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Technical Assistance Manual

Octob er, 1992

Table of Contents
Introdu ction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Vehicles Covered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Wheelchair and Mobility Aid Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Minimum Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Periodic Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
How These Man uals ar e Organ ized . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Other Publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
§1192.1 Purp ose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
§1192.2 Equivalent facilitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
§1192.3 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
§1192.4 Miscellaneous instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
§1192.171 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
§1192.173 Aut oma ted g uid ewa y tran sit vehicles and system s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
§1192.53 Doorways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
(a) Clear width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
(b) Signage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
(c) Sign als . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
§1192.55 Priority seating signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
§1192.57 Interior circulation, hand rails and stanchion s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
§1192.59 Floor Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
§1192.61 Public Information System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
(a)(1) Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
(2) Exception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
(b) [Reserved ] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

augm ented with mat erial dev eloped in resp onse to q uestion s wh ich hav e been p ose d to t he Ar chi tect u ra l an d Tra ns p or ta tio n Bar rie rs C om p lian ce Boar d (Acces s Boar d ) sin ce publication of the guidelines. in clu d in g u ni ts o f Stat e an d loca l govern men t and the N ationa l Railroad Passen ger Corp oration (Amtr ak). 12101. Similar Vehicles & Systems The in form ation in th is d ocum ent is base d o n t he p ream ble p ub lished w ith th e Vehicle Guid elines. The d ocum ents in t his series are: o Buses. Title II of the ADA p rohibits d iscrimination on th e basis of disability in serv ices. light ra il. an d tele com m u ni cat ion s. comm uter rail. Vans & Systems o Rapid Rail Vehicles & System s o Light Rail Vehicles & System s o Comm uter Rail Cars & System s o Intercity Rail Cars & System s o Over-th e-Road Buses & System s o Aut oma ted Gu idew ay Tran sit Vehicles & Systems o High -Speed Rail Cars. title II requires that: 1 .Introduction This te chn ical assist an ce do cum ent is on e of a ser ies p rov ide d t o he lp in un de rsta nd ing the background and und erlying rationale of the Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Gu ide lines fo r Tran sp ort ation Vehicles (Veh icle Guid elines ) and how th e gu ide lines m ay a pp ly in a p articular case. is land mark legislation to extend civil rights protection to people w ith disabilities. Title II addr esses pu blic transp ortation and contains provisions specifically add ressing the following typ es of tran sit systems: fixed rout e bus. Monorails & Systems o Trams. Und er title II. With respect to pu blic entities. State an d lo cal gov ern me nt serv ices. 1990.C.S.L. et seq]. pu blic accom m od at ion s. signed into law by President Bush on July 26. includ ing individu als who use w heelchairs. transit systems of these types which are owned or operated by p ublic entities. com m erci al fa cilitie s. The guid ance in th is docum ent d oes not con stitute a deter min ation of comp liance with the DO T stand ard s or w ith you r right s or resp onsibilities u nd er t he AD A a nd is n ot b in d in g on DO T. must be mad e readily accessible to and u seable by individu als with disabilities. p ro gr am s. pu blic tra nsp ort ation . and persons und er contract with such entities. and intercity rail. an d activit ies p ro vid ed by pu blic e nt itie s. Background The Am eri can s w ith Disa bilit ies A ct (A DA ) [P. 101-336. rap id ra il. The ADA p rohibits discrimination on the basis of dis ability in em plo ym ent . 42 U. The Department of Transportation (DOT) has issued standard s for vehicles based on th e guid elines.

1990. vans with a seating capacity of less than 8 passeng ers. must be accessible unless the system. includin g ind ividu als wh o use wheelchairs. in th e case of r ap id. provid es to ind ividu als with disabilities a level of service equivalen t to tha t pr ovided to other members of the general public. If used veh icles are purchased or leased after August 25. to extend their useful life for 5 years or more in th e case of buses and rapid and light rail vehicles. 1995. At least one vehicle or car in each train of two or more cars must be accessible a s soon as p ractica ble bu t in n o eve nt later th an July 26. for use in a deman d respon sive system operated by a pub lic entity. New vehicles pu rchased or leased after Au gust 25. or over-th e-road b uses. Title III of the A DA p roh ibits d iscrim ina tion on t he b asis of d isabilit y in pu blic accom mo da tion s an d s erv ices pr ovid ed by p riva te en tities. pu blic transportation services (other than by aircraft) provided by p rivate entities must also be mad e read ily accessible to and usab le by ind ividu als with disabilities. comm uter . "On e-Car-Per-Train " Rul e. or by a person un der contract with such an entity. 1990. 1990. New vehicles pu rchased or leased after Au gust 25. 1990. Ne w veh icles pu rcha sed or lea sed after Au gu st 25. the following requirements apply to private entities that are p rim ar ily e ng ag ed in th e bu sin ess of tr an sp or tin g p eop le and w ho se o p era tio ns affect comm erce: New Vehicles. mu st be a ccessible unless the vehicle is to be used solely in a dem and responsive system that. or for 10 years in the case of commu ter and intercity rail cars. then the vehicles must be made accessible to the maxim um extent feasible. and intercity rail system s. Under title III. 1990. good faith efforts mu st be ma de to o btain a ccessible vehicles. Used Vehicles. This requirement does not apply to automobiles. when viewed in its entirety. U nd er tit le III. Demand Responsive Systems. 2 .New Vehicles. provides to individu als with d isabilities a level of service equivalent to that prov ided to oth er mem bers of th e ge ne ra l p u blic. must be a ccessible. Remanufactured Vehicles. If vehicles are reman ufactu red after Au gust 25. light. when viewed in its entirety .

1997. provides to individu als with d isabilities a level of service equivalent to that prov ided to oth er mem bers of th e ge ne ra l p u blic. purchased or leased after August 25.Vans. provid es to individuals with disabilities a level of service equivalent to that provided to other members of th e ge ne ra l p u blic. 1996. for use in fixed route systems must be accessible. for other p rovid ers. title III requires that: New Vehicles for Fixed Route Systems. 1992. and recreationa l facilities wh ich operate shuttle service for customers or patrons. Over-the3 . for u se in a fixed route system mu st also be accessible unless the system. w he n v iew ed in its e nt ire ty . New vehicles with a seating cap acity of more than 16 passengers. pro vides to ind ividu als with disabilities a level of service equivalen t to tha t pr ovided to other m em ber s of t he gen era l p u blic. N ew veh icles w ith a se at in g ca p acit y of m or e th an 16 passengers purchased or leased after August 25. New rail passenger cars purchased or leased after February 25. pr ov id es t o in d ivid u als w ith d isa bilit ies a lev el of s erv ice equ iva len t to th at pro vid ed to o th er m em ber s of t he gen era l p u blic. Operation of Demand Responsive Systems. Rail Cars. New vehicles with a seat ing cap acity o f 16 passe ng ers or less p ur chas ed or lea sed after Au gu st 25. such as ho tels. must be access ible. The Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) is responsible. Title III specifically addresses over-the-road bu ses operated by private entities. for studying the access needs of individuals with d isabilities to over-the-road buses and the most cost-effective method s for prov iding such a ccess. 1990. unless th e system for w hich th e van is being p urch ased or leased . 1990. This requirement d oes not apply to over-the-road buses. In view of this ma nd ated stud y. the system. w hen viewed in its entirety . 1990. For private entities not primarily engaged in the business of transporting people but wh ose oper ations affect comm erce. 1990. for use in a demand respon sive system mu st be accessible unless the sy stem. when viewed in its entirety. und er title III of the ADA. Ov er-the -Road Buses . for sm all prov iders an d July 26. New Vehicles for Demand Responsive Systems. must be a ccessible. 1992. New van s with a seating capacity of less than 8 passeng ers pu rchased or leased after Februar y 25. to ext en d th eir u sefu l life for 10 year s or m or e m u st b e m ad e acce ssib le to th e m axim u m exte nt feas ible . Dem an d r esp on sive sy stem s m us t be o pe rat ed in such a man ner that after July 26. when viewed in its entirety. Ra il p ass en ger cars rem an ufa ctu red afte r Feb ru ar y 25. 1992. overth e-roa d b us es cove red by tit le III are n ot re qu ired to be accessible t o w hee lchair or m obility aid users u ntil July 26. shopp ing center s.

1992. bu t befor e July 26. 4 . 1996 or 1997 m ay be required to include accessibility features wh ich do not involve stru ctural changes or use of board ing d ad bu ses pu rch ase d or leased after Jan u ar y 26.

former ly th e Ur ban Mass Tran sp ort ation Ad min istra tion (UMTA). See 49 CFR 37. ligh t ra il an d ra p id ra il sy ste m s p u blis he d by UM TA in 1976. Those stan da rd s app ly to vehicles p u rch ase d after A u gu st 26. 1992. The final DOT regu lation estab lishes effective da tes for the accessibility stand ard and add ress w hen the stan da rd s are to be ap plied to v eh icles fo r w hi ch a solicita tio n clo ses after O ctob er 6. known as the ADA Accessibility Guid elines for Transp ortation Vehicles on September 6. 1991. including accessibility standard s for transportation vehicles. 1991. 1990. ramp s. such as the Uniform Federal Accessibility Stand ards (UFAS) and the Am erican Na tional Stand ards Institute (ANSI) A117. Gu id elin e Sp ecifica tio ns for Wh eelcha ir Ra m p s a n d Guideline Specifications for Wheelchair Securem ent Dev ices. and ind us try pr actice. research sponsored by the Access Board. In ad dit ion. DOT published interim stand ard s on October 4. N ov em ber 1980). 5 . 1990 (55 FR 40762). Vehicles Covered The Board's Vehicle Guidelines p rimar ily add ress new and rema nu factured vehicles inst ead of existin g ve hicles sin ce the ADA do es n ot n ecessar ily req uir e veh icle retr ofit.1-1980 specifications. The m an ua ls in this series w ill deal only w ith th e requ iremen ts for vehicles pro cured after this d ate. t he g uid elines incor po rat ed pr ovisio ns o f 49 CFR Part 609 for bu ses. in 1986: Guideline Specifications for Passive Wheelchair Lifts. The ADA required the Access Board to d evelop guidelines to provide guidan ce to DOT on estab lishing th e accessibility stand ard s for tran spor tation v ehicles. The Access Board p ublished its minimum guidelines. in the Federal Register (56 FR 45530).13 an d th e De cem ber 9. The provisions for lifts. DOT has adopted the substance of the guidelines (with minor editorial differences) as the accessibility stand ard s for tran spor tation v ehicles. 1 See 49 CFR 37. codified at 36 CFR Part 1192. bu t befor e Oct ober 7. Gu ide line Sp ecification s for A ctive Wheelchair Lifts. Provisions from the Guideline Specifications were supp lemented with add itional material derived from common accessibility standards. 1991.7. and securemen t devices were daw n pr imarily from a series of gu ide lines d evelo pe d a s pa rt of a pr oject spo nso red by th e Fed eral Tr an sit Ad min istra tion (FTA). These guidelines. Federal Register (56 FR 64214). are not. Some p rov ision s for A ut om ated Gu ide w ay Tra nsp ort ation (AGT) "peop le movers" and r apid rail systems were derived from Los Angeles Downtown People Mover: Ha nd book on Accessibility for the Elder ly and Ha nd icapped (UM TA. Existing 1 The req u ire m en ts fo r t he size of p lat for m lifts an d m in im u m d oor he igh t for bu ses ov er 22 feet in len gt h a p p ly t o so licita tio ns closin g on or after Jan u ar y 26. the standard s for vehicles but rather form the minimu m requirements for standards issued by DOT. in and of themselves.Regulations The Depa rtm ent of Transp ortation is respon sible for issuing regu lations to im plem ent the transp ortation prov isions of the ADA. 1991.

For th ese en tities. ho w ever.g. Neither is it app ropriate. p ro vid e a cle ar m an d at e to th e Boar d to s et t he m in im u m req u ire m en ts fo r v eh icles. not the Board.buses. rear -facing securement). How ever. most cost effective m ann er possible consisten t with the stat ute. Thu s. are minimum requirements. The Board ha s attem pted to carry ou t this char ge in th e fairest. the Board canno t assum e that the strength.. nor a ny oth er statu te. manu facture and alteration of vehicles. Wh eelch ai r an d Mobility Aid Standard s Neith er the A DA. to assume th at fellow pa ssen ger s w ill h av e th e str en gth or s kill t o as sist pe rso ns w ith d isab ilities to b oar d veh icles. Also. Operational requirements are within the purview of DOT. and are covered by Part 37 of the DOT rule. some entities wh ich do not plan to pu rchase a sufficient num ber of new vehicles before the compliance date for the "one-car-per-train" rule may choose to retrofit existing vehicles. and the DO T stand ard s based on th em. agility and attention of a driver will be sufficient to prevent a heavy wh eelchair from rolling off a lift. Mi ni mu m Req ui remen ts It shou ld be n oted that these Vehicle Guid elines. The ma terial from that app endix has been generally incorporated into the d iscussion material in this document. The ADA does. not their operation. especially subparts B and G. 6 . th e Board ha s inclu de d p rov ision s in t he a pp rop riat e gen eral s ection s concer nin g such r etrofitted v ehicles. For examp le. Except for the possibility of operational procedu res allowed u nd er the equivalent facilitation prov ision. The word "may" is used wh ere alternatives are permitted and shou ld not be con str u ed as a req u ire m en t. discussed below . for example. specific vertical and horizon tal gap s for rail vehicles are specified. It is just a s ina pp rop riat e to exp ect oth er p assen gers to lift a w hee lchair use r in to a v ehicle a s it is to assume others should lift a wh eelchair over a curb or carry someone up a flight of stairs to enter a build ing. as one transit operator su ggested. Even com plia nce w ith th e "one-car -per -train ru le" and th e m obility aid seat ing requirem ents for intercity rail cars can be m et by the pu rchase of new vehicles. Operations The Vehicle Guidelines cover the design. advisory gu idance to assist in applying th e rule. Therefore. inclu din g instan ces in wh ich opera tional p rocedu res migh t fail. are not required to be retrofitted to meet the standard s of Part 38 of the DOT re gu lation . Standard s or specifications which provide greater access are pe rm itted . confers up on th e Board the au thor ity to set stand ard s or min imu m req uirem ents for w heelchairs an d m obility aids. In ad dit ion. th e Board 's sta tu tor y m an da te is to ens ur e accessibilit y of th e bu ilt en viro nm ent . t her e are section s w hich expr essly p erm it alte rn ativ es (e. a n a p p en d ix h as b een inclu d ed in th e gu id elin es w hi ch contains non-ma nd atory. the Board h as included a requiremen t for lift platform barriers.

How These Manuals are Organized Each of these m anu als deals w ith a sep arate tr ansp ortation mod e or veh icle type. Other Publications The Access Board ha s also made available a checklist based on its ADA Accessibility Gu ide lines (A DAA G) for Build ing s an d Fa cilities. it is included at the beginning of each man ual. m u st b e re ad in con jun ctio n w ith th e st at ion d esig n r equ ire m en ts in 36 CFR Pa rt 1191.Rapid Rail Vehicles a nd System s. based on a p articular su bpa rt of the final reg ulation (e.e. or wh ere the DOT regulation requires one type of vehicle to comp ly with the req uirem ents of an other type. particularly the requ iremen ts for horizon tal gap s and vertical disp lacement betw een veh icles and p latforms. su bp art C .23(b)(6).. In ad dition .23(b)(6) is substantively identical to §38. Where th e prov isions of the Vehicle Guid elines refer to other mod es. The p ort ions of th is d ocum ent w hich ap pe ar in bold are the provisions as they appear in th e fin al Veh icle Gu id elin es.Buses. The nu mb ering system of DOT's reg u lat ion follo w s th e sa m e for m at w ith th e exce p tio n o f th e p refi x nu m ber (i. some variations d etermined to provid e equivalent facilitation may be explicitly incorpora ted in futu re up da tes. 7 . fixed facilit ies a nd sta tio ns . etc. §1192. the Board p lans to rev ise and up da te these techn ical manu als as new info rm ati on or t ech no logy su rfa ces or as t he Vehi cle Gu id elin es th em selv es a re ch an ged .. subp art B . th e relevan t sections are rep eated . Each manual is self-contained so that reference to oth er ma nu als is not necessar y.Periodic Revisions The Board inten ds to con du ct period ic upd ates an d r evision of the Vehicle Guid elines so th at fu tu re te chn ologies an d p ractices can b e incor po rat ed into th em . ADA AG con tain s req uir em ent s for tr an sit facilit ies.g. These publications are available from the Access Board. As n oted in th e follow ing discussion s. Th e Board also publishes technical bulletins on certain sections in ADAAG. How ever . since su bp art A ap plies to all vehicles. In some places in these man uals. etc. Some of the provisions. in clu d in g b u s st op s an d ter m in als . an d air p or ts. the Board feels that a dd itional d ata an d stu dy are need ed reg ard ing certain issues and it intend s to furth er revise an d m odify th ese guid elines based on its review of collected data an d stu dy resu lts.). notation is mad e of drafting errors or sections where the regu lation itself is u nclea r. For pu rpo ses of this docu men t. the section nu mber s correspon d to t he p rovisions a s they ap pea r in Title 36 of the Cod e of Federa l Regulation s. Vans an d System s. Severa l non -sub stan tive ch an ges in th e reg ula tion ma y be m ad e in the fut ure a nd these chan ges w ill be reflected in revised edition s of these m anu als. wh ich ar e in clu d ed as A p p en d ix A o f th e DO T reg u lat ion at 49 CFR Pa rt 37. Also. Th e te xt im m ed iat ely follo w in g is a d iscu ssio n o f th e ra tio na le.).

the sta nd ar d s th em selv es h av e be en issu ed by DO T an d ar e cod ified at 49 CFR Pa rt 38. etc. DOT intends to consult with the Board in making d eterminations of equivalency. The DOT standard s cou ld be m or e st rict th an th e gu id elin es b u t cou ld no t p ro vid e a le sse r d egr ee o f acces sib ility .2 Equivalent facilitation. D ep artures are to be cons id ered o n a case -by-cas e bas is by th e D ep artment o f Transportation under the procedure set forth in 49 CFR 37.7 for the d etailed p rocedu res w hich m ust be follow ed as part of an app lication to the Adm inistrator for an equivalent facilitation determ ination. The Board and DOT agree that there is a need for some flexibility to address unique and special circumstances and to facilitate the application of new technologies.7. Section 504 of the ADA requires the Access Board to issue minimu m gu idelines and requirements for vehicles and facilities. Departures from particular technical and scoping requirements of these guidelines by use of other designs and technologies are permitted where the alternative designs and techn ol og ie s us ed w il l prov id e s ubs tantial ly equ iv alen t or greater access to and usab il ity of the v eh icl e. transit agencies. Alternate 8 . As discussed p reviously. 42 U. This part provides minimum guidelines and requirements for accessibility standards to be is su ed by th e D ep artment o f Transp ortation in 49 CFR Part 37 for transpo rtation ve hi cle s req ui red to be acces si bl e b y th e A me ricans w ith D is abi li tie s A ct (AD A) o f 1990. DOT has established p rocedures und er which an entity (e. In turn . DOT must issue standard s which are consistent with these guidelines. an "equivalent facilitation" provision has been included that is similar to the provision in the buildings and facilities guidelines. providers. This format is similar to that und er the Architectural Barriers Act of 1968 in which the Board issued the Minimum Guidelines and Requirements for Accessible Design w hich sets the baseline for th e Uniform Federal Accessibility Standards (UFAS).g. See 49 CFR 37.Su bp art A -. This section merely sets forth the pu rpose of the guidelines which is to establish the minimu m requ irements for standards issued by DOT. The Board w ishes to p oint ou t tha t equ ivalent facilitation d oes not con stitute a w aiver from any accessibility requirement and is not a lesser standard of accessibility.Ge ne ral §1192. Therefore. §1192.1 Purpose.) may pu rsue alternative means of providing accessibility with resp ect to specific requiremen ts of the standard .S.C. 12101 et seq. The FTA or Federal Railroad Ad min istration (FRA) Adm inistrator will det ermin e on a case-by-case basis w heth er equ ivalent facilitation is p rovid ed..

3 De fi ni tio ns . This clearance is especially imp ortant wh ere a standee wou ld be positioned outside the vehi cle d oor w he n t he lift is d ow n b u t is m ov ed up an d th ro u gh th e d oor as t he lift is ra ised . clear of the door lintel. althou gh it accomm oda tes only about 70% of the adult male popu lation. and busways. some lifts are designed such that th e motion is entirely vertical ("elevator" type lifts) and a stand ee is positioned at the full inboard edge and is raised fully within the vehicle. Wh ile it is n ot p ra ctica ble to p ro vid e clea ra nce for th e 90th perce nt ile st an d ee. Se rvice may be on a fi xed sch ed ul e o r in respo ns e to a pass en ge r-activate d cal l b utto n. Bus me ans any of se ve ral types of se lf -prop el le d v eh icl es . The Board encou rag es th at. a v ehicle. an entity should consider th e intent of the gu ideline or st and ard requ iremen t. are sometimes called "people movers". §1192. A greater h eight w as not sp ecified becau se information supp lied by vehicle manufacturers indicated that this height was consistent with that need ed to a ccommod ate overh ead door open ing m echanism s and roof lines. pro vided the location of th e han dr ails is such tha t the fu ll inboard stand ing p osition is viable. The Board is available to provid e technical assistance regarding equ ivalent facilitation.designs and technologies may be used on ly where th ey will provide su bstantially equivalent or grea ter a ccess to. entities consult with individuals with disabilities and their organizations at the earliest possible stage of the process. Other mod els of lifts do n ot mo ve the st and ee throu gh th e door . Such syste ms using smal l. Accessible me ans. but th e ind ividu al wou ld n eed to p ass th ro u gh th e d oor after t he lift is ra ised . highways. In this case. o fte n operated in ai rports an d am usement p ark s. w hen consid erin g alternative designs and technologies. w ith res pe ct to ve hi cles cove red by this part. For example. This height. large bu ses are requ ired to h ave a door wa y heigh t of 5'8" from the ra ised lift platform . intended for use on city streets. s low moving vehicl es. 9 . the FTA Adm inistrator has determined th at the intent of the doorw ay height requ irement is being met by th e particular lift configuration. generally rubber tired. Aut om at ed gui dew ay t rans it (AG T) sys tem me ans a f ixed -gui de w ay transp ortation sy ste m w hi ch o pe rates w ith auto mate d (d rive rles s) i nd iv id ual ve hi cle s o r mul ti-car trains. compl iance w ith th e provi si on s of this part. an d u sabilit y of. it is d esir ab le to pro vid e as m u ch h ead room as p oss ible . is intended to provide some minimu m head clea ra nce for sta nd ees . In developing an equivalent facilitation prop osal. How ever. oth er than an ove r-the-road bus. sin ce du cking to clear th e door wa y ma y be m ore d ifficult for per sons w ith am bulat ory d isabilities than for other m ember s of the gen eral pop ulation .

articulated bus es . Fixed rout e sy st em me ans a sy ste m o f trans po rting in di vi du als (oth er than by aircraft). on w hi ch a ve hi cle is op erated alo ng a prescribed route according to a fixed schedule. Commuter rail transportat ion means short-haul rail passenger service operating in me tropol itan an d su burban areas. 10 . Commuter rail car me ans a rail pas se ng er car obtain ed by a com mu ter authority (as de fi ne d by 49 CFR 37. rail. mu lti pl e ride . and do not weigh more than 600 pounds when occupied. incl udi ng but n ot li mi ted to s pe cif ie d p ub li c transpo rtation se rvice . forty. m eas ured 2 inches above the ground. usab le ind oo rs. usually characterized by reduced fare. Sel f-prop el le d. us ed to prov id e de si gn ated o r sp ecif ie d pu bl ic transp ortation se rvices .and thirty-f oo t transit b us es . op erated b y a com mu ter autho rity w he ther w ithi n or across the geographical boundaries of a State. including the provision of designated public transportation service by public en titie s and the p rovis io n of transpo rtation s ervice by p rivate e ntiti es . o n a regu lar and continuing clud in g bu t not l im ite d to m in ib us es .3) for use in co mm uter rail transp ortation . or oth er conve yan ce (o the r than transpo rtation b y aircraft or inte rcity or com mu ter rail transpo rtation) th at provi de s the ge ne ral publ ic w ith ge ne ral or spe cial se rvice . Designated public transportation me ans trans po rtation p rovid ed by a p ubl ic en tity (oth er than pu bl ic s cho ol transportatio n) b y b us . rubb er tire ve hi cles des ig ne d to l oo k li ke anti qu e o r vin tage troll ey s o r street cars are con si de red bus es . des ig ne d fo r and us ed by p erson s w ith m ob il ity impai rments w hich do not e xceed 30 inch es in w idth an d 48 inch es in length . in clu di ng charter servi ce. including the p rovis io n of des ig nated pub li c transpo rtation s ervice by p ubl ic en titie s and the provision of transportation service by private entities. and el ectric po w ered trol le y bu se s. do ubl e-de ck bu se s. Common w heelchairs and mobility aids means belonging to a class of three or four w he el ed dev ices . and co mm utatio n tick ets an d by mo rning and e ve ni ng peak perio d op eration s. This term do es not i nclu de li gh t or rapi d rail transp ortation . including but not limited to specified pub li c transpo rtation s ervice . Dem and resp ons iv e sy st em means any system of transporting individuals. w hi ch is not a f ixed route s ys tem .

Intercity rail passenger car mean s a rail car inte nded for use by revenue pas sengers ob tain ed by the N atio nal Rail road Pass en ge r Corporation (Am trak) fo r use in in tercity rail transportation. mag ne tical ly le vi tated (mag le v) v eh icl es on a speci al gu id ew ay. or exclusive private rights-of-way. be tw ee n h ote ls and 11 . Tram me ans an y of se ve ral type s of mo tor veh icl es cons is ting of a tractor uni t. Light rail me ans a s treetcar-type v eh icl e railw ay op erated o n city streets . o r any oth er conv ey ance (o ther than aircraft) prov id ed by a p rivate e ntity to the gen eral pu bl ic. Specified public transportation me ans trans portation b y bu s. Rapid rail me ans a s ubw ay-typ e transi t veh icl e railw ay op erated o n excl us iv e priv ate rights-of-way with high-level platform stations. by f reigh t. incl udi ng . New v ehicl e mean s a v ehicl e w hich is offered for sal e or leas e af te r man ufactu re without any prior use. and o ne or mo re pas se ng er traile r uni ts. w ith ge ne ral or spe cial se rvice (in clu di ng charter servi ce) o n a regu lar and co nti nu in g b asi s. or othe r advance d te chn ol og y v eh icl es . Ov er-the-road bus me ans a vehi cle characterize d b y an el ev ated pas se ng er de ck lo cated o ve r a baggage comp artment. trains on w el de d rail . i ncl ud in g b ut no t li mi ted to v eh icl es provid in g s hu ttle se rvice to rem ote parking areas. de si gn ed to travel at spee ds in exce ss of those possible on other types of railroads. Intercity rail transportation means transportation provided by Amtrak. Rapid rail may also operate on elevated or at-grade le ve l track sep arated from o the r traff ic. Service may be provided by step-entry vehicles or by level-boarding. but n ot li mi ted to. fo r the mo st part. sem i-priv ate rights-of-way. Rem anufa ct ured v ehicl e me ans a vehi cle w hi ch h as b ee n s tructurall y res tored and has had ne w or rebui lt m ajor com po ne nts in stal le d to exte nd its se rvice li fe . wi th or w ith ou t pas se ng er accom mo dati on s. rail.High speed rail mean s an inte rci ty -type rai l service w hich operates primari ly on a de di cated g ui de w ay or track not u se d.

That material is summ arized in th e discussion sections of this d ocum ent. The text of these guidelines does not contain notes or footnotes. (4) Shall den otes a mand atory sp ecif icatio n or requ ireme nt. (a) Dimensional conventions.. and a dvisory m aterials. or if. (5) Should denotes an advisory specification or recommendation and is used only in the ap pe ndi x to thi s part. e xpl anati on s. and b etw ee n and w ithi n amu se me nt parks and o ther recreatio n areas.t hen denotes a specification that applies only when the conditions de scribe d are pres en t. Ad di tio nal in fo rmatio n. This sect ion con ta in s sev era l p ro vis ion s d esig ne d to r ed u ce so m e con fu sion w hi ch became evident in th e responses to the original prop osed regulations. An app end ix was also added to the final guidelines that contains ad ditional information. and advi so ry mate rials are located in the Ap pe nd ix. Al l d im en si on s are sub ject to con ve nti on al en gi ne erin g to le rances fo r material propertie s an d f ie ld con di tio ns . §1192. incl u d in g d im en sion al co nv en tio ns an d tolera nce s. It contains miscellaneous in str u ctio ns . The definitions in this section are consistent w ith the definitions included in the DOT final r ule. 12 . primarily those which concern operational issues not add ressed by the guidelines. (b) D im en si on al to le rances . (c) Notes. (3) May denotes an option or alternative.othe r publ ic accom mo datio ns . explanations. Used vehicle means a vehicle with prior use.4 Misce ll aneo us ins truction s. h ow ever . The terms used in this part shall have the following meanings: (1) Comply wit h means meet one or more specification of these guidelines. Dimensions that are not noted as minimum or maximum are absolute. Notice that the term "accessible" means compliance with the pr ovisions of the guidelines (or the DOT standa rds in 49 CFR Part 38) wh ich includ es any determ inations of equ iva len t facilita tio n.. doe s no t inclu de som e ter ms w hich are in clud ed in the DOT rule. w here ap pro priat e. (d) General terminology. Th is set of d efinitio ns. (2) If. in clu di ng no rmal anti cip ated w ear not exce ed in g acce pte d i nd us try-w id e s tand ards and practices. an d gen era l ter m in ology .

Fu rth erm ore. and sup posedly "fixed" objects settle du e to dy nam ic stress. nor could it justify a w ider h orizont al gap as being w ithin d imen sional toleran ces because it did not specify its vehicles to be within achievable limits for sway or stability. Reliance on dim ensiona l tolerances. but may be significantly out of alignmen t by th e end of the d ay. includ ing designers. 13 . An entity cannot issue vehicle specifications which are less stringent than those required by the guid elines. Springs lose their elasticity. how ever. is not an excuse for imp rop er or d eferred mainten ance. Neither could a rail operator be excused from comp liance because it accepted vehicles from a m anu facturer w hich d id n ot meet the op erator's bid specification. even in a n ew sy stem. resu lting from ma teria l var iation s bey on d t he con tro l of th e op erat or w ou ld n ot be de em ed in viola tion of th e gu ide lines. the claim of "dimensional tolerances" could not be mad e for a lift wh ich fails to meet the vehicle floor within the limits sp ecified in th ese gu ide lines. steel rails and wh eels wear d own . sim ply becau se an ad justm ent w hich could ha ve b een reas on ably mad e to a control system or limit switch was not made. The allow ance for nor mal w ear. dimensional tol era nce s ap p ly t o th e con str u ctio n. The cars generally provide level entry in the morning. the cable is sub ject to un controllable stretch ing d urin g the d ay. how ever. for exam ple. How ever. engineers. Such a change w ould need to be acknowledged by a significant segment of the indu stry to constitute an "accepted in du stry stand ard or p ractice.With respect to dimensional tolerances. op erators or design ers. sim ply get t oget her to ad op t a low er "stan da rd " solely for th e pu rp ose of r elaxin g compliance. If the industry. manu facturers. no t to th e d esig n. For example. and recognized professional ass ocia tio ns ag ree th at a sp ecific a d he ren ce can be a chieved ab ov e th at allo w ed by an ag en cy policy or practice. As a resu lt. even close toleran ces du ring con stru ction or m anu facture cann ot ensu re continu ed con forman ce to a given standard . u nlik e bu ildin gs an d fa cilities w hich are e ssen tially stationa ry objects." Moreover. a cable-driven historic inclined system has been modified to be genera lly accessible. Such variation . certain materials expand or contract due to variation s in tem pera tur e or d urin g the p rocess of "curing " or dryin g. Nor could a grou p of m anu facturers. not the agency policy. For example. is on ly to b e ap p lied in accor d an ce w ith accep ted ind u str y st an d ar d s an d pra ctices . not simply an agency policy. it is the industry standard which is to be applied. m an u fact u re o r op era tio n o f a sy ste m . or poor design or constru ction method s. vehicles move an d h ave d yna mic as w ell as static "envelop es". especially in hot weather. operators.

if a vehicle's floor is resurfaced and its electrical system rewired.Other Vehicles and Systems §1192. 1990. This provision is similar to existing requirements of all common accessibility codes and should be viewed as an "opportunity" clause.171 General. w ith th e app li cabl e p rovi si on s o f th is su bp art. The guidelines discussed in this technical assistance document are substantively identical to stan da rd s issu ed by D OT on Septem ber 6. Vehicles that ar e rema nu factured aft er t hi s d at e to exte nd th eir usab le life for 5 yea rs o r m or e ar e also r equ ire d to b e acce ssib le. Und er any m odification plan. Questions as to whether certain vehicles are subject to these standard s and sp ecific effe ctiv e d at es sh ou ld be d ire cted to D OT. to be co ns id ered acce ss ib le by reg ul ation s i ss ue d by the D ep artment o f Transp ortation in 49 CFR Part 37. each element that is part of the mod ification should be brought into compliance with th e app licable sections of these requirements. 1991. For examp le. That is. When a vehicle is modified. the installation of a bridge plate or other board ing device is not requ ired. The DOT rule at 49 CFR Part 37 further ou tlines the applicability and effective dates of these requirements. to th e e xtent p racticable . 1990. to be accessible. those elements of the vehicle not affected by the m od ificat ion plan w ou ld no t h av e to be b ro u gh t in to co nfo rm an ce w ith th ese req u ire m en ts. (b) If po rtion s o f th e v eh icl e o r convey ance are mo di fi ed in a w ay th at aff ects or coul d affe ct access ib il ity . Th e in ten t of t his pr ov ision is to en su re t ha t ele m en ts o f a vehicle will be mad e accessible wh en the op portu nity to do so exists in the regu lar course of mod ifying or up grading veh icles. at 49 CFR Part 38 w hich rep lace th e int erim rules. u sed an d reman ufactu red vehicl es an d co nveyan ce s for syste ms not covered by othe r subp arts of th is part. On Oct ober 4. each s uch p ortion shal l com pl y. the new floor surface should be slip resistant at aisles and areas used by standees and mobility aid users. 14 . (a) N ew . D OT issu ed an inter im set of re qu ire m en ts fo r su ch v eh icles. This p rovi si on do es no t requ ire th at in acces si bl e ve hi cle s b e retrof itte d w ith li fts . shal l com pl y w ith th is sub part. even if the entra nce of a vehicle is mod ified. the opp ortu nity sh ould be explored to pr ovide t he m aximu m access feasible.Subpart H -. th e installation of au dible an d v isual d oor signa ls wou ld also be req uired as p ar t of t he m od ificati on pr oject. If existing audible signals are replaced or rew ired. How ever. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires new or used vehicles that are pu rchased or leased after Au gust 25. when modifications are mad e for any reason . ramps or othe r boardin g d ev ice s.

55 through 1192. DOT. and futu re systems with designs or opera tional features based on n ew technologies.53(d) an d b etw een -car ba rrier s. wh ich ar e ad dr essed by th e follow ing pa rag rap hs ((b) a nd (c)). all the req uirem ents for ra pid rail are referenced except those p ertainin g to veh iclepla tform align me nt (1192. (b) Wh ere th e v eh icl e co ve red by p aragraph (a) of thi s s ecti on w il l o pe rate in an acce ssible stati on. V ertical ali gn me nt 15 . §1192. Basically. Examp les might includ e the Johnstow n or Mongah ela inclines. These guidelines define AGT systems as au tomated (driverless) systems comprised of ind ividu al or mu lti-car tra ins. These systems are sometimes referred to as "people movers" and are often used in airports and amu sement parks. Those AGT sys tem s th at op erat e as r ap id r ail syst em s w ou ld b e fully su bject to th e req uir em ent s for r ap id r ail (su bp art C). th is is fu rt he r d iscu sse d und er p ar ag ra p h (d ).173 Automated guideway transit vehicles and systems. skyways and cable drive aerial tramways. S . sometimes called "pe op le mo ve rs. lightweight vehicles that move at relatively slow speeds and that provide level boarding. s hal l co mply w ith th e provisions of §§1192. the design of vehicl es shal l be co ordinated w ith th e board ing platform de si gn su ch th at the ho rizo ntal gap be tw ee n a veh icl e d oo r at res t and the pl atfo rm sh all be no g reater than 1 inch and the hei ght of the ve hicl e fl oor shall be w ithi n pl us o r minus 1/2 in ch o f th e p latf orm h ei gh t un de r all normal pas se ng er lo ad cond iti on s. in consultation with th e Access Board.53(a) th rough (c). Since there are many similarities between the op erat ion o f rap id r ail syst em s an d m ost A GT syste ms .(c) Requirements for vehicles and systems not covered by this part shall be de termin ed on a cas e-by -case b asis by th e D ep artment o f Transp ortation in co ns ul tation w ith th e U. (a) Automated Guideway Transit (AGT) vehicles and systems.61 for rapid rail vehicles and systems." ope rated in airports and othe r areas w he re AGT v eh icl es travel at s lo w speed. w ill determ ine wh ich requirements ap ply to such veh icles or systems on a case-by-case basis. and th ose th at op erat e as ligh t ra il syst em s w ou ld b e su bject to th e req uir em ent s for ligh t ra il veh icles (sub pa rt D ) inste ad of th is su bp ar t. an d 1192. This section is intend ed to a dd ress those A GT systems characterized by small. A rch ite ctural an d Transportati on Barriers Co mplian ce Bo ard (A ccess Bo ard ) This prov ision do es not p ertain t o AGT systems b ut to t hose typ es of vehicles or systems that cannot be easily classified und er any of the transit modes defined by these guidelines and add ressed either in this subp art or any of the other subparts. mos t of th e req uir em ent s for r ap id r ail vehi cles a re a p p lied by th is p ro vis ion to A GT veh icles a nd ar e re p rin ted in th is m an u al.

in the acquisition or remanu facture of vehicles. In those unique instances where a new AGT system could not meet these gap requ iremen ts. it is incumbent on the oper ator n ot only to sp ecify the correct floor height w hen ord ering v ehicles (and to accept them only if they meet the specification) but also to correctly specify the rail-to-platform height for new stations. only those v ariation s with in the lim its of accepted ind ustr y pr actices or tolerances are allow ed. it is importan t to keep in mind that the horizontal gap and vertical tolerance are dependent not only on the vehicle specifications but also the design and construction of station platforms. the Board recognizes th at close tolerances d urin g constru ction or m anu facture cann ot insu re continued conformance to a given stand ard. (c) In statio ns w he re op en pl atfo rms are not p rotecte d b y p latf orm s creen s. Standard s for these facilities. m oti on de tecto rs or othe r appropriate de vi ces .may be accomplished by vehicle air suspension or other suitable means of meeting the requi remen t. Variations. which pertain to new AGT vehicles operating at accessible stations. Further. a sui tabl e de vi ce or sy stem shal l be provi de d to p reven t.7). Accep tabl e d ev ice s i ncl ud e. are provided at 49 CFR Part 37. ch ain s. pan tog raph gate s." (1980)). be subject to the greater tolerances sp ecified for ra pid rail (subp art C) an d ligh t rail (subp art D) system s. und er paragrap h (d). H ow ever . The maximum gap tolerances specified here. Thus. Add itionally. operators should specify that the vehicle be horizontally and vertically aligned as closely to the p latform a s is possible so tha t un der all norm al passen ger load conditions the maximum tolerances are not exceeded. Append ix A. These tolerances are specified as the maximu m allowed und er all normal passeng er load conditions. This study found that the 1 inch horizontal gap and 1/ 2 vertical tolerance are achievable in people-mover systems.4 above. the gap requirements have been met by simply bolting a wooden p lank to the platform edge to narrow th e gap. the op erator w ould be able to p ursu e alterna tive mea ns of red ucing g aps u nd er the procedur e for equivalent facilitation contained in DOT's rule (see 49 CFR 37. Also. includ ing gap requirements. 16 . See the d iscussion of dimen sional tolerances in section 1192. such as those resulting from norm al w ear o r m ater ial va riat ions w ou ld n ot be de em ed viola tion s of th e gu ide lines. those AGT vehicles that operate as rapid or light rail vehicles would. Since AGT systems un der discussion in this section op erate at r elatively slow sp eeds. Thus. dete r or warn ind iv id uals from s tepp in g of f the pl atfo rm be tw ee n cars. gr eat er h or izo nt al a nd ver tica l coor d in at ion bet w een veh icles a nd plat for m s can be a chi eved . b ut are no t li mi ted to. are based on an FTA-sponsored su rvey of people mover system s ("Los Angeles Downtow n People Mover: Hand book on Accessibility for the Elderly and Hand icapped . In some existing systems.

Motion de tector s are strictly a w arn ing de vice an d w ill not ph ysically rest rict som eon e from falling betw een cars. Since AGT systems u sually op erate beh ind platform screens w hich h ave d oors th at op en on ly wh en a vehicle door is correctly aligned. Persons interested in the full set of requirements for rapid rail vehicles should consult the manual for rapid rail systems (subpart C). Subpart C -. deter. most of these systems will not need to provide barriers betw een veh icles. pa ntogr aph gates. th e light from end win dow s can som etimes cau se p ers on s w ith vis u al im p air m en ts t o m ista ke t he ga p bet w een veh icles a s an en tr an ce.Rapid Rail Vehicles and Systems [NOTE: Only those sections of th e man ual for ra pid rail systems w hich ap ply to A GT systems are rep rinted here. or m otion d etectors mu st be pr ovided to help prev ent passengers from accidentally steppin g off the platform. In som e systems. are required to be more closely coordinated w ith th e p lat for m . Some r ap id r ail an d lig ht rail sy stem s cou ld b e consider ed to o pera te as an AGT system. Althou gh th e Board does n ot requ ire or recomm end one d evice or solution over another. motion d etectors. if mounted high enou gh. some typ e of barrier such a s chains. but if mounted at a low height may serve on ly as a warn ing to persons w ith visual impa irments w ho use canes. For clarity. or other dev ices. it is known that spr ing or pan tograph gates are more effective than chains or m otion d ete ctor s in sto p p in g a pers on from ste p p in g ov er t he plat for m ed ge a nd fallin g b etw een car s.] 17 . The term "automated guidew ay transit" pertains to the meth od of train control and not neces sarily to a ca tego ry o f veh icles exclusiv ely. wh ere platform screens are n ot pr ovided . respectively. Chains. How ever. Althoug h m ost of the requirements for AGT systems are the same as th ose for rapid rail. references in the d iscussion to "rapid rail" vehicles or systems have been chan ged to "AGT" vehicles or systems. or warn" in d ivid u als of th e ga p . (d) Ligh t rail and rapid rail AG T veh icl es and s ys tem s s hall comp ly w ith s ubp arts D and C of this part. pa rticu larly th ose w ith visu al im pa irm ent s. may actually prevent falls. Other available solutions not mentioned in the provision are acceptable so long as they serve to "prevent. Op erat ors con cern ed abo ut th e m an ua l conn ection an d d isconn ection of sp rin g gates or cha ins can sp ecify pantog rap h gat es. The veh icles of such syst ems w ould not be cover ed by this section but by subpart C in the case of rapid rail vehicles or subpart D in the case of light rail vehicles. is stepp ing in-betw een cars.A ser iou s d an ger p osed to p assen gers . AGT vehicles. as discussed above. w hi ch is also av aila ble from th e Acce ss Board .

Add itionally. have 30 inches of clear wid th) an d sh ould be accessible in case they ma y ser ve a s an accessible m ean s of egr ess. . the requ iremen t is for a "clear op enin g. These guidelines do not address evacuation procedures or require that end doors be used in em ergencies or that they be part of an evacuation route. this provision should not be v iew ed as a n e xcu se t o ar bit ra rily place sta nch ion s or ar ra ng e sea ts t o p recl u d e a 30-in ch wid e passa ge to avoid hav ing to sp ecify 30-inch wid e end door s. (2) If doo rway s co nn ecti ng adjo in in g cars in a m ul ti-car train are prov id ed . steps). the end do ors m igh t n ot be use d b y a t ran sit sys tem 's eva cua tion pla n..e. How ever.53 Doorways.§1192. The d oor w idt h sp ecified is n ot d esign ed solely to accomm odate w heelchair users. the evacu ation ro ute lead ing from the tra in itself is often ina ccessible. This requ iremen t does n ot ap ply to v ehicles that are designed with a route leading to the end doors that is less than 30 inches wide at any point or th at is inaccessible in any other asp ect (e.. Since the clear area in w hich mobility aid u sers can p osition th emselves is u sually located at the en ds of cars. then the en d doors mu st provide a minim um of 30 inches clear width . Furth er. For a variety of reasons. This requirement applies only to new vehicles equipped w ith end doors that can be rea che d by a w he elch air or m obility aid user . catwalks. su ch as w hen th e sid e doors of a car fail. In lim ited em erge ncies. Rather. accessible end d oors would be th e only means of exit.(1) Passe ng er do orw ays on ve hi cle si de s s hal l h ave cle ar openi ng s at le ast 32 inch es w id e w he n o pe n. a tra nsit syst em 's eva cua tion pla n t ha t req uir es th e us e of sid e d oors w ou ld n ot be pr eclud ed by th is pro vision. especially in tunnels. In ad dit ion." Prov idin g a w ide do orw ay w ith a ver tical sta nch ion in th e cent er d oes n ot m eet th is requirement. The provision for a clear openin g wid th of 32 inches has been in effect since 1976 for FTA-fun de d v ehicles a nd sho uld be m et eas ily. This m ean s th at w he re t he re is a r ou te a t lea st 30 inches w ide lead ing from the ar ea contain ing accessible spaces to the en d d oor. the end d oors of new vehicles can easily be designed to be function ally accessible (i. and i f su ch do orw ay is conn ected by an aisl e w ith a m in im um clear w id th of 30 inch es to on e or mo re sp aces w he re w he el chai r or mobil ity aid us ers can be accom mo date d. because of narrow w alkways. the dimen sion is designed to p rovide space for the crutch-tip -to-crutch-tip d istance of a typ ical crut ch user . Nevertheless. the en d d oors w ill most likely be in close proximity to accessible spaces. then su ch do orw ay s hal l h ave a mi ni mu m cl ear open in g o f 30 i nch es to p ermi t w he el chai r and mo bi li ty ai d u se rs to be e vacu ated to an adjo in in g v eh icl e i n an em erge ncy . (a) Clear width. and escape ladders that are part of evacuation routes.g. the Board recognizes th at th is prov ision do es not gu aran tee access into adjoining cars since existing 18 . Also.

operators may op t to simp ly not rep lace them. If the clear floor area for w heelchair or mob ility aid u sers is prov ided at only on e end of a car. all new vehicles must be designated by the International Symbol of Accessibility (access symbol). new vehicles acquired for an AG T sys tem in w hi ch a ll ve hi cles a re a ccessible an d w hi ch are not designated by the symbol do not have to be de sign ated . the chances of providing an acces sib le con ne ctio n b etw een car s w ill be gr eat er. In fully accessible s yste ms . ne w veh icles s ho u ld be d esig na ted as w ell. (c) Signals. The International Symbol of Accessibility shall be displayed on the exte rior of acces si bl e v eh icl es op eratin g o n an acces si bl e rapi d rail sy ste m u nl es s al l v eh icl es are accessible and are not marked by the access symbol. However. Still. Without visua l signals. Au dib le sign als h ave been req uir ed by exist ing FTA regu lation s since 1976. so that if existing accessible vehicles are d esig na ted . the Board consider s the access symb ol to be at tim es su bject to ov er-u se an d t hu s recom me nd s th at tr an sit op era tor s re m ov e sy m bols w he n a ll car s ar e acce ssib le. Since ca rs a re u su ally d esig na ted by d ecal s. (b) Signage. w hi ch eventua lly wear and mu st be replaced. H owev er. Existing cars or cars r etro fitted un de r th e "one-car -per -train " rule a re n ot su bject to th is req u ire m en t. as old cars ar e replaced over time and the num ber of accessible cars on each train increases. It is recom me nd ed th at th e sym bol be pla ced a t each accessible p assen ger d oor o f an a ccessible vehicle. consist ency is ma y not h ave en d d oors w ith 30 inches of clear wid th. Under this requirement. Au dib le signals usually activate before the doors begin to close and th us provide advan ce warning that the door s are about to close. The p lacem ent of th e access sy mb ol is no t sp ecified b y th ese gu ide lines. A udito ry an d visual w arn ing signal s shal l be provided to al ert pas se ng ers o f cl os in g d oo rs. then on ly those p assenger door s at tha t location shou ld be d esignated . persons w ith hearing im pairm ents are not afford ed an y eq uiv alen t ad van ce wa rn ing an d ca n on ly d etect closin g as t he d oors actu ally 19 .

This can be achieved by equipping the entrances of new cars with both an interior and exterior light ind icator . At a min imu m. with "wide" spacing (ge ne rally . by eith er its illu min ation level. .begin to close. and th at othe r passe ng ers sh ou ld make such se ats avai lab le to th os e w ho w is h to us e th em .] §1192. o r p lace m en t m ay be s p ecified so t ha t it is v isib le bo th insid e an d ou tsid e th e car . (a) Each ve hi cle s hall contai n si gn (s) w hi ch in di cate that certain se ats are priority se ats fo r person s w ith d is abil iti es . with a minimum character height (using an upper case "X") of 5/8 inch. the sp ace b etw ee n l ette rs sh all be 1/16 the he ig ht o f u pp er case le tters). the ad dition of aud ible and visual w arn ing sign als for auto mat ically-operated door s of new vehicles is feasible and r epresen ts only a m odest cost increase for a chime. and s hal l contrast w ith th e back groun d.[Not applicable to AGT systems. Th ese sign als ar e no t req uir ed to be pr ovid ed on e xistin g vehicles or those that are retrofitted. the requirement is designed to eliminate type faces with 20 . (d) Coordination with boarding platform. vis u al in d icat or s sh ou ld be s yn chr on ize d w ith au d ible signa ls so th at equ iva len t ad va nce notification of door closure is provided to all persons. d esig n. Either method of add ressing this requirement is acceptable so long as it provides a visual wa rnin g tha t doo rs are ab out to close to person s wh o are en tering or exiting the car. see se ctio n 1192. including those with hearing or visual imp airmen ts. In general. ei ther li gh t-on-d ark or dark-on-l ig ht. Visual warning signals should be visible from both inside and ou tside the car. light. it is con ceivab le th at a sing le ligh t ind icator . Furth er. (b) Characters on si gn s requ ired b y paragraph (a) o f thi s s ectio n sh all have a w id thto-h ei gh t ratio betw ee n 3:5 and 1:1 and a strok e w id th-to -he ig ht ratio be tw ee n 1:5 and 1:10. au gm en ted by th e re su lts o f res ear ch sponsored by th e Board. an d asso ciated electrical con tro ls at ea ch d oorw ay. the Board considers the provision of audible and visual indicators to be o f eve n g rea ter im p or ta nce . According to inform ation received du ring th e dev elopm ent of th ese guid elines.55 Prio rity se ating si gn s. Since proposed requirements for door closing force and speed hav e been removed. The content of signs is not specified by th is requirement an d is left up to the d iscretion of transit op erators. th e sign sho uld ind icate wh ich seats are int end ed for u se by p ersons w ith d isabilities. These req uir em ent s for th e cha racte r h eigh t an d p rop ort ion a re ba sed on e xistin g Fed era l requ ire m en ts fo r b u ild in g a nd facilit y sign ag e.173(b). Also.

B1 never equals 100 and B2 is a lw ay s gr eat er th an 0. stanchi on s. Ha nd rails and stanch ions m ust be p laced nea r th e d oors an d a long th e pa th of ent ran ce into th e veh icle.B2)/ B1] x 100 wh ere B1 = light reflectance valu e (LRV) of the light er area a nd B2 = light reflectance valu e (LRV) of the d arker a rea. or other non -glare finish. N ot e tha t in an y a p p lica tio n b ot h w hi te an d bla ck a re ne ve r a bs olu te. Contrast can be provided either with light characters on a dark background or dark characters on a light background.57 Inte rior circulatio n. o n-b oard circulation. hand rails and stan chi on s. (a) H an drai ls an d stanch ions shal l be provided to as sist s af e board ing. Many common typ e faces fit within these aspect ratios. indicates that signs are more legible for persons with low vision wh en characters contrast with their background by at least 70 percent. each hav in g a m in im um cle ar space o f 48 i nch es by 30 in ches . seating and standing assistance. Sp ace to accom mo date 21 . An egg shell finish (11 to 19 degree glo ss o n 60 d egr ee g loss im ete r) is prefe rr ed . it is also recomm end ed tha t the characters and background of signs sh ould be eggsh ell. A minim um level or percen tage of contra st betw een char acters and th e background of the sign is not specified. sign age m an ufa ctur ers sh ou ld h ave little difficulty sup plyin g ap pro priat e type st yles. w hi ch do not u ndu ly restrict mo ve me nt of othe r passe ng ers. How ever . Also. light-colored characters against a dark backg rou nd are p refer red since st ud ies ha ve sh ow n t ha t th is typ e of cont rast is mo re re ad able for person s with low vision . however. §1192. matte. Although not requ ired. How ever. Contrast in percent is determined by: Con tra st = [(B1 . and alighting by persons with disabilities. th us . If the sp ecification s are inclu de d in bid do cum ent s. Research. and s eats sh all all ow a route at l eas t 32 inche s w id e s o th at at least two wheelchair or mobility aid users can enter the vehicle and position the w he el chai rs or mo bi li ty ai ds in areas. the individu al stroke lines should not be especially thin or thick. This provision is written as a general performance requirement in order to allow as man y opt ions as p ossible in the d esign of accessible vehicles. they sho uld not interfere or restrict the necessary clearance at doors or along an accessible route leading to accessible spaces as required by th e following p rovision. (b) H and rails .letters which are short and fat or tall and thin.

All that must be provided is enough clear floor space so that two w heelchair or mobility aid users can board a nd position th em selv es o n t he veh icle. wh ich are similar to AGT vehicles. Of course. such a han drail or stanchion cann ot en croach up on th e req uir ed 32 inch w idt h r equ ired for th e d oorw ay o r th e rou te lead ing to the clear floor space. The clear floor area where persons with disabilities can position themselves must be connected to the doors by a route with at least 32 inches of clear width . 22 . Th e 30 by 48 inch d im en sion is ba sed on th e st an d ar d sp ace allowance for a person in a wh eelchair. because of the low acceleration and deceleration forces. it was apparent that some transit operators ass u m ed th at "bay s" or "be rt hs " wo u ld ha ve to b e p ro vid ed in ord er t o m eet th is requ ire m en t. This recomm endation should not be interpreted as a requirement that the area wh ere wheelchair or mobility aid users can position themselves be designated at a specific location. The re is n o requ ire m en t for secu rem en t sy ste m s or tie-d ow n d evices.wheelchairs and mobility aids may be provided within the normal area used by standees and d es ig natio n of spe cif ic sp aces i s no t requi red. (c) The diameter or width of the gripping surface of handrails and stanchions shall be 1-1/4 inches to 1-1/2 inches or provide an equivalent gripping surface and shall provide a mi ni mu m 1-1/2 i nch es kn uck le cle arance from th e n eares t adjacent s urface . When id entifying the clear floor space where a w heelchair or mob ility aid u ser can be accom mod ated . It is important th at wh eelchair and mobility aid users hav e as many options as possible in positioning themselves in view of the crowding th at can take place and the lim ited tim e allow ed to e nt er o r exi t th e ve hi cle. Particular attenti on shal l be gi ve n to ensuring maximum maneuverability immediately inside doors. th at consid eration be given to th e pr oxim ity of h an dr ails or stan chion s to th e are a in w hich w hee lchair or m obility aid users may position them selves. It is also recommen ded . Ample vertical stanchions from ce il in g to s eat-back rails s hall be p rovid ed . or in close proximity to a hand rail or stanchion. Hand rails or stanchions must be placed so that the required clear floor spaces and rou tes are n ot obstru cted. but n ot requ ired. it is suggested that at least one su ch area be a djacent to. Des ign at in g a ccessible sp aces for w he elch air or m obility aid user s is n ot r equ ire d . Such accommod ations are not required or recomm ended. Vertical stanch io ns from ce il in g to f lo or sh all not i nterfe re wi th w he el chair or mo bi li ty aid use r circulation and s hall be k ep t to a minimum in the vicinity of doors. During the development of these guidelines. The clear floor space that is typically provided for standees is usually large enough to meet this requirement. P rev iou s re sea rch cond ucted for DOT and comm ents received du ring th e dev elopm ent of th ese guid elines indicate tha t such d evices are not need ed on rapid rail vehicles.

§1192. Carpet is more variable depend ing on pile and weave and should probably be tested before it is specified. The coefficient of friction va ries consider ably d ue to th e presen ce of conta min ants. tr an sit operators or vehicle designers and m anufacturers are encouraged to specify materials with app rop riate valu es." available at no cost. Floor surfaces on aisles. wh ich can be m easur ed in several w ays. While the dyn amic coefficient of friction d uring w alking varies in a complex and n on-uniform wa y. the static coefficient of friction. the 1-1/ 2 inch diam eter requ iremen t can resu lt in a ha nd rail of app roximately 2 inches u nd er curr en t bu ild in g in d u str y p ra ctices .8 for r am p s. wh ich provides ad ditional information and adv isory gu idelines on slip resistan t sur faces. Such h and rails hav e not p osed a ny kn own prob lem. has not been spe cified for slipres ista nce . A va riety of com mo n m ater ials u sed on t ran sit ve hicle floor s can pr ovid e ad equ ate s lip resistance. "Slip Resistant Surfaces. or to gu ara nt ee a con stan t m easu re.Most car h an dr ails ar e m ad e of p ipe. imp roved un iformity in m easur emen t and specification is likely to d evelop. As more p rod ucts includ e inform ation on slip resistan ce. A sp ecific meas ur e. floors. many comm on m aterials suitable for flooring are now labeled w ith information on the static coefficient of friction. Thus. A research project spon sored by th e Board cond ucted tests with persons with d isabilities and concluded that a higher coefficient of friction was need ed by such p ersons. and other factors not under the control of transit providers and may be difficult to measu re. floor finishes. The Board h as pu blished a brochure. sometim es up to 2 inches. water. Nevertheless.59 Floor surfaces. places for standees. The Occup ationa l Safety and Hea lth Ad min istration r ecomm end s that w alking su rfaces hav e a static coefficient of friction of 0. Con tra ry t o com mo n b elief. While it may not be p ossible to com pa re on e pr od uct d irectly w ith an oth er. pip e size t yp ically sp ecifies insid e d iam eter so th at a 1-1/ 2 inch p ipe h an dr ail actu ally h as a la rger ou tsid e diam eter. som e slip pa ge is ne cessar y for w alk in g.5. 23 . A tr u ly "n on -slip " sur face cou ld no t be n ego tia ted . Comm on ru bberized m atting ma y be slip resistant depend ing on the orientation of the grooves. In th e bu ildin g in du stry . es p ecia lly fo r p ers on s w ith res tr icted ga its. an d lift p lat for m s an d 0. A stat ic coefficient of friction of 0. or st atic coefficient of friction .6 is recommen ded for steps. and areas where wheelchair and mobility aid us ers are to b e acco mm od ated sh all be sl ip -resi stan t. Slip r esis ta nce is ba sed on th e frictio na l for ce n ecessar y to ke ep a sh oe h eel o r cr u tch tip from slip p in g on a w alk in g su rfa ce u nd er co nd itio ns like ly t o be fou nd on th e su rfa ce. prov ides a close ap pr oxim ation of th e slip resist an ce of a su rface.

The Board is aware of the concern about the use of external speakers on vehicles that operate in quiet residential areas and notes that transit operators have full d iscretio n ov er th e volu me of extern al an no un ceme nt s an d t ha t a m inim um de cibel level is not specified by th is provision. This prov ision requ ires cars to be equ ipp ed w ith a p ublic ad dr ess system t hat p rovid es either recorded or d igitized hum an speech m essages or annou ncements m ade by d rivers or other tran sit person nel. route. Nevertheless. See 49 CFR 37. to ann ou nce train . syn thetic speech . Each ve hi cle op eratin g i n s tatio ns havin g m ore th an o ne li ne or route s hal l h ave an external pu bl ic add ress sy ste m to pe rmit trans po rtation sy ste m p erso nn el . that information neces sary for th e op erat ion o r u se of a t ran sit sys tem be m ad e av ailab le to p erso ns w ith hea rin g impairm ents. (b) [Reserved] These guidelines do not curr ently contain technical specifications for the provision of p u blic in for m at ion in a for m at th at is acce ssib le to pers on s w ith he ar in g im p air m en ts. to ann ou nce s tation s and provi de othe r passe ng er inf ormatio n. the use of synthetic speech is not recomm end ed. Accordin g to Board-sp onsored research. Al ternativ e sy ste ms or devi ces w hi ch p rovi de eq ui val en t acces s are also pe rmitte d. Where stati on an nounce ment s yste ms provide information on arri ving trains. The Board expects to include some requiremen ts in the future. (a)(1) Requirements. Wh ile oth er sy stem s th at p rov ide equivalent access to information ar e perm itted. Digitized h um an sp eech uses sp oken sou nd s and wor ds record ed dig itally a nd rear ran ged for cu stom ized me ssag es. general prohibitions of discrimination in the ADA itself and the "provision of service" requiremen ts of the DOT rule require. an external train speak er is not re quired. Inform ation received by th e Board du ring th e dev elopm ent of th ese gu id elin es d id no t con tr ad ict t hi s as ses sm en t. o r reco rded or digi tiz ed hu man sp ee ch me ss ages . it is recomm end ed tha t the information for 24 . Thu s. Su ch a tech nical r equ irem ent ha s been reser ved pen din g fu rth er st ud y of th e op tion s th at a re av ailab le in making such information fully accessible.§1192.61 Public information system. wh ich is generated electronically. Each ve hi cle s hall be e qui ppe d w ith a p ubl ic add ress s ys tem pe rmitti ng transportatio n s ys tem pe rson ne l. o r line ide ntif icatio n in fo rmation . This does not ap ply to v ehicles operat ing on only on e line or rou te since the d estination s ann oun ced would be the same for all vehicles. in essence. or recorded or digi tiz ed hu man sp ee ch me ss ages .167(f). It is also required that AGT vehicles be equip ped with an extern al speak er. has not yet been p roven to be as easily recognized or u nd erstood as recorded or digitized hu man speech. (2) Exception.

no sm oking. One transit system is testing the feasibility of on-board v isual displays for next-station annou ncements and even points of interest. DOT is assessing available and soon-tobe available technology in a study to be conducted du ring Fiscal Year 1992. one transit system has a policy of flashing interior train lights to indicate to passengers who are deaf that the train is malfunctioning and that all passengers mu st exit the train at the n ext station. Su ch visual displays can supplement audio announcements and are useful to all passengers where the n oise level or reverber ation is h igh. How ever. Baltimor e-Wash ing ton Inte rn ation al Air po rt). Of course. Entities are encouraged to employ whatever services. Vid eo m on ito r sy ste m s. ho ur s of op erat ion) w hile in form ation pr ovid ed in sp ecial an no un ceme nt s (e.. At least two su ch sy stem s ha ve b een inst alled at n o cost t o th e tra nsit agen cy sin ce the comp an y p rov idin g th e eq u ip m en t is s eek in g p aid ad vert isem en ts t o su p p or t th e in sta llat ion an d op era tio n. A prom inent sign in th e vehicle also wou ld be u seful." 25 . "A ir p or t TDD Acce ss : Tw o C ase Stu d ies. Announcements of elevator outage. news headlines and weather rep orts. could be easily conveyed on a simple chalkboard in the station kiosk. Mor e sop hist icated solu tion s cou ld in clud e visu al d ispla y sys tem s an d e lectron ic message boards. su ch as tou rists. such inform ation sh ould be includ ed in the br ochur es and guid es available to the general public rather than only in a "special services" brochure inten ded for persons w ith disabilities. For examp le. signage or alternative systems or devices that are available an d th at pr ovide eq uiva lent access.. Electr on ic mess age b oar ds usin g a ligh t em ittin g d iod e (LED) or "flip-d ot" disp lay are currently provided in some transit stations and terminals and may be usable in cars. for example. In general. real time message displays require the availability of an emp loyee for keyboar d en try of the in format ion to be an nou nced.g. fares. Information can be provided in different ways. in clu d in g a free tech ni cal a ssis ta nce m anu al. Visual display systems provide information through electronic message boards or video mon itors and can accomm odate persons w ho are deaf as well as those with hea rin g loss. Of course. su ch a s vi su al p ag in g sy ste m s p ro vid ed in som e airp or ts (e . chan ges in schedule. some of which are relatively simple and inexpensive.passengers contained in aud ible annou ncements also be made available to persons with hear ing loss or w ho ar e deaf. such as at entrances to the station or at information kiosks.g. These dev ices may be u sed to p rovid e real time or preprogramm ed messages. elevators not in service) could be posted in strategic areas. ar e an oth er alt ern ativ e.. The Board can p rov ide tech ni cal a ssis ta nce an d infor m at ion on th ese sys tem s.g. Access to some information m ay also be conveyed by a system of signage p rovid ing inform ation ro utin ely prov ided in an nou ncemen ts (e. the m eanin g of this signa l mu st be convey ed in advan ce to potentially affected passengers for it to be useful and may not be u seful to person s un familiar w ith th e system. ann oun cement s intend ed on ly for system p ersonn el are not p art of the information need ed by p assengers.

the feasibility and cost of installing such devices on cars remain un certain." available at no cost. These types of systems are in ten d ed to a u gm en t st an d ar d pu blic a d d res s an d au d io sy ste m s by pro vid in g sign als w hi ch can be r eceiv ed d ire ctly by pers on s w ith sp ecia l receiv ers or th eir ow n h ear in g a id s an d w hi ch elim in at e or filte r b ack gr ou nd no ise. however. are not u sable by persons w ho are d eaf. §1192. [N ot ap pl icab le to A GT s ys tem s.Assistive listening systems (ALS) may possibly provide another alternative although they benefit a narrower population of people with hearing loss. Further. wh ich lists demonstration centers across the country wh ere technical assistance can be obtained in selecting and installing approp riate systems.63 Betw ee n-car barriers. see se ctio n 1192.173(c). M ag ne tic in d u ctio n loop s.] 26 . The Board ha s published a p amp hlet. These systems. "Assistive Listening Systems. The State of New York has also adopted a d etailed technical specification which may be u sefu l. in fra -red an d ra d io fr equ en cy system s are typ es of listening system s wh ich are ap pro priat e for variou s app lications.