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Combinatoriality without the Aggregate

Author(s): Robert Morris
Source: Perspectives of New Music, Vol. 21, No. 1/2 (Autumn, 1982 - Summer, 1983), pp. 432486
Published by: Perspectives of New Music
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Robert Morris
The attractionof specificharmonicor linearsequencesof pitchesand/or
pitch-classesis a motivatingforcein composition,butthe problemof finding
a meaningfulcontextfor such entities is an equallyfamiliarsituation.One
is often frustratedby the fact that the way to generalizeor developa pitchpatternis often unknown or unclear.Even with the automatedmeans to
generate the members of certain interestingcategoriesof compositional
materials,a composeris all too often ironicallyconfrontedwith a multitude
of patternswith the desiredpropertiesbut which do not satisfy his or her
immediateappetite.When the returnto a more ad hocand less intuitiveapproachwouldbe less fruitful,the decisioneitherto strivefora morepowerful
orto be contentworkingwithina morepredictablezonebecomes
a necessaryfact of creativelife.
The developmentof the formalizationof the TWvelve-Tone
itsrolein compositionalstructureis one exampleof how successivegeneralizations can lead to greaterflexibilityand utility.Thus, an increasinglywider
spectrumof compositionalproprietiesand inclinationsis served.Here I am
thinkingof the developmentof the conceptof chromaticcompletionimplicit
in the idea of the twelve-tone row from ArnoldSchoenberg'searliestrow
pieces throughhis 'hexachordal'compositions.In turn,the generalizationof
MiltonBabbittandothers[2],as describedby the theoryof hexachordalcombinatorialityandsecondarysets with trichordalgenerators,has producedthe
of generalizedcombinatoriality
In this paperI will continuethis line of developmentstill further-but not
in exactlythe same direction-so thatthe contentsof the rows and columns
in a CM[4] or LA[5] need not be the un-, partially-or totally-orderedset
of all pcs but any sub-set of the total chromatic.Specifically,the rows and
columns will all be membersof the same set-class (SC)[6],that is, related
underTh and/orI, or of two differentSCs.With the two-dimensionalCM,
as in tonal music, the verticalstructurescan be of a differentSC and cardinality from the horizontalones.
As Babbitthas pointedout, "Givena collectionof availableelements,the
choiceof a sub-collectionof these as a referentialnormprovidesa normthat
is distinguishedby contentalone."[7] Thus, I will be concernedprimarily


with the partiallyorderedor unorderedcontent of the "norms"of our LAs
(henceforthcalledchains)and CMs.This will allow a greaterflexibilitywith
of thesepc-structures.Aftersome
respectto the generationandtransformation
examplesof CMsand chains,I will discusscertain'simple'cases which have
alreadybeen used by composersand theoristsfor other purposesin other
contexts.Thenextsectionof the paperwill dealwiththe waysin whichCMssimpleornot-may be compared,transformedandcombined.Followingthis,
the generationof chainsandCMsis described.ThereI show how the properties of the parentSCsand theirsub-sets foundin the chains'and CMs'rows
and columns influence the results.Afterdiscussingfurtherextensionsand
othergenerationalgorithms,I turnto the comparisonof non-aggregateand
twelve-tone combinatorialitywith regardto content and order.

Chains and CMs
Thefollowingset of examplesillustratesvariouskindsof chainsandCMs.
Examplela givesa typicalchainwhichis a partiallyorderedset of pcs arranged
in a linear sequence divided into positionsseparatedby verticalslashes.[8]

(ex. la)
The orderof the pcs in a positionis undefinedso that 04916521B79IA25 is
an equivalentnotationfor the chainin examplela. The union of the content
of two adjacentpositionsis calleda norm.Therequirementwhichdistinguishes
a chain fromjust any sequence of pcs in positionsis that each of a chain's
normsmust be a set that is a memberof one SCor of one of two SCs.Thus
all norms in a chain (andCM) are relatedto each other by Th and/orI or
the norms are membersof two distinctcollectionsof sets each containing
sets relatedby Th and/orI. The term norm should not be consideredto be
normativein some philosophicsense; it is merely used to denote a row or
column of a CM or adjacentpositionsof a chain which is a memberof the
CM'sor chain'sgeneratingCM(s).The normsof examplela are includedin
the set-class 6-46. 6-46 cohtainsthe set { 0,2,4,5,6,9} which is the union of
the chain'sfirsttwo positionsand is designatedC. The secondtwo positions
takentogethergive the set { 2,5,6,7,9,B} which is TBIC.The union of the last
two positionsis T5C.
A chain can be said to be completeor incomplete.Examplela is an incompletechainbecauseits last positionin union with its firstis not a norm.
Fromthe definitionimpliedhere, a complete chain can be thoughtof as a
cycle of positions,its first followingits last such that adjacentpositionsare
norms.In examplelb such a chainis shown-one which has normsderived


fromtwo SCs.One of the SCsis 4-16 which containsthe set D = { 0,1,5,7},
whilethe otheris thehexachordal
SC6-22 includingE = { 1,2,3,5,7,9}.Brackets
show the norms and their relationto each other.



,I L





(ex. Ib)
In examplelb a few pcs are writtenin parenthesesat its end;these are the
beginningpcs of the chain and are displayedto show its cyclic nature.
In example lc the contentsof the positionsof the chain of example lb
arereorderedso thateven morenormscanbe foundorjoinedtogether.These
secondarynormsareof interestbut the normsthatdefinea chainare always
overlapped.Only the secondarynorms are indicatedin this example.










(ex. lc)
I now turnto the considerationof varioustypes of CMs.A CMis a twodimensionalset of positionsarrangedin I rows and J columns.A position
in the CM Z is givenby Z (I,J)and may be emptyor filledwith an unordered
set of pcs. There are I times J positionsin a CM. The union of any row or
column of positionsin a CM is a norm.
Thereare three types of CMs.TypeI includesCMs constructedso that
all its norms are from the same SC.TypeII has each of its vertical(column
union)norms as membersof one SC while all of its horizontalnorms (row
unions)are memberof anotherSC.TWoSCs also generatethe norms for a
type III CM,while each SC is representedat least once amongits columns
and rows.


Inthe nextgroupof examples,a CMis shownas atwo-dimensionalmatrix
with labels for the contentsof its columns writtenabove each column and
thenamesof thecontentsof itsrowswrittentotheleftof eachrow.Thefollowing
CMshaveonepc perposition.Thus,theirrowsandcolumnsaretotallyordered.
T2X: 2
T6X: 6
T7X: 7



X = {0,1,6,8}

(ex. 2a)
T1X: 6
T4X: 9
T5X: A


X = {2,5,9}
Y = {5,6,9,A}

(ex. 2b)
T9X: 1
T6X: 7
T3X: 3


X = {0,1,4,6}
Y = {0,1,3,7}

(ex. 2c)
Example2a is a type I simpleCM.The designation'simple'indicatesthat
such a CMis constructableno matterwhat SCsare used as norms.Examples
2b and2c aretype IICMsbutonly 2c is non-simple.Thisis inferablebecause
the orderingof one norm in a column or row is not producedby Th alone
fromanotherlying in the same direction.This accountsfor the fact that the
n in the Th operatorsof all the rows or all the columns do not spell out a
member of the SC(s)of its norms. shows a type III CM with either a single pc or a null set in its positions.} Y = {1.1.The formator schemafor the . a type I 3X3 positionCM is given whose positionsare either filled with trichordsor empty.5} Y = {0.3. X: T1X: T4X: T5X: Y T7IY TlIY 127 056 123 678 9 456 57 06B IY 5 678 AB A T8IY 12367 4 X = {0. 3c) Simple Chains and CMs When the generationof a chain or CM does not dependon the special propertiesof its norms'SC(s)it is calledsimple.however.4.7} (ex. Y X: T9IY: T6Y: T9X: T5Y: T8IY: 0 7 1 T2IY T4X T1IY T1Y T5X 4 1 5 2 8 9 1 6 1 2 A 9 0 5 6 '7 8 X = {0. Suchreplicationsneveroccurwithinpositions.5.5.7} (ex.3b.6.436 In example3a.6.TheCMis of type II. T7IX TAIX T5IX 467 123 4AB T9X: 013 T2X: 456 389 X: X = {1. 3b) The 4X5 CMin example3c has normswhich containreplicationsof pcs.The whole CM is symmetricaround its upper-left/lower-rightdiagonalunder T7I.2.7} (ex. 3a) The next example.

2.TheLA-typehasallits normsrelatedby Thandforeveryvertical norm there is a correspondingidenticalhorizontalnorm. The exampleshows a 4X4 CM. However. Such a CM is constructedout of the pc-set Q which has N subsets which partitionQ. H(n)). XIY norm is XUY 2691418(12691418) norm is { 1.2. The CMs has N2 positionsand each sub-setof Q occupies one andonly one positionin each row andeach column..437 caseswhereallnormsof a CMorchainareidenticalfollows:the lettersdenote sets of any cardinalityincludingthe null set. SimpleCMsof type I or II have theirpositionseach filledwith one and only one pc. the IB-typeCMhasallits verticalnormsrelatedby Th.allits horizontalnorms are relatedone to anotherin the same way.any horizontalnorm is relatedto any verticalnormby ThIandvice-versa. 4b) Another(diagonal) techniquefortheproductionof typeI CMsis explained later within the context of CM expansion(see example 14h). H(1).9} (ex.1.4. The simple chain is always complete.Example4b givesthe formatwitheachroworcolumn being a cyclic permutationof any other.The formatfor this kind of CMis a Romansquare. 4a) Only type I CMsare possibleif all a CM'snormsare to be pc-identical. .8.9} (ex. WXYZ XYZW YZW X ZWX Y norm = WUXUYUZ 01 5 5 289 289 01 289 01 5 289 01 5 norm = {0.5.6. TWokinds of CMs can be produced. A type I CM of this kind is derivedfrom any orderingof an arbitrarypc-set. written (H(0). Concreteexamplesfollow each format. H. Likethe IA-type. ..8.The choiceof n in IhI depends on the particularnorms involved.

. 5. 3. H(n) + H(n) + (1) norm generator= H T4H: T5H: T3H: T1H: T4H 8 9 7 5 norm generator T5H 9 A 8 6 T3H 7 8 6 4 TlH 5 6 4 2 (4. H(n) + IH(0) H(0) + IH(1) H(1) + IH(1) . 1) IB-type: H(0) + IH(0) H(1) + IH(0) .. 4c) . H(n) + IH(n) norm generator= H T8H: T7H: T9H: TBH: T4IH T5IH T3IH TlIH 1 B 9 0 8 A 0 B A 1 2 0 4 3 2 0 norm generator (4. H(n) + H(0) H(O)+ H(1) H(1) + H(1) .. 5..and LB-typesimple CMs are shown below. 1) (ex. H(n) H(0) + H(n) H(1) + H(n) ..... IA-type: H(O)+ (0) H(1) + (0) .. 3.438 Schemafor the IA. H(n) + IH(1) H(0) + IH(n) H(1) + IH(n) ....

6} (ex.. The type IB and type II matricescan be .. 4d) The ns in the labelsof the columnsspell out the set H and the ns in the labels of the horizontalrows of the CM produce K..In the example(4d).1..' If H is a twelve-tonerow so thatthe CMhas aggregates as norms.9} K= {4.3.1.The set H does appearas the stringof ns in the labelsof the CM columnsand/or rows.. II-type H(0)+ K(O) H(0)+K(1) H(0)+ K(2) H(1)+ K(0). transformsof H underIh and/orI will constitutethe CMnorms."Fanfares for the CommonTone"[10].In the IA-typethe ns in the ThHcolumnlabelsor ThHrow labelswill produceH. Thosereadersacquaintedwith BoAlphonse'swork[9]orthe article.. TypeII simple CMsof the one pc per positiondistributionare derivable from two sets H and K where H is the generatorof horizontalnorms and Kproducesthe CarltonGamer and Paul Lanskywill matrices'andtype IBCMs recognizethe types IAandII CMsas 'I-invariance as 'P-invariance-matrices.H(n)+ K(p) norm generators:H and K T4H: T3H: T1H: T6H: T2K T1K T9K 1 5 6 5 4 0 3 2 A 8 7 3 norm generators: H= {2. H(n)+K(0) H(1)+ K(1).the cardinalitiesof H and K are n and p. respectively. H(n)+ K(1) H(1)+ K(2).the IB-type CM is identicalto the 'set-table'listingthe 48 classicaltransformsof a row[ll].439 Althoughthe set H will notappearin thesekindsof CMsunlessit contains a pc 0. H(n)+ K(2) H() + K(p) H(1)+ K(p). Inthe IB-typethe ns in the ThIHcolumnlabelswill give H where the ns in the ThH row labels will give IH.

thisequivalencehasits utility.PAIRS(k) is a function indicating the number of pairs of pcs among a set of k pcs.X(2)..E(i.j)is the positionin the ith row.relationsbasedon the 'row-column' theoryonlyapply to certaincasesof non-aggregate CMs. it is to relate and CMs chainsof degreesof fragmentationandpc associapossible tion..Itis notsurprising therefore.Furthermore.Onthe otherhand..I shall returnto this point below.Once againan analogycan be drawnbetween the topics of twelve-tonecombinatoriality[12] and non-aggregatecombinatoriality. pc frequencyis variable and chains CMs and is related to set-invariance andCMtransformation. among 1.j).In the formulabelow. Hence.440 viewedas sub-matrices ofthe set-table. Fragmentation variesfrom '0' indicatingthat all pcs are in one positionof E to '1'where each positionis filled with one and only one pc or is empty.jth column of a CMor chainE. #E(i. and evaluatedas shown below: k-l PAIRS(k) = n = (k2-k)/2 n=l is equal to 1+ 2 + 3 + 4 or (25-5)/2= 10.j]) i=1 j=l PAIRS(T) . T is the number Thus. Fragmentation is a measureof the distributionof pcs overthe positionsof a chain FRAG(E) or CMnamedE..As it will be shownthatchainscan generateCMs. {X(1). P Q FRAG(E) = 1 - PAIRS(#E[i. X(k)}. PAIRS(5) of pc entriesin the entireCM or chain.P equalsthe numberof rows and Q the numberof columns in E.chainsaretreatedas if they were CMswith only one row. Comparisons of CMs and Chains Sincethereare amongany set of entitiesat least as manymodes of comthefollowingdiscusparisonasthereareavailablecategoriesof differentiation. sion should be consideredas only an introductionto the topic of CM and chain comparison.j)is the numberof pcs in E(i.thataspects of the theoriesof set andtwelve-tonerow invarianceare of use in the present study.

5a) .81 .94 T8IK: T1IK: T9IK: K 34 01 58 T5K 58 9A 61 T4K 07 58 49 K = { in examples5aand5bwhichbothhavea fragmentation of . 10-4 <242012222210> <233214651123> agg.3 0 . 3. Sparseness Fragmentationis based on the numberof availablepairsof pcs in a CM or chain. la lb 2a 2b 2c 3a 3b 3c 4a 4b 5a 5b SC PFA (of U) 9-9 <102012110211> 9-8 <131202130102> 9-5 (222200223010> 8-20 <012101210220> 8-28 <220220220220> <121331211111> agg.25 0 .95 .4 . Thisbecomes 1.94 0 0 0 0 0 .a CMwith only one pc in eachposition and a CM with positionsfilled with single pcs or nothinghave the same fragmentation. Comparisonof Examples ex.94 .81.441 In examplela the chain'sfragmentationis 1 minus 1/PAIRS(12) times 4 times PAIRS(3).88 1 .The differencebetween a positionthat is empty and one that is filled with a singlepc is ignoredhowever. 6-26 <011010101100> 6-44 <444004004400> 10-2 <220123113210> 8-28 <320230220220> FRAG SPAR . Sparsenessis the measure that is needed to distinguishsuchcases.3 .94 .86 and is listed in TableI with the fragmentations of other examplesin this paper. 5.The fragmentation for examplelb is .86 1 1 1 . 4.It is a functionof the numberof pairsrelatingpcs withindifferent positionsand is a measureof the 'coarseness'of the pc distribution. 0.namely.6 . 1.43 TABLEI 2.(12/66)= 54/66or . 8} (ex.

The distributionof pcs over the PFAis also of interest. one pc 3. As I will show later. 6. It favorsthe pcs 5 and 8 which incidentallyformthe sameinterval-classas do the missing pcs. A} (ex.The PFAfor various examplesis given in TableI.whose positionsfrom 0 to 11 correspondto the pcs 0 to B.. 3.their pcs are swapped. 5b) A CM'ssparsenessis measuredby SPAR(E) where F is the number of non-empty positionsand N is the total numberof positionsin E. The propertiesof the set U.the PFAfor example5a is [220123113210]which indicatesthe CM has two pc Os. SeetableI forthe sparsenessof the variousexamples. 7. The set of pcs comprisingthe CM of 5a is a memberof SC 10-3 since it has no 2s or Bs. etc. arean importantaspectof certainkindsof CMgeneration.see below).An emptyCMhas a sparseness SPAR(E) of 1. PC Fragmentation andAssociation The contentsof a chain or CM need not exhaustthe aggregatenor have an equal numberof each pc.442 L: T3L: T3K: K: TAIL TAIK T7IK T7IL 3A 46 19 67 04 OA 34 07 19 K = {0. the union of a CM'sor chain'spcs.ranging fromflat(eachpc occursaboutthe samenumberof times)to skewed(many instancesof some pcs.a whole chain or CM may functionas a norm orpositionin a largerCMor chain. 1.e. .is usedto displaythe pc frequencyof a CMorchain.two pcs ls.For instance. no pc 2s.Sparsenessand fragmentationare changedwhen a chainor CMis redistributed(i.Theposition k holdsthe amountof pcs numericallyequalto k in the chainor CM. SPAR(E)= (N-F) IN is 0 where all positionsare filled. 4. othersareslightedor missing). Froma PFAone can identifyfavoredas well as omittedpcs. 9}L = {3.A twelveplacearraycalledPFA(Pitchclass FrequencyArray).

8 }.If the CM is of type IB.In a chain the association-setwill occur in at least all odd or even positions.SCs3-1.Even a single pc can be an association-set.Non-simplesmallnon-aggregateCMsandchainstendto havefew. 7. T1IK = { 0. 2. Ofcourse. Largerarrays couldbe definedto give the numberof positionsin which any of 66 distinct dyads. ThePFAliststhe potentialof association-setsforsinglepcs.etc.pc n is an association-set. As in the above situation.Th invarianceof the norm generatorforces n to be an association-set.the normgenerator'sinvarianceunderThand ThIdeterminesthe pc frequency.K.x. 9. the set is called an association-set.Forexample.443 The associationof certainpcs in morethanone positionof a CMor chain is anotherof its distinguishingfeatures.Since an IA-type CM is an I-invariancematrix. and 3-5 each occurtwice as the totalcontent of a position. 6 } occurin two positions.Even if thereare no association-sets.ic 2 occursonce in every row and column.andin a CMthe association-setmustbe foundat leastonce in everyrowandcolumn. A} .IbandIIhavingfragmentations of 1as illustrated above. 6} while the horizontalnorm generatoris { 1. could be found.the largerthe CMorchain.etc. The association-setsof example3a are {3 } and { 4 } which follows from its PFAin TableI.Inorderfora pc.If a non-emptyset of pcs is included in a numberof positionssuch that every norm includes at least one of the positions. the xth positionin the PFAof the chain or CM must be equalto at least half the numberof positionsin the chain or equal or greaterthan the total numberof CM rows or columns.sucharrayswouldindicatethatin example 3ainterval-class1 occursin everyfilledposition.certainarrayscould be made to list the numberof occurrencesof particularSCsin positions. 3 } and { 4. WithsimpleCMsof typeIa.. Generalizingstill further. the association-setis { 5.the number of occurrencesof pc n within its content is determinedby the numberof pcs in commonbetween the norm-generatorand its transformunderThI.the 220 distincttrichords. in fact. is { 1. to be a memberof anassociationset. 3-2. These kinds of observationshelp delineatethe particular sonic and linear potentialsof CMSand chains. 9 = H.In example4d. the is a P-invariance-matrix and the multiplicityof pc n is determined by the intersectionof the norm generatorand its transpositionby n.the PFAof example5a only allowspcs 5 and 8 to be membersof association-sets.whicheveris greater.theremay still be some degreeof pc association as in example3a where the sets { 1. In the case of a type II simple CM.the greaterthe chanceof associationsets. 4.As an example. 3.If the norm generatoris invariantunderThI.The PFAof a type IA or IB simple CM can be defined asa listingof the self-intersections of the CM'snormgeneratorsunderThIorIh. the numberof ns is determinedby the intersectionof the ThIof its verticalnorm generatorwith its horizontal normgenerator.

9. Since n is 1 (in TiIK). Perhapsthe most obvious transformationis simply transposingand/or invertingthe whole CM or chain.the set { 0.columns. or into anothernorm or position(whichmust be a memberof the same SC as the untransformedposition or norm).444 which intersectsin one pc with H.rows.Inthe same resultingchainshufflesits contentsto produce4701BA21975 a norm or is to one able positionby transformingit into itself preserve way. 6. the choice of a pc operatorcan influencethe preservation or changeof its content.Aspredicted. 2. 346 79A 456 789 06B 127 (ex. can map into itself under T4I so that the 6B2. A.there is one pc 1 in the CM. B } having twopcsin commonwithH. 6b) B 3 .etc. B }. UnderT3IK(n is now 3) K becomes the set { 0. 9. 9 7 5 1 3 2 8 8 0 4 4 0 8 8 7 9 1 2 (ex.Forinstance. 7. 4. Example6a shows example 3a transformedby TAIwhich preservesits lower-left corer position. Transformations on CMs and Chains Any CMor chaincanbe changedin a numberof ways.Sincea CM or chain may possiblynot include all 12 pcs.Theresultof thistransformation in example6b. 6a) Example3b can be transformedunderT9I so that its top row's content (norm)is interchangedwith its thirdcolumn'scontent(norm)andits firstcolumn'snormis interchangedwith its second row'snorm.canbe created and/ordeleted dependingon the CM or chain'sstructure. Positions.the CMcontainstwo instancesofpc 3. which is the content of the chain in la.The rest of its colis given umnsandrowsarealteredhowever. 2. 5.Amongthe possiof itscontentswithorwithoutchangingthedistribubilitiesaretransformations tionandsizeof itspc-arrangement.

This amountsto 1. 6d) In additionto pc transformations.The groupof CMs in 7a are relatedby these interchanges.445 Despite the fact that the U of a CM or chain is invariantunderThMor ThMI.Quitea few transformsare possible.its sub-section'spcs or SCs may or may not be preserved. [13]5a'snormsareallmembersof SC6-14 which is ThM/TnMI of example5a underT4Mis writexample6c. 07 49 58 58 34 16 58 9A 01 (ex.the compositionalassignment . 79 19 01 34 6A 70 13 49 6A (ex.Fora CMof X columns and Y rows there are X! ? Y! ? 2 distinctresults.but this can be considered only a changeof notationratherthana changein any of the chain'sposition's A CMcolumnmaybe interchanged withanyothercolumnwithout adjacencies. the in each Thus.)Theseoperations may seem trivialin the sense that they are obvious and apply to any CMs. a changein any of its norms.036. dyads position of 5a are found exchangedor unchangedin 6c.CMs can be structurallyreordered without makingany changesin the contentof their parts. In fact.The same is true of its rows. This is shown in example 7b.Furthermore. in the norms 6c are of the same In SC. 6c is the same as its parentCM with its first and third columns as well as its second and third rows interchanged. 7 are foundin both CMs.but the contentsof many of the former'spositionsare not sharedby positionsin the latterCM-only { 1. Nevertheless.Below. { 3. and { 0.800 ways to transforma 6X6 CM. 9 .6d'snormsare of the same SCs as 5b's. addition. the resultof the transformation ten. 4 }.Completechains can be cyclicallypermutedand/orretrograded.a CM can be rotated by 90 degrees. 6c) A differentstateof affairsoccurswhen example5b is changedinto example 6d underT1Mwhich keeps U invariant.however. (Otherrotationsare either retrogradesorretrogradesandrotationsby 90 degreestogether.

m) and E (i.we can regardthe norms of a CM to be at most partiallyordered.Let the two positionsbe E (i.j) with E (k. m). m) if the set in E (k. (Themovementsof the set from E (i. m). CMsmay have theirpc distributionsradicallychangedvia swapping-a subjectthathasbeenpreviouslytreatedin the contextof twelve-toneaggregate structure.)If . m) is moved to E (k.j).Becausethe orderof positionsof a normcan reorderedin any way whatsoeveras explainedabove.Example 5a was shown to have this kind of invarianceunderT4M.E (i. the sets can be swappedin the followingmanner.j) -~E (k. If two distinctpositionsof a CM E containthe same set.j) and E (k.446 of CMrowsandcolumnsis highlyinfluencedby the orderof a CM'spositions so that flexibilityin this regardis quite desirable. m) with E (k. This swap is illustratedbelow.j) can be movedto E (i.j) . m) -E (i. The set in E (i.Anotherexample is given by example 3a in which interchangingits rows for its columns the orderof its rowsandrotating90 degreescounter-clockwise) (retrograding is the same as operatingon it with T7I.E (k. 7a) 9AB 168 027 345 9AB 168 027 345 (ex. 7b) In some cases a CM may exhibitan invarianceso that operatingon it with a pc operatoris equivalentto reorderingits columnsandrows.if orderedat all. Swappingpcs allows one furtherto disorderand transformthe entire CM structure. 089 13B 12A 049 16A 79B 16A 79B 089 13B 12A 049 089 13B 12A 049 79B 16A 12A 049 13B 089 16A 79B (ex.j) are the same because the sets moved are identical.

j row i col. 8a) Unlikeswappingin twelve-tone CMs.- row k -set x .j row i col. 8b) . m set x.or - col. Example8b revealshow the CMin example7a canbe swappedto change its fragmentationand sparseness. m set x 'I row k t set x (ex.447 m = j or i = k.thus swappingdoes not changethe structureof chains. the swap has no effect.the swappingneednot be horizontal and between adjacentcolumnsbecausethe contentsof the CMpositions and rows are not ordered. col. 089 16A 89 12A 79B 13B 049 16A 013B 129A 4 7B 9 89 OA 16 1B 29 7A 0 03 14 9B (ex.

IftherearetwopositionsE (i.m)whichsharethe set of K.448 ofa CM'sswapping ThePFAcanbeusedasa significant potendiagnostic thereareforswapping tial.j) andE (k. (k. K or its sub-setscanbe placedin E of anyof CM'snorms.Thispositionis thendeletedwithits rowand columnfromthe CM.Thisis done in example8d. . 5b's it onlyduplicates is possibleto fill in everyemptypositionin 5b. intothe intersecting position.It alsoto observethatthepositionandcontentof normsin a CM is important arenot affectedby swapping.8c) It is possibleto addpcsto CMpositions.j)or E (i.Thisprocessoccursin example8c-the firstCMis the sameas in example4b.Thehigherthe maybe possibleto swapoutone of its rowsand columnsif the CMcontainsa rowandcolumnwhosecontents(norms)are Theneitherthe contentof the rowor columncanbe swapped equivalent. 01 5 289 5 289 01 5 289 01 289 01 5 289 015 012589 01289 5 289 015 289 01289 5 5 01 289 5 01 (ex.Sincethe PFA sparser thateverypcinitis duplicated > indicating ofexample5bis <320230220220 at leastonce.m).Example positioncontaining this in CM a to added firstcolumn)was exactly way.Thisdoesnotchangethe constitution thepcs04 (thirdrow. If a CMis a type-I.A moment'sreflectionwill indicatewhy an association-set canoccupyanypositionin a CMvia swappingalone.the morepossibilities thepc corresponding to the entry.

Then the lowest row is removedand the processis repeatedtwicemorein orderto deletea verticalthenanotherhorizontal norm. we may removeQ. At any rate. 8d) If a CMpossessesan associationset.only the other intersectingnorms would have some of theirpcs removed.the removal of the norm would have no effect on any other norm'scontent. Finallythe resultingCM's columns are re-arrangedto place all duplicatingpcs in adjacentpositions.Thismaneuverhasimplicationsforbuildinghierarchicalstructuresas an outcomeof is clear thatthepc associationsof a CMareof consequenceforitsstructural elaboration. 0 7 1 1 2 7 1 7 0 7 1 2 7 1 4 8 1 6 9 5 8 1 2 0 5 9 A 6 8 4 8 1 6 9 5 0 8 1 2 5 9 A 6 . Sucha series of operationsis accomplishedin example8e where the firstCMis derivedfrom3b with its lowest row'snormduplicatedby pcs (underlined)in intersectingnorms.449 A 67 OA 0 3A 19 3 9 46 6 04 07 4 9 34 19 (ex. if it is possibleto duplicateevery pc in a norm Q. of the addition of to in a CM one is By takingadvantage pcs positions able to swap out a horizontalor verticalnorm. the set can be placedin everypositionin the CM.If these intersectingnormshad pc duplicationwhere one of the duplicatedpcs were situatedin the normto be that every intersecting norm has identicalpcs to the ones in the sharedpositionswith Q. [14]Just removinga row or column of a CM would not affect the norms lying in the same directionas the removednorm.

8e) CombiningCMs If two or moredifferentCMshave compatiblenorms.TypeI and II can only result when the smaller CMsto be combinedareof the sametype.450 0 7 1 0 2 7 1 0 7 1 0 2 7 1 0 7 1 0 2 71 1 0 7 1 2 71 54 9 8 9 A 6 9 5 9 5 45 8 1 5 8 1 2 9 1 8 1 2 9 5 45 8 1 1 8 7 1 8 1 2 0 4 8 9 5 6 1 4 8 9 5 9 6 A 6 6 A 6 5 9 6 A 6 1 8 9 2 6 A 5 0 17 2 7 1 (ex.TomergeCMs. Thusthe arbitrarycombinationof CMstendsto degenerateintoa typeIIICM.they musthavetheirverticalnormsrelatedby Thand/or I which entailsthat theirhorizontalnormswill be likewiserelated.TypeIII CMsresultwhen a type I and II are combinedwith each otheror a type III. The combinationof CMs is accomplishedby mergingthe smallerCMs then swapping.they may be combined to form largerCMs.Whentype II CMsareputtogether to forma type IICM.eachsmallCMmustmanufactureemptyposi- .

then shown placedin the properarrangementproducingthe largerCM (dashesshow the largeCM'semptypositions). In example9a two CMsare writtenside by side. 1 03 456 367 4 89 42 1AB 3 1 03 456 367 4 89 42 1AB 3 7 58 234 -- - - 7 58 234 46 125 79A 4 5 OB (ex.451 tionsin which to placethe othersmallCM.The CMs then can be consideredto be the residentsof one largeCM.Forthispurposeone CMis placed below and to the rightof the otherproducingthe emptypositions. 9a) 6 3 4 1 5 0 3 68 7 9 4 1B 3 4 A 2 7 4 5 2 8 3 12 0 5 4 B 4 A 9 6 7 5 42 1AB 3 - 125 4 OB (ex. 9b) 1 03 456 - 7 58 234 367 4 89 - 46 79A 5 (ex. 9c) 46 125 79A 4 5 OB .

it is locatedin the lowest three and left-most three positionsof the merged . The swappingof 9a into 9b producesa situationwhere the bottomthree and top three rows of the CM are no longerindependentCMs and cannot be detachedfrom each other.the 6X6CMof 9aproducesexample9b.(In9d takethe topthreerows'firsttwo positionstogether to get the firstcolumn of the old CM.the CM of 6a is positionedwith its own firstandthirdcolumnsexchangedandits own rowsalsosimilarlyexchanged. 8.Theleft CMin 9a is a swappedversion of 3a with its second and third columns interchangedand the rightCM is the T8I transformof the left CM. by makingsure that one swaps into adjacentempty columnsin the same way that 9c produced9d. 9d) Bythe meansof swapping.Examples9b and 9d are indeed folded sincethe originalCMsin 9a arerelated. an association-setin the originalCM. a CM in which the bottomthree and top three rows are still CMs in their own rightis formed. 9. Continuedin groupsof two positions to producethe restof the CM-likewise forthe bottomthreerows. FoldedCMsarethosethatareformedby mergingandswappingtwo CMs which are relatedby a pc operation. B } which is invariantunderT8I.Example 9c shows 9a's large CM re-alignedto interlacethe generatingCMs. Anotherway to combineCMsinvolvesfindingtwo CMswith compatible normsthat have at least one positionwith identicalcontents.By combiningthe CM with its T8Itransform. 9c is swappedto produceexample9d.452 1 0 6 5 34 37 3 45 7 8 2 8 46 9 6 4 9 7A 5 A 3 12 4 B 42 B1 5 0 (ex. Pc 4.pcs which couldnot be swappedin each separateCM were availablefor swappingin the mergedCM. A.On the other hand.The CMs are mergedso theysharethe identicalpositionas shownbelow(example9e)which mergesexamples3a and6a-both havetheirlower-leftcorer positionfilled with the { 4. In the example.becamethe only association-setfor the foldedresultsince 4 is invarantunder T8I. 6 }.OverlayedCMs effect an partialorderingof the positionsof their componentCMs. 5.The PFAindicatedwhich pcs occurredonly once in 3a forming a set { 0.)Example 9d is an over-layedCMandcan be usedto producea varietyof compositional stratifications. The T8I operatorwas chosen after consulting3a'sPFA.

Another way to make an odd chain even is to repeat it twice: XIYIZIXIYIZ.As can be seen.453 CM. 2) no more than two positionsof C may occupy a row or column of the CM. The added positionwill containthe union of the sets in the positionsit is insertedbetween. 3) .j) and n is odd C(n-1 (mod z))E(i. given a chain of z positions.. this kind of mergingplacesa chainin the rows and columns of the CM. C(0).will be in the same row or column as the first. m) and C(n+ 1 (mod z))E(k. 9e) The Generation of CMs from Chains Non-simpleCMsaregeneratedfromcompletechainswithanevennumber of positions.These CMsare basicbecausethey cannotbe brokendown into smallersub-CMssince they are not made by mergingand swapping..1 (mod z)) .it can be transformedinto anotherCMderivedby different(butlegal)assignments.By interchangingthe resulting CM'srows and columns. IC(z)andz is even.C(z). Thus the choice of the last position. XIYIZIn any case.The chainwill of coursehavethe same normsas the whole CM if the CM was generatedfrom two pc operatorrelatedCMs. C.The assignmentrequirementscan also be . PIPUQIQis the result. If we assign C(n) > E(i. then C(n.a CMcanbe constructedsubjectto the followconstraints: 1) the assignmentof chain positionsto CM positionsis one ing to one.j) else if n is even.j) and C(n+ 1 (mod z))E(i. If the adjacentpositionsare PIQ.E(k.If one wishes to use a chain with an odd numberof positions... ~-127 06B 789 467 013 456 389 79A - 123 4AB - 346 (ex.the chain must be lengthenedby insertingone new positionbetween two adjacentpositions. whose positions are C(O) IC(1). m) One mustaccomplishthese assignmentsfor all n from0 to z while obeying constraints1) and 2).

2) 1) a f b c d e a b f e c d (ex.0) f 2) a ->E (0. the CM chain through positionsin a zig-zag diagonalpath.2) > E (2.2) e --E (2. The basic schema for generatingCMs from chains is given in ex.In fact. 10a) It should be noticed that the second CM can be derivedfrom the first by interchangingits rowsandrotatingit by 90 degrees.454 modifiedif the words'odd'and'even'areinterchangedbutthisis notnecessary sincethe resultingCMscan be derivedby row andcolumninterchangefrom those generatedby the assignmentsas given.1) d --E (1.The only deviationfrom the assignmentrulesgivenabovewill be the assignmentof 'branchedchains' or the inclusionof chains within CMs. .1) f -*E (0. Tvo out of many possible assignmentsfor the chain a|blc|dleif are: 1) E (0.0) c ->E (1.2) d --E (2.dueto row/colone need only use one assignmentwhich threadsthe umn transformations. CMs must have at least four positionsso chains of less than four positions must generateCMs as illustratedin example lOc.0) ab > E (0.2) e ->E (2.1) The resultingCMs are shown in example 10a. 10b.0) b > E (1.1) c >E (1.

clabd.blacd. C(O) C(l) C(2) -. d }.dlabc..Therefore. Z = K!/(P!(K-P)!) .The generationof type II and III CMs will be easilyunderstoodif theprinciplesof typeI chainsandCMgenerationis grasped. Thefundamentalprinciplebehindthe generationof chainsis simple. I can treat it as a partially-orderedset so that bla is RW. To begin constructinga chain. Y and Z.I am able to show how chains are composedout of the SCs whose sets make up the norms of the chain. C(n) C(n. 10c) Generating Chains Now that the relationof chains to CMs has been explained.If ourset were of fourelements{ a.V and T are norms and relatedby Th or ThI.. b.Consider three successive positionsin a chain.aclbd.andadlbc.1) (ex. Thus. 10b) Chains: alb CMs: a b cldle-* b a c e cldlcle d c (ex. Combinatorialanalysistells us .. X. it is useful to select one set out of the SC chosen for generatingthe norms and list every way it can be divided into two parts. its 2-partitions(simply 'partitions' herein)wouldbe albcd.IC(n) C(O)jC(l)jC(2)j.However.455 . One shouldnotice that the orderof the two partsis not a factorin the partition's identity. a chain is dependenton the sharedsubsets of sets within a SC-or in the case of type II and III chains and CMs two SCs.The middlepositionY is the intersectionof two membersof the same set-class.if I have a partitionW defined as alb. I will initiallyconfine my discussionto the generation of chainsthat can producetype-I CMs.ablcd..only one SCprovidesthe repertoireof sets for norms. c. X in union with Y forms a set T and Y with Z forms V.

This label indicatesthe partition'sspecial propertiesas describedbelow. 1. 8 }. Therethe partitionedset is a memberof SC 5-15 and is { 0. 1 } will be placedin the chain'sfirst positionand { 2.456 .J. 7} can be the thirdpositionin the chain.there are 2-partitionsof a set of size K into complementarysubsets of size P and K-P. { 0.Thus.In many cases.Now I need to look for a partitionthat begins or . UnderT6 K becomes 071268. for instance. 8} A B C D E 011268 110268 210168 610128 810126 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 1-1 4-16 4-25 4-16 4-5 4-5 1 2 * 1 * F G H I J K L M N 0 011268 021168 061128 081126 121068 161028 181026 261018 281016 681012 2-1 2-2 2-6 2-4 2-1 2-5 2-5 2-4 2-6 2-2 3-8 3-9 3-5 3-4 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-4 3-5 3-1 1 1 1 * 1 * * * (ex.the list of Z sets is pairedwith itself to providecomplement-pairs. { 0. 6. Z becomes Z/2. where P is equal to K/2. 6. 11a) Example1la containsall the necessaryinformationto generatean incompleteorcompletechainwhose normsaremembersof SC5-15.a numberor an asterisk(' * ') follows a partition'sentry. 2. 6.. Anypartition may be chosen to begin. 2.I will startwith F. Now for each of the Z pc sets of size P. Partitionsfor SC 5-15 set = { 0. 8 } is a member of SC3-8.Thus. The SCrepresentedby eachhalfof eachpartitionis writtenimmediatelyafter its entry.To continuethe chainI will needto finda partitionwhichwhen transposedand/or invertedwill have one of its partsequal to { 2. Out of four possiblepartitions(F. Sincethe second half of F is a memberof SC 3-8. I will choose anotherpartitionthat includesa partthat is a memberof the same SC. 1 } is a memberof SC2-1 and{ 2. 8 }.In the lattercase.. exceptwhere Kis even and P = K/2. 6. The totalpartitionsof a set can be listed as shown in example 1la.ForpartitionF. 1. 8 } will be placed in its second position. 0.where Z is the numberof distinct(unordered)sets of size P from a set of size K. There are five 115partitionsand 10 213partitionseach labeledby a letter. 6. K and L) I choose K.there is anotherset of size (K-P)whichis itscomplementwith respectto the whole set.

1 } at which pointI havea completechain. lib) Althoughthe generationof chainsfroma listingof the partitionsof a set of a SC is straightforward if a little tedious. F RT6K T1IK RT7IF T6F RK T7IK RT1IF 011268 268107 07115B 15B167 671028 028116 16157B 57B101 15B1671028 011268107 16157B 01 268 07 15B 67 028 16 02 7 6 15 8 6 7 B 8 0 26 57B 1 B 0 57 1 (ex. or continueuntil I find a transformedpartition thatendsorbeginswith { 0.I can stop this processany time I like. 7 is a member. severalquestionsremain:How many distinctchainscan be generatedand of what lengths?Whatrole does invarianceplay in this process?Whatmode of notationwill best displayand summarizeall of the generablechains? Partition Invariance The previousdiscussionhas focusedon the partitionsof an SCmember.Example 1lb showsthe whole seriesof partitionsbegunaboveandtheirtransforms that producea completechain. Everyset in a SC has the same propertiesof invarianceunderpc-operators (withchangesin the n in Thand IhI).followedby the chain and two CMsderived from it.457 ends with a memberof the same SCof which { 0. Thesepropertiesinfluencethe genera- .

Forexample. 4. F(X) = X and/or G(Y) = Y. Partialpartitioninvariances Now whereF (K)doesnotyieldK. Totalinvariance: FromF(K)= it followsthatforeverypartitionXlYthereis another CIDwhere F(X)-->C and F(Y) .underF = T2I becomes CID = 24A1103Bwhich is anotherpartitionof K. But once again. and It is often possible that where F (K) = K. 3. then F + F' otherwise F (K)= K. For example. and G arepc-operators. 1. If #A = #B. 2.) X and Y are of the same cardinalityand membersof the same SC. 1. and if F (X) = Y and F' (Y) = X.XUY is K and F.two otherconditionscanarise. F.D so that CID is not a unique partitionbut only a transformunderF. F(X)-X = Y. 012134ABhas this propertyunderT2I.Let the partitionbe defined XIY.One of the two partitionsis termed a redundant partition. This means that XIY which can be definedas G(CID)is the same as GF(XIY):consequentially. F (XIY)--XIC G (XIY) -DIY Examples: T6I (0361145) TBI (146129) = 0361125 = 57A129 T7I (3410189) = 34167AB T9I (3410189) = 5610189 2.this invariancedoes not change the partition' is also possible that F (X) = Y and F (Y) = X which implies that F = F' since F' (F(Y))= Y. (F cannotbe ThIbecause ThI(ThI(a))= a.operatingon CIDor XIYgives equivalentanswers.YIC F'(XIY)- DIX . B } and XIYis 04A1123B.) 1. 2.If #X = #Y.if K equals { 0. This is of no interest F(Y) since the partitionis unchangedin content under F. F(XlY)-. F is equal to F' since F(F(X)) X. A. Itis concludedon the basisof theseobservationsthatinvariances associatedwith K have no effect on or actuallylimit the numberof useable partitionsfor a chain.F'Fis equivalentto the identity operatorT(0).(F'is the inverseoperatorof F. G(K) + K and F + G otherwise F(K)would equal K.458 tion of chains.

Twootherpartitionlistingsare given in examples lc and 1ld based on the complementarySCs 6-13 and 6-42.can link to the T8 transformof the former. asin example1la. 1.89B1013. 4. ple. multi-generators willbe assigned labelson the basisof theirproperties(seeTableII).which completesthe chain. F(Y)# X 2 3 TableII Partitionsfor SC 6-13 set = {0. Such partitions will thereforebe termedmulti-generators.Evenin the case where only one partitionends or begins with a particularSC member. 7} AA 0113467 1-1 5-10 1 AG 0113467 2-1 AB 1103467 1-1 5-16 1 AH 0311467 2-3 AC 3101467 1-1 5-19 1 AI 0411367 2-4 AD 4101367 1-1 5-19 * AJ 0611347 2-6 AE 6101347 1-1 5-16 * AK 0711346 2-5 AF 7101346 1-1 5-10 * AL 1310467 2-2 AM 1410367 2-3 AN 1610347 2-5 AO 1710346 2-6 AP 3411067 2-1 AQ 3610147 2-3 AR 3710146 2-4 4-3 4-13 4-15 4-12 4-10 4-29 4-18 4-17 4-12 4-9 4-18 4-15 1 1 1 1 1 1 * 2 * * . 3. G(Y) = Y 1 12 G(Y) =Y F(X) = Y. partition in turn.which.457189B. Property Label F(X) =X F(X) = X.Redundantpartitionsare given ' * ' labels. 6.459 Examples: T4 (0131457) = 457189B T8 (0131457)= 89BI013 Partialpartitioninvariancesproducericherpossibilitiesforchain generation.if the partitionpossesses partialinvariance. Ina listingofpartitions.that partitioncan generatea chain alone. Usingthe previousexamthe can link T4 to its 0131457 version.

lic) Partitionsfor SC 6-42 set = { 0. 3.460 AS 4610137 2-2 4-29 * AT 4710136 2-3 4-13* AU 6710134 2-1 4-3 * Al A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 0131467 0141367 0161347 0171346 0341167 0361147 0371146 1461137 0471136 0671134 3-2 3-3 3-5 3-5 3-2 3-3 3-3 3-2 3-3 3-5 * 3-10 3-10 3 3-11 3-7 3-8 3-8 3-11 3-5 3-7 3-2 * * (ex. 1. 9 } BA BB BC BD BE BF B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 0112369 1-1 5-38 1 1102369 1-1 5-31 1 2101369 3101269 6101239 9101236 1-1 5-31 1-1 5-38 * * 1-1 5-4 1 1-1 5-4 * 0121369 0131269 0161239 0191236 3-1 3-2 3-5 3-3 3-2 3-8 3-7 3-10 3-10 3-10 0231169 0261139 0291136 0361129 0391126 0691123 BG BH BI BJ BK BL BM BN BO BP BQ BR BS BT BU 3-10 12 3-11 3-5 3-3 3-11 * 3-8 3-7 3-4 1 3-4 3-1 * * (ex. 2. lid) 0112369 2-1 0211369 2-2 0311269 2-3 0611239 2-6 0911236 2-3 1210369 2-1 1310269 2-2 1610239 2-5 1910236 2-4 2310169 2-1 2610139 2-4 2910136 2-5 3610129 2-3 3910126 2-6 6910123 2-3 4-18 1 4-27 1 4-20 4-5 1 4-4 1 4-28 12 4-27 4-13 1 4-12 1 4-18* 4-12* 4-13 4-4 4-5 * 4-1 . 6.

12a) 4?-16 4(-5 - 1-1 D 4-25 B (3'> e I F O< O2-(- K (O (G H (ex.Theentiregraphof a listingis brokenintoseveral andmultiplicityof the SCsrepresented sub-graphswhichreflectthe cardinality in the sets the A graphfor the listingin 1la is halves.Redundantpartitions(markedon the listingwith' ')arenotgraphed. In example 12a.Pointsarewrittenas circles enclosinga SCname.PointsrepresentingSCsare connectedby lines which correspond to andrepresentthevariouspartitionsof the listing. 12b) ) . S 05112A 2-5 3-3 1 Q 3410189 2-1 4-7 12 N 0151237 3-5 3-5 3 ( P 0151489 3-5 3-5 () P (ex.A line is furnishedwith an arrowindicatingwhich direction the partitionis written.461 Partition Graphs A listingof the partitionsof a memberof a SCcan be aptlysummarized as a graph. by listing'spartition in constructed example 12b. arewrittenwith a markershowingwhich side(s)of the partimulti-generators tionhavepartialinvariance. four (arbitrary) partitionsare * graphed.

Hence.This would mean that the untransformed initialpartition'sfirsthalfis not the same as the chain'slastpartition'ssecond half.Movingagainstthe directionof a line'sarrowis permitted. Such a line is called a loop.462 Followinga pathon the graphby movingfrompointto pointvia the lines providesthe relevantinformationneededto generatea chain. The partitionusually needs to be transformedundera pc-operatorso its first half is the same as the last half of the previouspartition.LettingH equalthe pc-operationthatthis partitionhas to take for the linkingto be successful.(Thelinethatformsa loophasno arrow-a choice of whetherto takethe partitionin a forwardorreversedirectionis not needed In addition.) cycles (closedpaths)can be used to createcompletechains. One can walk up to a point and then retraceone'sstepsto the pointof departuretherebyconstructinga chain with a series of positionsfollowedby its retrograde.pathson the graphthatform unlessthe loopis a multi-generator.thereare 'trivial'paths which producecompletebut simplechainsof the alb variety.Thus. CMscan be made to exhibitinvarianceslike . The classificationof the kindsof chainsthat can be formedfroma partitionlistingis greatlysimplifiedby its has to transformeach partitionso its first half has the same pcs as the preceding partition'ssecond half. I have alreadyindicatedabove that the listingof the partitionsderived from the graphwalk does not immediatelygeneratethe chain. If both ends are marked.Firstof all.a '12' (see table II) multi-generatoris presentand a completechain of 2 to 12 uniquepositionscan be made.The originalpartitionon its secondappearancemust be adjustedby Th and/orI to link with the previouspartition.These cycles involve three or more points and lines and can include crossings. the path will have to be transversedat leastone moretime.If the line is markedat one end to then the chainof the alblclbtype can be generated.If one turns back at a multigeneratoror loop the retrogradecan be transformedunderthe partialinvarianceoperatorof the turningpoint.These are producedby oscillatingbetween two points. Sometimesa line begins and ends at the same point denotingthat the partitionit represents has the same SC in both of its halves.recursions and sub-cycles as part of their make-up. When one returnsto the point of originin a graph. the chain may not be complete.the amountof performancesof H so thatit equalsthe identityoperatorgivesthe numberof times the pathhas to be takento producea completechain.Thus.this indicatesthatthe R of the partitionis used.These recursivewalks producechains that have whole segmentsrelatedto othersby H or H performedso many times. show a multi-generator.Marked loops representtype 3 multi-generatorsand can be tracedover and over to producenon-simplechains.the lines transversedby a 'walk'on the graphwill indicatewhich partitionsoccurin the chainin what order.

~AC AA AB 2-3 AJ 2-5) ANAK ??5 S) A7 A6QC0)6 A8 (ex.the greaterthe variety of SCs in the chain'sand CM'spositions.buthis only occurswhen the path crosses its first point in its windings throughthe graph.Forthis purposein additionto the listingin 1la and its graphin 12b.the listingsin lc and lid are graphedin 12c and 12d. Examplesof each of the situationsdescribedin the last two paragraphs will be illustratedbelow.It should be clear thatthe greaterthe numberof pointsin the graphwalk.463 the one illustratedin example3a. 12c) . Sometimesthe first positionof the chain is encounteredbeforethe chainis finished. Graphof 6-13 .

B7-all ofwhosepoints partitions .464 Graphof 6-42 H BO BN 2-3 4-4 BK 5-4( ) (5-38 BA BE BB 5-31 1-136 <p pB6 B2 (ex. 12d) thegraphandlistingof 6-42 revealsthatsimpletwo-position Consulting chainsmaybe producedby severalpartitions.Other whichis shownas two pointsonly.B4.B6.connectedby an unmarked thatarenotmulti-generators areB3. Amongthemis B2 (0131269) line.

12e) .0236119is obtainedas the chain'sfirsttwopositions. Branched chainsproduceCMswith chainsin theirrowsandcolumns. and2-3. arethenadjusted throughthe SCs.RBK. which canonlybefollowed thechain:02361 191478A1 byBO.BU.TAI(BO) theset478Ahasnoinvariance.4-1. shownin example12e.Onecantracea pathoverthe graphas follows:RBU. be substituted by T6I(BK)= 6910345andRT6I(BK)= 0345169. 4-4. shownby a line connectingthe points 2-4 and4-12.Starting withR(BO).will be used. andmorecomplexchainswhichstillincludesomeidenticalposiLarger tionscanbe madeout of the sub-graphsof 6-42 with 3 or morelinesand points.thuscompleting 191(0236).followedby a CMrealization.465 areconnectedto otherpointsbyotherlines-and BIandBUwhicharepartitionsin a largersub-graph. Since positionunderTAI.BKandBUwill be usedto producea chainstartingwithpartition RBU.BK. illustrated by the markedline.allowsBOto haveits firstpartequalto the chain'ssecond = 191478A. and4-4 withpartition linesBI.Theinvariance associated with2-4. R (BU) = 0123169 T9(BK) = 69103AB RT9 (BK) = 03AB169 (BU) = 6910123 Chain:0123169103AB169 Becauseof (BK)'s thesecondandthirdpositionsof thechaincan invariance. Nowthechainis02361191478A. Thesepartitions by Thand/orThIto linkthe chain.itisnecessary to useoneofthesub-graphs inwhichtwopointsareconnectedbyonemarked line. thechainmustcontinuewithRTAI(BO).ThepartitionBO(1910236).Thechain couldbe alsochangedinto0123169103AB16910345169 orthe branched chain. 2-3. Toproducelargerchainscontinuing withthegraphof6-42. 103451 169 01231691 103ABI 0123 69 69 03AB 0345 69 (ex. 4-20. 2-3.Thesub-graphthatconnects4-1.

A branched chaingivenin example12fgeneratesa CMmaximallyfilledwith chains.the markedloop corresponding to the multi-generatorA6 (0361147)will generatea twelve positionchainby successivelytransposingA6 by T1: 14A125B 036 14712581369147A1 17A128B10391 58BI0691 Anotherchaininvolvingtrichordaldivisionsof 6-13 is derivedfromthe subgraphwith lines Al. 12f) A comparisonof the graphsof the listingsof 6-13 and 6-42 shows that the formerhasfewerisolatedpointswith loops.the chain12103691451036917810369 is formed. A2. 1121 1451 103691 1781 |ABI 0369 45 0369 AB 12 0369 78 0369 (ex.466 Anotherinteresting partitionis shownasthesub-graphBLwhichis marked on bothsidesindicatingit is a '12'multi-generator.Such a CMcanbe the sourceof chainsby makinganycompletecyclicwalkthrough it moving between adjacentbut not diagonalpositions. The orderand the transformationsof the partitionsderivedfrom a walk on this sub-graphare: . (BL) = 1210369 RT3 (BL) = 0369145 T6I (BL) = 4510369 = T3 (BL) RT6 (BL) = 0369178 T9I (BL) = 7810369 = T6 (BL) RT3I(BL) = 0369112 = R (BL) Fromtheabove. A3 and A4.largersub-graphsanda more fertileset of multi-generators.Forinstance. Seethe followingsequence of positions.Fromthese chains smallerCMs can be made.

Hence.and Z takentogetherproducethe If F is not reflexaggregate. 8 } is a memberof SC 3-9. the complementof the partition.the partitionX|Y has Y as a null-set. 2.In order to producetypes II and IIIit is useful to combinethe graphsof the two SCs .The chainreadsso far:138102567A149B and thirdpositionsis the TOIor T8 of its first two positions.whereX is a memberof the norm'scomplementary SC. The SCof which the normis a memberis not SC 7-12 or not a "Zrelated"HexachordalSC. 9. The norm is a partitionof its parentSC such that one of partition's halves is a member of the SC'scomplementarySC. As an illustration.467 = 0131467 A1 RTAI(A4) = 467139A T9 (A3) = 39A1014 = 0141367 A2 RTAI(A3) = 367149A T9 (A4) = 49A1013 013 467139A10141367149A If it is desiredthat a chain should quickly be chromaticallysaturated. is the chain'sthird andthe unionof its second position. The union of Y and Z will be a partitionof the generatingSC since it is the literalcomplementof X which was definedas a memberof the complementarySC. Wherethe norm-generatingSCis hexachordal. Y.{ 4. When the resultingchain is made into a CM and where F is reflexive.sinceit will needto be swappedandhaveits normsordered).The content of any three successive positionsis an aggregate. ive. the chain may continuewithout returningto Y for its fourth (andlast) position. 3. the followingconditionsmust hold. 138102567A149B| 12368A1057. Ifthe partitionis XIY.Thissituationis termedan complement embedding. 3. Up to now.let the generatingSCbe 9-9 whose memberis partitioned 138102567A. 1.Since { 1.DefiningF to be T8 allows the chain to continue. which must also be a memberof 3-9.the potentialfora two rowtwelve-tone CMis produced(apotential twelve-toneCM.F(XUY)= (YUZ)and X. The norm'scardinalityis 6 or greater. B }. only type I chains and CMs have been developed.then the chain may continuewith Z which is the literalcomplementof the union of X and Y.

in detailby the comparison differentiated andtypeII CMsthatcanbe derivedfrom TWochains.Solidanddottedlinesareusedto identifyfromwhichSCtheircoris dervied.onemustfollow partition responding dottedandsolidlines.468 involved. 12h in are found every examples 12g positionholdspcsthataremembersof SC3-3.12h) 23B 458 ."Relating is in two SCs.exrestraints associated special and linesmustbe used.In 12gthelistingsof 6-13and6-42arecombinedtomakeonelarge graph. (A2) T6 (B4) T8 (A2) T2 (B4) T4 (A2) TA(B4) 0141367 3671089 089123B 23B1458 45817AB 7ABI014 01413671089123B145817AB 367 089 014 7AB (ex.A typeIIICMor chainhasno which alternate paths withthegraphpathsusedto generatethem.In 12hthe verticalnorms of two representatives normshousemembersof 6-42.theirpartitions and 12i. show of SCs can of chain thefactorwhichunderlies production. 3-7 and3-11.The as an assessmentof similarity Sets" measuresof similarity providedbyJohnRahnin his article. This shared the number of SCs are based on (included) [15].Inthefirstofthetwoexamples. whilethelatteris composed of SCs3-2.Inthepresentcase. Graphs pairs as well.Toproducea typeIIchain. 12i aremembersof 6-13andthehorizontal reversesthis assignmentof SCsto norms. that dotted solid both cept Thenumberof chainsthatcanbe developedfromtwo SCscanbe used betweenthe SCsvisa visotherSCpairs.theZ-relatedSCs6-13and6-42 are differences of theirgraphs.

AB - ' (5-19) BB 5-31 BG BL (4-28) BI 41 - I AH>4 4-27 AL 4-13 ) AJ (--12 -(2-6 4j AI B6O - B9 3-13) (3-10 -.3-(3-4 ?.469 Graph of 6-13 and 6-42 J 5-38 . > A6 B7 Al B3 2 XA73 . 12g) 5 A3 A2 B' . (3B A4 (ex.

GeneratingCMs by Operator-Cycles I havedelayedthe presentation of the followingmethodforgenerating CMsupto nowsinceit is basedon differentpremisesfromthoseunderlying whathasbeendiscussedso far.theproperties the relevant conditions CM for creation. examplesof chaingenerationof this specieswill be presented.Thismeans thatthe normslyingin the samedirectionareall membersof the sameSC.j + 1)-i andjtaken modn-that holdsthe contentsof E(i. provide In orderfor sucha CMto be made. of theunionof allpcsin theCM.Sinceall its normsarerelatedunderF (orF takenm times).designated U above.thereis a diagonally adjacent positionE(i+ 1.containing ora null-set.this categoryof CMcanbe easilyidentified.j) transformed underF.U mustbe invariantundersome F Thisis equivalent tosayingthatU is a unionofcompletecycles pc-operator of F.j). Rather.Inaddition. Foreachpositionof theCME. .[16]Thesizeof the CMis n2wheren is the sizeof the longestF-cyles.TheseCMsarenotgeneratedfromchains.thenormsinvolvedcan be considered orderedandrelatedto othersinthesamedirectionbyrotation.designated a numberof pcs E(i. Afterthe CMhasbeencompletedit canbe swappedandrow/column interchanged. Thepropertiesof a CM'snormsno longerarefactorsfor its construction.470 (B2) T9I (A7) T5I (B7) RTA(A7) RT7I(B2) T7I (A1) 0131269 2691358 358124B 24B 15A 15A1467 457(013 15A1467 01312691358124B| 013 467 269 358 24B 15A (ex. 12i) Sincethegeneration oftypeIIIchainsandCMspresentsnofurthercomno more plications.

0)contains bothelementsof the F-cycle (0-1)andone elementof the F-cycle (5-8). 4. 13b) . 9. U = {0. and the entire (0-1)cycle [becauseF(E(0.E(0.0). 8. and theirnormgenerators. 6.a swappedand row/column interchangedversion of the CM is also displayed. Inexample13a.1)]. 1. the lasttwo examples. 9 } SC 5-37 V norm generator= { 0. 6} SC 7-1 V norm generator= { 0. 1). 5.1)contains{ 2. 1. 9 } which is half of the (4-9) cycle.F is T1Iandis reflexivemakinga 2X2 CM. 4.E(0. 5. 5.B} SC 8-17 F = T1I F-cycles (0-1) (2-B) (4-9) (5-8) H norm generator= { 0.4.0)= 4. B } is the unionof the otherhalves of the cycles used in E(0. Since F(E(0.1))= E(1. B } SC 7-29 0245 136 69B 078A (ex. 8. B}.1)to hold the other element of (5-8).pc-operatorswith cycles. the CM has no associatedpcs or association-sets.471 A furtherpropertywhich distinguishesthiskindof CMgenerationfromchain derivedCMs is that if no single-elementcycles are used and all cycles are used only once. B } SC 6-44 015 48B 259 018 (ex. 2.E(1. Examples13a-dshowvariousCMs.theirU sets. 3.5. 1. 2. 4. 1. namely 8.9.This obligatesE(1.2. half of the (5-8) cycle and half of the (2-B) cycle. 13a) U = aggregate F = TOI F-cycles (0) (6) (1-B) (2-A) (3-9) (4-8) (5-7) H norm generator= {0. 2.0))= E(1. 5. 4. 8.8.

4. 6} SC 4-8 V norm generator= {0. 9) (2. 5. 1. 7.472 U = {0. 1.9. 1.4. A} SC 9-12 F = T4 F-cycles (0. 8) (1.9. 5. 6.2. B} SC 4-20 4 B 0 7 1 6 2 9 8 4 B 3 1 A 5 6 8 3 0 7 9 A 5 2 48 1 3B 6 9 A 1 2 5 08 A 37 04 9 7B 5 2 (ex.5.A} SC 4-3 0 A 19 15 4 2 9A 01 6 59 8 45 56 89 12 (ex. 13d) 6 .6. A) H norm generator= {0. 4. 13c) U = aggregate F = T2 F-cycles (0-2-4-6-8-A) (1-3-5-7-9-B) H and V norm generators= {0.8.

Out of many such example14d. If a positionor norm of a CM. has a may be made into a CMby consideringit to be a U-set.the firsttwo columnsof 14ahave been likewise embedded.aremembers of 6-13. Each norm is of course a member of 6-13 and has ThIinvariance.the CMof example14cis produced.473 Further CM Extensions FurthertechniquesI have describedmay be used to developCM structures in a numberof differentdirections. 26 4 5 7 67 3 0 9 58B 8 A 13 4 0 3B 8 9A 6 17 2 09 (ex.I will discussthose extensionswhich involvenormand partitionembedding.a small2X2 CMmay be derivedfromT1(A6)and formsexample14b. Note that its horizontalnorms are from SC 3-2 and its verticalnorms are membersof 3-3.The CMin example14ais derived fromthe twelve positionchainbasedon the multi-generator A6 in the listing of 6-13.allmembersof 3-3which. E.By embeddingtransformations of this smallCMin each row of the CMin example14a. Forinstance.It has twelve horizontalnorms. 14a) 2 56 OB 3 (ex.when takenin pairs.The normsin these smallerembedded CMscan becomenormsin the largerCM.Tl(a6) = 1471258which mapsintoitselfunderT9I.Forcontrast. 14b) 5 12 4 B A .Consequentially.

respectively. 14d) CMpositionscanalsoproduceCMsif theircontentshavesomeinvariance. Since any memberof 4-25 has T6 invariance.these positionsare convertedvia the cycles of T6 into mini CMs whose verticalsandhorizontalsareic 2 andic 4. Example14eis relatedto 1lb by swapping.and are members of 2-2 or 2-4 (or 1-1)when takenalone. 14c) 26 4 5 0 9 67 3 8 3 1 (ex.The CM is then swappedintoexample14gwhich disturbsits smallCMsbutpreserves its presentedin example14f.474 26 5 0 4 3B 8 7 5 6 7 0 3 1 12 9A 3 4 9 8B 5 6 A 1 8 7 2 B 4 0 9 A (ex. .ThisCMwhose columnsand/orrows takenin groupsare membersof 5-5.andthe former'spositionseither hold single pcs or membersof SC 4-25.

14e) 0 8 2 6 1 1 5 B 7 0 6 2 8 0 7 5 1 7 B 6 (ex. 14f) 0 8 6 2 1 1 5 B 7 0 2 6 0 7 5 B 1 7 6 (ex.475 0268 1 0 157B 7 0268 157B 6 (ex. 14g) .

Sincethisdiagonal methodallowsan entirenormto occupyone position. 14i) 4 60 .476 Simpletype I CMs can be derivedby placingnorms in an empty CM's diagonalpositionsandthen swapping.the positioncan hold a CM if the norm has an associatedinvariance.Then the whole CM can be swapped.Forexample. 012369 14567A 23458B 134569 16 23 57A 4 8B 45 09 16 23 4 5 0369 (ex.itsnormsaremembersof SC6-42. 14h) 1 39 06 2 17 5 6 4A 28 4 3 5B 39 5 1 6 0 239 17 6 A 5 9 0 5 4 8 4 B 2 3 4 3 5 6 ( 14ha CMis developed accordingtothismethod.This is done to the first CM of example 14h to produce 14i.

The first column of the left CM contains the same pcs as the top row of the right CM. 14k) Twelve-toneand Non-AggregateCombinatoriality Althoughmodifiedformsof manyof theconcepts.The row and column .As a can be used as the substitutefor the latteras shown in the next example (14k).TWoCMsaregivenin example14jandarereproducedfromexample 12h and the T7I of example 12i. 14j) 1 04 AB 7 136 245 367 089 23B 458 029 38B (ex.Moreover. Whilethe invarianceof the norm'spartsand of U is of consequenceto the generationof non-aggregate pc-structures.techniquesandstrategies of generaltwelve-tonecombinatoriality have been used in the foregoing.477 MergingandfoldingCMswithorwithoutembeddedchainsandcombined with embeddedCM developmentmakesthe possibilitiesof non-aggregate combinatorialityquite extensive.I show a CM where a positionof one of two CMs is expandedby the other.andespeciallyin a 12-pc(possibly atonal)context.the norm'sown self-mappingis of no interest. 014 367 089 7AB lAB 23B 458 245 047 136 029 38B (ex.the orderingof normsandtheircontenthaskeptthe two typesof combinatoriality distinct.The factthata CM'sor chain'sU-set or normsneed not exhaustthe totalchromaticis as importantasit is obvious.all the normsin a CMor chainarenot necessarily pc-identicalbut may partakeof the interval-contentof one or two SC'ssets.As only a token representativeof this vast potential. By properlypartitioningthe former.The Babbittquotationcited earlierwarrantsthe definitionof a norm as unorderedpreciselybecause it is a sub-setof the aggregate.theunorderednormallowstheformulationofpartitionsof a SCrepresentativeto generatea largeamountof CMs and chains.

as in 12h.The role of contentinvarianceunderpc-operatorsis now one of permutationrather thanidentity.chaindevelopitsorder.Thishelps identifythe set and distinguish it fromothersets with the sameelementsin anotherorder.478 interchanges. arrangement basicallycontrapuntal In fact. (Seeexample15afortwo realizations of 12a'schain.the generationof chainsfrom listingsbecomes problematicalsince a SC member of cardinalityk that is orderedand producesthe listingcan only be brokenup in k ways without areavailableforuse. This adds a harmonicor at least verticaldimensionto what is otherwisea of orderedsetswithina seriesof aggregates.alongwithdistinctionsproducedby permutationcome Forinstance.thispaperhasemphasized the 'harmonic'unorderednorm at the expense of precompositionallinear relations and structures.which means it can be generatedby two partitionsonly one of which will be the horizontalorderednorm.However.Thusthe n! orderings of a set of pcs are no longermembersof the same equivalenceclass.Asidefromotherobviouslimitations.096 unorderedsets of up to 12 pcs.Thenany distributionof pcs couldmanufacture linearand verticalaggregatesin the mannerof example4b. Theinterchange of columnsis no longerpermittedand 90 degreerotationmust likewisebe avoided.andpc-swappingamongany columnor row in a CM providea very large arrayof compositionaldesigns. what virtues would orderingthe norm generatorsof a chain or CM entail? Firstof all. The orderingof the sub-setsof the rows of a twelve-toneCM is preciselywhat gives the CM its meaningabove and beyondits aggregateformation.) .Sucha chainneed only have every otherpositionreorderedby a pc-operation. much importanceis given to the breakdownof CMaggregatesintoparticularhexachordalandtrichordalunits.Thus.swappingpcsin CMsmayonlyoccurbetween greaterrestrictions.the orderingof a groupof pcs inducesa set of orderedintervals measuredfromone pc to the next.Indeed.In the formulations of Babbitt[17]and Donald Martino[18].Incontrast.Whengeneratingthe CMfrom the chainatleastone Rformneedsto be used.rotations. makingthe numberof norms far exceedthe 4.the methodof generatinga CMfromthe invariancesassociatedwth U with or withoutpc saturationvia complementembeddingcan be seen as anextensionoftheseauthors'procedures. adjacentcolumns(orones separatedby null-setsin the rowswherethe swappablepcs reside)andonly betweenthe endsof a orderedset. but are ordered. Orderinga set also imposesa uniquenestingof its subsets.onlyk 2-partitions disturbing ment is limitedto those chains that alternatetwo partitions. arereinforcedby imaginingthatthe rowsin a twelveTheseconsiderations tone CMareunorderedsets.

This is exactlythe same situationthat occurswhen a row can map into its retrogradeunderF.a 2X2CMcanbe generated where its bottomrow is the RF of its top row.Such CMs as in examples 14a and 14b can be termed canonicCMsdue to their make-up and in analogyto the structureof twelve-tonecanonic CMs.where the twelve-positionchain that generated 14a is utilized.479 S: T8S: RT4S: J: T8J: RT4J: 041 637 809 B7A 367 809 B23 140 2B3 584 485 BA7 (ex. WhereU is invariantunderF andF is reflexive. as illustratedin example 15b. or there are no forms involvingF. Of course. . 15b) The roleof redundantpartitionswhere F(X14)= RYIRXdoes not change with the introductionof orderintothe norm.the orderingof pc-operator-related complementaryhexachordsin a twelve-tonerow is a familiaruse of two orderingsof a normthatarenot identical under F. 15a) Naturally.This examplealso interpolatesmore than one R-form.[19] K: RT2K: T4K: T6K: RT8K: RTAK: 471 582 063 396 4A7 B52 8B5 609 930 14A A17 B28 (ex. either there are no distinctR forms.multi-generatorscan produce CMs with orderednorms. Example15c is the ordering of the CM of example 13a so its rows are relatedby RT1I.Distinctionsbetweentwo partitions relatedby F can be producedby permutationalone.

norms would be relatedunder CnF.the orderingof normshelpslimitandfocusthe contrapuntal aspects of chain and CM usage in compositionalstrategy. By includingit.Naturallythe "end"and "begin"sets of norms designedfor this kind of CM generationwould best be multi-generators. compositional [21] . Rotationseems a good candidate. One would want to orderthe norm generatorin such a way that it had invariantsegmentsunder F.would be permittedas CM generators(see above). where F produces invariancebut is not reflexive.It has been my purposeto present the matterin an uninterpreted. This would increasethe opportunityfor the necessaryswapsinto the restof the CM'spositions.avoidingexamples on a staff or referencesto extantcompositions.can be generalizedandextended within or withouta twelve-tonecontext.definedby contentalone.480 Y: RT1IY: 510 82B 2B5 108 (ex. Final Remarks If I haveonly begunto realizethe potentialimpliedby this paper'sintroabstractionof a harmonic/ duction.since it preservesmost of the intervalsuccesionof a segmentof pcs and it is of importancein the works of Stravinskyand othercomposers. 15c) The orderoperatorR has been presumedthroughoutthis paper. a greaternumberof partitionsof a listingcould be invoked by the rotationof a orderednorm.[20] Anotherway to produceCMswith orderednormsis to use the (trivial) method as shown in 14i. In addition.somewhatformalmanner.I hope I have shownhow the (pitch-class) melodiccomplex.In this way.One can use other (perhapsarbitrary)orderoperatorsas well. those to whom this papermay be of use are free to take fromit whateverthey can without thatsatisfymy own personal havingto fathomthe subjectiveinterpretations needs.U-sets. In any case. These segments would be placed at the norm generator'sbeginningand end. or a segmentwould be relatedto anotherunder F.

" andI.M. Basic Atonal York: or Charles Rahn."SinceSchoenberg. Journalof MusicTheory5/1 (1961). I use Allen Forte'ssystem of SCidentificationand nomenclature.1979). [6] Set-classes(SCs)are collectionsof unorderedsets relatedby Thand/orI.A CM for the row 014392A857B6is: Y: RT4IY: A59 T3Y: 347 RT7IY: 1082 T9IY: T1Y: RT5IY: B6 B8 6 1254 A0973 01 627 4 0 B95A43 67 985 A3B 8 21 392A8 57 5 1B 607B1 42A3 9680 4 B6 1034 8A29 7 5 [5] The kind of LA (linearaggregate)referredto here is formedby two or more concatenatedtwelve-tonerows selected so that the pcs at the end of one rowin unionwiththepcsatthe beginningof thenextproduceanaggregate." 20 (1955).and "AGeneraltheoryof Combinatoriality."SomeAspectsof'Ielve-tone Composition. 1974) 1973/Spring-Summer Set and its AggregateFormations. Thesequenceofthesepitchesis a LA."Perspectives ofNewMusic(SpringSummer1978)." Journalof MusicTheory5/2 (1961).Magazine. John Wuorinen.SimpleComposition (New York:Longman. Matrix)is a two-dimensional [4]A CM(Combination arraywhichalignsspecialselected related twelve-tone rows to a of verticalaggregates. 1980) Theory (New Longman.481 Notes [1] It is assumedthatthe readeris familiarwith the basictermsand concepts whichpervadethe set-theoreticandtwelve-toneliterature.Thosetermswhich are not universallyfound in this literatureare definedin the text or in footsee notes.Babbitt's"secondary set"is thistypeof LA."SetStructure as a Compositional Determinant.PartI."AGeneralTheoryof Combinatoriality and the Aggregate. Foran introductionto the subjectof twelve-tonecombinatoriality. [3] See DanielStarrandRobertMorris. PartII.see his The ."Perspectives of New Music(Fall-Winter and Donald "The Source Martino. TheScore [2]SeeMiltonBabbitt."Perspectives of New Music(Fall-Winter 1977).A. form series ly The pitch-classesin CMsare writtenin integernotation(see [8]).

" [12] See Starrand Morris." [13]M is the pc-operatorknown as M5 or the "cyclesof [ascending]fourths" operator. [8] Pitch-classes(pcs)are writtenin 'fixed-do'notationwhere all C naturals."RelatingSets."inProblems ofModemrMusic."was deliveredas a responseto other papersdeliveredduringthe "settheory"panelatthe SocietyforMusicTheory's NationalConventionin New YorkCityon November1.YaleUniver[9] See Bo Alphonse. dissertation.etc. Forexam- ple if under F.SeePerspectives of New Music(Fall-Winter 1980).C double-sharpsand E double-flats.." of New Music(Fall-Winter 1965).'A GeneralTheory. . Matrix. The cycle is an orderedend-connectedset such that for a successivepairof pcs in the cycle.H. b -> c. the rightpc is the resultof the operationF on the left.See HubertH. then the cycle (a-b-c)is defined.482 Structure ofAtonalMusic. [7] See MiltonBabbitt.P. It is commutativewith I to form the M7 operator."SinceSchoenberg. B sharpsandD double-flatsaredenotedby the pc 0. and c -> a.pc 1 denotesall C sharps.M multipliespcs by 5 mod 12. [15]JohnRahn'spaper. 10 and 11.Jr.Norton.(2-6-A). [10]PaulLanskyand CarltonGamer.TheInvariance sity.pc 2 denotesall D naturals."Per1976/Fall-Winter 1977). . B double-sharpsandD flats.1960). Howe. The operatorT4hasfourcyclesof the form(a-b-c).. Perspectives [14] This transformation(in a twelve-tonecontext)was first broughtto my attentionby the composer. 1979/Spring-Summer [16]A pc-operatorF can be describedas one or morecyclesof pcs.a - b."Fanfaresfor the CommonTone. 1973).(Ph. 1973). ants.(New Haven:YaleUniversityPress.D.(1-5-9).Appendix A containsa listingof all SCs mentionedin this paper. Lang(NewYork:WW.WilliamBook. Pc 10 and pc 11 are writtenas A'and 'B'respectively."SomeCombinationalProperties of Pitch Structures. spectivesof New Music(Spring-Summer [11] See avoid confusionwith the pc sequences."'lelve-tone Invariantsas CompositionalDetermined.PartII.they are (0-4-8). 1979.

See Starrand Morris.1..3.8. is an entryin the columnit indicatesthe SCwith the same currentvector. SC member is simply one of the sets includedin the currentset-class.John Rahn.. Appendix A Set-classesFound in this Paper. [17] See Babbitt. has six two-elementcycles if n odd. the set-classhas sets that are invariantunder ThMand/orTnMI."SinceSchoenberg."TheSourceSet." [18] See Martino.Six successivenumbersoccurwithin brackets. and is fifth on the list of set-classesof that cardinality.. [21] I would like to acknowledgeEllen Koskoff. The second of these numbersindicatesthe position of a particularset-classon the list andthe firstnumbergives the set-class'smember'scardinality.Forexample. 2."Sets." JournalofMusicTheory 22/2 (1978)." [19] See Starrand Morris.) 4..6.4. 'M/MI'indicatesthe set-classwhose membersare relatedunderThMor ThMIto those of presentset-class.A. Ifthere 3. 4-5 is the name of the set-classwhose cardinalityis 4.483 AThIoperator T1hasone twelveelementcycle:(0. 'Interval-Class-Vector' gives the interval-classcontent for any set within the currentset-class.2.. 5.9. five two-elementcycles and two oneelementcyclesif n is even.F.The .'A GeneralTheory.7. 'Name'consists of two numbersseparatedby a hyphen. (3-7-B).InvarianceandPartitions."andDanielStarr. part I. . is performedn times on anorderedsetwhichis subsequentiallycyclicallypermutedn placesto the left."AGeneralTheory.B)..PartII. 'Z-ZZ' tellswhetherornotthe SChas a uniqueinterval-class-vector.5." [20] CnFnis an operatorwhere the pc-operator.If this numberis identicalto the second numberof the presentset-class'sname. To read the table: 1.This numberis the second of the two numbersin 'name'of the formerset-class. (A vector is only sharedby two SCs at most.Nola Readand WayneSlawsonforreadingthe variousdraftsof thispaperandofferingmany helpful suggestionsfor its improvement.

ThI.The last four positionstell if the membersets map into their complementsunder Th.that they map into theircomplements underThMandThMIwith one valueof n in each case.and ThMIinvariancerespectively.the sets with the set-classesdo nothavethe associatedproperty. no ic 4 or 6 and one ic 5.the SC 6-38 has the invariance-vector11000011which tells us thatthe sets withinthis SChave (total)invarianceunderone value of n in Th.the numberwithin the positiongives the numberof different 'n's in Th in the operatorassociatedwith the position. one ic 2. The firstfourof the vector'seightpositionsshow whetheror not the SC's sets have Th.and ThMIrespectively.ThM. ThI. Forinstance.Whenthe positionis greater than zero. Name M/MI IntervalClassVector InvarianceVector } [000000] 1111BBBB 11009988 11119999 11119999 11119999 11009988 2222AAA 11007744 10005655 10005655 10105656 10016776 SC-member Z-ZZ 1. Note:AllSCshavea '1'in the firstpositionof thevectorwhichindicates (trivial)invarianceunder TO.[011010] indicatesthat any set within the set-classwith which it is associatedhas no ic l's.Forexample. 6.. 'Invariance-Vector' indicatesthe propertiesof the sets within a set-class.right-most)numberwhich indicates the amountof ic 6's in any set within the set-class. one ic 3. the second numberfrom the left gives the numberof interval-classesof size 2.ThM.1 1 {0 222222- 1 2 3 4 5 6 5 2 3 4 1 6 01 {02 {03 {04 {05 {06 } } } } } [100000] [010000] [001000] [000100] [000010] [000001] 33333- 1 2 3 4 5 9 7 11 4 5 {012 {013 {014 {015 {016 } } } } } [210000] [111000] [101100] [100110] [100011] . The sets with 6-38 have no other special propertiesof this kind.If a positionis value of n in ThI.484 left-mostnumbergives numberof interval-classesof size 1. and so forthuntilwe get to the last (sixth.

1 4.4 5.5 4.5 5-10 5-15 5-16 5-19 5-31 5-37 5-38 29 14 25 15 32 19 31 17 18 17 18 {01236 {01237 {01346 {01268 {01347 {01367 {01369 {03458 {01258 [322111] [321121] [223111] [220222] [213211] [212122] [114112] [212320] [212221] 10000200 10000111 10000110 11112222 10000110 10010220 10010330 11001122 10000110 6-13 6-14 6-22 6-26 6-42 50 14 22 4 29 {013467 {013458 {012468 {013578 {012369 [324222] [323430] [241422] [232341] [324222] 11000000 10101010 10100101 11000000 11000000 29 42 48 13 .485 3.4 4.3 4.9 3-10 3-11 2 8 1 10 3 {025 {026 {027 {036 {037 [011010] [010101] [010020] [002001] [001110] 10005655 10016776 11007744 11118888 10005655 4.7 3.8 4.9 4-10 4-12 4-13 4-15 4-16 4-17 4-18 4-20 4-25 4-27 4-28 4-29 3 26 14 16 8 9 10 27 13 29 5 17 18 7 25 12 28 15 15 {0123 {0134 {0125 {0126 {0156 {0167 (0235 {0236 {0136 {0146 {0157 {0347 {0147 {0158 {0268 {0258 {0369 {0137 [321000] [212100] [211110] [210111] [200121] [200022] [122010] [112101] [112011] [111111] [110121] [102210] [102111] [101220] [020202] [012111] [004002] [111111] 11005511 11003322 10001323 10002432 11114444 22226666 11113333 10002432 10012442 10000331 10002432 11113333 10012442 11003333 22226666 10002432 44448888 10000331 5.8 3.

5 9.486 6-44 6-46 19 10 19 24 7.9 9-12 5 8 1 12 {012346789 } {01234678A } {01235678A } {01245689A } 10.1 7 [545662] [448444] [666963] 10010000 10010000 11000000 33330000 2 3 3 {1012345678A } [898884] {012345679A } [889884] {1012346789A} [888984] 11110000 11110000 22220000 1 12-1 {~0123456789AB 1 } [CCCCC6] ccccoooo cc0 0 [766674] [676764] [676683] .8 9.2 10.1 35 12 4 36 7-12 7-29 17 {012569 {012469 } [313431] } [233331] 10000010 10000000 {10123456 {0123479 {0124679 } } } [654321] [444342] [344352] 11000000 11110000 10000000 [546652] 11110000 11000000 44440000 {01345689 } } 8-17 8-20 8-28 28 {101245789 {0134679A 9.3 10.4 12.