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INTEGRATING LANGUAGE

AND SCIENCE LEARNING
by: Angela L Carrasquillo and Vivian Rodriguez
taken from: Academic Success for English Language Learner: Strategies for K-12
Mainstream Teachers.

This paper is presented in Sociolinguitics Class
taught by Dr. Emilia Iragiliati

by:
Nur Alfa Rahmah

STATE UNIVERSITY OF MALANG
GRADUATE PROGRAM
ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING
November 2011

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On the other hand. not without any single problem. the testing of hypotheses. The main objective in the teaching of science to ELL students is to make science material understandable and meaningful. science classroom is an excellent setting for English Language Learners (ELLs) to increase their understanding of the concepts and skills of science as well as to enhance their second language proficiency through a meaning-making process. English language can contribute to science when the idea is communicated through listening.Summary According to Carrasquillo and Rodriguez (2005: 346). (2) what the main objective in teaching science to ELL students is. to be able to achieve this goal. Because the lack of necessary English 1 . and (4) what problem may appear. It helps students to makes sense of the world and everything occurring around them in a logical and rational way. Problem might appear to students who are not fully proficient in English language. Science is a way of understanding the world through observable pattern and the application of these patterns to the unknown through observation. and the design and carrying out of experiment. (3) how science and language learning contribute to each other. meaningful science content and methodology can facilitate the acquisition of proficiency in the English language (Carrasquillo and Rodriguez: 2005. and writing. of course. 437). which is why it should be part of the thinking of daily living (Angela and Vivian: 2005. to motivate and involve students. 437). we need to question and highlight several things: (1) what science is and why it is important. The teaching of science in English language learning classroom is. and to enhance the acquisition of the concepts and skills of science as well as the development of the English language. including the measurement and evaluation data. Following their proposal are suggested ways for teachers in promoting science concept as well as language skills in the classroom. It is the role of every school to help their students in developing scientific literacy. In understanding the concepts proposed by Carrasquillo and Rodriguez (2005). Therefore. science and English learning should contribute to each other in the classroom. speaking. reading.

hypothesizing. gathering. principles. (goal oriented. and evaluating. and the natural and social sciences. cross-connected enterprise involving mathematics. The science curriculum needs to stress cognitive processes of observing. teachers can introduce cases that they will enjoy. and behavioral phenomena. Implication to English Language Teaching A. predicting. it involves doing. sequential. These skills provide a rich environment for simultaneous cognitive and linguistic development. and experimenting. hypothesize causes. science should go hand in hand with English learning. and theories that attempt to explain physical. technology. They identify the problem. They 2 . inferring. hypothesizing. self-guided. Beginning ELL learners usually need teacher’s guidance to formulate the complete thought in English and express their questions and answers. Science is a way of thinking. design the procedures or experiment. and experimenting. inferring. influential) The science curriculum needs to stress the cognitive process of observing. such as the ones that include live animals and plants. investigating. Science involves a behavioral component 5. Its theoretical principles need to be included in the teaching process: 1. In this case. organizing. predicting. 2. Science draws on and constructs the body of facts. they may have difficulty in understanding science content and process. and conduct research to try to solve the problem. Science includes a technological component 4. strategic. 3. laws. b) Teaching for understanding Students need to understand science as dynamic. biological.proficiency. students should have the opportunity to find the answer to the questions they themselves pose about a topic. developmental. Comprehensible Input There are four ways to facilitate content understanding for second language learners by putting comprehensible input to the learners a) Discovery learning In discovery environment. Concerning this problem. acting.

............................ 1........ (b) paraphrasing the salient points where appropriate...................need to view the world through the eyes of science and to develop each science concept indifferent ways....... Quinn & Kessler (1992 in Angela and Vivian. Topic: …………………………… What I did understand What I did not understand 1.. The table below is the one of the models that can be used: Signs of Pollution Problem Cause Effect What can we do to solve the problem? Soil erosion Tree cutting Global warming d) Vocabulary development Vocabulary can be best introduced using real objects............................................................................. and other visual devices........... ......... pictures......... 2................ and (c) asking students to provide oral summaries themselves....................................... What I learned ........ 2.................... ELL students do not always understand the concepts that are being introduced in the classroom because they are unable to distinguish between important and unimportant data.............. 2005) identify several strategies to be used to help students understand the main concepts in a given lesson: (1) using visual reviews with lists and charts............................................. 3........................... the table below will be a big help for them..................... .......................... 3................ B......... Collaborative Interaction 3 ................ ............ c) Teaching for concept development Concepts are essential units of human thought.................................. For this purpose..........

and interaction on meaningful problems. Afterwards. students can apply concepts and skills that they have learned on a specific topic. Other Elements Mainstream classroom need to make sure that instruction. they work in small groups to summarize what they have learned through that experience. These are the activities that can be applied in the classroom: (1) science investigation This activity can foster conversation. (2) expansion of concepts In this way. (3) problem-solving situations In problem-solving. such as: graphic organizers. There are several strategies recommended.In terms of collaborative interactions in the science classroom. Focusing on students’ language function. (5) development of study skills. or through scheduled activities like problem-solving and decision making. collaborative strategy is needed. diagrams. such as cooperative learning or holistic approaches to instruction. using concepts that they already know to guide their search for answers to questions. where groups of students were invited by the teacher to think about an invention that they would design and describe the process involved in carrying out such an invention. English language students frequently need assistance in learning how to study. (4) development of thinking skills Thinking skills can be developed through teacher-student questioning. teachers should provide an ideal environment to learn a new language. thinking. the cultural relevancy of the 4 . students must select and order varied types of data. In this case. C. curriculum and the classroom environment carefully attend to students’ linguistic and cultural diversity. Students share responsibility for analyzing and participating in activities. and mapping. Teachers can introduce an “invention” activity. scientific inquiry. The process leads to an understanding of new concepts and their relationship.

and the provision of variety of manipulatives. powerpoint.classroom.1 Can show logical and choronological thinking during the contribution of opinions in group and class discussion : 2 x 35 menit : English scientific learning : Problem-solving situation : The harms internet cause to young students : Problem-solving sheet. comparing events Mapping showing cause and effect Graphs and charts examining movement and spatial relation Diagrams organizing and comparing data. Types Skills Outlines summarizing. video Activities Pre-Activity Teacher introduces the topic to the class with powerpoint and video as the supporting tool Teacher divides the students in groups of five Teacher asks the students to discuss about the topic and gives direction to students what to answer during the discussion Whilst-Activity Exploration and discussion: Students discuss in group about the topic and answers to the problems given Syntesizing: Students conclude the discussion Reporting: Students report the discussion result in a form of 5 . facilitates the acquisition of science concepts and language skills among LEP/ELL students. Able to think scientifically about the harms of the internet and grow scientific sense of thinking : 5. and contrasting Application LESSON PLAN School level Lesson Class/Semester Standard Competence Basic Competence Time Allocation Lesson Method Activity Topic Media Duration/minute 10 3 10 5 : Senior High School : English Language : XII/1 : 5. making prediction Time lines organizing and sequencing events Flow charts chronologically.

Angela L. and Rodriguez. Patricia A. What government must do? Why? 7. or very good so that the students feel motivated Post-Activity Teacher asks the students to conclude what they have learnt from the discussion. students write their report Each students submit their report in written form. teacher can close the class discussion. and the other group member can respond When the time is up. Integrating Language and Science Learning. good job. Experts’ statement about it 4. 6 . 2005. New York: Pearson Education. Richardo-Amato and Marguerite Ann Snow (Eds). Conclusion Reference Carrasquillo.answers to the question Argumentation: Each group representative presents their discussion result to the class Meaning negotiation: Any group member can express what he agree and disagree from the opinions of other groups and the reason why. Academic Success for English Language Learner: Strategies for K-12 Mainstream Teachers. What adults must do? And why? 6. Current facts related to it 3. Teacher closes the class meeting 15 15 2 7 3 Problem-solving sheet Topic: What harms can internet cause to young students? Problems to Answer 1. Teachers give comments such as well done. Vivian. What does this research contribute to young students? 8. Harms caused by the internet 2. What students must do? And why? 5.