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ACRA2014

May 18-21, 2014, Jeju, KOREA

ACRA2014-264

MULTIPLE PARAMETERS ANALYSIS FOR ENERGY EFFICIENCY

OF BUILDING AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS

Yew K. Chuah, Yoong P. Chng

Department of Energy and Refrigerating Air-conditioning Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology,

1, Sec. 3, Chung Hsiao E. Road, Taipei, 10608, Taiwan

ABSTRACT: Multiple parameters statistical analysis is proposed for the diagnosis of energy performance of airconditioning systems. Hourly data output of a building energy simulation is provided for the validation of this proposed

method. The annual hourly complex energy data are processed to create Bin parameters such as Bin temperatures and

Bin enthalpy difference. The results of the Bin parameters analysis show that air-conditioning systems can be diagnosed

for comparison or verification of real-time performance. The research also shows that outdoor dry bulb and wet bulb,

and also the indoor outdoor enthalpy difference Bin parameters, are the important parameters for diagnosing the

system performance factor (SPF) of the air-conditioning system. It has been found that for the same temperature and

enthalpy Bins, the SPF values obtained are close. In general the higher the enthalpy difference the higher SPF is

obtained. Frequency of the occurrence of the Bin parameters is also discussed. Hourly air-conditioning energy use is

also analyzed corresponding to different Bins of the parameters. The method of diagnosis as proposed can be used in

comparing system performance such as green building energy saving retrofitting.

Keywords: Air-conditioning, energy saving, statistical analysis, BEMS

1. INTRODUCTION

Much research literature can be found on energy

saving of building air-conditioning. Thermostats were

used to provide feedback temperature control [1]. Liu et

al [2] investigated energy management of public

buildings in China. Lam [3] worked on the optimal

control models for air-conditioning. Chen [4] considered

the building thermal mass in the dynamic operation of

building energy systems. iroky et al [5] used Model

Predictive Control (MPC) method to solve optimal

control over a finite number future window.

Clarke et al [6] mentioned that building simulation

can be used to test the efficacy of control strategies.

Crawley et al [7] introduced building energy simulation

programs. Of which DOE-2.2 [8] can be used to

performance hourly simulation of building energy. Ellis

and Mathews [9] mentioned that existing building energy

simulation tools are complex and time consuming

applying to general design problem. Simpler building

simulation modeling can be found such as degree day

method [10], for which efficiency or conditions of use

vary with outdoor temperature. The Bin method [10]

calculates the energy consumption by the number of

hours Nbin in a temperature interval (Bin) centered on

that temperature. Westphal & Lamberts [11] estimated

the annual cooling and heating using monthly average

values of temperature, relative humidity, pressure and

cloud cover.

With statements mentioned above the objectives of

this research are:

1. Verification of air-conditioning system energy

performance under equivalent operating conditions.

2. Diagnosing the parameters of energy performance

distribution of statistical analyzed data.

2. MULTIPLE PARAMETER ANALYSIS

The concept can be depicted as data stored in a

cube of dimensional space as shown in Figure 1. Each

cube contains the Bins values of the parameters of

concern. Analyses of the parameters are shown in Table

1 and Table 2. Air-conditioning system energy and the

system performance factor (SPF) can be computed from

the parameters stored in each of the cubes. SPF is

defined as in equation (1), where E is energy use and

cool load refers to the building cooling load. Note that

SPF is a measure of air-conditioning system performance

as it includes the power use by the whole system.

SPF= Ecooling

cool load

Eheat rejection

cool load

Epump

E

+ fan

cool load cool load

(1)

hourly data. Therefore the frequency of occurrence of the

cubes can be used to estimate the air-conditioning energy

use. More so, real time performance of air-conditioning

system (HVAC) can be compared at the same conditions

with sufficient frequency of occurrence for verification.

In Table 1 and Table 2, WB and DB are the wet bulb and

the dry bulb temperatures of outdoor air. Energy is the

hourly energy consumption of air-conditioning system.

H is the enthalpy difference between indoor and outdoor

air. Occurrence is the number of data for the same set of

DB, WB and H Bins. is the standard deviation. The

Bins interval for the temperature is 1, and the Bin

interval for enthalpy is 1 kJ.kg.

Table 1 Sample raw Bin data.

Month Hour # WB DB Energy H

,

,

kWh

kJ/kg

6

2727 22

24

1000.4 7

coincident dry bulb and wet bulb for H=-3 kJ/kg are in

the low temperatures of below 19 and below 16,

respectively for dry and wet bulb temperatures.

Table 3 SPF for H= -3 DB=16 WB=15

Hour #

HVAC

Part load

SPF

Energy

ratio

1185

210.7

0.253

2.04

1186

202.0

0.210

2.08

1617

217.0

0.280

2.23

1618

206.8

0.231

2.25

2391

241.8

0.299

2.53

SPF

4.01

10

6785

22

24

677.6

3.68

12

5607

22

24

1079.5

3.65

11

6826

22

24

932.9

4.19

3305

22

24

720.5

3.64

OA OA H

DB WB

Occur Mean

Mean

-rence energy Energy SPF SPF

22

24

822.2

175.7

3.837 0.253

the same cube is of concern. Moreover there are only

2827 hours of air-conditioning operation in a year (8760

hours), with 2827 rows of data. Of which full occupation

is 2056 hours.

3. BINANALYSIS OF

HOURLY DATA FOR FULL OCCUPANCY

2056 of rows of data for full occupancy would

have higher recurrence of the parameters with the same

Bin values. Moreover equipment would operate at higher

capacity and therefore the energy efficiency analysis

would be more indicative. The data is processed into

discrete hourly data. Then the Bin-processed parameters

are DB, WB and H. H is indicative of the severity of

outdoor condition relative to the indoor ones. Moreover

higher cooling load would happe n w h e n the airconditioning system bringing in fresh outdoor air.

Air-conditioning system is operating even for

negative H due to internal load. Table 3 shows the data

for H=-3 kJ/kg, DB 16, and WB 15. It can be

observed that the five occurrences for these set of Bin

data are at low air-conditioning load. Although variable

air volume is applied, SPF is still low for the occurrences.

This could be due to lower equipment efficiency at lower

cooling load. However, this study considers the system

efficiency. Therefore the system as a whole is not

operating efficiently.

It can be seen in Figure 2 that the coincident

occurrence of dry and wet bulb temperatures . The

Table 4 is presented for comparison. It can be

noted that SPF reaches a maximum above 3.0 for H= -1

kJ/kg. Maximum SPF corresponds to the upper values of

dry and wet bulb. It can be then seen that dry and wet

bulb temperatures are also key factors of SPF. It also

appears that mean SPF increases for higher H. H

around 3 corresponds to the season of spring and autumn,

when the outdoor dry bulb is near to the indoor

temperature setting.

It can be noted in Table 4 that there are relatively

larger number of occurrence for each value ofH. It was

mentioned above about statistical requirement of larger

number of set of data. It is then seen that full occupancy

of building has more set of data for energy analysis.

Therefore it is recommended that full occupancy be used

in air-conditioning energy diagnosis.

It is also observed rather scattered dry bulb (19

29) and wet bulb (1821) whenH is beyond 3

kJ/kg. SPF reaches 4 when H5 kJ/kg, at which the

outdoor dry bulb (DB) is now higher than desire indoor

temperature. It appears that air-conditioning system

function more efficiently as the summer is approaching.

The extremely warm conditions for H= 10 kJ/kg is

given in Table 4 for comparison. Outdoor DB then

reaches 36 corresponds to warmer days in summer.

Under this condition the air-conditioning system operates

almost in full capacity (PLR at 0.98 to 0.99).

The above discussion show that HVAC energy and

SPF increase with the increasing of the enthalpy

differences. But this might not be a confirm relationship

since dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures vary through

different enthalpy differences. As shown in Figure 2,

scattered distribution of dry and wet bulb Bins are seen

that enthalpy differenceH is a required parameters in

determining the performance of air-conditioning. The use

of SPF instead of chiller COP would enable the analysis

of equipment operation in partial load conditions, and

considering the energy consumption of all system

components. The above results do show SPF would

center around a number when data set with same DB,

WB andH are analyzed.

Table 4 Statistical analysis for with differentH

Items

H, kJ/kg

-1

1

3

5

10

Occurrences

133

96

97

53

261

Max energy

369.5 382.3 465.7 493.5 561.3

Lower DB

17

18

19

22

24

Upper DB

26

26

29

32

36

Lower WB

15

17

18

20

23

Upper WB

17

19

21

22

28

Max PLR

0.615 0.675 0.838 0.928 0.995

Mean PLR

0.348 0.457 0.583 0.743 0.983

Max SPF

3.44 3.670 3.92

4.09

4.37

Mean SPF

2.88

3.32

3.68

3.92

3.77

Figure 3 shows the mean SPF for H=0 kJ/kg at

various DB and WB conditions. A wide span of DB is

shown for WB at 17 and 18. At H=0 kJ/kg, there are

a number of data with the same Bins of dry and bulb

temperature. Therefore SPF given in Figure 3 is the

mean SPF. It is noted that higher SPF is found for higher

DB and WB. It is also seen that the frequency of

occurrence stays almost the same for DB spans from 17

to 26. SPF reaches 3 when DB and WB 23 and 17

respectively. In comparison with Table 3, airconditioning system performs more efficiently at these

conditions.

shown in Figures 4 and 5. It can be seen that with the

number of data five, the standard deviation is still

significant. However for number of data exceeding ten,

the standard deviation reduces sharply.

Base on the statistical analysis of 2827 rows of

data with occupancy equals to 1 in fraction, the

applicable data left is then 1793 rows. This condition

leads to effortless analysis of data for other occupancy,

which are 514 rows, 86 rows and 171 rows of data for

occupancy equals to 0.5 in fraction, 0.3 in fraction and 0

in fraction respectively. Hence these data is not analyzed

in this study.

Figure 3

The statistical analysis required data base that

would give results of analysis of sufficient confidence.

However some data cannot be processed due to only 1

occurrence. There is a trend observed regarding the

To study whether the database with confidence

intervals of desired output parameters is useful for

HVAC system diagnosis, a validation is carried out to

test the database for its accuracy. Fresh air exchange is

increased from 0.1 air change per hour to 0.15, an

increase of 50%. More air change would bring better

indoor air quality.

The simulated data is process and analyzed to

compare with the original database which is already Binprocessed and created confidence intervals using tdistribution. The sample of new data is displayed as in

Table 5 and Table 6.

Notice that for HVAC energy almost all new

values falls between the confidence interval, except at

the hour 2580 where the HVAC energy is 222.2 kWh.

Hence out of 10 data for same required parameters, 1

data is out of the 90% confidence interval. This indicates

the confidence interval is exactly 90% correct for the

new data. As for the SPF values, only 5 out of 10 values

falls between the confidence interval. However it results

in only small percentage of error for mean SPF. The

mean values of both new SPF value and SPF value from

respectively. This might be due to the variation of

cooling load of the building. As discussed previously in

the analysis of the simulated results, SPF value may vary

due the deviation of cooling load. This phenomenon

again illustrates the high dependence of SPF values on

cooling load of buildings.

Table 5 Sample of newly simulated data

Hour #

226

227

228

230

231

232

233

2364

2580

226

WB

14

14

14

14

14

14

14

14

14

14

DB

18

18

18

18

18

18

18

18

18

18

HVAC

Energy

200.8

203.9

201.7

198.4

199.5

200.3

202.1

198.3

222.3

200.8

PLR

SPF

0.201

0.215

0.205

0.189

0.194

0.198

0.207

0.186

0.236

0.201

-3

-3

-3

-3

-3

-3

-3

-3

-3

-3

2.02

2.13

2.06

1.92

1.97

2.00

2.07

1.89

2.15

2.02

Occur- Mean

HVAC Mean

rence HVAC HVAC Energy SPF

Energy energy 90%

Interval

9

202.4 7.58 197.75 2.032

207.15

.

SPF

SPF

90%

interval

0.0898 1.977

2.088

The objective of providing a diagnosing method

evaluating the performance of HVAC systems is

achieved. The database after the statistical analysis of the

data from simulation can be used to diagnose HVAC

systems by comparing the measured results and stored

standard data. The HVAC system can enhance to the

expected efficiency and energy consumption through

comparing the particular data to the process data.

The annual hourly complex energy data are

processed to create Bin parameters such as Bin

temperatures and Bin enthalpy difference in this study.

The results of the Bin parameters analysis show that airconditioning systems can be diagnosed for comparison

or verification of real-time performance.

The research also shows that outdoor dry bulb and

wet bulb, and also the indoor outdoor enthalpy difference

Bin parameters can be used to diagnose the energy use

and the system performance factor of the airconditioning system. It has been found sufficient

statistical confidence can be obtained for predicting

HVAC energy and SPF. It was also found that in general

the higher the enthalpy difference the higher SPF is

obtained. Frequency of the occurrence of the Bin

parameters is also discussed. Hourly air-conditioning

energy use is also analyzed corresponding to different

Bins of the parameters. The method of diagnosis as

proposed can be used in comparing system performance

REFERENCES

[1] Dounis, A. I. and Caraicos, C., 2009, Advanced

control systems engineering for energy comfort

management in a building environment A review,

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 13,

2009, pp. 1246-1261.

[2] Liu, G. W., Wu, Z. Z., and Hu, M. M., 2011, Energy

consumption and management in public buildings in

China: An investigation of Chongqing, Energy Procedia,

Vol. 14, pp.1925-1930.

[3] Lam, H. N., 1993, Stochastic Modeling and Genetic

Algorithm-Based Optimal Control of Air Conditioning

Systems, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference

of the International Building Performance Simulation

Association, Adelaide, pp. 435-441.

[4] Chen, T. Y., 2001, Real-time predictive supervisory

operation of building thermal systems with thermal mass,

Energy and Buildings, Vol. 33, pp. 141-150.

[5] irok, J., Oldewurtel, F., Cigler, J. and Prvara,S.,

2011, Experimental analysis of model predictive control

for an energy efficient building heating system, Applied

Energy, Vol. 88, 9, pp. 1-9.

[6] Clarke, J. A., Cockroft, J., Conner, S., Hand, J. W.,

Kelly, N. J., Moore, R., Brien, T. O., and Strachan, P.,

2001, Control in building energy management systems:

The role of simulation, Seventh International IBPSA

Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August pp. 99-106.

[7] Crawley, D. B., Hand, J. W., Kummert, M. and

Griffith, B. T., 2008, Contrasting the capabilities of

building energy performance simulation programs,

Building and Environment, Vol. 43, pp. 661-673.

[8] University of California & J.J. Hirsch, Overview of

DOE-2.2, Department of Energy, California, United

States, June 1998.

[9] Ellis, M. W. and Mathews, E.H., 2002, Needs and

trends in buildings and HVAC system design tools,

Building and Environment, Vol. 37, pp. 461-470.

[10] ASHREA Handbook Fundamental, 2009,

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, Chapter 19.

[11] Westphal, F. S. and Lamberts, R., 2004, The use of

simplified weather data to estimate thermal loads of nonresidential buildings, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 36, pp.

847-854.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The support of National Research Council by Research

Grant NSC-100-2221-E-27-100 - is gratefully

acknowledgement.

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