ID 1 defines stress responses for all the elements that
reference the PSHELL definitions with PID 1, 2, or 3. As no region identifier is
defined, the stress responses for each PSHELL form their own regions. So, all of
the stress responses for elements referencing PSHELL with PID1 are in a different
region than all of the stress responses for elements referencing PSHELL with PID2,
which in turn are in a different region than all of the stress responses for elements
referencing PSHELL with PID3. If this response definition is constrained in an
optimization problem, and the default settings for constraint screening are assumed,
then 20 elemental stresses are considered for each of the three PSHELL definitions,
i.e. 20 for each region, giving a total of 60 retained responses.
Example 2
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
DRESP1
label
STRESS
PSHELL
SMP1
(8)
(9)
(10)
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(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
DRESP1
label
STRESS
PSHELL
SMP1
(8)
(9)
(10)
All of the stress responses defined in the DRESP1 entries above form a
single region  notice the nonzero entries in field 6 (0 is equivalent to leaving it
blank). Now, if these response definitions (which are of the same type (STRESS),
with the same nonzero entry in field 6) are constrained in an optimization problem
(assuming the default settings for constraint screening), then 20 elemental stresses
are considered in total for the three PSHELL definitions because they form a single
region.
2.5 Discrete Design Variables
OptiStruct uses a gradientbased optimization approach for size and shape
optimization. This method does not work well for truly discrete design variables, such as
those that would be encountered when optimizing composite stacking sequences.
However, the method has been adopted for discrete design variables where the discrete
values have a continuous trend, such as when a sheet material is provided with a range of
thicknesses. The adopted method works best when the discrete intervals are small. In
other words, the more continuouslike the design problem behaves, the more reliable the
discrete solution will be. For example, satisfactory performance should not be expected if a
thickness variable is given two discrete values 0 and T.
It is known that rigorous methods such as branch and bound are very time
consuming computationally. Therefore, we developed a semiintuitive method that is
targeted at solving relatively large size problems efficiently. It is recommended to
benchmark the discrete design against the baseline continuous solution. This helps to
quantify the tradeoff due to discrete variables and to understand whether the discrete
solution is reasonable. As local optima are always a barrier for none convex optimization
problems, and discrete variables tend to increase the severity of this phenomenon, it could
be helpful to run the same design problem from several starting points, especially when the
optimality of a solution is in doubt.
It is also possible to mix these discrete variables with continuous variables in an
optimization problem.
Discrete design variables are activated by referencing a DDVAL entry on a DESVAR
card.
The DDVOPT parameter on the DOPTPRM card allows you to choose between a
fully discrete optimization or a two phased approach where a continuous optimization is
performed first, and a discrete optimization is started from the continuous optimum.
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Chapter 3: Optimization Interface and Setup
Chapter 3
Optimization Interface and Setup
1 Model Definition Structure
The input deck is formed per 3 different sections as shown on the following image:
Input deck example
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1.1 Input/Output Section
The I/O Section is the first part of a OptiStruct input file, it controls the overall running
of the analysis or optimization. It controls for example the type, format, and frequency of the
output, the type of run (analysis, check, or restart), and the location and names of input,
output, and scratch files.
This is not a required section, if the user doesnt specify any I/O control this section
will not be on the input deck, but OptiStruct has a default I/O setup that will generate these
outputs:
1
ANALYSIS
o
ASCII output
o
<model_file_name>.out
This file is always created. It
contains a report with comments
on the solution process.
<model_file_name>.stat
This file is always created. This
file provides details on CPU and
elapsed time for each solver
module.
HTML Reports
This file is always created. This
file contains a problem summary
and results summary of the run.
<model_file_name>.html
<model_file_name>_frames.html This file is output when the H3D
FORMAT is chosen. The file
contains two frames. The top
frame opens one of the .h3d
files using the HyperView
Player browser plugin. The
bottom frame opens the
_menu.html file, which
facilitates the selection of results
to be displayed.
<model_file_name>_menu.html
This file is output when the H3D
FORMAT is chosen. This file
facilitates the selection of the
appropriate .h3d file, for the
HyperView Player browser
plugin in the top frame of the
_frames.html file, based on
chosen results
Model results
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<model_file_name>.res
The .res file is a HyperMesh
binary results file.
<model_file_name>.h3d
The .h3d file is a compressed
binary file, containing both model
and result data.
HV session file
o <model_file_name>.mvw
2
The .mvw file is a HyperView
session file that is linked with the
h3d result file and can be open
directly from HyperMesh using
the HyperView button on
OptiStruct or RADIOSS panel.
SIZE OPTIMIZATION
All the files generated on the ANALYSIS, with some small differences on:
o
h3d results files:
o
<model_file_name>_des.h3d:
This is the file to animate the
Optimization history. The
frequency on this file is defined
by OUTPUT, DESIGN, ALL
(Default = ALL).
<model_file_name>_s#.h3d:
This file contains the analysis
results for each loadcase.
Optimization results can be
written to the subcase files using
DENSITY, SHAPE, or
THICKNESS output requests
HV session file:
o
<model_file_name>_hist.mvw:
Design history output
presentation for HyperGraph. It
is linked with the
ASCII files:
o
<model_file_name>.hist:
Default it writes out: DVs, Obj.,
% max const. violation, all nonstress responses and all DRESP
(2 and 3).
<model_file_name>.sh:
Contain the Design Variable
information to restart the
optimization from the final
iteration. It is controlled by
SHRES.
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3
<model_file_name>.desvar:
It has the converged design
variable values.
<model_file_name>.prop:
Optimized property definition.
<model_file_name>.hgdata:
Output history for HyperGraph.
It is controlled by deshis = Yes
(Default = Yes).
SHAPE OPTIMIZATION
All the files generated on SIZE optimization and more 2 ASCII files.
o
4
ASCII files:
o
<model_file_name>.grid:
Contain the node information
translation for the final
optimization iteration.
<model_file_name>.oss:
It has the information to run
OSSMOTH to generate the
optimum topology for the model.
TOPOLOGY OPTIMIZATION
All the files generated on SIZE optimization, except the files .prop and .desvar
and more 3 ASCII files:
o
5
ASCII file:
It has the information to run
OSSMOTH to generate the
optimum topology for the model.
<model_file_name>.oss:
<model_file_name>.HM.comp.cmf HyperMesh command file that
can be used to isolate the
elements in components based
on the optimized density.
<model_file_name>.HM.ent.cmf
HyperMesh command file that
can be used to isolate the
elements in sets based on the
optimized density.
TOPOGRAPHY
All files generated on the SHAPE optimization.
6
GAUGE
All files generated on the SIZE optimization.
7
FREESHAPE
All files generated on the SHAPE optimization.
8
FREESIZE
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All the files generated on TOPOLOGY optimization, except the file .hm.COMP.CMF.
9
COMPOSITE SHUFFLE
All the files generated on SIZE optimization, more 2 ASCII files:
o
ASCII file:
o
<model_file_name>.prop:
It has the information to run
OSSMOTH to generate the
optimum topology for the model.
HTML Reports
o
<model_file_name>.shuf.html
Laminate layout for the
optimization iterations.
1.2 Subcase Information Section
The Subcase or Case Control Section contains information for specific subcases.
It identifies which loads and boundary conditions are to be used in a subcase. It can control
output type and frequency, and may contain objective and constraint information for
optimization problems. For more information on solution sequences, please see the table
included on the Solution Sequences page of the help.
Descriptions for individual Subcase Control entries can be accessed on the online
documentation.
1.3 Bulk Data Section
The Bulk Data Section contains all finite element data for the finite element model,
such as grids, elements, properties, materials, loads and boundary conditions, and
coordinates systems. For optimization, it contains the design variables, responses, and
constraint definitions. The bulk data section begins with the BEGIN BULK statement.
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2 Optimization Setup
The optimization cards can be divided in 2 groups according with the section on the
input deck that this cards are localized.
o
Subcase Information Entry
DESGLB
MINMAX or MAXMIN
REPGLB
DESOBJ
MODEWEIGHT
REPSUB
DESSUB
MODTRAK
WEIGHT
DESVAR
NORM
BULK Data Entry
BEAD
DDVAL
DOBJREF
DRESP2
DSIZE
DVMREL1
BMFACE
DEQATN
DOPTPRM
DRESP3
DTABLE
DVMREL2
DCOMP
DESVAR
DREPADD
DSCREEN
DTPG
DVPREL1
DCONADD
DLINK
DREPORT
DSHAPE
DTPL
DVPREL2
DCONSTR
DLINK2
DRESP1
DSHUFFLE
DVGRID
The complete descriptions of these cards are available at the online documentation.
2.1 Optimization GUI
The optimization setup in HyperMesh can be made from 3 different areas:
Optimization Panel
Optimization Menu
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Model Browser
2.2 Design Variable [ DTPL]
To create and edit a design variable the user can chose one of the 3 options shown
below:
Optimization panel
Optimization Menu
Model Browser
The procedure to create a design variable will be described later on each chapter as
it define type of optimization that will be performed and have a different setup for each type.
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2.3 Responses [DRESP1]
To create and edit a response the user can chose one of the 3 options shown below:
Optimization panel
Optimization Menu
Model Browser
This will open the response panel:
On this panel the user needs to:
1. Input a name to the response that needs to have less than 8 characters.
2. Choose the type of the response.
3. Choose where this response have to be evaluated:
a. If this is total or by entity. Ex. Mass, vol. etc
b. Choose the nodes/elements and the direction this will be evaluated. Ex.
Static displacement
c. Exclude a group of elements that it should not be evaluated. Ex. Static Stress
d. For composite response the plies where it should be evaluated. Ex.
Composite stress.
e. For FRF response choose between real, imaginary, magnitude and phase
and the request (All freq; Freq =; sum; avg; ssq; rss; max; min; avgabs;
maxabs; minabs; sumabs).
4. Define a region if necessary.
5. Create the response.
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2.4 Dconstraints
[DCONSTR]
To create and edit a design constraint the user can chose one of the 3 options
shown below:
Optimization panel
Optimization Menu
Model Browser
This will open the constraints panel:
On this panel the user needs to:
1. Input a name for this constraint
2. Select the response where this limits will be applied.
3. If this response is dependent of the loadstep, a yellow button will appear and the
user need to select the appropriate loadsteps where this limits should be applied.
4. Create the constraint.
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2.5 Obj. reference
[DOBJREF]
To create and edit an objective reference vector the user can chose one of the 3
options shown below:
Optimization panel
Optimization Menu
Model Browser
This will open the objective reference panel:
On this panel the user needs to:
1. Input a name for this reference vector
2. Select the response where these coefficients will be applied. The positive and
negative value should be use together if the user is looking for the maximum or
minimum absolute value, for example min(max(S3)). The most common usage is
the positive reference. min(max(von Mises)).
3. Define if it is applied to all loadsteps or to specific ones.
4. Create the Objective reference vector.
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2.6 Objective [DESOBJ]
To create and edit an objective function the user can chose one of the 3 options
shown below:
Optimization panel
Optimization Menu
Model Browser
This will open the objective panel:
On this panel the user needs to:
1. Select the response that will be optimized.
2. Define if the response will be minimized or maximized.
3. For MinMax or MaxMin response with multiple values the user needs to use the
objective reference vector that can be created using the procedure described on the
last section.
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2.7 Table entries
[DTABLE]
To create and edit a list of constants the user can chose one of the 3 options shown
below:
Optimization panel
Optimization Menu
Model Browser
This will open the Table Entries panel:
On this panel the user needs to:
1. Input the name and the value of all constants that can be used to define the generic
functions and create them.
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2.8 Dequations
[DEQATN]
To create and edit a function or design equation the user can chose one of the 3
options shown below:
Optimization panel
Optimization Menu
Model Browser
This will open the Dequations panel:
On this panel the user needs to:
1. Input the name for the function.
2. Input the mathematical expression for the function. Ex. F(x,y)=x**2+2+y.
3. Create the function.
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2.9 Discrete DVs
[DDVAL]
To create and edit a Discrete Design Variable list the user can chose one of the 3
options shown below:
Optimization panel
Optimization Menu
Model Browser
This will open the Discrete Design Variables panel:
On this panel the user needs to:
1. Input the name for the list
2. Input the list values separated by comma or with X0, Xf and X to automatically
generate it.
3. Create the list.
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2.10 Opti. control
[DOPTPRM]
To add or edit the optimization parameters the user can chose one of the 2 options
shown below:
Optimization panel
Optimization Menu
Model Browser
This will open the Optimization Control Parameters panel:
On this panel the user needs to:
1. Mark the parameter that needs to be modified and input the value for it.
2.11 Constr. screen [DSCREEN]
To add or edit the optimization parameters the user can chose one of the 2 options
shown below:
Optimization panel Optimization Menu
Model Browser
This will open the Constraint Screening panel:
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On this panel the user needs to:
1. Mark the response type that the solver will take a subgroup.
2. Define the threshold that is a reference value to compare with the normalized
constraint to select the subgroup that will be monitored by the solver. if f >=
threshold* and the N < max retained the response is add to the monitored list.
3 How to setup an optimization in HyperMesh
Lets proposal a very simple problem, a 2D cantilever beam that will be simulated using
CBAR element with a PBARL property, the model properties are described below:
Min ( f1 )
Mass 5.0 E 04 ton
5 b 15
5 h 15
Optimization model description (2 D)
Geometry:
o
One load case: Normal Modes
o
(L = 1000, h0 = 10, b0 = 10 mm)
First mode
Material STEEL:
o
o
o
= 7.8e9
E = 210000
= 0.3
t/mm3
MPa

[RHO] Density
[E]
Youngs modulus
[nu]
Poissons ratio
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Chapter 3: Optimization Interface and Setup
Step 1  Setup the Finite element analysis.
This model is already setup on a HyperMesh database, called beam.hm, and the
input deck for it is showed below:
SUBCASE 1
SPC = 1
METHOD(STRUCTURE) = 2
BEGIN BULK
GRID
1
0.0
0.0
GRID
2
1000.0 0.0
CBAR
1
1
1
1.0
0.0
PBARL
1
1
+
+
10.0
10.0
MAT1
1210000.0
0.3
EIGRL
2
MASS
SPC
1
1 1234560.0
SPC
1
2 3
0.0
ENDDATA
0.0
0.0
20.0
BAR
7.80E09
1
Step 2  Define the Design Variables.
On main menu select Optimization > Create > Size Desvars:
This creates on the bulk data section:
DESVAR
1
b10.0
DESVAR
2
c10.0
5.0
5.0
15.0
15.0
Create a Design variable as showed above for b and c. Associate them with the
Dimension 1 and Dimension 2 of the beam property as showed below:
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This creates on the bulk data section:
DVPREL1 1
PBARL
+
1
1.0
DVPREL1 2
PBARL
+
2
1.0
1DIM1
0.0
1DIM2
0.0
Step 3  Define the Responses.
On main menu select Optimization > Create > Response:
Create a Response as showed above f1 for first frequency and another response
called Mass for the total mass on the model.
This creates on the bulk data section:
DRESP1
DRESP1
1
2
f1
Mass
FREQ
MASS
Step 4  Define the constraints.
On main menu select Optimization > Create > Constraints:
Create a Constraint CMass as showed below:
This creates on the Subcase Information section:
DESGLB
2
This creates on the bulk data section:
DCONSTR
1
2
DCONADD
2
1
5.00E04
Step 5  Define the Objective
On main menu select Optimization > Create > Objective:
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Create a objective function Maximize f1 as showed below:
This creates on the Subcase Information section:
DESOBJ(MAX)=1
Step 6  Run the Simulation.
On main menu select Application > OptiStruct:
Chose the directory where it should run:
FINAL SETUP
DESGLB
2
SUBCASE 1
SPC = 1
METHOD(STRUCTURE) = 2
DESOBJ(MAX)=1
BEGIN BULK
DESVAR
1
b10.0
5.0
15.0
DESVAR
2
c10.0
5.0
15.0
DVPREL1 1
PBARL
1DIM1
+
1
1.0
DVPREL1 2
PBARL
1DIM2
+
2
1.0
DRESP1 1
f1
FREQ
DRESP1 2
Mass
MASS
DCONSTR
1
2
5.00E04
DCONADD
2
1
GRID
1
0.0
0.0
0.0
GRID
2
1000.0 0.0
0.0
CBAR
1
1
1
20.0
PBARL
1
1
BAR
+
0.0
0.0
1
1.0
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+
10.0
MAT1
EIGRL
MASS
SPC
SPC
ENDDATA
10.0
1210000.0
2
1
1
1
2
0.3
7.80E09
1
1234560.0
3
0.0
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Chapter 4: Concept Design
Chapter 4
Concept Design
1 Topology Optimization
Topology Optimization is a mathematical technique that produces an
optimized shape and material distribution for a structure within a given package
space. By discretizing the domain into a finite element mesh, OptiStruct calculates
material properties for each element. The OptiStruct algorithm alters the material
distribution to optimize the userdefined objective under given constraints.
Example of a topology optimization
OptiStruct solves topological optimization problems using either the homogenization
or density method. Under topology optimization, the material density of each element should
take a value of either 0 or 1, defining the element as being either void or solid, respectively.
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Unfortunately, optimization of a large number of discrete variables is computationally
prohibitive. Therefore, representation of the material distribution problem in terms of
continuous variables has to be used.
1.1  Homogenization method
For the homogenization method, the material of the structure is represented as a
porous continuum with certain periodic microstructure or layered composites of different
ranks of densities. The homogenization method implemented in OptiStruct uses a material
microstructure that contains periodic rectangular voids (hexahedral voids in 3D). The
design variables for each element are the breadth and depth of these rectangular voids and
their orientations. These define the elasticity properties and the density of the material.
Using a normalized formulation, the density of an element may be determined by:
= 1.0 (1.0 a )(1.0 b )
where (1.0 a)(1.0 b) represents the total volume of void in an element. It is easy to see
that a=b=0 represents the state of void for this element, and a=1 or b=1 implies that the
element is solid, i.e. filled with the 'real' material. Intermediate values of a and b represent
fictitious material.
The void size variables are considered to be continuous variables varying between 0
and 1. The void orientation of each element is also a continuous variable, which is
determined by the orientation of the principle strain. Note that while the real material is
isotropic, the fictitious material of intermediate density is anisotropic.
1.2  Density method
With the density method, the material density of each element is directly used as the
design variable, and varies continuously between 0 and 1; these represent the state of void
and solid, respectively. As with the homogenization method, intermediate values of density
represent fictitious material.
With this method, the stiffness of the material is assumed to be linearly dependent on
the density. This material formulation is consistent with our understanding of common
materials. For example, steel, which is denser than aluminum, is stronger than aluminum.
Following this logic, the representation of fictitious material at intermediate densities is more
realistic under the density approach. An anisotropic representation of the semidense
material is not consistent with the behavior of the real isotropic material, although it is more
'efficient' due to optimal material orientation.
In general, the optimal solution of problems, using both formulations
(Homogenization and Density), involves large gray areas of intermediate densities in the
structural domain. Such solutions are not meaningful when we are looking for the topology
of a given material, and not meaningful when considering the use of different materials
within the design space. Therefore, techniques need to be introduced to penalize
intermediate densities and to force the final design to be represented by densities of 0 or 1
for each element. The penalization technique used for the density approach is the "power
law representation of elasticity properties," which can be expressed for any solid 3D or 2D
element as follows:
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K ( ) = p K
where K and K represent the penalized and the real stiffness matrix of an element,
respectively, is the density and p the penalization factor which is always greater than 1.
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Chapter 4: Concept Design
Exercise 4.1: Topology Optimization of a Hook with Stress
Constraints
In this exercise, a topology optimization is performed on a brackethook modeled
with shell elements. The structural model with loads and constraints applied is shown in the
figure below. The objective is to minimize the volume of the material used in the model
subject to certain stress constraints. Topology optimization is performed to find the optimal
material placement and reduce the volume. This optimization normalizes each element
according to its density and lets you remove elements that have low density.
FEA model
The structural model is loaded into HyperMesh Desktop. The constraints, loads,
subcases and material properties are already defined in the model. The topology design
variables and the optimization problem set up will be defined using HyperMesh, and
OptiStruct will be used to determine the optimal material layout. The results will then be
reviewed in HyperView.
The optimization problem is stated as:
Objective
function:
Minimize volume.
Constraints:
Von Mises stress < 1.6 e 04.
Design Variables:
The density of each element in the design space.
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Chapter 4: Concept Design
Step 1: Launch HyperMesh Desktop and Set the User Profile
1. Launch HyperMesh Desktop through the start menu.
The User Profiles dialog will appear by default.
2. Choose OptiStruct as the user profile by selecting the radio button beside it.
3. Click OK.
Step 2: Import the Finite Element Model File
The model file for this exercise, hook.fem.
1. Select the Import button
An Import tab is added to your tab menu.
2. Make sure the Import type: is set to FE Model.
3. Make sure the File type: is set to Optistruct.
button.
4. Click the Select files
5. Browse for your file and select it.
6. Click Open.
7. Click Import.
Step 3: Set the View
1. In the Model Browser, right click on components
2. Click on isolate
to fit the model to the screen
3. Click on
This will display only the components in the graphics area.
Step 4: Create the Design Variables for Topology Optimization
1. On Analysis page select the optimization panel.
2. Click the topology panel.
3. Select the create radio button.
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4. Click props and select the check boxes by the Design and Base properties.
5. Click select.
6. Enter the name shells in the desvar= field.
7. Set the component type: switch to PSHELL.
8. Click create.
9. Select the parameters subpanel.
10. Toggle minmemb off to mindim=.
11. For mindim=, enter 0.3.
12. Under stress constraint:, toggle from none to stress= .
13. For stress=, enter 1.6e4.
14. Click update.
A topology design variable (DESVAR) is created.
15. Click return twice to get back to the main menu.
Step 5: Create the Responses
A detailed description is available in the OptiStruct User's Guide, under Responses.
1. Select the optimization panel.
2. Click responses to go to the Responses panel.
3. Click response = and enter volume.
4. Click the response type: switch and select volume from the popup menu.
5. Ensure that the total/by entity toggle is set to total (this is the default).
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6. Click create.
A response, volume, is defined for the total volume of the model.
7. Click return to go back to the optimization panel.
Step 6: Define the Objective Function
In this example, the objective is to minimize the volume response defined in the previous
step.
1. Select the objective panel.
2. Click the switch in the upper left corner of the panel and select min from the popup
menu.
3. Click response = and select volume from the response list.
4. Click create.
The objective function is now defined.
5. Click return to return to the optimization panel.
Step 7: Save the HyperMesh Database
1. Click the Save .hm File button
A Save file... browser window pops up.
2. Select the directory where you would like to save the database and enter the name for
the database, hook_opt.hm, in the File name: field.
3. Click save.
Step 8: Submit the Job to OptiStruct
1. From the Analysis page, select the OptiStruct panel.
2. Click save as following the input file: field.
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3. Select the directory where you would like to write the OptiStruct model file and enter the
name for the model, hook_opt.fem, in the File name: field.
.fem is the suggested extension for OptiStruct input decks.
4. Click Save.
Note the name and location of the hook_opt.fem file displays in the input file: field.
5. Make sure the memory options: toggle is set to memory default.
6. Click the run options: switch and select optimization.
7. Make sure the export options: toggle is set to all.
8. Click OptiStruct.
This launches the OptiStruct job. If the job was successful, new results files can be seen
in the directory where the OptiStruct model file was written. The hook_opt.out file is a
good place to look for error messages that will help to debug the input deck if any errors
are present.
Step 9: View an Isosurface Plot of the Density Results
1. While still in the OptiStruct panel, click the green HyperView button.
Five additional pages get added to the Hypermehs Desktop session. The results for the
optimization are loaded in pages 2 thru 6.
2. Use the Next Page icon to change the client to HyperView
.
3. Click the iso Value toolbar button
4. Select the Result type: Element densities (s).
5. In the Model view of the browser, set the Design Iteration to the last one.
6. Enter a value of 0.3 in the Current value: field (in the Iso panel).
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The isosurface postprocessing feature is an excellent tool to use for viewing the density results
from OptiStruct.
7. Click and move the Current Value slider bar to view results based on different density
values.
You will see the isosurface in the graphics window interactively update when you change
it to a new value. Use this tool to get a better look at the material layout and the load
paths from OptiStruct.
Step 10: View the Element Stress Results
1. Click the Next Page toolbar button
to move to the third page.
The third page, which has results loaded from the hook_opt_s19.h3d is displayed;
this contains the linear static results for the 1st subcase.
2. Click the Contour toolbar button
3. Select the first pulldown menu below the Result type: and select Element stresses.
4. Select the second pull down menu and select vonMises.
5. In the Model View of the Browser set the displayed Iteration to the last one.
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7. Click Apply.
8. Similarly, review the results from the other load cases too.
Stress results for all static sub case (Von Mises < 1.6e4)
Notice that there are some local regions where the stresses are still high; this is because
topology stress constraints should be interpreted as global stress control or global stress
target.
The functionality has some ways to filter out the artificial or local stresses caused by
point loading or boundary conditions, but those artificial stresses will not be completely
removed unless the geometry is changed by shape optimization.
Notes: The advantages of using stress based optimization over the classical minimize
(compliance) subject to volume fraction constraint is that it eliminates the need to
guess of the right volume fraction. Additionally, it eliminates the need for
compliance weighting bias for multiple subcases.
There might still be high local stress regions which can be improved more
effectively with local shape and size optimization.
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Exercise 4.2: Topology Optimization of a Control Arm
The purpose of this exercise is to determine the best topology or the minimum mass
for a control arm that is manufactured using a single draw mode. The arm needs to have a
symmetric geometry because it will be used on both sides of the vehicle.
On the image below is already defined the finite element model that defines where
the material can be removed or not. There are two different regions that are denominated
Design (blue) that is where OptiStruct can remove material and Nondesign (red) where
this part will be mounted and cant be changed.
The control arm can be considered totally fixed for all load cases as follow:
o
NODE(3) X,Y and Z . (Bolted)
NODE(4) Y and Z . (Cylindrical joint)
NODE(7) Z.
(Damp link)
This control arm needs to support 3 different load cases, and the design criterion for
each load case is defined as strength constraints as:
1. Car turning on a intersection: corner = (0,1000,0) N
Umax (2699) <= 0.02 mm
2. Car braking:
brake = (1000,0,0) N
Umax (2699) <= 0.05 mm
3. Car passing in a pothole:
pothole (0,0,1000) N
Umax (2699) <= 0.04 mm
Problem Setup
You should copy these Files: CONTROL_ARM.hm;
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Step 1: Open the model: CONTROL_ARM.hm in HyperMesh Desktop.
Step 2: Define properties.
Create two properties named: design and nondesign, with a card image of PSOLID
pointing to the material steel (using the material tab).
Optimization will be performed on the elements that have the property design.
Model Browse tree after the properties creation
Step 3: Assign the properties to the components.
In the Model Browser, right click on the component, select Assign, select the
appropriate property and click on Apply.
Assign the property design to the design component and nondesign to the nondesign
property.
Step 4: Define 3 different loadsteps: Corner (1), Brake (2) and Pothole (2).
As was described on the beginning of this exercise, this part needs to perform well
on 3 different load cases and as we can see below they have different direction. It makes
necessary to define independent load cases for each one.
1. All load cases have the same constraints:
NODE(3) X,Y and Z . (Bolted)
NODE(4) Y and Z . (Cylindrical joint)
NODE(7) Z.
(Damp link)
2. For corner (1) load step the force
F = (0,1000,0) N applied on Node(2699)
3. For brake (2) load step the force
F = (1000,0,0) N applied on Node(2699)
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4. For pothole (3) load step the force
F = (0,0,1000) N applied on Node(2699)
Model Browse after the load steps.
Step 5: Run the analysis from the Radioss panel.
It should take few minutes to complete the run. Once you have the results, review them
and fill out the values below:
Corner (1) Total displacement (2699) = _________
Brake (2) Total displacement (2699) = _________
Pothole (3) Total displacement (2699) = _________
It is important to run an initial analysis to understand the model solution. If the responses
are far from the desired values, the model need to be modified or the optimization
problem redefined. It is very important at this point the user validate the problem and
understand if the optimization setups that will be performed make sense.
Step 6: Define the topology design variable for the design region.
1. Define the symmetric manufacturing constraint 1pln sym using as anchor node (1) and
as first node (2).
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2. Define the draw manufacturing constraint as single using as anchor node (6) and first
node (5) and the nondesign property as obstacle.
Step 7: Define the volume response, call it volume.
Step 8: Define the displacement response on the ball join node (2699), select
total displacement, and call it DISP.
Step 6: Define the displacement constraint for each loadstep.
Corner
Umax (2699) <= 0.02 mm
Brake
Umax (2699) <= 0.05 mm
Pothole
Umax (2699) <= 0.04 mm
Step 7: Define the volume as objective function.
Step 8: Submit the optimization run from the OptiStruct panel.
It will take around 1.5 hours to complete the job.
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Step 9: Review the results answer these questions:
1. The solution converged to a feasible solution?
2. How many iterations did it take to converge and what is the final volume of the part?
3. Plot the Isocontour for the density on the last iteration, does it looks like a
manufacturable part?
Design proposed by OptiStruct
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Exercise 4.3: Pattern Repetition using Topology Optimization
This exercise demonstrates how to perform topology optimization using pattern repetition.
The model is a rectangular plate with a concentrated force on one edge and two constraints
on the opposite edge. Two other rectangular plates with a scaled size of 0.6 and 0.3 from
the original plate with forces and boundary conditions applied in different directions are also
modeled to highlight the difference in the topology results between with and without pattern
repetitions.
The objective is to minimize the compliance for the single subcase. The volume fraction of
the design space is limited to 0.3. The design spaces are the three plates.
Problem Setup
You should copy these Files: no_repeat.fem;
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Step1: Launch HyperMesh Desktop, Set the User Profile, and Import the File
1. Launch HyperMesh Desktop.
2. Choose OptiStruct as the user profile and click OK.
User Profiles can also be accessed from the Preferences pulldown menu on the
toolbar.
3. From the File pulldown menu on the toolbar, select Import Solver Deck
An Import tab is added to your tab menu.
4. Ensure that the Import type: is set to FE Model.
5. For File type:, select OptiStruct.
6. Click on Select Files button
A Select OptiStruct file browser will pop up.
7. Select the no_repeat.fem file, located in the model files directory under and click
Open.
8. Click Import.
The no_repeat.fem OptiStruct input file is loaded into the current HyperMesh
session.
9. Click Close to exit the Files tab.
Step 2: Create the Topology Design Variable
1. From the Analysis page, enter the optimization panel.
2. Click topology to enter the panel.
3. Make sure the create subpanel is selected using the radio buttons on the lefthand side
of the panel.
4. Click desvar = and enter dv1.
5. Click props and select the property labeled first by checking the box beside it.
6. Click select.
7. Set the type: selector to PSHELL.
8. Click create.
9. Select the parameters subpanel using the radio buttons on the lefthand side of the
panel.
10. Toggle minmemb off to mindim=.
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11. Click mindim= and enter 2.0.
12. Click update.
13. Repeat steps 3 through 12 for the components called second and third with desvar
names dv2 and dv3, respectively.
This defines the design space.
14. Click return.
Step 3: Create the Volume Fraction and Compliance Response
1. Enter the responses panel.
2. Click response = and enter volfrac.
3. Set the switch under response type: to volumefrac.
4. Verify that the toggle in the center of the panel is set to total.
5. Click create.
This creates the volume fraction response.
6. Click response = and enter comp.
7. Set the selector under response type: to compliance.
8. Verify that the toggle in the center of the panel is set to total.
9. Click create.
This creates the compliance response.
10. Click return.
Step 4: Create a Constraint on Volume Fraction Response
1. Click dconstraints.
2. Click constraint = and enter volfrac.
3. Click response = and select volfrac.
4. Check the box next to upper bound =.
5. Click upper bound= and enter 0.3.
6. Click create.
This creates a volume fraction constraint.
7. Click return.
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Step 5: Define the Objective
1. Enter the objective panel.
2. The switch on the left should be set to min.
3. Click response = and select comp.
4. Click loadstep and select sub.
5. Click create.
This creates the compliance response as the objective.
6. Click return twice to return to the main menu.
This completes the definition of the topology optimization problem without pattern
repetition.
Step 6: Run the Analysis
1. Click OptiStruct to enter the panel to run OptiStruct.
2. Click save as following the input file: field.
3. Select the directory where you would like to write the OptiStruct model file and enter the
name for the model, no_repeat_opt.fem, in the File name: field.
The .fem extension is suggested for OptiStruct input decks.
4. Click Save.
Note the name and location of the no_repeat_opt.fem file now displays in the input
file: field.
5. Set the export options: toggle to all.
6. Click the run options: switch and select optimization.
7. Set the memory options: toggle to memory default.
8. Let the options: field blank.
9. Click OptiStruct.
This will export the input deck and start the execution of OptiStruct in a DOS or UNIX window.
Step 7: Review an Iso Value Plot of Element Densities
1. Click the HyperView button in the OptiStruct panel.
This button launches HyperView and loads the section file no_repeat_opt.mvw that
is linked with the no_repeat_opt_des.h3d file.
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2. Click Close in the Message Log window that appears.
3. Click the Iso Value
toolbar button.
4. Under Result type:, select Element Densities(s) from the dropdown list.
5. Click Select Load Case from the Graphics pulldown menu to open the Load Case
and Simulation Selection dialog.
6. Choose the last iteration from the Simulation list and click OK.
7. Click Apply.
8. Set Current value: to 0.4.
9. Set Show values: to Above.
10. Check the boxes beside Features and Transient under Clipped geometry:.
An isosurface plot is displayed in the graphics window. (Note the display of each plate.)
Those elements of the model with a density greater than the value of 0.4 are shown in
color, the rest are transparent.
11. From the File pulldown menu, choose Exit to quit HyperView.
Step 8: Set up Pattern Repetition
The pattern repetition cards can now be defined in HyperMesh.
1. From the Tool page, select the numbers panel.
2. Click the nodes button and select by id.
3. Enter all of the following values after id=, separating them with commas:
1329
66
6
46
507
447
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487
928
892
948
4. Press Enter.
5. Click the green button on.
6. Click return to exit the Numbers panel.
7. From the View pull down menu, select the Mask By Config Browser tab menu.
8. From the Mask By Config tab menu, select 1 under the Isolate column to display only
component collectors.
9. From the Analysis page, enter the optimization panel.
10. Click topology to enter the panel.
11. Select the pattern repetition subpanel using the radio buttons on the left side of the
panel.
12. Double click the desvar= and select dv1.
13. Make sure the switch is pointing to master.
14. Toggle from system to coordinates.
15. Click the green first button and choose node ID 6.
16. Notice that the blue border moves over second after the first has been selected; now
choose the second node ID 46.
17. Choose the third node ID 1329.
18. Click the anchor button and choose the node ID 66.
19. Click update on the right side to create a master DTPL card.
20. Click desvar= and select dv2.
21. Click the switch and select slave.
22. Make sure master= is pointing to dv1.
23. Set the following values: sx= 0.6, sy= 0.6, sz= 1.0.
24. Click the first button and choose the node ID 447.
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25. For the second button, choose the node ID 487.
26. For the third button, choose the node ID 1329.
27. For the anchor button, choose the node ID 507.
28. Click the update button on the right side to create the slave DTPL card.
29. Click desvar= and select dv3.
30. Click the switch and change to slave.
31. Make sure the master= button is pointing to dv1.
32. Set the following values: sx= 0.3, sy= 0.3, sz= 1.0.
33. Click the first button and choose the node ID 892.
34. For the second button, choose the node ID 928.
35. For the third button, choose the node ID 1329.
36. For the anchor, choose the node ID 948.
37. Click the update button on the right side to create the slave DTPL card.
The above modification identifies the first DTPL card with ID 1 (on the first component)
as the master. The DTPLs of ID 2 (second component) and ID 3 (third component) are
slaves and dependent on DTPL of ID1. The second component is scaled 0.6 in both the
x and y axis, while the third component is scaled 0.3 in both the x and y axis with respect
to the first component.
38. Click return twice.
Step 9: Run the Optimization Problem
1. From the Analysis page click OptiStruct to run the solver.
2. Click save as following the input file: field.
3. Select the directory where you would like to write the OptiStruct model file and enter the
name for the model, repeat_opt.fem, in the File name: field.
4. Click Save.
Note that the name and location of the repeat_opt.fem file is now displayed in the
input file: field.
5. Set the export options: toggle to all.
6. Click the run options: switch and select optimization.
7. Set the memory options: toggle to memory default.
8. Let the options: field blank.
9. Click OptiStruct.
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This will export the input deck and start the execution of OptiStruct in a DOS or UNIX
window.
Step 10: Review an Iso Value Plot of Element Densities
1. From the OptiStruct panel, click the green HyperView button.
This button launches HyperView and loads the section file repeat_opt.mvw that is
linked with the repeat_opt_des.h3d file.
A Message Log window will appear, indicating the location of the .h3d file.
2. Click Close to exit the Message Log window.
3. Click the Iso Value toolbar button.
4. Choose Select Load Case from the Graphics pulldown menu to open the Load Case
and Simulation Selection dialog.
5. Choose the last design under Simulation.
6. Click Apply.
7. Set current value: to 0.38.
8. Set Show: to Above.
9. Check the boxes for Features and Transparent under Clipped geometry:.
An iso surface plot is displayed in the graphics window. Those parts of the model with a
density greater than the value of 0.38 are shown in color, and the rest are transparent.
10. Click File on the menu bar and choose Exit to quit HyperView.
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2 Topography Optimization
Topography optimization is an advanced form of shape optimization in which a
design region for a given part is defined and a pattern of shape variablebased
reinforcements within that region is generated using OptiStruct.
The approach in topography optimization is similar to the approach used in topology
optimization, except that shape variables are used rather than density variables. The design
region is subdivided into a large number of separate variables whose influence on the
structure is calculated and optimized over a series of iterations. The large number of shape
variables allows the user to create any reinforcement pattern within the design domain
instead of being restricted to a few.
2.1  Design Variables for Topography Optimization
OptiStruct solves topography optimization problems using shape optimization with
internally generated shape variables. One or more design domains are defined using the
DTPG card. These cards must, in turn, reference PSHELL, PCOMP or DESVAR
definitions. If a DESVAR definition is referenced, it must be a shape design variable,
meaning that it must, in turn, be referenced by one or more DVGRID cards. If a PSHELL or
PCOMP definition is referenced, OptiStruct generates shape variables using the parameters
defined on the DTPG card, creating internal DVGRID data for the nodes associated with the
PSHELL or PCOMP definitions. In both cases, the end result is that each DTPG card
references a single shape variable. This shape variable then gets converted into
topography shape variables.
Basic topography shape variables follow the userdefined parameters on the DTPG
card (minimum bead width, and draw angle), they are circular in shape, and they are laid out
across the design domain in a roughly hexagonal distribution. Each topography shape
variable has a circular central region of diameter equal to the minimum bead width. Grids
within this region are perturbed as a group, which prevents the formation of any
reinforcement bead of less than the minimum bead width. Grids outside of the central
circular region of the topographical variables are perturbed as the average of the variables
to which they are nearest. This results in smooth transitions between neighboring variables.
If two adjacent variables are fully perturbed, all of the nodes between them will be fully
perturbed. If one variable is fully perturbed and its neighbor is unperturbed, the nodes in
between will form a smooth slope connecting them at an angle equal to the draw angle. The
spacing of the variables is determined by the minimum bead width and the draw angle in
such a way that no part of the bead reinforcement pattern forms an angle greater than the
draw angle.
Pattern grouping options link topographical variables together in such a way that
the desired reinforcement patterns are formed. Linear, planar, circular, radial, etc. shaped
reinforcements are controlled by single variables, ensuring that the reinforcements follow the
desired pattern. Oneplane, twoplane, threeplane and cyclical symmetry pattern grouping
options also use a similar approach to ensure that symmetry is created in the solution.
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Although topography optimization is primarily a tool for creating bead type
reinforcements in shell elements, it can accommodate solid models as well. Many pattern
grouping options (such as planar and cylindrical) are intended to be used with solid models
since they effectively reduce 3D problems into 2D ones.
2.1.1 Variable Generation
There are three methods of automatically generating shape variables for topography
optimization using the DTPG card. The first two, element normal and draw vector, are
performed entirely in OptiStruct. The third (userdefined) requires that the input data
contain one or more shape design variables that are used as the design domain.
Element normal
This method is the easiest one to use. When norm is entered for the draw
direction, the normal vectors of the elements are used to define the draw
vector for the shape variables. This method is especially effective for curved
surfaces and enclosed volumes where the beads are intended to be drawn
normal to the surface.
Beads created using the element
normal method of determining draw
vector.
Draw vector
This method allows you to define the draw vector that is used for generating
the shape variables. The X, Y, and Z components of the draw vector in the
nodal coordinate system are entered. This method is useful when all beads
must be drawn in the same direction. Note that the draw angle may not be
maintained while using this method.
Beads created using the Draw vector
method of determining draw vector.
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Userdefined
This method allows you to set up the vectors and heights for the topography
optimization. A DESVAR card is referenced in place of a PSHELL or PCOMP card. All of
the grids with DVGRID cards associated with that DESVAR card are considered part of the
design domain. The DESVAR and DVGRID entries are redefined to reflect the minimum
bead width and draw angle parameters that have been set by the user. The vectors and
magnitudes of the displacement vectors on each DVGRID card for each grid are retained,
so these entries must be left blank on the DTPG card. This allows you to create a design
domain in which each node can have its own draw vector and draw height. For more
information about it see the example Using Topography Optimization to Forge a Design
Concept Out of a Solid Block.
Example of Topography optimization using DVGRID direction
2.1.2 Multiple Topography Design Regions
OptiStruct generates topography shape variables for each design domain defined by
a DTPG card. It allows for overlapping of design domains. A grid that is in more than one
design domain will be a part of shape variables for each design domain. For automatically
generated bead variables, the draw height is divided by the number of bead variables acting
on that grid. Thus, if a grid is a part of two DTPG cards that have draw heights of 3.0mm
and 5.0mm, the draw heights become 1.5mm and 2.5mm. If this is not desired, simply make
sure that no grid is in more than one design domain. In cases where two design
components touch each other and the design domains are not userdefined (i.e. PSHELL or
PCOMP definitions are referenced), a row of nondesign elements needs to be inserted
between them to prevent averaging. If the bead variables are userdefined (i.e. DESVAR
definition is referenced), no averaging will be performed. It is assumed that the user intends
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to have the shape variables overlap, which will result in the grid deflection being cumulative
between multiple influencing bead cards.
Bead Discreteness Fraction
The bead discreteness fraction is a response that can be used to control the amount
of shape variation for topography design domains. This response indicates the amount of
shape variation for one or more topography design domains. The response varies in the
range 0.0 to 1.0 (0.0 < BEADFRAC < 1.0), where 0.0 indicates that no shape variation has
occurred, and 1.0 indicates that the entire topography design domain has assumed the
maximum allowed shape variation.
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Exercise 4.4: Topography Optimization of a Slider Suspension
On this exercise we will look for the best stamped shape for a slider suspension, the
objective function will be a combination of the compliance and the frequency, the objective is
to have it as stiffer as possible for the static force, and a stiffer dynamic behavior on the
lower frequencies, this function can be defined on OptiStruct as a combined weighted
compliance and the weighted modes. The design has an extra constraint on the 7th mode
that has to be higher than 12 Hz. The finite element model of the slider suspension contains
already the force and boundary conditions and the 2 load cases defined frequency (1) and
force (2).
Disk drive slider
Problem Statement
Perform combined topology and topography optimization on a disk drive slider
suspension to maximize the stiffness and weighted mode. The lower bound constraint on
the seventh mode is 12Hz.
Objective function:
Minimize the combined weighted compliance and the weighted modes.
Constraints:
7 Mode > 12 Hz.
Design variables:
Nodes topography.
th
Problem Setup
You should copy these Files: Slider.fem;
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Step 1: Import the finite element model Slider.fem.
Step 2: Run the analyses and get the compliance for the 2nd loadstep and the
mode values on the 1st load step.
Extract the values:
Compliance = _________
f1 = _____(Hz)
f2 = _____(Hz)
f5 = _____ (Hz)
f6 = _____(Hz)
f3 = _____(Hz)
f4 = _____(Hz)
If you are using a second monitor, take advantage of your output file and copy the
values using Ctrl C.
It is important to run an initial analysis to understand the model solution. If the responses
are far from the desired values, the model need to be modified or the optimization
problem redefined. It is very important at this point the user validate the problem and
understands if the optimization setup that is going to be performed makes sense.
Step 3: Define the topography design variable for the design region.
1. Create the DV named topo with this parameters:
a. props = 1pin.
b. minimum width = 0.4 mm
c. draw angle = 60 degree
d. draw height = 0.15 mm
e. draw direction = normal to elements.
f.
Boundary skip: load & spc * OS will not move this nodes.
g. Upper Bound = 1.0 (x)
h. Lower Bound = 0.0 (x)
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Step 4: Define the response to measure the 7th mode, call it freq7.
Step 5: Define the combined response comb to sum the compliance from the
static analysis and the normalized modes from the modal analysis.
1. This response type is compliance index.
2. The loadstep is the Static analysis.
3. For the model list set as on the table:
Mode Weight
4.
1.0
2.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
Define the it as autonorm
Step 6: Define the constraint cfreq7 7th mode > 12 Hz.
Step 7: Define min comb response as objective.
Step 8: Submit the optimization run.
Job submission panel (It should take ~ 30 seconds to complete)
Step 9: Open the results on HV and answer these questions:
1. The solution converged to a feasible solution?
2. How much iteration it has take to converge and how much is part improved?
3. Plot the contour for the shape change on the last iteration, does it looks like a
manufacturable part?
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Design proposed by OptiStruct
Step 10: Automation of bead interpretation using the autobead functionality
1. From the Post page, select the OSSmooth panel.
2. For file:, select the Optistruct base input file (the *.fem file) from which to extract the
geometry.
3. For output:, select the IGES output format for the final geometry.
The default output format is STL. Other format options are: Mview, Nastran,
IGES and H3D.
If you select IGES as the output format, select the output unit type. The
default is mm (millimeters).
4. Select load geom to load the new geometry into the current Hypermesh session.
5. Check the box next to autobead and enter a value of 0.3 for the bead threshold:.
6. Check the remesh option, which utilizes the automeshing capability of Hypermesh
to remesh the draw portion of the interpreted design.
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7. Uncheck surf reduction.
8. Leave the rest of the options as shown below in the picture.
9. Click OSSmooth.
10. Click Yes to overwrite. The new geometry will be automatically loaded into existing
Hypermesh file, turn off the display of all the elements to view the new concept
geometry.
Bead interpretation using autobead
If the student had finish the exercise and wants to try a more advanced setup, these are a
small list of things that could improve this result:
1. Add a topology optimization on the same design space.
2. Add a symmetry plane to the topography and topology DVs.
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3. Increase the Height to 0.2 mm.
4. Use OSSMOOTH to export the geometry.
5. Prepare a HV report to describe the optimization results.
6. Export the final shape and rerun an analysis to check the performance.
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3 Freesize Optimization
The purpose of composite freesizing optimization is to create design concepts that
utilize all the potentials of a composite structure where both structure and material can be
designed simultaneously. By varying the thickness of each ply with a particular fiber
orientation for every element, the total laminate thickness can change continuously
throughout the structure, and at the same time, the optimal composition of the composite
laminate at every point (element) is achieved simultaneously. At this stage, a superply
concept should be adopted, in which each available fiber orientation is assigned a superply
whose thickness is freesized.
For a shell crosssection (shown below), freesize optimization allows thickness to
vary freely between T and T0 for each element; this is in contrast to topology optimization
which targets a discrete thickness of either T or T0.
Free size definition
In addition, in order to neutralize the effect of stacking sequence, the SMEAR option
is usually a good choice for this design phase unless the user intended to follow through
with the stacking preference of the superply laminate model.
Coupling between total Thickness and Laminate Families (%0 %45)
To determine the optimum laminate OptiStruct uses the SMEAR technology that
captures the stacking sequence effects:
o
A = Stacking Sequence independent
B = 0 (Symmetric)
D = At2/12  Stacking Sequence Independent
In OptiStruct, additional manufacturing constraints are available for freesizing
optimization. As a composite laminate is typically manufactured through a stacking and
curing process, certain manufacturing requirements are necessary in order to limit undesired
side effects emerging during this curing process. For example, one typical such constraint
for carbon fiber reinforced composite is that plies of a given orientation cannot be stacked
successively for more than 3 or 4 plies. This implies that a design concept that contains
areas of predominantly a single fiber orientation would never satisfy this requirement.
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Therefore, to achieve a manufacturable design concept, manufacturing requirements for the
final product need to be reflected during the concept design stage. For the particular
constraint mentioned above, for instance, the design concept would offer enough alternative
ply orientations to break the succession of plies of the same orientation if the percentage of
each fiber orientation is controlled (e.g. no ply orientation should drop below 15%). In
addition, balancing of a pair of ply orientations could be useful for practical reasons. For
example, balancing 45 and 45 plies would elimina te twisting of a plate bended along the 0
axis. In order to address these needs, the following manufacturing constraints are made
available for composite freesizing:
Lower and upper bounds on the total thickness of the laminate.
Lower and upper bounds on the thickness of individual orientations.
Lower and upper bounds on the thickness percentage of individual orientations.
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Thickness balancing between two given orientations.
Constant thickness of individual orientations.
Example: Cantilever plate
The cantilever plate is shown in the following figure. Baseplate thickness T0 is zero.
The optimization problem is stated as:
Minimize Compliance
Subject to Volume fraction < 0.3
Cantilever Plate
The next figure shows the final results of topology and freesize optimization as
performed on this plate, side by side. As expected, the topology result created a design with
70% cavity, while the freesize optimization arrived at a result with a zone of variable
thickness panel.
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Topology result
Freesize result
Compliance of both designs
It is not surprising to see that the freesize design outperforms the topology design in
terms of compliance since continuous variation of thickness offers more design freedom.
It should be emphasized that freesize offers a concept design tool alternative to
topology optimization for structures modeled with 2D elements. It does not replace a
detailed size optimization that would fine tune the size parameters of an FEA model of the
final product.
To illustrate the close relationship between freesize and topology formulation,
consider a 3D model of the same cantilever plate shown previously. The thickness of the
plate is modeled in 10 layers of 3D elements.
Cantilever plate 3D model
3D topology result
The topology design of the 3D model shown above looks similar to the freesize
results shown previously. This should not be surprising because when the plate is modeled
in 3D, a variable thickness distribution becomes possible under the topology formulation
that seeks a discrete density value of either 0 or 1 for each element. If infinitely fine 3D
elements are used, a continuous variable thickness of the plate can be achieved via
topology optimization. The motivation for the introduction of freesize is based on the
conviction that limitations due to 2D modeling should not become a barrier for optimization
formulation. In regards to the 3D modeling of shell, topology optimization is equivalent to
the application of extrusion constraint(s) in the thickness direction of a 3D modeled shell.
It is important to point out that while freesize often creates variable thickness shells
without extensive cavity, it does not prevent cavity if the optimizer demands it. For the
example already shown, we can see cavity in the freesize result in the 45 degree region,
adjacent to the support, and in the upper and lower corners of the free end.
Freesize optimization is defined through the DSIZE bulk data entry that is supported
in the HyperMesh optimization panel. Features available for freesize include: minimum
member size control, symmetry, pattern grouping and pattern repetition, and stress
constraints applied to von Mises stresses of the entire structure.
Involving both topology and freesize in the same optimization problem is not
recommended since penalization on topology components creates a bias that could lead to
suboptimal solutions.
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Exercise 4.5: Freesize Optimization of Finite Plate
with Hole
The exercise intends to describe the process of setup and postprocess of a
composite freesize optimization. The objective is to determine the minimum weight
composite plate configuration. The plate can be formed with [0, 90, 45, 45] plies with, the
initial design is 4 super plies with uniform thickness equal 12.7 mm. This plate needs to
have a compliance lower or equal to 3000 Nmm, there are some manufacturing constraint
that needs to be considered, the laminate thickness <= 40 mm, the ply thickness needs to
be higher then 0.5 and lower then 12.7 mm, and the 45o and 45o plies need to be balanced.
Uy,Uz =0
Corner
Ux, Uz =0
All Nodes
F = 60000N
Uz =0
Corner
Problem description
Model Information
On the left hand extreme is applied a uniform force of 60000 N the other extreme is
fixed as showed on the image bellow.
Geometry:
o
One load case:
o
(L = 457.2 mm, b = 152.4 mm, Thk = 12.7 mm/ply, diam. = 12.7 mm)
Force = 60000 N
Material:
E1 = 1.3e5MPa
E2 = E3 = 9850MPa
G12 = G13 = 3450MPa
G23 = 3100MPa
12 = 13 = 0.3
23 = 0.36
Problem Setup
You should copy these Files: Finite_Plate_with_hole.hm;
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Step 1: Open the HyperMesh database Finite_Plate_with_hole.hm.
This is 2D finite element model of a composite plate with 4 supper plies (0, 90, 45
and 45 degree) where each super ply has 12.7 mm of thickness. On the left rand side is
applied a constant distributed force on all nodes where the sum is 60000 N.
For an isotropic linear material the normal stress far from the hole would be:
S ref =
F
60000
=
= 7.75 MPa
Area 4 * 12.7 * 152.4
It appear to be a simple model, and for an isotropic material this is true, but when this
plate is a composite laminate with different angles this problem became much more
complex. As we can see on the approximated diagram showed below for a single ply with
the fiber align o different angles, the max stress values as showed bellow will be very
dependent of the angle, and the concentration factor can be more than 6 times for example
to a ply with 0o:
MAX Principal Stress
8.00
Smax/Sref(0o)
Smax/Sref(90o)
Smax/Sref(45o)
Smax/Sref(45o)
6.00
Sref
Smax/Sref
4.00
2.00
0.00
0.0
30.0
60.0
90.0
120.0
150.0
180.0
2.00
4.00
Theta
Stress variation around a hole for an infinite plate under constant stress.
The values on this plot may be used as reference to test if your mesh is refined
enough to capture the concentration effect, to reproduce it your laminate may be formed
with a unique ply angle. On our simple case the plies with different angles are mounted
together to form a laminate and on it the concentration factor is even higher.
Step 2: Run the analyses.
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Sref
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Step 3: Compare the stress values you have got with the values showed
below:
S1 Normal Stress on material fiber direction
Max stress on ply with angle zero.
Try to reproduce this curve on HyperGraph using the HV contour and Query to
export the values. Your model has already sets to make it easy.
Hints:
o Export the maximum principal S1 and the minimum principal S3 from HV.
o Export the nodes coordinates from HV. (Stress_nodes)
o Determine the coordinate of a element mid node (lininterp)
[ElemX]
X = NODE_NUM[0:178:1]
Y=lininterp(NODE_NUM,X_node,x)
[ElemY]
X =
NODE_NUM[0:178:1] Y=lininterp(NODE_NUM,Y_node,x)
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o
o
Determine the angle. (atan)
90atan(ElemX/ElemY)*180/PI
Use the logical function to get the maximum stress based on module of them.
SP1.y*((abs(SP1.y)abs(SP3.y))>0)+SP3.y*((abs(SP1.y)abs(SP3.y))<=0)
Now extract the optimization relative values:
1. Maximum strain for each ply:
o
Ply 1 ( 0 ) = 9.66 x104 (mm/mm)
Ply 2 (90 ) = 8.14 x104 (mm/mm)
Ply 3 (45 ) = 9.63 x104 (mm/mm)
Ply 2 (45 ) = 1.23 x103 (mm/mm)
2. Total compliance = __4873_ Nmm
3. Total Volume = __3.53 x106 _ mm3
* If you are using a second monitor, take advantage of your output file and copy the
values using Ctrl C.
It is important to run an initial analysis to understand the model solution. If the responses
are far from the desired values, the model need to be modified or the optimization
problem redefined. It is very important at this point the user validate the problem and
understands if the optimization setup that is going to be performed makes sense. On the
end of this exercise we will show some important aspects that the engineer should be
careful to get a meaningful optimized result.
Before performing the optimization, check if the pcomp is defined using SMEAR, it will
make the optimization run much more efficient.
Step 4: Define the FREE SIZE design variable for the design region.
It is a good procedure to save the HM database now with the optimization suffix.
With it the user can always recover the analysis model for further studies.
FREE SIZE desvar definition
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Step 5: Define the FREE SIZE design parameters.
Step 6: Define the total volume response.
Step 8: Define the total compliance response.
Step 9: Define the maximum compliance admissible.
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Step 11: Define minimize the total volume as objective.
Step 12: ADD the FREESIZE to SIZE output finite element model.
This card will make OptiStruct on the end of the Freesize optimization export the input
file with a predefined a size optimization. This file correspond to the second phase of
composite optimization, to learn more about this the student should attend the
HyperWorks composite training.
Step 13: Submit the optimization run.
Job submission panel (It should take ~ 15 minutes to complete)
If time is a concern, there is a coarse mesh on the same directory that would take only a couple
of minutes to run.
Step 14: Open the results on HV and answer these questions:
1. Have the solution converged to a feasible solution?
2. How much iteration it has taken to converge and how much is changed on volume?
3. Plot the contour of the thickness of each ply angle on the last iteration. Does it looks like
a manufacturable part?
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Ply thickness
4. On HyperMesh Import the model for size optimization and plot the plies.
0o plies shape
90o plies shape
45o and 45o plies shape
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Important remarks:
1. At the run directory exist a file called Finite_Plate_with_hole_optimization_sizing.#.fem
that is the model prepared to size optimization with the plies already defined using
PCOMPPPLYSTACK approach.
2. It is important to remove the small segments or ill defined shapes to make it meaningful.
3. The best way to plot the layers is importing the size model on HyperMesh and using
the mask function isolate the specific ply.
4. On HyperWorks was developed a complete process to optimize composite structures,
and this process is described trough the exercise A.1 on the end of this manual.
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4 Design Interpretation OSSmooth
OSSmooth is a semiautomated design interpretation software, facilitating the
recovery of a modified geometry resulting from a structural optimization, for further use in
the design process. The tool has two incarnations; a standalone version that comes with
the OptiStruct installation, and a dependent version that is embedded in HyperMesh.
OSSmooth has several uses, it can be used to:
o
Interpret topology optimization results, creating an isodensity
boundary surface (Isosurface).
Interpret topography optimization results, creating beads or
swages on the design surface.
Recover and smooth geometry resulting from a shape
optimization.
Reduce the amount of surface data from a given set of triangular
patches by combining smaller patches.
Smooth surface data given as triangular patches.
The following flowchart provides an overview of how OSSmooth works to interpret
optimization results from OptiStruct:
OSSmooth requires a parameter file (generally has the file extension .oss) to run.
This parameter file may be generated by the OSSmooth panel in HyperMesh or it may be
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generated manually through a text editor. At the completion of an optimization run,
OptiStruct automatically exports an OSSmooth parameter file <prefix>.oss with certain
default settings depending on the type of optimization run.
In addition to the parameter file, OSSmooth also requires the input file
(<prefix>.fem), the shape file (<prefix>.sh), and/or the grid file (<prefix>.grid)
from an OptiStruct run. The grid file <prefix>.grid contains the grid point locations after
a topography or shape optimization and is output at the end of a topography or shape
optimization run. The shape file, <prefix>.sh, contains the element density information of
a topology optimization and is output at the end of an optimization run.
Note: OSSmooth currently does not recognize OptiStruct longformat input data. A possible
workaround for this problem is to import the longformat input file into HyperMesh
and export it using the regular OptiStruct template before running OSSmooth.
The interpreted design from OSSmooth can be exported as a finite element mesh in the bulk
data format, as IGES surfaces, as a stereolithography file, or as a Hyper3D file.
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4.1 OSSmooth Input Data
input_file
example
# Identifies the files to be interpreted by OSSmooth.
output_file
example.nas
# Name of the file to be output by OSSmooth.
output_code
# Identifies the type of output.
units
autobead
(one argument)
arg1 The file name (without extension).
(one argument)
arg1 Full name of the file output by OSSmooth.
(two arguments)
arg1 Output format for isosurface [default=3] :
(1) Nastran (2) IGES (3) STL (4) H3D
arg2 Output control for tetmeshing [Default: no tet.]
(1) Tetra4 + Tria3 (2) Tetra10 + Tria6 (3) Tetra4
(4) Tetra10
(one argument) [default =1]
(1) inch (2) mm (4) foot
(6) m
(10) cm
(three arguments)
arg1 Operation flag:
(0 ) autobead off
( 1 ) autobead on
arg2 Threshold value for creating autobead.
Real between 0.0 and 1,0, default = 0.3.
arg3 Bead layer[integer] [default =1]
( 1 ) Create 1 layer bead ( 2 ) create 2 layers bead
isosurface
0.3
(three arguments)
# Generate threshold surface from a topology
optimization by applying automatic geometry
creation.
arg1 Operation flag [integer]: [default = 1]
( 0 ) isosurface off ( 1 ) isosurface on
arg2 Type of surface created [integer]: [default = 3]
( 0 ) isosurface only ( 1 ) isosurface with
Optimizationbased smoothing ( 2 ) Element
threshold surface ( 3 ) isosurface with Laplacian
smoothing
arg3 Density threshold for creating isosurface.
[real, between 0.0 and 1.0, default = 0.3]
opti_smoothing
(two arguments)
# Optimizationbased smoothing [Only used if
isosurface arg2=1].
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arg1 Unitless surface distance coefficient
[real, default = 0.0] Defines closeness of the
smooth surface from the threshold surface.
arg2 Smooth isosurface boundary flag [integer]:
( 0 ) boundary not included in smoothing
[default]
( 1 ) boundary included in smoothing
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laplacian_smoothing 10 20.0 0
(three arguments)
# Laplacian smoothing [Only used if isosurface
arg3=3].
arg1 Number of iteration for Laplacian smoothing
[integer >= 0, default = 10]
arg2 Feature angle threshold in degrees
[real, default = 30.0]
arg3 Smooth isosurface boundary flag [integer]:
( 0 ) boundary not included in smoothing
( 1 ) boundary included in smoothing [default]
remesh
(one argument)
# Remeshes the region surrounding the recovered
geometry to facilitate smooth mesh transition. [Only
available in the HyperMesh integrated version].
arg1 Remesh autobead surface or/and isosurface
flag [integer]:
( 0 ) remesh off [default]
( 1 ) remesh on
surface_reduction
(two arguments)
1 5.0
# Reduces the number of surfaces representing the
geometry. Can reduce the number of surfaces by
up to 80%.
pure_surf_smoothing 1 5 20.0
# Surface smoothing only.
arg1 Surface reduction flag [integer]:
( 0 ) no surface reduction [default]
( 1 ) do surface reduction
arg2 Feature angle threshold in degrees
[real, default = 10.0]
(three arguments)
arg1 Pure surface smoothing flag [integer]:
( 0 ) no surface smoothing [default]
( 1 ) Optimizationbased smoothing
( 2 ) Laplacian smoothing
arg2 Number of iteration [Only used if G1=2]
[integer >= 0, default = 10]
arg3 Feature angle threshold in degrees [Only used if
G1=2]
[real, default = 30.0]
pure_surf_reduction
(two arguments)
# Surface reduction only.
arg1 Pure surface reduction flag [integer]:
( 0 ) no surface reduction [default]
( 1 ) do surface reduction
arg2 Feature angle threshold in degrees
[real, default = 10.0]
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OSS Example Input File
Statement
Description
input_file example
Identifies the root of the input files as example, so
OSSmooth will look for the files example.fem,
example.grid, and example.sh.
output_file example.stl
The resulting output will be example.stl.
output_code 3
The output will be in stereolithography format.
autobead 1 0.3 1
Topography results will be interpreted using the
autobead feature with a threshold value of 30%
creating single depth beads.
isosurface 1 3 0.3
Topology results will be interpreted by creating an isodensity boundary surface with at a density value of
30% and smooth using laplacian smoothing.
laplacian_smoothing 10 30 1
The laplacian smoothing will run for 10 iterations,
consider a feature angle of 30degrees and including
the boundary in the smoothing.
remesh 1
The two rows of elements around the recovered
geometry will be remeshed in an attempt to smooth the
mesh transition.
4.2 Running OSSmooth
To run OSSmooth from the HyperMesh solver panel:
1. From the pulldown menu Tools > Solver.
2. Click the switch and select OSSmooth.
3. After input file:, enter <prefix>.oss.
4. Click solve.
To run OSSmooth from the HyperMesh ossmooth panel:
1. Select the OSSmooth panel on the post page.
2. Select the OptiStruct input file <prefix.fem> using the file= browser.
3. Edit the OSSmooth input data by making selections on the screen.
4. Click OSSmooth.
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This will write a new <prefix.oss> file with the screen settings, run OSSmooth, and load
the geometry recovered by OSSmooth if the data format is IGES, STL, or Nastran.
4.3 Interpretation of Topography Optimization Results
The autobead feature of OSSmooth allows OptiStruct topography optimization
results to be interpreted as one or two level beads. The following figure shows the level of
detail captured in both cases; while the 2level approach captures more details, it is more
complicated to manufacture than the 1level interpretation, often without significant
performance gain.
Autobead interpretation of topography optimization result.
One example of postprocessing of topography optimization is shown below with the
following parameter setting in the OSSmooth parameter file:
#general parameters
input_file
output_file
output_code
decklid
decklid.fem
1
#specific parameters
autobead
remesh
1
1
0.300
Autobead result from topography optimization.
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Some topography performances are relying on the half translation part. OSSmooth can
interpolate topography optimization results to 2layer autobead (autobead third argument 2).
Here is one example of creating 2layer autobead with the following parameter setting in the
OSSmooth parameter file:
#general parameters
input_file
output_file
output_code
decklid
decklid.nas
1
#specific parameters
autobead
0.300
2layer autobead result from topography optimization.
4.4 Shape Optimization Results, Surface Reduction and Surface
Smoothing
OSSmooth may also be used to reduce and smooth surfaces or the surfaces of a domain.
The parameter statements pure_surf_reduction and pure_surf_smoothing may be used
for this purpose.
The file defined by input_file must be in the OptiStruct bulk data format, and
OSSmooth can smooth the surface or the surfaces of a domain of the model.
The usage of in the OSSmooth parameter file is as follows:
#general parameters
input_file
output_file
output_code
surf
surf.stl
3
#specific parameters
pure_surf_smoothing
pure_surf_reduction
2
1
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10.000
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Exercise 4.6 OSSmooth surfaces from a topology
optimization
The purpose of this exercise is to export from HyperMesh the optimized control arm
obtained using topology optimization from exercise 4.2. The IGES format was chosen to
make it easy tor imported in any CAD system.
Design proposed by OptiStruct
Problem Setup
You should copy these Files: CONTROL_ARM_opt.fem, CONTROL_ARM_opt.oss,
CONTROL_ARM_opt.sh;
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Step 1: Launch HyperMesh and Set the User Profile to OptiStruct
Step 2: Define the right configuration parameters at the file
CONTROL_ARM_opt.oss.
input_file
CONTROL_ARM_opt
output_file
CONTROL_ARM_opt.igs
output_code
2
density_threshold
0.3
surface_reduction
1
units
2
#IGES
#ISO value
#Reduction ON
#mm
Step 3: From the pulldown menu Tools > Solver.
Step 4: Select OSSmooth as solver and select the CONTROL_ARM_opt.oss as
input file.
Step 4: Import the IGES file to check if it is as expected.
IGES geometry resulting.
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Chapter 5
Fine Tuning Design
1 Size Optimization
OptiStruct has the capability of performing size optimization. Size optimization can be
performed simultaneously with the other types of optimization.
In size optimization, the properties of structural elements such as shell thickness, beam
crosssectional properties, spring stiffness, and mass are modified to solve the optimization
problem.
Defining size variables in OptiStruct is done very similarly to other size optimization codes.
Each size variable is defined using a DESVAR bulk data entry. If a discrete design variable
is desired, a DDVAL bulk data entry needs to be referenced for the design variable values.
The DESVAR cards are related to size properties in the model using a DVPREL1 or
DVPREL2 bulk data entry. Each DVPREL bulk data entry must reference at least one
DESVAR bulk data entry to be active during the optimization. HyperWorks includes a preprocessor called HyperMesh that can be used to set up any number of size variables for the
properties.
The following responses are currently available as the objective or as constraint functions:
Mass
Volume
Center of Gravity
Moment of Inertia
Static Compliance
Static Displacement
Natural Frequency
Buckling Factor
Static Stress, Strain, Forces
Static Composite Stress,
Strain, Failure Index
Frequency Response Displacement,
Velocity, Acceleration
Frequency Response Stress,
Strain, Forces
Weighted Compliance
Weighted Frequency
Combined Compliance Index
Function
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1.1 Design Variables for Size Optimization
In finite elements, the behavior of structural elements (as opposed to continuum elements),
such as shells, beams, rods, springs, and concentrated masses, are defined by input
parameters, such as shell thickness, crosssectional properties, and stiffness. Those
parameters are modified in a size optimization. Some structural elements have several
parameters depending on each other; like beams in which the area, moments of inertia, and
torsional constants depend on the geometry of the crosssection.
The property itself is not the design variable in size optimization, but the property is defined
as a function of design variables. The simplest definition, as defined by the designvariabletoproperty relationship DVPREL1, is a linear combination of design variables defined on a
DESVAR statement such that:
p = C0 + DVi Ci
where p is the property to be optimized, and Ci are linear factors associated to the design
variable DVi.
Using the equation utility DEQATN, more complicated functional dependencies using even
trigonometric functions can be established. Such designvariabletoproperty relations are
then defined using the DVPREL2 statement.
For a simple gage optimization of a shell structure, the designvariabletoproperty
relationship turns into
t = DVi
where the gage thickness t is identical to the design variable.
If a discrete design variable is desired, a DDVAL bulk data entry needs to be referenced on
the DESVAR bulk data entry for the design variable values.
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Exercise 5.1 Size Optimization of a Rail Joint
This exercise demonstrates how to perform a size optimization on an automobile rail joint
modeled with shell elements. The structural model with loads and constraints applied is
shown in the figure below. The deflection at the end of the tubular crossmember should be
limited. The optimal solution would use as little material as possible.
Structural model of a rail joint.
The structural model, shown above, is loaded into HyperMesh. The constraints, loads,
material properties, and subcases (loadsteps) are already defined in the model. Size design
variables and optimization parameters are defined, and OptiStruct is used to determine the
optimal gauges for the components. The results are then reviewed in HyperView.
The optimization problem for this tutorial is stated as:
Objective:
Minimize volume.
Constraints: A given maximum nodal displacement at the loading grid point for two loading
conditions.
Design variables:
Gauges of the two parts.
Problem Setup
You should copy this file: joint_size.hm.
Step 1: Launch HyperMesh, set the User Profile and Retrieve the File
1. Launch HyperMesh.
2. Choose the OptiStruct user profile dialog and click OK.
This loads the user profile. It includes the appropriate template, macro menu, and
import reader, paring down the functionality of HyperMesh to what is relevant for
generating models in Bulk Data Format for RADIOSS and OptiStruct. The User
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Profiles GUI can also be accessed from the Preferences pulldown menu on the
toolbar. Select the optimization panel on the Analysis page.
3. From the toolbar, select Open Model
4. Select the joint_size.hm file.
5. Click Open.
Step 2: Create the Size Design Variables for Optimization
1. From the Analysis page, select the optimization panel.
2. Click on the size panel.
3. Make sure the desvar subpanel is selected using the radio buttons on the lefthand side
of the panel.
4. Click desvar = and enter tube.
5. Click initial value = and enter 1.0.
6. Click lower bound = and enter 0.1.
7. Click upper bound = and enter 5.0.
8. Make sure the move limit toggle is set to move limit default.
9. Make sure the discrete design variable (ddval) toggle is set to no ddval.
10. Click create.
A design variable, tube, has been created. The design variable has an initial value of
1.0, a lower bound of 0.1, and an upper bound of 5.0.
11. Repeat steps 4 through 10 to create the design variable rail using the same initial
value, lower, and upper bounds.
A design variable, rail, has been created. The design variable has an initial value of 1.0,
a lower bound of 0.1, and an upper bound of 5.0.
12. Select the generic property subpanel using the radio buttons on the lefthand side of
the panel.
13. Click Name = and enter tube_th.
14. Click prop and select tube2 from the list of property collectors.
15. Make sure the toggle is set to Thickness T.
16. Click designvars.
The list of design variables appears.
17. Check the box next to tube.
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Note the linear factor (value is box beside tube) automatically gets set to 1.000.
18. Click return.
19. Click create.
A design variable to property relationship, tube_th, has been created relating the design
variable tube to the thickness entry on the PSHELL card for the property tube2.
20. Repeat steps 13 through 19 to create the design variable to property relationship
rail_th relating the design variable rail to the thickness entry on the PSHELL card for
the property tube1.
21. Click return to go to the optimization panel.
Step 3: Create the Volume and Static Displacement Response
A detailed description can be found in the OptiStruct User's Guide under Responses.
1. Enter the responses panel.
2. Click response = and enter volume.
3. Click the response type: switch and select volume from the popup menu.
4. Ensure the regional selection is set to total (this is the default).
5. Click create.
A response, volume, is defined for the total volume of the model.
6. Click response = and enter X_Disp.
7. Click the response type: switch and select static displacement from the popup menu.
8. Click nodes and select by id from the popup menu.
9. Enter 3143 (node at center of rigid spider at loading point) and press Enter.
10. Select dof1 and click create.
A response, X_Disp, is defined for the xdisplacement of the node 3143.
11. Click response = and enter Z_Disp.
12. Click nodes and select by id from the popup menu.
13. Enter 3143 (node at center of rigid spider at loading point) and press Enter.
14. Select dof3 and Click create.
A response, Z_Disp, is defined for the zdisplacement of the node 3143.
15. Click return to go to the optimization panel.
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Step 4: Create Constraints on Displacement Response
A response defined as the objective cannot be constrained. In this case, you cannot
constrain the response volume.
Upper bound constraints are to be defined for the responses X_Disp and Z_Disp.
1. Enter the dconstraints panel.
2. Click constraint = and enter Disp_X.
3. Check the box for upper bound =.
4. Click upper bound = and enter 0.9.
5. Click response = and select X_Disp from the list of responses.
A loadsteps button should appear in the panel.
6. Click loadsteps.
7. Check the box next to FORCE_X and click select.
8. Click create.
A constraint is defined on the response X_Disp. The constraint is an upper bound with a
value of 0.9. The constraint applies to the subcase FORCE_X.
9. Click constraint = and enter Disp_Z.
10. Check the box for upper bound =.
11. Click upper bound = and enter 1.6.
12. Click response = and select Z_Disp from the list of responses.
13. Click loadsteps.
14. Check the box next to FORCE_Z and click select.
15. Click create.
A constraint is defined on the response Z_Disp. The constraint is an upper bound with a
value of 1.6. The constraint applies to the subcase FORCE_Z.
16. Click return to go to the optimization panel.
Step 5: Define the Objective Function
In this example, the objective is to minimize the volume response defined in the previous
section.
1. Click objective to enter the panel.
2. The switch in the left should be set to min.
3. Click response = and select volume from the response list.
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4. Click create.
The objective function is now defined.
5. Click return to go to the optimization panel.
Step 6: Save the HyperMesh Database
1. Select the Files panel toolbar button.
2. Click save as
3. Select the directory where you would like to save the database and enter the name for
the database, joint_sizeOPT.hm, in the File name: field.
4. Click save.
Step 7: Run the Optimization Problem
1. From the Analysis page, select the OptiStruct panel.
2. Click save as
3. Select the directory where you would like to write the model file and enter the name for
the file name, joint_sizeOPT.fem, in the File name: field.
The .fem file name is used for OptiStruct input decks.
4. Click Save.
Note the name and location of the joint_sizeOPT.fem file displays in the input file:
field.
5. Set the export options: toggle to all.
6. Click the run options: switch and select optimization.
7. Set the memory options: toggle to memory default.
8. Click OptiStruct to run the optimization.
This launches the OptiStruct job. If the job was successful, new results files can be seen
in the directory where the OptiStruct model file was written. The joint_sizeOPT.out
file is a good place to look for error messages that will help to debug the input deck if
any errors are present.
These are some important results files for Size Optimization:
Step 8: View the Size Optimization Results (gauge thickness)
1. Once you see the message Process completed successfully in the command window,
click the HyperView button.
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HyperView will launch and the results will be loaded. A message window appears to
inform about the successful loading of the model and result files into HyperView. Notice
that all three h3d files get loaded, each into a different page in HyperView. Files
joint_sizeOPT_des.h3d, joint_sizeOPT_s1.h3d, and
joint_sizeOPT_s2.h3d get loaded in page 1, page 2, and page 3 respectively. The
optimization iteration results (gauge thickness) are loaded in the first page. Note that the
name of the page is displayed as Design History to indicate that the results correspond
to optimization iterations.
2. Click Close to close the message window.
3. Click the Contour
toolbar button.
4. Make sure the first pulldown list below Result type: is Element Thicknesses (s).
5. Make sure the second pulldown list is on Thickness.
6. Make sure the field below Averaging method is None.
7. The left side of the HyperView GUI is the results browser, and at the top of the browser
are the Load Case and Simulation selection dropdown boxes.
8. In the iteration list, scroll down to the last iteration and choose the last for e.g.: Iteration
[3] and click OK.
9. Click Apply.
A contoured image representing shell thickness should be visible. Each element in the
model is assigned a legend color, indicating the thickness value for that element for the
current iteration.
Thickness contour at last iteration
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Step 9: View the Displacement Results
It is helpful to view the deformations of the model to determine if the boundary conditions
have been met and also to see if the model is deforming as expected. These analysis
results are available in pages 2 and 3.
1. Click the Next Page
toolbar button to move to the second page.
The second page, which has results loaded from the file joint_sizeOPT_s1.h3d, is
displayed. Note that the name of the page is displayed as Subcase 1 FORCE_X to
indicate that the results correspond to subcase 1.
2. Set the animation mode to Linear Static.
3. Click the Contour
toolbar button.
4. Select the first pulldown menu below Result type: and select Displacement [v].
5. Select the second pulldown menu and select X.
6. Click on Apply.
The resulting contours represent the x component displacement field resulting from the
applied loads and boundary conditions.
7. Click the Measure
toolbar button.
8. Click Add to add a new measure group.
The Measure panel helps measure different results. Here, we will measure the
displacement at node 3143 for which we have constrained the displacement.
9. Click the pulldown menu and select Nodal Contour as shown below.
10. Click on Nodes, which opens a new window to select nodes By ID.
11. Click By ID to open a new window.
12. Enter 3143 in the field next to Node ID and click Ok.
The xdisplacement value for 3143 (center of rigid spider, where loading is applied) is
shown in the graphic area. Note that the xdisplacement is larger than the upper bound
constraint, which was defined earlier, of 0.9.
13. In the Load Case and Simulation selection dropdown, select the last iteration by
double clicking on the last Iteration #.
The contour now shows the xdisplacement results for Subcase 1 (FORCE_X) and
iteration 4, which corresponds to the end of the optimization iterations. Note that the xdisplacement is now less than 0.9.
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Displacement on Xdirection for the XForce load case at the last iteration
14. Click the Next Page
button again to move to the third page.
The third page shows results loaded from the joint_sizeOPT_s2.h3d file. Note that
the name of the page is displayed as Subcase 2 Force_Z to indicate that the results
correspond to subcase 2.
15. Click the Contour
toolbar button.
16. Select the first pulldown menu below Result type: and select Displacement [v].
17. Select the second pulldown menu and select Z.
18. Click on Apply.
The resulting contours represent the z component displacement field resulting from the
applied loads and boundary conditions.
19. Repeat steps 8 through 14 to measure and display the zdisplacement value for node
3143.
Z Displacement for ZForce load case at the last iteration
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1. The solution converged to a feasible solution?
2. How much iteration it has take to converge and how much is the final volume of the
part?
3. What are the resulting gauges for the rail and tube?
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Exercise 5.2 Discrete Size Optimization of a Welded Bracket
This exercise demonstrates how to perform a size optimization on a welded bracket
modeled with shell elements using discrete design variables. The structural model with
loads and constraints applied is shown in the figure below. The objective is to minimize the
amount of material used in the model subject to certain stress specifications.
The structural model, as shown in the figure, is loaded into HyperMesh. The constraints,
loads, material properties, and subcases (loadsteps) are already defined in the model. Size
design variables and optimization parameters are defined, and OptiStruct is used to
determine the optimal gauges. The results are then reviewed in HyperView.
The optimization problem is stated as:
Objective:
Minimize volume.
Constraints: Maximum von Mises stress of the brackets < 120 MPa.
Design variables:
Gauges of the brackets.
Problem Setup
You should copy this file: bracket_size.hm.
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Step 1: Launch HyperMesh, set the User Profile, and Retrieve the Database
File
1. Launch HyperMesh.
2. Choose OptiStruct in the User Profile dialog and click OK.
User Profiles can also be accessed from the Preferences pulldown menu on the
toolbar.
3. From the toolbar, select Open Model.
4. Browse for and select bracket_size.hm file.
5. Click Open.
The bracket_size.hm database is loaded into the current HyperMesh session,
replacing any existing data.
Step 2: Create the Design Variables
1. From the Analysis page, click optimization to enter the panel.
2. Select discrete dvs to enter this panel.
3. Click on the field next to name= and enter DDV1.
4. Click on the field next to from= and enter the value 0.5. With the same method, enter
3.0 for to= and 0.1 for increment=. The tab key can be used for faster inputs.
5. Click create.
This sets up a discrete design variable with a starting value of 0.5 and ending value of
3.0. The variables are incremented by 0.1, making the possible values as 0.5, 0.6, 0.7,
and so on until 3.0.
6. Create another discrete design variable, DDV2, with the same discrete values as DDV1.
7. Click return to go back to the optimization panel.
8. Select the size panel.
9. Select the desvar subpanel using the radio buttons on the lefthand side of the panel.
10. Click desvar = and enter part1.
11. Click initial value = and enter 2.5.
12. Click lower bound = and enter 0.5.
13. Click upper bound = and enter 3.0.
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14. Toggle no ddval to ddval =.
15. Click ddval= and select DDV1 from the list.
16. Click create.
A design variable, part1, has been created. The design variable has an initial value of
2.5, a lower bound of 0.5, and an upper bound of 3.0 and is linked to a DDVAL (Discrete
Design Variable Value) of the name DDV1.
17. Repeat steps 10 through 16 to create the design variable part2 using the same initial
value, lower, and upper bounds, linking it to a DDVAL of name DDV2.
18. Select the generic property subpanel using the radio buttons on the lefthand side of
the panel.
19. Click dvprel = and enter part1_th.
20. Click the entity selection switch and choose prop.
21. Click prop and select part1 from the list of component collectors.
22. A property selection switch now appears below the prop button.
23. Click the property selection switch and select Thickness T from the popup menu.
24. Click on designvars.
The list of design variables appears.
25. Check the box next to part1.
26. Note that the linear factor (value in box beside part1) automatically gets set to 1.000.
27. Click return.
28. Click create.
A design variable to property relationship, part1_th, has been created, relating the
design variable part1 to the thickness entry on the PSHELL card for the component
part1.
29. Repeat steps 19 through 26 to create the design variable to property relationship
part2_th, relating the design variable part2 to the thickness entry on the PSHELL card
for the component part2.
30. Click return to go to the Optimization Setup panel.
Step 3: Create the Responses
A detailed description can be found in the OptiStruct User's Guide under Responses.
1. Select the responses panel.
2. Click response = and enter volume.
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3. Click the response type: switch and select volume from the popup menu.
4. Click create.
A response, volume, is defined for the total volume of the model.
5. Click response = and enter stress1.
6. Click the response type: switch and select static stress from the popup menu.
7. Click props.
8. Click one of the green shell elements in the graphics window to select the component
part1.
9. Click select.
A stress type selector switch appears.
10. Click the stress type selector switch and select von mises from the popup menu.
11. Click the selector switch below the stress selector and choose the both surfaces option.
12. Click create.
A response, stress1, is defined for the von Mises stress of the elements in the
component part1.
13. Click response = and enter stress2.
14. Click props.
15. Click one of the pink shell elements in the graphics window to select the component
part2.
16. Click select.
17. Click create.
A response, stress2, is defined for the von Mises stress of the elements in the
component part2.
18. Click return to go to the Optimization Setup panel.
Step 4: Create Constraints
A response defined as the objective cannot be constrained. In this case, you cannot
constrain the response volume.
Upper bound constraints are to be defined for the responses stress1 and stress2.
1. Select the dconstraints panel.
2. Click constraint = and enter stress1.
3. Click response = and select stress1 from the list of responses.
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A loadsteps button should appear in the panel.
4. Click loadsteps.
5. Check the box next to STEP and click select.
6. Check the box next to upper bound =.
7. Click upper bound = and enter 100.
8. Click create.
A constraint is defined on the response stress1. The constraint is an upper bound with a
value of 100. The constraint applies to the subcase STEP.
9. Click constraint = and enter stress2.
10. Click response = and select stress2 from the list of responses.
11. Click loadsteps.
12. Check the box next to STEP and click select.
13. Check the box next to upper bound =.
14. Click upper bound = and enter 120.
15. Click create.
A constraint is defined on the response stress2. The constraint is an upper bound with a
value of 120. The constraint applies to the subcase STEP.
16. Click return twice to go to the main menu.
Step 5: Define the Objective Function
In this example, the objective is to minimize the volume response defined in the previous
section.
1. Select the objective panel.
2. Click the switch in the upper left corner of the panel, and select min from the popup
menu.
3. Click response = and select volume from the response list.
4. Click create.
The objective function is now defined.
5. Click return to return to the Optimization Setup panel.
Step 6: Submit the Job
1. From the Analysis page, select OptiStruct to enter the panel.
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2. Click save as.
3. Select the directory where you would like to write the OptiStruct model file and enter the
name for the model, discrete_bracket_size.fem, in the file: field.
.fem is the suggested extension for OptiStruct input decks.
4. Click Save.
Note the name and location of the discrete_bracket_size.fem file displays in the
input file: field.
5. Set the export options: toggle to all.
6. Click the run options: switch and select optimization.
7. Set the memory options: toggle to memory default.
8. Click OptiStruct.
This launches the OptiStruct job. If the job was successful, new results files can be seen
in the directory where the OptiStruct model file was written. The bracket_size.out
file is a good place to look for error messages that will help to debug the input deck if
any errors are present.
Step 7: View the Stress Results
After the size optimization, the stress value should be reviewed to make sure that the stress
constraints are not violated. The analysis results are available on page 2 (the first page has
the optimization results).
1. Once you see the message Process completed successfully in the command window,
click the green HyperView button.
This launches HyperView and opens the results. A message window appears to inform
about the successful loading of the model and result files into HyperView. Notice that all
of the h3d files get loaded, each into a different page in HyperView. The files
discrete_bracket_size_des.h3d and discrete_bracket_size_s2.h3d get
loaded in page 1 and page 2, respectively.
2. Click Close to close the message window.
3. Click the Next Page toolbar button
to move to the second page.
The second page has the results loaded from the discrete_bracket_size_s1.h3d
file. Note that the name of the page is displayed as Subcase 1 STEP to indicate that
the results correspond to subcase 1.
4. Click the Contour toolbar button
5. Select the first pulldown menu below Result type: and select Element Stresses [2D &
3D] (t).
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6. From the second pulldown menu, select vonMises.
7. Select None in the field below Averaging method:.
8. Click Apply.
Von Mises contour for the initial design
A contoured image representing von Mises stresses should be visible. Each element in
the model is assigned a legend color, indicating the von Mises stress value for that
element resulting from the applied loads and boundary conditions. If you did not change
the Iteration step you should be contouring the stress of the initial step. To contour the
final step, set the last iteration of that loadcase using the Status Bar.
The Load Case and Simulation Selection area is located to the top of the results browser
on the left hand side of the GUI.
9. Click the last Iteration # in the Simulation: list.
Notice only two iterations are displayed; the First and Last (FL) is the default setting for
optimization runs. To change this setting, add an OUTPUT control card with a frequency
setting of ALL.
10. Click OK.
This will now contour your final iteration of that loadcase. Review the stress to see that it
is under the proper constraints.
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Von Mises contour for the optimum design
Review
The .out file contains a summary of the optimization process. From the information in the
.out file, you can see how the objective, constraints, and design variables are changing
from one iteration to the next.
Has the volume been minimized for the given constraints?
Have the stress constraints been met?
What are the resulting gauges for the two parts?
Hints
Go to the des.h3d page, clear the contour if one was applied, set to the last simulation step
and apply the Element Thickness contour.
Append discrete_bracket_size.mvw to review objective, constraints, and other
information.
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2 Shape Optimization
OptiStruct has the capability of performing shape optimization. In shape optimization, the
outer boundary of the structure is modified to solve the optimization problem. Using finite
element models, the shape is defined by the grid point locations. Hence, shape
modifications change those locations.
Shape variables are defined in OptiStruct in a way very similar to that of other shape
optimization codes. Each shape variable is defined by using a DESVAR bulk data entry. If
a discrete design variable is desired, a DDVAL bulk data entry needs to be referenced for
the design variable values. DVGRID bulk data entries define how much a particular grid
point location is changed by the design variable. Any number of DVGRID bulk data entries
can be added to the model. Each DVGRID bulk data entry must reference an existing
DESVAR bulk data entry if it is to be a part of the optimization. The DVGRID data in
OptiStruct contains grid location perturbations, not basis shapes.
DESVAR Card Image
DESVAR
ID
LABEL
XINIT
XLB
XUB
DELXV
DV001
0.0
1.0
1.0
DVID GID
CID
COEFF
1.0
1.0
0.0
0.0
DVGRID Card Image
DVGRID
1032
The generation of the design variables and of the DVGRID bulk data entries is facilitated by
the HyperMorph utility, which is part of the Altair HyperMesh software.
The following responses are currently available as the objective or as constraint functions:
Mass
Volume
Center of Gravity
Moment of Inertia
Static Compliance
Static Displacement
Natural Frequency
Buckling Factor
Static Stress, Strain,
Forces
Static Composite Stress,
Strain, Failure Index
Frequency Response Displacement,
Velocity, Acceleration
Frequency Response
Stress, Strain, Forces
Weighted Compliance
Weighted Frequency
Combined Compliance
Index
Function
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2.1 Design Variables for Shape Optimization
In finite elements, the shape of a structure is defined by the vector of nodal coordinates (x).
In order to avoid mesh distortions due to shape changes, changes of the shape of the
structural boundary must be translated into changes of the interior of the mesh.
The two most commonly used approaches to account for mesh changes during a shape
optimization are the basis vector approach and the perturbation vector approach. Both
approaches refer to the definition of the structural shape as a linear combination of vectors.
Using the basis vector approach, the structural shape is defined as a linear combination of
basis vectors. The basis vectors define nodal locations.
x = DVi BVi
where x is the vector of nodal coordinates, BVi is the basis vector associated to the design
variable DVi.
Using the perturbation vector approach, the structural shape change is defined as a linear
combination of perturbation vectors. The perturbation vectors define changes of nodal
locations with respect to the original finite element mesh.
Description of a shape design variable
(0)
( 0)
( 0) ( 0)
(0)
Original location: X = {x1 , x2 x3 ,L , xn }
Perturbations (DVGRID): X = { x1 , x2 , x3 ,L, xn }
Magnitude of perturbations (DESVAR): = {1 , 2 , 3 ,L, n }
n
Mesh nodal movement: X = X (0) + j X j
j =1
where X is the vector of nodal coordinates, X(0) is the vector of nodal coordinates of the
initial design, Xj is the perturbation vector associated to the design variable .
The initial nodal coordinates are those defined with the GRID entity. The perturbation
vectors are defined on the DVGRID statement, which is referenced by the design variable
entity DESVAR.
If a discrete design variable is desired, a DDVAL bulk data entry needs to be referenced on
the DESVAR bulk data entry for the design variable values.
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Note:
In OptiStruct, only the perturbation vector approach is available. The DVGRID cards must
contain perturbation vectors.
2.2 HyperMorph
HyperMorph is a tool in HyperMesh to morph the shape of a finite element model in ways
that are useful, logical and intuitive. It enables rapid shape changes on the FE mesh without
severely sacrificing the mesh quality. This is a very powerful tool to automatic generate the
shape design variable described above.
2.2.1 The Three Basic Approaches to Morphing
The Domains and Handles Concept
The Domains and Handles approach involves dividing the mesh into domains containing
elements or nodes and placing handles at the corners of those domains. HyperMorph can
automatically divide the mesh into logical domains or you can manually define your own
domains and handles. When the handles are moved, the shape of the mesh changes
according to the domain boundaries. The domains and handles approach also allows for
parametric morphing of lengths, angles, radii, and arc angles as well as morphing the mesh
to match geometric data and other meshes. The domains and handles approach is the
most difficult approach to learn but it is also the most powerful. This approach is most useful
for making detailed changes to any mesh (local domains) as well as general changes to
space frame type meshes (global domains).
Morph Example using handles and domain concept
The Morph Volume Concept
The Morph Volume approach involves surrounding the mesh with one or more morph
volumes, which are highly deformable sixsided prisms. A number of methods exist to
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create the morph volumes, including single and matrix creation as well as the interactive onscreen method. Morph volumes support tangency between adjoining edges and allow for
multiple control points along their edges. Handles placed at the corners and along the
edges of the morph volumes allow for the morphing of the morph volumes which in turn
morphs the mesh inside the morph volumes. The morph volume approach is quick and
intuitive and is most useful for making large scale changes to complex meshes.
Morph Example using morph volume concept
The Freehand Concept
The Freehand approach involves morphing by moving the nodes directly without the need to
create any HyperMesh morphing entities. You define the nodes which will move, the nodes
which will stay fixed, and the affected elements, which manually allows for rapid changes to
any mesh. You have great flexibility in how the moving nodes are moved, such as
translation, rotation, and projection to geometry as well as using a tool to "sculpt" the mesh
into the desired shape. You are also able to turn node manipulations made in any panel,
such as scaling or node projection, into morphs using the record subpanel. The freehand
approach is an ideal introduction to HyperMorph since it allows morphing without the
creation of any HyperMesh morphing entities while employing the concepts of domains and
handles. The freehand approach also allows for "customized" morphing, allowing the user
to do virtually any kind of morphing.
At online documentation the user can find a complete description about HyperMorph and
how this tool can be used to generate shape design variable to OptiStruct. Here for
convenience we will use during the next exercise only the first approach.
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Exercise 5.3 Cantilever Lbeam Shape Optimization
This tutorial focuses on performing a shape optimization on an Lsection cantilever beam
modeled with shell elements. A schematic is shown in the figure. The vertical deflection at
point N should be limited to 2.0mm while minimizing the amount of material required.
Cantilever Lbeam schematic
The optimization problem for this exercise is stated as:
Objective:
Minimize mass.
Constraints: A given maximum nodal displacement < 2 mm.
Design variables:
Shape of each of the beam flanges.
Problem Setup
You should copy this file: Lbeamshape.hm.
Step 1: Launch HyperMesh and Set the User Profile
1. Launch HyperMesh.
A User Profiles dialog will appear.
2. Choose OptiStruct as the user profile and click OK.
This loads the user profile. It includes the appropriate template, macro menu, and
import reader, paring down the functionality of HyperMesh to what is relevant for
generating models in Bulk Data Format for RADIOSS and OptiStruct.
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Step 2: Retrieve the Lbeamshape.hm File
1. On the toolbar, select Open Model.
2. Select the Lbeamshape.hm file, located in model files directory.
3. Click Open.
Step 3: Creating Shapes using HyperMorph
This section makes use of HyperMorph. For a more detailed description of the functionality
of HyperMorph, please refer to the HyperMorph section of the HyperMesh documentation.
1. From Analysis page click on optimization panel.
2. Select the HyperMorph panel.
3. Select the domains panel.
4. Select the create subpanel using the radio buttons on the lefthand side of the panel.
5. Click the switch next to global domain and select the auto functions from the popup
menu.
6. Click generate on the right side of the panel.
A number of domains and handles are created which will enable us to morph the shape
of the beam.
There are two types of handles; global handles, which are represented by larger red
balls and local handles, which are represented by smaller yellow balls. We will only be
dealing with the local handles in this tutorial.
7. Click return to return to the HyperMorph panel.
8. Select the morph panel.
9. Select the move handles subpanel using the radio buttons on the left side of the panel.
10. Click the righthand switch and select translate instead of interactive from the popup
menu.
11. If the handles button is not already highlighted, click on it.
12. Select the local handle that is located at the node where the load is applied by clicking
on it in the graphics window (local handles are indicated by a yellow ball).
13. Click y val = and enter 10.0.
14. Click morph.
The beam changes shape so that the handle you selected moved 10.0 in the ydirection. Note how the mesh adjusted to this change in shape.
15. Select the save shape subpanel using the radio buttons on the left side of the panel.
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16. Click name = and enter shape1.
17. Click color and choose a color from the palette.
18. Set the toggle beneath shape = to as node perturbations.
19. Click save.
20. Say Yes to the message regarding the perturbations as shown above.
We have now saved this shape as shape1, later we can associate it to a design variable.
21. Click undo all.
The model returns to its original shape.
Figure showing handles to be morphed
22. Repeat steps 9 through 21 for the local handles 3, 4 and 5. Referring to the figure above
translate handles 3 and 4 by x=10 and handle 5 by y=10. Save the shapes after
morphing each handle as shape2, shape3 and shape4, respectively.
23. Click return twice to go to the optimization panel.
Step 3: Create Design Variables for Shape Optimization
1. On the Analysis page, in the optimization panel, select shape.
2. Select the desvar subpanel using the radio buttons on the left side of the panel.
3. Toggle the switch to multiple desvars from single desvar.
4. Click shapes, (the yellow button that appears).
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5. Check the boxes next to shape1, shape2, shape3, and shape4 and click select.
6. Click create.
Four shape design variables are created using the shapes that were saved earlier.
7. Click return to go to the optimization panel.
A potential variation in shape of the vertical flange of the Lbeam that could be achieved using the
set up described.
Step 4: Create Mass and Static Displacement for Nodes as Responses
Two responses are defined in this tutorial, a mass response for the objective function and a
displacement response for the constraint. A detailed description can be found in the
OptiStruct User's Guide under Responses.
1. Select the responses panel (accessed through the optimization panel on the Analysis
page).
2. Click response = and enter Mass.
3. Click the response type: switch and select mass from the popup menu.
4. Click create.
A response, mass, is defined for the total mass of the model.
5. Click response = and enter Disp.
6. Click the response type: switch and select static displacement from the popup menu.
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Figure showing node to be selected while defining displacement response.
7. Select the response node by clicking on the node shown in the above figure.
8. Select dof 2.
Dofs 1, 2, and 3 refer to translation in the X, Y, and Z directions.
Dofs 4, 5, and 6 refer to rotation about the X, Y, and Z axes.
9. Click create.
A response, disp, is defined for the ydisplacement of the node selected.
10. Click return to go to the optimization panel.
Step 5: Define Minimize Mass as Objective Function
In this example, the objective is to minimize the mass response defined in the previous
section.
1. Select the objective panel (accessed from the optimization panel on the Analysis
page).
2. Click the switch in the upper left corner of the panel, and select min from the popup
menu.
3. Click response = and select mass from the response list.
4. Click create.
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The objective function is now defined.
5. Click return to go to the optimization panel.
Step 6: Apply Design Constraint on Static Displacement Response
A response defined as the objective cannot be constrained (volume, in this case).
A lower bound constraint is to be defined for the displacement response defined in the
previous section.
1. Select the dconstraints panel (accessed from the optimization panel on the Analysis
page).
2. Click on constraint = and enter Constr.
3. Click response = and select Disp from the list of responses.
A loadsteps button should appear in the panel.
4. Click loadsteps.
5. Check the box next to load and click select.
6. Check the box next to lower bound =.
7. Click lower bound = and enter 2.0.
Note this is a lower bound as the response is negative
8. Click create.
A constraint is defined on the response disp. The constraint is a lower bound with a
value of 2.0. The constraint applies to the subcase Load.
9. Click return twice to go to the main menu.
Step 7: Save the Database as an hm File
1. Select the Files panel toolbar button.
2. Select the hm file subpanel.
3. Click save as to set the directory in which to save the file and, in File name:, type
lbeamshape_opt.hm.
4. Click Save.
Step 8: Run OptiStruct
1. Select the OptiStruct panel on the Analysis page.
2. Click save as following the input file: field.
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3. Select the directory where you would like to write the OptiStruct model file and enter the
name for the model, lbeamshape_opt.fem, in the File name: field.
The .fem extension is suggested for OptiStruct input decks.
4. Click Save.
Note the name and location of the lbeamshape_opt.fem file displays in the input file:
field.
5. Set the memory options: toggle, located in the center of the panel, to memory default.
6. Click the run options: switch, located at the left of the panel, and select optimization.
7. Set the export options: toggle to all.
8. Click OptiStruct.
This launches the OptiStruct job. If the job was successful, new results files can be seen
in the directory where the OptiStruct model file was written. The
lbeamshape_opt.out file is a good place to look for error messages that will help to
debug the input deck if any errors are present.
Step 9: View the Deformed Structure
It is helpful to view the deformed shape of a model to determine if the boundary conditions
have been defined correctly and also to check if the model is deforming as expected. In this
section, use the Deformed panel to review the deformed shape for the last design iteration
and a scale factor, and overlay the undeformed shape.
1. While still in the OptiStruct panel, click the green HyperView button.
2. Close the Message Log window that details the result files loaded into HyperView.
In HyperView, the loaded .h3d files contain optimization results on page 1 and analysis
results on page 2.
3. Click the Contour panel toolbar button
4. Under Result type:, select Shape change (v).
5. Click Apply.
6. From the Load Case and Simulation dropdown selector, select the last Iteration #
under Simulation.
The final shape for Iteration # can be seen.
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Step 10: View a Transient Animation of Shape contour changes
1. On the toolbar, use the Animation Mode dropdown selector to change the animation
mode to Transient
2. Click the play button
to begin the animation.
3. The Speed frame rate slider is used to adjust the animation speed. Drag the slider to
the left to slow the animation.
4. After reviewing the animation, click the stop button to stop the animation and move
Current time: back to 0.
Step 11: Plot a Contour of Displacements
1. Click the Next Page arrow to go to page 2, which contains the analysis results.
2. Click the Contour panel toolbar button.
3. Under Result type:, select Displacement (v).
4. Select the last Iteration (#) under Simulation in the Load Case and Simulation
Selection dialog.
5. Click Apply.
A plot of the displacements on your final shape should be displayed. Note that the
maximum displacements for Iteration # is still below 2.0.
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Exercise 5.4 Shape Optimization of a Rail Joint
Shape optimization requires you to have knowledge of the kind of shape you would like to
change in the structure. This may include finding the optimum shape to reduce stress
concentrations to changing the crosssections to meet specific design requirements.
Therefore, you need to define the shape modifications and the nodal movements to reflect
the shape changes. Shape optimization requires the use of two cards DESVAR and
DVGRID. They can be defined using HyperMorph. Then these cards are included in the
OptiStruct input file along with the objective function and constraints to run the shape
optimization.
In this exercise you perform a shape optimization on a railjoint. The railjoint is made of
shell elements and has one load case. The shape of the joint is modified to satisfy stress
constraints while minimizing mass.
Rail joint
The optimization problem for this exercise is stated as:
Objective: Minimize mass
Constraint: Maximum von Mises stress of the joint < 200 MPa
Design variables: Shape variables
Problem Setup
You should copy this File: rail_joint_original.hm.
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Step 1: Launch HyperMesh, Set the User Profile and Retrieve the File
1. Launch HyperMesh.
2. Choose OptiStruct in the User Profile dialog and click OK.
This loads the user profile. It includes the appropriate template, macro menu, and
import reader, paring down the functionality of HyperMesh to what is relevant for
generating models in Bulk Data Format for RADIOSS and OptiStruct.
The User Profiles GUI can also be accessed from the Preferences pulldown menu
on the toolbar.
3. From the toolbar, select Open Model.
4. Select the rail_joint_original.hm file.
Step 2: Run the Baseline Analysis
1. From the Analysis page click on Radioss.
2. Click save as, enter rail_joint_original.fem as the file name, and click Save.
3. Set the export options: toggle to all.
4. Click the run options: switch and select analysis.
5. Set the memory options: toggle to memory default.
6. Let the options: field blank.
The message Processing complete appears in the window at the completion of the
job. OptiStruct also reports error messages if any exist. The file
rail_joint_original.out can be opened in a text editor to find details regarding
any errors. This file is written to the same directory as the .fem file.
7. Close the DOS window or shell and click return.
Step 3: View the Maximum von Mises Stress
This section describes how to view the results in HyperView which will be launched from
within the OptiStruct panel of HyperMesh.
HyperView is a complete postprocessing and visualization environment for finite element
analysis (FEA), multibody system simulation, video and engineering data.
1. Once you see the message Process completed successfully in the command window,
click the HyperView button.
HyperView will launch and the results will be loaded. A message window appears to
inform about the successful loading of the model and result files into HyperView.
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2. Click Close to close the message window.
3. Click the Contour toolbar button
4. Select the first pulldown menu below Result type: and select Element Stresses [2D &
3D] (t).
5. Select the second pulldown and select von Mises.
6. Click Apply.
Von Mises stress for the Initial Design
7. Take note of the Maximum von Mises Stress of the joint and close the HyperView panel
by clicking the Previous Page button
8. Back in HyperMesh click return to exit the panel.
Step 4: Display Node Numbers
1. From Tool page, select numbers panel.
2. Click nodes and select by sets.
3. Select node set by clicking the check box to the left of node.
4. Click select.
16 nodes are highlighted on screen.
5. Click on to display node IDs.
6. Click return.
Step 5: Build 2D Domains on the Rail
1. In the Model Browser window expand the Component list.
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2. Right click on the component PSHELL and click on Isolate.
All other components are turned off for ease of visualization.
3. From the Analysis page, select the optimization panel.
4. Go to the HyperMorph panel, and select domains.
5. Toggle the radio button on the left to partitioning.
6. Verify that domain angle = 50.
7. Verify that curve tolerance = 8.0000.
8. Toggle back the radio button to create.
9. Click the switch (small triangle) and select 2D domains.
10. Toggle all elements to elems.
11. Click elems and select by sets from the popup window.
12. Check the boxes for rail_set1 and rail_set2.
13. Click select.
14. Click create.
Rail domains
Step 6: Split the Circular Edge Domains Around the Opening of the Rail
The following steps show the procedure to split each of the two circular domains (as seen in
the previous figure) into four curved edge domains.
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1. Toggle the radio button to edit edges subpanel.
2. Verify the top selector is split.
3. Click domain and select the circular edgedomain passing through nodes 1300, 1305,
1311, 1316.
4. Click node and select node 1311 from the display. Refer to the previous figure.
5. Click split.
The circular domain is split at Node 1311 and a new handle is created at node1311.
6. Select the circular edge between node 1311 and the other handle.
The edge is highlighted.
7. Click node 1316 to split the domain.
8. Similarly (as in steps 67), split the curved edge at nodes 1305 and 1300, respectively.
Refer to the previous figure.
A similar process is followed to split the circular domain using the four nodes on the
other side of the rail.
9. Click domain and select the circular domain passing through nodes 931, 926, 937 and
942.
10. Click node and select node 931 on screen.
11. Click split.
12. Select the circular edge between node 931 and the other handle.
The edge is highlighted.
13. Click node 926 to split the domain.
14. Similarly (as in steps 1114), split the curved edge at nodes 937 and 942, respectively.
The following figure shows the image after the circular edge domains are split.
Rail domains after the circular edge have been split
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Step 7: Merge Edge Domains
Each circular domain on the rail has been split at four nodes and four new handles have
been added to each circular domain. This operation results in five curved edge domains on
each circular edge on the rail. The objective is to have only four domains. The following
steps show the procedure to merge domains.
1. Toggle the left switch and select to merge edges.
2. Click the left domain below merge and select the outer red curve from node 926 to preexisting handle (refer to previous figure).
3. Click the right domain and select the outer red curve from preexisting handle to node
942.
4. Verify that retain handles is unchecked.
5. Click merge.
Notice the preexisting handle is removed.
6. Repeat steps 1 through 5 to merge two edge domains between node 1316 and node
1300 on the other side of the rail.
Rail domains after few domains are merged
Step 8: Build 2D Domains on the Tube
1. In the Model Browser window expand the Component.
2. Right click on the component PSHELL.1 and click Show.
3. Toggle back the radio button to create.
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4. Make sure the switch (small triangle) is selected to 2D domains.
5. Click elems and select by sets from the popup window.
6. Check the boxes for elem_set1.
7. Click select.
8. Click create.
9. Repeat steps 5 through 8 to create three more 2D domains for elements in sets
elem_set2, elem_set3, and elem_set4 respectively.
10. Click return and go back to the HyperMorph module.
Domains on Rail and Tube Joint
Step 9: Create Shapes
In this step, we create three shapes using the created domains and handles.
1. Click morph.
We use the alter dimensions feature in HyperMorph to modify the curvatures of
selected edge domains.
2. Toggle to alter dimensions.
3. Toggle the right switch and select curvature.
4. Toggle center calculation and change the setting to by edges.
5. Toggle the switch below and select hold ends.
Holding two ends of a selected edge domain allows a change of curvature of the
selected edge without altering its end points.
6. Leave the other settings with the defaults.
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7. Under edges only, click domains and select red edgedomains as shown in the
following figure. You might need to zoom in for easier picking operation.
8. Verify that a total of eight edge domains are selected and highlighted on screen.
Morph edge domains
9. Click curve ratio = and enter 20.
10. Click morph.
A new curvature is applied to the selected eight edge domains. See the following figure
below.
11. Toggle the radio button to save shape.
12. Click on shape =, enter the name sh1.
13. Toggle as handle perturbation to as node perturbation.
14. Click on the color button and change the color of the shape vectors or leave the default
color.
15. Click save.
Shape vectors (arrows) are created of the selected color.
16. Click undo all to prepare for the generation of the next shape.
17. Click the Model browse tab, right click on Shape and select Hide.
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First shape variable, sh1.
18. Toggle the radio button to alter dimensions.
19. Under edges only, click reset
This will clean up previous selection from buffer.
20. Click domains and select the red edge curves as shown the following figure.
Morph edge domains for the second shape.
21. Click morph.
A new curvature is applied to the selected eight edge domains. See the following figure
below.
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22. Toggle the radio button to save shape.
23. Click on shape =, enter the name sh2.
24. Toggle as handle perturbation to as node perturbation.
25. Click on the color button and change the color of the shape vectors or leave the default
color.
26. Click save.
Shape vectors (arrows) are created of the selected color.
27. Click undo all to prepare for the generation of the next shape.
28. Click the Model browse tab, right click on Shape and select Hide.
Refer to the following figure for the new shape changes.
Second shape variable, sh2.
29. Toggle the radio button to apply shapes.
In HyperMorph, a new shape can be created as a linear combination of existing shapes.
30. Click shapes and select both sh1 and sh2.
31. Click Select.
Verify that the multiplier is 1.0.
32. Click apply.
33. Toggle the radio button to save shapes.
34. Click shape = and enter sh3.
35. Make sure that the toggle is set to node perturbations.
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The new shape sh3 includes influences from both sh1 and sh2 shapes as shown in the
next figure.
36. Click save.
37. Click the Model browse tab, right click on Shape and select Hide..
Do NOT click undo all at this moment because we will create one more shape based on
this third shape change.
The third shape variable, sh3, converts the tube to a square crosssection
An additional shape variable is created using the shape created in the previous step.
38. In the Model Browser window, right click on the component PSHELL and click on Hide.
These components are turned off for ease of visualization.
39. Toggle the radio button to alter dimensions.
40. Under edges only, click reset
This will clean up previous selection from buffer.
41. Switch the top selector from curve ratio to distance =.
This feature allows you to shorten the distance between selected domains.
42. Switch the end a: selector from two handles to nodes and handles.
43. Click node a and pick node as shown in the next figure.
44. Click node b and pick node as shown in the next figure.
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Setup for the fourth shape variable, sh4
Once nodes a and b are selected, the distance between node a and node b is measured
automatically and appears in distance = field.
The distance between node a and node b is about 43.
45. Click handles under node a and select the 8 handles shown by the downward pointing
arrows in the previous figure.
To select, click the handles on the screen until they are highlighted.
46. Click handles under node b and similarly as in the previous step, select the 8 handles
near the opposite face of the tube.
47. Toggle the bottom selector and select hold middle.
48. In the Model Browser window, right click on the component PSHELL and click on Show.
These components are turned on for ease of visualization.
49. Click distance = and enter 20.
50. Click morph.
A rectangular shape appears to the joint as shown in the next figure.
51. Toggle the button to save shape.
52. Click shape = and enter sh4.
53. Make sure that the toggle is set to node perturbations.
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54. Click save.
55. Click undo all to restore the mesh to the baseline configuration.
56. Click the Model browse tab, right click on Shape and select Hide.
57. Click return three times to go the main menu.
Fourth shape variable, sh4
Step 10: Define the Shape Design Variables and Review by Animation
1. From the Analysis page, select the optimization panel.
2. Click on the shape panel.
3. Make sure the radio button is set to desvar and create.
4. Toggle the switch to select multiple desvars.
5. Click shape = and select sh1, sh2, sh3 and sh4.
6. Click select.
7. Click initial value = and enter 0.0.
8. Click lower bound = and enter 1.0.
9. Click upper bound = and enter 1.0.
10. Click create.
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This creates four design variables with the same initial value, lower bound, and upper
bound. HyperMesh automatically links the design variables to each shape respectively
and assigns names to each design variable the same as its associated shapes.
11. Click animate.
12. Click on simulation = SHAPE sh1 (1).
13. Make sure that data type = is set to Perturbation vector.
14. Click modal to animate the first shape variable.
15. Click next and then animate to see the next shape variable, and so forth.
16. Click return three times to go back to the optimization panel.
Step 11: Create the Mass and Static Stress Response
1. Enter the responses panel.
2. Click response = and enter Mass.
3. Click on the response type switch and select mass from the popup menu.
4. Ensure the regional selection is set to total (this is the default).
5. Click create.
A response, mass, is defined for the total mass of the model.
6. Click response = and enter Stress.
7. Click on the response type switch and select static stress from the popup menu.
8. Click the props button and select the PSHELL.1 component which contains skin shells.
9. Do NOT select any element under excluding:.
10. Make sure that the toggle is selected to von Mises.
11. Toggle the bottom switch to select both surfaces.
12. Click create.
A response, Stress, is defined for the model.
13. Click return to go back to the optimization panel.
Step 12: Define the Objective
1. Enter the objective panel.
2. The switch on the left should be set to min.
3. Click response= and select Mass.
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4. Click create.
5. Click return to exit the optimization panel.
Step 13: Create Constraints on Stress Response
In this step we set the upper and lower bound constraint criteria for this analysis.
1. Enter the dconstraints panel.
2. Click constraint= and enter con.
3. Check the box for upper bound only.
4. Click upper bound= and enter 200.
5. Select response= and set it to Stress.
6. Click loadsteps and check STEP.
7. Click select.
8. Click create.
9. Click return to the main menu.
Step 14: Define Control Cards Required for Shape Optimization
Without this control card defined, optimization gets terminated by quality check and you do
not get the converged results.
1. From the Analysis page, click the control cards panel.
2. Click the Next button twice and chose the PARAM card.
3. Check the box next to CHECKEL.
4. Click the YES button under CHECKEL_V1 to change to NO.
5. Click Return twice.
Step 15: Run the Optimization Problem
1. From the Analysis page enter the OptiStruct panel.
2. Click save as, enter rail_joint_opt.fem as the file name, and click Save.
3. Click export options: switch and select All.
4. Click the run options: switch and select optimization.
5. Make sure the memory options: toggle is set to memory default.
6. Click OptiStruct to run the optimization.
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The message Processing complete appears in the window at the completion of the
job. OptiStruct also reports error messages if any exist. The file carm_complete.out
can be opened in a text editor to find details regarding any errors. This file is written to
the same directory as the .fem file.
7. Close the DOS window or shell.
Step 16: Review the Shape Optimization Results
1. Once you see the message Process completed successfully in the command window,
click the green HyperView button.
HyperView is launched and the results are loaded. A message window appears to
inform about the successful loading of the model and result files into HyperView. Notice
that all three .h3d files get loaded, each in a different page of HyperView.
2. Click Close to close the message window.
3. Rail_joint_opt_des.h3d will be opened in page 1 and Rail_joint_opt.h3d will
be opened in page 2 of HyperView.
4. Click the Contour toolbar button.
Note the Result type: is Shape Change [v]; this should be the only results type in the
file_name_des.h3d file.
The second pulldown menu shows mag.
5. Click Apply to display the shape change.
Note the contour is all blue this is because your results are on the first design step or
Iteration 0.
6. At the left of the GUI, use the dropdown selector list to change the iteration number
from Iteration 0 to the last iteration.
Each element of the model is assigned a legend color, indicating the density of each
element for the selected iteration.
Shape optimization results are applied to the model.
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Shape change converged (Scale 2x)
Step 17: View a Contour Plot of the Stress on Top of the Shape Optimized
Model
1. Click the Next Page arrow in the toolbar to move to the next page.
2. Click the Contour toolbar button.
Note the Result type: is Element Stresses [2D & 3D] [t].
The second pulldown menu shows von Mises.
3. At the bottom of the GUI, click on the name Subcase 1 (STEP) <> Model Step to
activate the Load Case and Simulation Selection dialog.
4. Select the last iteration by double clicking on the last Iteration listed.
5. Click Apply.
The stress contour shows on top of the shape changes applied to the model. Verify that
this value is around the constraint value specified.
Von Mises Stress for the last iteration (Max < 200 MPa)
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Reviewing the Results
Is your design objective of minimizing the volume obtained? If not, can you explain why?
Are your design constraints satisfied?
Which shape has the most influence in this problem setup?
What is the percentage decrease in compliance?
Can size optimization be introduced to the joint?
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3 Freeshape Optimization
Freeshape optimization uses a proprietary optimization technique developed by Altair
Engineering Inc., wherein the outer boundary of a structure is altered to meet with predefined objectives and constraints. The essential idea of freeshape optimization, and
where it differs from other shape optimization techniques, is that the allowable movement of
the outer boundary is automatically determined, thus relieving users of the burden of
defining shape perturbations.
Freeshape design regions are defined through the DSHAPE bulk data entry. Design
regions are identified by the grids on the outer boundary of the structure (the edge of a shell
structure or the surface of a solid structure). These grids are listed on the DSHAPE entry.
Freeshape optimization allows these design grids to move in one of two ways:
1. For shell structures; grids move normal to the surface edge in the tangential plane.
2. For solid structures; grids move normal to the surface.
During freeshape optimization, the normal directions change with the change in shape of
the structure, thus, for each iteration, the design grids move along the updated normals.
3.1 Defining Freeshape Design Regions
Ideally, freeshape design regions should be selected where it can be assumed that the
shape of the structure is most sensitive to the concerned responses. For example, it would
be appropriate to select grids in a high stress region when the objective is to reduce stress.
Freeshape design regions should be defined at different locations on the structure where it
is desired for the shape to change independently. For solid structures, feature lines often
define natural boundaries for freeshape design regions. Containing any feature lines inside
a freeshape design region should be avoided unless the intention is to smooth the feature
lines during an optimization. Likewise for a shell structure, sharp corners should not be
contained inside a freeshape design region unless the intention is to smooth out such
corners.
The DSHAPE card identifies the design region through the GRID continuation card, shown
here:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
GRID
GID1
GID2
GID3
GID4
GID5
GID6
GID7
GID8
GID9
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2D  A freeshape design region is defined on the curved edge of the plate by selecting the edge
grids; the grids are free to move in the normal direction on the tangential plane.
3D  A freeshape design region is defined on a surface of the solid structure by selecting the face
surface grids; the grids are free to move normal to the surface.
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3.2 Freeshape Parameters
The five parameters that affect the way in which the freeshape design region deforms are
the direction type, the move factor, the number of layers for mesh smoothing, the maximum
shrinkage, and the maximum growth.
3.2.1 Direction type
This provides a general constraint on the direction of the movement of the freeshape design
region. It is defined on the PERT continuation line of the DSHAPE entry in the DTYPE field,
as shown:
(1)
(2)
(3)
PERT
DTYPE
(4)
(5)
MVFACTOR NSMOOTH
(6)
(7)
(8)
MXSHRK
MXGROWTH
(9)
(10)
DTYPE has three distinct options:
1.
GROW grids cannot move inside of the initial part boundary.
2.
SHRINK grids cannot move outside of the initial part boundary.
3.
BOTH grids are unconstrained.
GROW
SHRINK
BOTH
Undeformed
Deformed
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3.2.2 Move factor
The maximum allowable movement in one iteration of the grids defining a freeshape design
region is specified as:
MVFACTOR*mesh_size
where "mesh_size" is the average mesh size of the design region defined in the same
DSHAPE card.
MVFACTOR is defined on the PERT continuation line of the DSHAPE entry.
(1)
(2)
(3)
PERT
DTYPE
(4)
(5)
(6)
MVFACTOR NSMOOTH MXSHRK
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
MXGROWTH
The default value of MVFACTOR is 0.5. A smaller MVFACTOR will make freeshape
optimization run slower but with more stability. Conversely, a larger MVFACTOR will make
freeshape optimization run faster but with less stability.
MVFACTOR affects the maximum movement in one iteration.
Undeformed shape
Shape at iteration 1 with MVFACTOR = 0.5(default)
Shape at iteration 1 with MVFACTOR = 1.0
3.2.3 Number of layers for mesh smoothing
With freeshape optimization, internal grids adjacent to those grids defining the design
region are moved to avoid mesh distortion. The number of layers of grids to be included in
the mesh smoothing buffer may be defined by the NSMOOTH field on the PERT
continuation line of the DSHAPE entry.
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(1)
(2)
(3)
PERT
DTYPE
(4)
(5)
(6)
MVFACTOR NSMOOTH MXSHRK
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
MXGROWTH
The default value of NSMOOTH is 10. A larger NSMOOTH will give a larger smoothing
buffer, and consequently will work better in avoiding mesh distortion; however, it will result in
a slower optimization.
NSMOOTH=5, 5 layers of grids move along with the design boundary.
NSMOOTH=1, only 1 layer of grids move along with the design boundary.
3.2.4 Maximum shrinkage and growth
The maximum shrinkage and growth provide a simple way to limit the total amount of
deformation of the freeshape design region. These parameters are defined on the PERT
continuation line of the DSHAPE entry.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
PERT
DTYPE
MVFACTOR
NSMOOTH
MXSHRK
MXGROWTH
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The design region is offset to form two barriers; MXSHRK is the offset in the
shrinkage direction and MXGROWTH is the offset in the growth direction. The
design region is then constrained to deform between these two barriers.
Deformation space defined by the maximum growing/shrinking distance
3.2.5 Constraints on Grids in the Design Region
It is possible to identify additional constraints on certain grids in freeshape design regions.
Three types of constraints are available for specified grids as defined by CTYPE# on the
GRIDCON continuation line of the DSHAPE entry:
1. FIXED grid cannot move due to freeshape optimization.
2. VECTOR grid is forced to move along the specified vector.
3. PLANAR grid is forced to remain on a plane for which the specified vector defines
the normal direction.
Note: VECTOR is used to constrain a grid to move along a line, thus it makes no
difference by rotating the vector by 180 degrees.
Constraints are defined on the GRIDCON continuation line as follows:
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
GRIDCON
GCMETH
GCSETID1 /
GDID1
CTYPE1
CID1
X1
Y1
Z1
GCMETH
GCSETID2 /
GDID2
CTYPE2
CID2
X2
Y2
Z2
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Example showing CTYPE = VECTOR
This example demonstrates a simple case where it is necessary to use the "DIR" constraint
type to force grids to move in a predefined direction.
A freeshape optimization is performed on a quarter model of a rectangular plate with a hole,
shown here:
The curved edge is the freeshape design region. Without any constraints on the freeshape
design region, the grids at the ends of the curved edge do not move exactly along the line of
the straight edge, but move slightly outward, as shown here:
In order to prevent this phenomenon, the grids at the ends of the curved edge (shown in
yellow below) are both constrained to move along the vector indicated by the red arrows.
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Using these constraints  corner grids moving along the constrained direction  the grids at
the ends of the curved edge now move as desired, along the line of the straight edge, as
shown here:
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Exercise 5.5  Freeshape optimization Compressor Bracket
In this exercise, shape optimization on a solid model will be performed using the freeshape
optimization method along with manufacturing constraints, such as symmetry and mesh
barrier constraints. The objective of this optimization is to reduce the stress by changing the
geometry of the model.
Problem Statement
Objective:
Minimize mass
Constraint:
Maximum von Mises stress of the joint < 62 MPa
Design variables:
Shape variables normal to the node set selected
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Step 1: Launch HyperMesh, Set the User Profile, and Retrieve the Model
1. Launch HyperMesh.
2. Choose OptiStruct in the User Profile dialog and click OK.
This loads the user profile. It includes the appropriate template, macro menu, and
import reader, paring down the functionality of HyperMesh to what is relevant for
generating models in Bulk Data Format for RADIOSS and OptiStruct.
User Profiles can also be accessed from the Preferences pulldown menu on the
toolbar.
3. Select the Open Model panel toolbar button.
4. Select the freeshape3d_mfg.hm file.
5. Click Open.
The freeshape3D_mfg.hm database is loaded into the current HyperMesh session,
replacing any existing data. Note the location of freeshape3D_mfg.hm now displays
in the file: field.
Step 2: Create Freeshape Design Variables (DSHAPE Cards)
1. From the Analysis page click optimization.
2. Click free shape.
3. In the Create subpanel, click on desvar=, and enter shape.
4. Click on nodes and select by sets check the box next to shape_nodes click on select.
Freeshape design space
5. Click create.
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6. Click on the parameters subpanel and select the direction as grow, mvfactor at 0.5 and
nsmooth as 10 and click update
7. Click return twice to exit the panel.
Step 3: Convert the existing shell elements to create the Barrier Mesh Face
(BMFACE)
1. Go to the 2D page
2. Enter the elem types panel
3. Click on elems to get the extended entity list
4. Select by collector
5. Check the box next to barrier
6. On 2D& 3D subpanel click on CTRIA3 in the field next to tria3
7. Select BMFACE from the list of options
8. Click on CQUAD4 in the field next to quad4
9. Select BMFACE from the list of options
10. Click update
Step 4: Define the 1Plane Symmetry Constraint
The manufacturing constraint options for freeshape are: (Draw direction constraint,
Extrusion constraint, Pattern grouping: 1plane symmetry constraint, Maximum
growing/shrinking distance control, Side constraint, Mesh barrier constraint)
In this exercise we will define the 1plane symmetry constraint and mesh barrier constraint.
1. From the Analysis page click optimization.
2. Click free shape; make sure that the desvar selected is shape.
3. Click on pattern grouping in the free shape panel.
4. Select the pattern type: 1pln sym.
The 1plane symmetry constraints in freeshape will produce symmetric designs
regardless of the initial mesh, boundary conditions or loads. The plane of symmetry is
defined by specifying the anchor and the first nodes. The plane of symmetry will then be
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perpendicular to the vector from the anchor node to the first node and pass through the
anchor node.
5. Click anchor node and input the node id= 2 and press ENTER.
This selects the node with the ID of 2.
6. Click first node and input the node id= 1.
This selects the node with the ID of 1.
7. Click the update button to update the design variables.
This completes the definition of the symmetry constraint.
Defining 1plane symmetry
Step 5: Define the Mesh Barrier (sidecon) Constraint
A mesh barrier constraint allows control on the total deformation extent of a design
boundary/surface; mesh barrier will constrain the design boundary/surface to deform within
the restricted design space and never penetrate the barrier.
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The barrier should be constructed by shell elements with the smallest number of elements
possible.
For this exercise, the mesh barrier was already created and the component name is barrier.
1. Click on sidecon in the free shape panel.
2. Click on desvar = and select shape.
3. Click on Barrier mesh: component= and select barrier from the list.
4. Click update.
5. Click return to go back to the main menu.
Mesh barrier component
Step 6: Define Responses for Optimization
1. Click on responses panel.
2. Enter Stress in the response= field.
3. Set the response type to static stress.
4. Switch from props to elems and click on elems button and click by sets.
5.
Check the box next to stress and click select.
6. Choose von mises and click create.
7. Click response= and assign mass.
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8. Set the response type: to mass.
9. Click create.
10. Click return to go back to the optimization panel.
Step 7: Define Constraints for Optimization
1. Select the dconstraints panel.
2. Click constraint= and type the name stress.
3. Click response= select stress.
4. Activate upper bound = and assign a value 62.
5. Click on loadsteps, activate ls2, and click select.
6. Click create.
7. Click return.
Step 8: Define the Objective Function
1. Choose the objective panel.
2. Click the leftmost toggle and select min.
3. Click response= and select mass.
4. Click create.
5. Click return twice to go back to the main menu.
Step 9: Define the SHAPE Card
Only displacement and stress results are available in the _s#.h3d file by default. In order
to look at stress results on top of a shape change that was applied to the model in
HyperView, a SHAPE card needs to be defined.
1. From the Analysis page, select the control cards panel.
2. Click the green next button three times and select SHAPE.
3. Set format to h3d and both TYPE and OPTION to ALL.
4. Click return twice to go back to the main menu.
Step 10: Launch OptiStruct
1. From Analysis page click OptiStruct.
2. Click save as following the input file: field.
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3. Select the directory where you would like to write the OptiStruct model file and enter the
name for the model, freeshape3d_mfgopt.fem, in the File name: field.
4. Click Save.
Note that the name and location of the freeshape3d_mfgopt.fem file is displayed in
the input file: field.
5. Set the export options toggle to all.
6. Click the run options switch and select optimization.
7. Set the memory options toggle to memory default.
8. Click OptiStruct.
This launches an OptiStruct run in a separate (DOS or UNIX) shell.
If the optimization was successful, no error messages are reported to the shell. The
optimization is complete when the line Processing complete appears in the shell.
Step 11: View Shape Results
1. While in the OptiStruct panel of the Analysis page, click the green HyperView button.
Note that the message window pops up to indicate that
freeshape3d_mfgopt_des.h3d and freeshape3d_mfgopt_s4.h3d are opened.
2. Click Close to close the window.
freeshape3d_mfgopt_des.h3d will be opened in page 1 and
freeshape3d_mfgopt_s4.h3d will be opened in page 2 of HyperView.
3. Click the Next Page arrow
to move to page 2.
4. From Graphics pull down menu click on Select Load Case.
This will bring up the Load Case and Simulation Selection dialog which is also
accessible from the lower right portion of the status bar.
5. Select Iteration14 from beneath Simulation (load final iteration results).
6. Click OK.
7. Go to the Deformed panel
8. Set the Result type: to Shape change(v).
9. Click Apply.
Shape optimization results are applied to the model.
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Step 12: View a Contour Plot of the Stress on Top of the Shape Optimized
Model
1. Go to the Contour panel
type:.
and select Element Stresses (2D & 3D) (t) as the Result
2. Select von Mises as the stress type.
3. Click on Elements and click By set and pick the set stress click on Add and close.
4. Click Apply.
Von Mises Stress contour on Final shape
1. Is your design objective of minimizing the mass obtained? If not, can you explain
why?
2. Are your design constraints satisfied?
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Exercise 5.6  Shape Optimization of a 3D Bracket using the Freeshape Method
In this exercise, shape optimization on a solid bracket model will be performed using the
Free Shape optimization method. The objective of this optimization is to reduce the stress
by changing the geometry of the bracket model.
The essential idea of freeshape optimization, and where it differs from other shape
optimization techniques, is that the allowable movement of the outer boundary is
automatically determined, thus relieving users of the burden of defining shape perturbations.
The optimization problem for this tutorial is stated as:
Objective:
Minimize (Max Von Mises Stress)
Constraints: No Constraints
Design variables:
Grids move normal to the surface.
Problem Setup
You should copy this file: free_shape3D.hm.
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Step 1: Set the User Profile and Retrieve the File
1. Launch HyperMesh.
2. Choose OptiStruct as the User Profile and click OK.
This loads the user profile. It includes the appropriate template, macro menu, and
import reader, paring down the functionality of HyperMesh to what is relevant for
generating models in Bulk Data Format for RADIOSS and OptiStruct.
User Profiles can also be accessed from the Preferences pulldown menu on the
toolbar.
3. Select the Open Model panel toolbar button.
4. Select the free_shape3D.hm file, located in the HyperWorks installation directory
under <install_directory>/tutorials/hwsolvers/optistruct/.
5. Click Open.
The free_shape3D.hm database is loaded into the current HyperMesh session,
replacing any existing data. Note the location of free_shape3D.hm now displays in
the file: field.
6. Click return to go to the main menu.
Step 2: Create Freeshape Design Variables (DSHAPE Cards)
1. From the Analysis page click on optimization.
2. Select the free shape panel.
3. Click name= and enter shape.
4. Select nodes shown in the figure (select only the face nodes that are also on shells).
Freeshape design space
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5. Click create.
6. Click return to go to the main menu.
Step 3: Define the Optimization Problem
1. Select responses panel.
2. Enter Stress in the response= field.
3. Set the response type to static stress.
4. Click the prop button and select the stress_faces component which contains skin
shells.
5. Click on the button below von mises and select both surfaces.
6. Click create.
7. Click return to go back to the optimization panel.
Step 4: Define the Objective Reference
1. Click obj reference.
2. Enter MAX_STR in the dobjref= field.
3. Check pos reference; this gives the value 1.0.
4. Click response and select stress.
5. Click create.
6. Click return to go back to the optimization panel.
Step 5: Define the Objective Function
1. Choose the objective panel.
2. Click the leftmost toggle and select minmax.
3. Click dobjrefs and select MAX_STR.
4. Click create.
5. Click return twice to go back to main menu.
Step 6: Define the SHAPE Card
Only displacement and stress results are available in the _s#.h3d file by default. In order
to look at stress results on top of a shape change that was applied to the model in
HyperView, a SHAPE card needs to be defined.
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1. From the Analysis page, select the control cards panel.
2. Select SHAPE.
3. Use the green next button to see more cards.
4. Set both TYPE and OPTION to ALL.
5. Click return twice to go back to the main menu.
Step 7: Launch OptiStruct
1. From Analysis page click the OptiStruct.
2. Click save as following the input file: field.
3. Select the directory where you would like to write the OptiStruct model file and enter the
name for the model, Free_Shape3D.fem, in the File name: field.
4. Click Save.
Note that the name and location of the Free_Shape3D.fem file is displayed in the
input file: field.
5. Set the memory options toggle to memory default.
6. Click the run options switch and select optimization.
7. Set the export options toggle to all.
8. Click OptiStruct.
This launches an OptiStruct run in a separate (DOS or UNIX) shell.
If the optimization was successful, no error messages are reported to the shell. The
optimization is complete when the line Processing complete appears in the shell.
Postprocess the Freeshape Optimization Results.
This section describes how to view the results in HyperView which will be launched from
within the OptiStruct panel of HyperMesh.
HyperView is a complete postprocessing and visualization environment for finite element
analysis (FEA), multibody system simulation, video and engineering data.
Step 8: View Shape Results
1. While in the OptiStruct panel of the Analysis page, click the green HyperView button.
Note that the message window pops up to indicate that Free_Shape3D_des.h3d and
Free_Shape3D.h3d are opened.
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2. Click Close to close the Message Log window.
Free_Shape3D_des.h3d will be opened in page 1 and Free_Shape3D.h3d will be
opened in page 2 of HyperView.
3. Click
to move to page 2.
4. From Graphics pull down menu click on Select Load Case.
This will bring up the Load Case and Simulation Selection dialog which is also
accessible from the lower right portion of the status bar.
5. Select Iteration6 from Simulation (load final iteration results).
6. Click OK.
7. Go to the Deformed panel
8. Set the Result type: to Shape change.
9. Click Apply.
Shape optimization results are applied to the model.
Step 9: View a Contour Plot of the Stress on Top of the Shape Optimized
Model
1. Go to the Contour panel
type:.
and select Element Stresses [2D & 3D] as the Result
2. Select von Mises as the stress type.
3. Click Apply.
The stress contour shows on top of the shape changes applied to the model.
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Setup a New Freeshape Optimization Simulation with Moving Constraints.
In the previous run, no constraints were applied on the movement of the DSHAPE grids.
Therefore, grids are free to move and the part thickness increases as shown in the figure.
Freeshape results without constraints
In practice, however, there will be some sort of constraints imposed upon the movement of
grids due to manufacturability. For this tutorial model, thickness must be unchanged to
avoid any interference with other parts.
The next step will describe how to define constraints on DSHAPE grids such that the
thickness of design space will remain unchanged.
Step 1: Add Constraints on DSHAPE Grids
The constraints on freeshape design grids will be created separately for curved and flat
parts of the design space. The parts of the design space that are grouped as curved and
those grouped as flat are illustrated in the figure below.
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Design space on curved and flat part
The constraints on the curved part will be created using a local rectangular coordinate
system (the other constraints on the flat part do not need a local coordinate system).
Therefore, a local rectangular coordinate system (zaxis will point to normal to DSHAPE
surface) needs to be created first.
1. Back on HyperMesh click return and go to 1D page.
2. Click systems.
3. Choose the create by axis direction subpanel.
4. Click nodes and select node ID 20999 (See the following figure).
5. Click origin and select the same node (ID 20999) as nodes.
6. Click xaxis and select node ID 15989.
7. Click xyplane and select node ID 19462.
Local coordinate system
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8. Click create.
9. Click return.
10. From the Analysis page click on optimization.
11. Select the free shape panel.
12. Select the gridcon subpanel.
The constraints on the flat part will be created first without any coordinate system.
13. Click desvar= and select shape.
14. Select constraint type as planar.
15. Select nodes shown in the following figure.
Constraints on Free Shape design space
16. Click the vector definition switch and select vectors.
17. Select N1, N2, N3 as those three nodes on plane geometry (as shown in the figure).
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Three nodes to defined the plane
18. Click add.
These nodes will move only on the specified plane above. Next, the constraints on the
curved part will be created using a local coordinate system.
19. Select constraint type as vector.
20. Click nodes.
21. Select nodes shown in the following figure (select only the nodes that are on the curved
part).
Constraints on freeshape design space on curved part
22. Click the direction selector and select local system.
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23. Select the local coordinate system created in the previous step.
24. Click the vector definition switch and select vector.
25. Click the direction definition switch below vector, and select zaxis from the popup
menu.
26. Click add.
27. Click return twice to get back to the main menu.
Step 2: Launch OptiStruct
1. From the Analysis page click OptiStruct.
2. Click save as following the input file: field.
3. Select the directory where you would like to write the OptiStruct model file and enter the
name for the model, Free_Shape3D_const.fem, in the File name: field.
4. Click Save.
Note that the name and location of the Free_Shape3D_const.fem file is displayed in
the input file: field.
5. Set the memory options toggle to memory default.
6. Click the run options switch and select optimization.
7. Set the export options toggle to all.
8. Click OptiStruct.
Postprocess the New Freeshape Optimization Results.
Follow the previously described steps on how to postprocess the results (optimization
results without constraints) using HyperView, and compare the final shape change and
stress results.
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APPENDIX A: Composite Exercise
APPENDIX A
Composite Exercise
Exercise A1: Optimization Driven Design of a Composite plate
For this example we need to design a cantilever beam made with composites plies that
can have angles 0, 45, 45 & 90 degrees. It needs to support an inplane force at middle of
the unconstrained end (see figure below).
This is a design of simplified plane wing, where:
The objective is to determine the minimum mass with Max Disp. < 3.00e04.
Min of each family (ANGLE) 10% (PPMIN)
Manufacturable thickness (in) 0.05 (PTMAN)
BALANCED 45 AND 45 FAMILIES.
To achieve this optimum design we will introduce you the process called Optimization
Driven Design for Composite. It is divided in 3 phases:
PHASE I  Free Size Optimization, (Ply topology)
PHASE II  Size Optimization (Thickness and number of plies)
PHASE III Shuffle Optimization (Stacking Sequence).
Model Information:
PCOMP with 4 plies 0, 45, 45 & 90
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Orthotropic Material MAT8_1 (1) E1 = 1.5e5 psi E2 = 7000 psi
N12 = 0.3 rho = 1.6e06 lb/in3 G13 =G23 = 5000 psi
G12 = 5000 psi
Problem Setup: Copy PCOMP_PLATE.hm to your working directory
Phase 0: Model Analysis.
Step 1: Model Checking
1. Launch HyperMesh and set the User Profile > OptiStruct
2. Open the HyperMesh data base PCOMP_PLATE.hm.
Plate FEA model
3. Verify the normal of the elements.
4. Verify the element orientation.
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5. Verify the PCOMP_1 property.
The property card is presented below:
Note that there are only 4 plies that are 1 inch thick each for a total thickness of 4
inches.
These are superplies, each with a unique fiber direction.
For this model the plies are all the same thickness and composite material.
Each ply can have different materials and thicknesses.
Step 2: Run the Super ply model analysis.
1. Create a subdirectory called 00_ANALYSIS
2. Run the analysis on this subdirectory
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Displacement contour (Disp. Node (1211) = 1.7e4)
Phase I: Free size optimization
Step 1: Create design variable for free sizing optimization
1. Create a subdirectory called 01_FREE_SIZE
2. Save the HyperMesh database as PCOMP_PLATE.hm on this directory.
3. From the Analysis page, select the optimization panel.
4. Select the free size panel.
5. Choose the create subpanel using the radio button on the left.
6. Click the field next to desvar= and enter DSIZE.
7. Verify that type: is set to PCOMP(G).
8. Click the yellow props button, to enter the property selection panel.
9. Check the box next to PCOMP_1.
10. Click select.
11. Click the create button.
Design Model Browse Tree
Step 2: Add manufacturing constraints to the optimization.
1. Select the composites radio button
2. Select the maximum laminate thickness toggle and type in 3.2.
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Recall that the initial design has four 1.0 thick plies with a total thickness of 4, it will
force the laminate thickness to be lower then 3.2.
3. Leave the laminate minimum thickness off.
4. Select the green edit button to edit the design variable DSIZE.
5. Check the PLYPCT and BALANCE boxes.
6. Enter a PPMIN (minimum ply percentage) value of 0.1 (10%).
This make the existence of each family as minimum as 10%.
7. Leave PPMAX (maximum ply percentage) off
8. Enter a PTMAN (manufacturable ply thickness) value of 0.05.
This define that all plies will be a multiple of this value.
9. Enter 45.0 in the BANGLE1 filed and hit the tab key to jump to the BANGLE2 field and
enter 45.0.
It makes that each plies of 45 or 45 will be in a pair with one off the other one.
10. This constraint requires that the 45.0 degree plies be in balance with the 45.0 degree
plies.
11. Return to the free size composite page.
12. Click update to apply changes.
13. Click return to exit the panel.
Step 3: Create the 2 responses (mass and disp1211) for the optimization.
1. Enter the response panel.
2. Enter disp1211 in the response= field.
3. Select static displacement for the response type.
4. Select the node where the load is applied or by ID node # 1211.
5. Select total disp
6. Click create
7. Create a second response called volume.
8. Select volume for the response type.
9. Click create
10. Return to the optimization page.
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Response Model Browse Tree
Step 4: Create a displacement constraint (disp1211 < 3e4)
1. Enter the dconstraints panel
2. Enter Cdisp1211 in the constraint= field.
3. Click response= and select disp1211 as the design response.
4. Check the box next to upper bound and enter a value of 3.00e04.
5. Click loadstep and select SUBCASE1.
6. Click select.
7. Click create.
8. Click return.
Constraint Model Browse Tree
Step 5: Create the objective function as minimize volume
1. Enter the objective panel.
2. Click the response= field and select volume.
3. Click create.
4. Click return twice.
Objective Model Browse Tree
Step 6: Add required OUTPUT cards
1. Enter the control cards panel on the Analysis page.
2. Click Next until you see OUTPUT
3. Click OUTPUT
4. Change the number_of_outputs = to 2.
5. Set the first row as H3D and the FREQ to ALL.
6. And the second as FSTOSZ for the keyword and YES for the FREQ.
7. Click return.
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Note that second request will create a FILENAME_sizing.fem file that will have
incorporated ply and element set information that includes ply patch configurations for
each ply type.
The default is to repeat the super ply 4 times for each ply defined on the
PCOMP(G) property that will give a total of 16 plies.
This is the default value and can be changed to adding the number of desired ply
sequence repetitions at the end of the line in *.fem file. For example:
OUTPUT,FSTOSZ,YES,5 This request would result in the PCOMP ply sequence
being repeated 5 times for a total of 20 plies.
Step 7: Run the optimization
1. Go to the OptiStruct panel
2. Set export options, run options & memory options to all, optimization & memory
default
3. Click OptiStruct.
Step 8: Review the Free Size results
1. When the job is complete click HyperView and load results into HyperView.
2. First it is interesting to look at the optimization history to understand the design
evolution, it can be done opening the file .hgdata:
Optimization History
It shows that the model had converged for a feasible solution with an optimum
volume.
Now we need to verify the plies shapes to understand if this can be manufactured.
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3. One important result is the total element thickness using HyperView select the last
iteration on the file, it should be understood as the topography of the laminate.
The total element thickness contour plot is presented below:
4. Now it is important to see the individual angle plies thickness, it will be used per
OptiStruct to define the shape of the individual ply, this plot can be saw again as a
topographic plot of the stack for each angle ply:
Element thicknesses contour for the individual angle plies
Phase II: Sizing optimization
Step 1: Import the fem generated from the OS run and review
1. Create a subdirectory called 02_SIZE
2. Import the HyperMesh FEA model PCOMP_PLATE_sizing.fem
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3. Save the HyperMesh database as PCOMP_PLATE.hm on this new subdirectory.
4. Review the model PLY, STACK, SET, DESVAR and DVPREL1 cards.
ELEM SET cards will list what elements will be used for each ply,
Element sets for 0 degree angle plies (1, 2, 3 and 4)
Element sets for 45 degree angle plies (5, 6, 7 and 8)
Element sets for 45 degree angle plies (9, 10, 11 and 12)
Element sets for 90 degree angle plies (13, 14, 15 and 16)
Note that the PLY cards have the individual ply description
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STACK card will show how the plies are stacked
DESVAR cards will provide the initial, minimum and maximum thickness for each
ply.
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DVPREL1 cards relate design variables to analysis model properties.
Step 2: Set up the Sizing Optimization
1. Go to the Analysis page and enter the control cards panel.
2. Click Next until you see OUTPUT and click it.
3. Change FSTOSZ to SZTOSH and select the option ALL.
The second request in output will make OptiStruct export the input file
PCOMP_PLATE_shuffling.fem prepared to perform the PHASE 3 Shuffle.
4. Click return.
5. Click next until you see STACK and click it.
6. Change SMEAR to blank
7. Click return twice.
8. From the Analysis page enter the optimization panel then the size subpanel.
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9. Double click the desvar= button
Edit the upper bound for each design variables to give more Design Space to the upper
bound predefined per OptiStruct:
DV
ID
NAME
X0
Xmin
Xmax
DESVAR
1010100
autoply
0.12
0.00
0.30
DESVAR
1010200
autoply.1
0.34
0.00
0.80
DESVAR
1010300
autoply.2
0.48
0.00
1.00
DESVAR
1010400
autoply.3
0.06
0.00
0.20
DESVAR
1020100
autoply.4
0.17
0.00
0.40
DESVAR
1020200
autoply.5
0.12
0.00
0.30
DESVAR
1020300
autoply.6
0.13
0.00
0.30
DESVAR
1020400
autoply.7
0.58
0.00
0.80
DESVAR
1030100
autoply.8
0.17
0.00
0.40
DESVAR
1030200
autoply.9
0.12
0.00
0.30
DESVAR
1030300
autoply.10
0.13
0.00
0.30
DESVAR
1030400
autoply.11
0.58
0.00
0.80
DESVAR
1040100
autoply.12
0.08
0.00
0.20
DESVAR
1040200
autoply.13
0.05
0.00
0.20
DESVAR
1040300
autoply.14
0.07
0.00
0.20
DESVAR
1040400
autoply.15
0.80
0.00
1.00
ANGLE(o)
45
45
90
10. Click Return twice to exit the panel.
11. Export the PCOMP_PLATE_SIZE.fem model.
12. Open the PCOMP_PLATE_SIZE.fem model with a text editor and include the stress
response as showed bellow
13. Include the stress constrain and edit the DCONADD as on the image bellow:
14. Save this input deck as PCOMP_PLATE_SIZE_FINAL.fem.
15. Run OptiStruct directly using the RADIOSS manager or load the model into
HyperMesh and run OptiStruct from it.
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16. First it is interesting to look at the optimization history to understand the design
evolution, it can be done opening the file .hgdata to plot the displacement:
Optimization History
It shows that the model had converged for a feasible solution with an optimum
volume.
The Composite stress response is not available on the history on 9.0, but can be
reviewed for example on the .out file:
Last iteration stress constrain results
17. Now it is important to review the thickness of each plies:
DV
ID
NAME
X0
Xmin
Xmax
OPTIM
DESVAR
1010100
autoply
0.12
0.00
0.30
0.10
DESVAR
1010200
autoply.1
0.34
0.00
0.80
0.40
DESVAR
1010300
autoply.2
0.48
0.00
1.00
1.00
DESVAR
1010400
autoply.3
0.06
0.00
0.20
0.05
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DESVAR
1020100
autoply.4
0.17
0.00
0.40
0.15
DESVAR
1020200
autoply.5
0.12
0.00
0.30
0.10
DESVAR
1020300
autoply.6
0.13
0.00
0.30
0.10
DESVAR
1020400
autoply.7
0.58
0.00
0.80
0.15
DESVAR
1030100
autoply.8
0.17
0.00
0.40
0.15
DESVAR
1030200
autoply.9
0.12
0.00
0.30
0.10
DESVAR
1030300
autoply.10
0.13
0.00
0.30
0.10
DESVAR
1030400
autoply.11
0.58
0.00
0.80
0.15
DESVAR
1040100
autoply.12
0.08
0.00
0.20
0.20
DESVAR
1040200
autoply.13
0.05
0.00
0.20
0.20
DESVAR
1040300
autoply.14
0.07
0.00
0.20
0.05
DESVAR
1040400
autoply.15
0.80
0.00
1.00
0.05
45
45
90
Phase III: Shuffling optimization
In this phase, the sequence in the stacking patterns of the patches created in phase 2 will
be optimized with additional design constraints.
1. Create a folder called 03_Shuffle.
2. Import the file PCOMP_PLATE_SIZE_FINAL_shuffling.fem on a new HM
database.
3. Select the analysis page, control card: OUTPUT
4. Change FSTOSZ,YES to PROPERTY,LAST.
5. Click Return to exit the panel
6. Select control card: DEBUG
7. Enter 2 for number_of_debugs
8. Define the DEBUG card to help on understand the shuffle steps:
DEBUG,SHUFHTML,1
This will generate a file in a HTML format with a table with the shuffle iterations:
Wing_example_suffle_shuf.hist.html
DEBUG,SHUFTEXT,1
This will generate a text file with the stack sequences during the shuffle iterations:
Wing_example_suffle.shuf
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9. Right click on the Card: BULK_UNSUPPORTED_CARDS and edit it as showed
bellow:
MAXSUCC: limits the number of plies of the same type (orientation) that are
adjacent to each other.
The second shuffling constraint, PAIR, constrains each 45.0 degree ply to be
adjacent to a 45.0 degree ply.
10. Save file, import into HyperMesh and run Optistruct.
11. Review the file: Case1_Plate _freesizing_sizing_shuffling.hist.html.
12.
0o Plies
45o Plies
1010101
1010102
1020101
1020102
1020103
1030101
1030102
1030103
1040101
1040102
1040103
1040104
1010201
1010202
1010203
1010204
1010205
1010206
1010207
1010208
1020201
1020202
1030201
1030202
1040201
1040202
1040203
1040204
1010301
1010302
1010303
1010304
1010305
1010306
1010307
1010308
1010309
1010310
1010311
1010312
1010313
1010314
1010315
1010316
1010317
1010318
1010319
1010320
1020301
1020302
1030301
1030302
1040301
1010401
1020401
1020402
1020403
1030401
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1030101
1020101
1010101
1010102
1010201
1040101
1010202
1030102
1020102
1010203
1010204
1040102
1010205
1030103
1020103
1010206
1010207
1040103
1010208
1030201
1020201
1010301
1010302
1040104
1010303
1030202
1020202
1010304
1010305
1040201
1010306
1030301
1020301
1010307
1010308
1040202
1010309
1030302
1020302
1010310
1010311
1040203
1010312
1030401
1020401
1010313
1010314
1040204
1010315
1030402
1020402
1010316
1010317
1040301
1010318
1030403
1020403
1010319
1040401
1040201
1040102
1040101
1030201
1020201
1010101
1010102
1010201
1010202
1030102
1020102
1010306
1010203
1010204
1010205
1030103
1020103
1010307
1010206
1010207
1010208
1030302
1020302
1040203
1040103
1030403
1020403
1010308
1010301
1010302
1010303
1040104
1030401
1020401
1010310
1010309
1010304
1010305
1030101
1020101
1030202
1020202
1010311
1010312
1010313
1010314
1040204
1010401
1010315
1010316
1010317
1040202
1040301
1030301
1020301
1010318
1010319
45o Plies
1040401
1040201
1040102
1040101
1030201
1020201
1010101
1010102
1010201
1010202
1030102
1020102
1010306
1010203
1010204
1010205
1030103
1020103
1010307
1010206
1010207
1010208
1030302
1020302
1040203
1040103
1030403
1020403
1010308
1010301
1010302
1010303
1040104
1030202
1020202
1030401
1020401
1010310
1010309
1010304
1010305
1030101
1020101
1010311
1010312
1010313
1010314
1040204
1030402
1020402
1010401
1010315
1010316
1010317
1040202
1040301
1030301
1020301
1040401
1040201
1040102
1040101
1030201
1020201
1010101
1010102
1010201
1010202
1030102
1020102
1010306
1010203
1010204
1010205
1030103
1020103
1010307
1010206
1010207
1010208
1030302
1020302
1040203
1040103
1030403
1020403
1010308
1010301
1010302
1010303
1030401
1020401
1040104
1030202
1020202
1010310
1010309
1010304
1010305
1030101
1020101
1010311
1010312
1010313
1010314
1040204
1030402
1020402
1010401
1010315
1010316
1010317
1040202
1040301
1030301
1020301
90o Plie
1040401
1040201
1040102
1040101
1030201
1020201
1010101
1010102
1010201
1010202
1030102
1020102
1010306
1010203
1010204
1010205
1030103
1020103
1010307
1010206
1010207
1010208
1030302
1020302
1040203
1040103
1030403
1020403
1010308
1010301
1010302
1010303
1030401
1020401
1040104
1030202
1020202
1010310
1010309
1010304
1010305
1030101
1020101
1010311
1010312
1010313
1010314
1040204
1030402
1020402
1010401
1010315
1010316
1010317
1040202
1040301
1030301
1020301
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1030402
1030403
1040401
1010320
1040401
1010401
1010320
1030402
1020402
1010318
1010319
1010320
1010318
1010319
1010320
1010318
1010319
1010320
The table shows the shuffling iterations from beginning to the last.
DSHUFFLE constrains to limit the number of like adjacent plies to a maximum of
four;
It guarantee that on the last iteration we have for every 45.0 degree (103xxxx,
green highlight) ply a 45.0 degree ply (102xxxx, yellow highlight).
SUMMARY
Composite optimization is a three phase task:
13. Begins with Free Size optimization that determines composite patch size, shape, and
location. On this phase OS output the input deck that is then used in the second phase,
14. Size optimization (ply bundle optimization), to determine optimum ply bundle thickness
and required number of plies per patch.
Shuffling optimization is the last phase used to optimize stacking sequence and meet
ply book rules, improve performance, and improve manufacturability.
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