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Slide #1 - Title

We'll be discussing this lovely paper by these guys.

Since they are so many authors so whenever I say, these guys or they, I am talking about
these people.
Slide #2 - Goals
In previous fMRI studies there have been reports of error-related BOLD responses in the
frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical regions so these guys set out to figure out three
Is their dual-network hypothesis right?
What are the general characteristics of error responses?
The functional grouping of error activity. Are they functionally related?
Slide #3 What do errors look like.?
GENERAL characteristics so meta-analytic approach.
12 tasks
different stimuli (images, words, and shapes)
different response modalities (button press and speech, but mostly button press)
different fMRI designs
Modeled time courses for correct and incorrect responses.
Both with an assumed and an unassumed HRF.
Figure shows models using unassumed HRF.
Figure 2A shows the timecourses for all tasks in dACC.
Point out differences in correct and error time courses across task types.
Differ in amplitude and return to baseline.
Slide #4 Consensus map
ANOVA on correct and incorrect time courses.
Each task has a statistical map.
Explain Figure 1A.
Consensus map is a heat map that shows areas that have significantly different time courses
based on accuracy. Redder areas = more tasks. Bluer areas = less tasks.
Slide #5 Two networks
Explain Figure 7A.
Consensus map overlaid on functional network boundaries retrieved from functional
connectivity analysis.
So they got these boundaries from an independent resting-state experiment. They
basically found, which regions were more correlated with each other and categorized
them as a network.
Partially answer dual-hypothesis question.
Both frontoparietal and cingulo-opercular functional networks are activated.
They actually made two consensus maps
Unassumed HRF (what you see)
Assumed HRF
Slide #6 Assumed ROI identification
Algorithm (by Abraham Snyder) used to grow ROIs based on peak voxels.
Describe Figure 4.
Consensus map made with an assumed shape of the HRF.

Assumed HRF
41 ROIs
Describe Figure 5A.
11 ROIs
More later
Slide #7 Unassumed ROI identification
Unassumed HRF
Slide #8 Average Timecourse
To see if there are any differences between ROIs, they got an average time course for each ROI.
Averaged across tasks.
So Figure 2A, shows the timecourses from dACC for each task and its average.
Slide #9 Clustering
Figure 3A
So they identified ROIs with different time courses based on accuracy. Whatever.
If they're clustered, they're similar.
Cool thing is placing ROIs into groups based on response profile.
Explain hierarchical clustering (Draw on board).
Then explain what you think they did
Multi-dimensional clustering.
Made dendogram
Dendogram was cut into three groups.
Slide #10 Error-related responses
Explain panes of Figures 3B 3E.
Leftmost pane: averaged time courses from all ROIs that were in the particular group.
Middle pane: the difference between averaged error and correct time courses.
Rightmost pane: averaged time course for high accuracy and low accuracy trials
For prolonged responses, error-related activity was larger in high accuracy tasks.
Fast response
Prolonged responses
Delayed responses
Two ROIs did not fit into any cluster.
They were able to characterize different error responses.
Slide #11 Back to ROIs
Bring back Figure 5A.
Only 11 ROIs identified with assumed HRF shape.
Look at Table 4 in paper.
Most fast ROIs were re-identified.
Some prolonged.
No delayed
They suspect that the re-identification is due to the fast response being similar to the
canonical HRF.
Slide #12 Functional connectivity
2/3 goals achieved. 1 more to go: functional connectivity and error activity.
To visualize network structure and connectivity strength, they used spring-embedded analysis.

Explain spring-embedded analysis.

Return to figure 7A and describe it
ROIs are encircled based on whether it is a cerebellar, cortical, or subcortical region.
Each ROI colored based on its response profile
At rest, ROIs with similar response profiles are highly correlated.
Functional relatinoship.
Slide #13 Response Profile & Connectivity
Describe Figure 7B and 7C
ROIs are colored based on the functional network they are positioned in based on Figure 6A
(the overlay).
Figure 7B
ROIs are still encircled based on where they are located in the brain.
Corroborates functional network boundaries by showing that ROIs that were predefined
based solely on Figure 6A are also more strongly correlated with ROIs within its functional
Figure 7C
ROIS are now circled based on response profile.
Functional networks have a single error response profile
EXCEPT frontoparietal network
Right hemisphere = prolonged
Left hemisphere = fast (all but one)
Slide #14 - Conclusion
Main points
From the consensus map and the functional network boundaries, errors were found to be
processed in both the frontoparietal and cingulo-opercular networks.
Using functional connectivity and clustering analysis, these guys were able to identify
temporally distinct, and functionally grouped error responses.