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tariel futkaraZe

qarTuli zmnis logikuri paradigmis


sakiTxisaTvis 1

mecnieruli TvalsazrisiT qarTul zmnas mravali mkvlevari swavlobda da


swavlobs; ikvlevdnen: Zveli qarTveli gramatikosebi, ucxoeli misionerebi,
sulxan-saba orbeliani, zurab SanSovani, anton kaTalikosi, gaioz reqtori,
dimitri yifiani, platon ioseliani, ivane qarTveliSvili, solomon
dodaSvili, konstantine dodaSvili, Tedo Jordania, petre kvicariZe, aristo
quTaTelaZe, daviT CubinaSvili, niko mari, mose janaSvili, silovan xundaZe,
akaki SaniZe, arnold Ciqobava, varlam Tofuria, qeTevan lomTaTiZe, giorgi
rogava, farnaoz erTeliSvili, arli TayaiSvili, givi maWavariani, anton
kiziria, ivane imnaiSvili, ivane qavTaraZe, leo kiknaZe, irakli veSapiZe,
besarion jorbenaZe, Tedo uTurgaiZe, zurab WumburiZe, elene babunaSvili,
leli baramiZe, daviT gewaZe, nodar naTaZe, zurab sarjvelaZe, damana
meliqiSvili, aleqsandre oniani, maia maWavariani, giorgi cocaniZe, leila
enuqiZe, meri damenia, ruben enuqaSvili, irine meliqiSvili, Suqia afridoniZe,
vaxtang imnaiSvili, murman suxiSvili, maia saxokia, avTandil arabuli, giorgi
gogolaSvili, revaz Serozia, nana maWavariani, asmaT papiZe, rusudan asaTiani,
iuri kortava, Tamar maxarobliZe, ramaz qurdaZe, nana lolaZe, qeTevan
gigaSvili, kote fxakaZe, meri Ciqobava...
cnobilia, rom qarTuli zmnis fuZe ramdenime tipis iseT prefiqssa da
sufiqss dairTavs, romelic sityvis leqsikur mniSvnelobas ar cvlis, magram
azustebs moqmed pirs/pirT, gansazRvravs moqmedebis/mdgomareobis xasiaTs,
warmoaCens zmniT warmodgenil pirebs Soris urTierTobas da sxva; erTi
sityviT, qarTul zmnas, rogorc leqsikuri mniSvnelobis mqone erTeuls,
mravali formobrivi varianti (morfologiuri saxesxvaoba) aqvs.
Tanamedrove samecniero literaturaSi erTi zmnis saxesxvaobani
daxarisxebulia gvarisa da qcevis formebad, aqtiur da pasiur yalibebad,
diaTezebad, msgavsi uRlebis mqone jgufebad, mwkrivebad, piris formebad...
qarTulSi gvaqvs ganviTrebuli fleqsia, afiqsTa did nawilsac erTi
konkretuli funqcia udasturdeba 2 da, Sesabamisad, TiTqos, Zneli ar unda
iyos qarTuli zmnis logikuri paradigmis ageba.
samecniero literaturaSi lingvistTa mier warmodgenili paradigmebi,
manqanuri Targmanis problemebi da ucxoelTaTvis qarTuli zmnis Seswavlis
sirTule aCvenebs, rom qarTuli zmnuri yalibebi Tu mwkrivebi dRemde ar
aris dalagebuli mwyobri sistemis saxiT. metic, qarTuli zmnis kvlevis
mravalsaukunovani tradiciis miuxedavad faqtobrivad arc erTi ZiriTadi
sakiTxis garSemo ara gvaqvs samecniero konsensusi. problemuri sakiTxebis
ganxilvis dros Tanxmobis miRweva arc aris aucilebeli, magram, rogorc

1 gamoqveynda 2006 wels:


akaki wereTlis saxelmwifo universitetis humanitarul mecnierebaTa fakultetis
Sromebi, enaTmecnieruli seria, t. VIII (I), quTaisi, 2006, gv. 88-96.
2 Tumca, rigi mizezebis gamo rTuldeba qarTulis miCneba tipur aglutinaciur enad.

1
wesi, kargad Seswavlili samecniero problema arsebiT ganxilvas aRar
iTxovs...
qarTuli zmnis Sesaxeb mZafri kamaTis mizezi kargad gansazRvra aristo
quTaTelaZem jer kidev 1894 wels:
”dRemde ver vigdeT xelSi is klite, romelic aRebs qarTul zmnas”.
aqve arsebiTia imis aRniSvnac, rom qarTuli zmnuri yalibebis klasifikacia
gvaris mixedviT dRemde laTinuri gramatikebis models mihyveba. garda
amisa, araiSviaTad, orazrovani da metad rTulad aRsaqmelia sameciero
literaturaSi warmodgenili qarTuli zmnis morfologiuri yalibebisa da
semantikuri konebis mimarTebebi; es yovelive metad aZnelebs zmnuri
paradigmis kompiuterul modelirebas. arada, manqanuri Targmanis
aucileblobam axleburad dasva bunebrivi enis zmnuri paradigmis gaazrebis
sakiTxi.
Cveneuli ZiriTadi kiTxvebi ase Camoyalibdeba:
1. amJamad sayovelTaod gaziarebuli uRlebis sistema morfologiur-
semantikuri principiTaa Sedgenili, ris gamoc erT rigSi sxvadasxva
yalibis formaa warmodgenili. SesaZlebelia Tu ara, zmnuri paradigma
warmovadginoT Tanabarzomieri formebis logikuri rigis saxiT? sxvagvarad
Tu vityviT: SesaZlebelia Tu ara sauRlebeli formebi davajgufoT mxolod
morfologiuri principiT? gaaadvilebs Tu ara es manqanuri Targmanis
programirebis process?
2. ramdenad logikuria ak. SaniZiseuli warmoqmnisa da uRlebis
kategoriebis gamijvna da, mag., vakeTeb da vkeTdebi formebis damoukidebel
leqsikur erTeulebad (or sxvadasxva zmnad) ganxilva?
3. ”mikeTebia” tipis zmnebi ”vukeTeb” formis paradigmis wevria Tu mis
paralelur paradigmas qmnis? Sdr., agreTve: gavkeTdebi, gavkeTdi -
gavkeTebulvar... ramdeni saxis sauRlebeli forma Tu zmnuri yalibi gvaqvs?
ramdeni saxis paradigma gvaqvs qarTulSi? ramdenad praqtikulia qcevis
”morfologiuri” kategoriis, an diaTezis ketegoriis mixedviT zmnuri
paradigmebis kvalifikacia-Sefaseba?
4. ramdenad praqtikuli, realobis amsaxveli da logikuria qarTuli
zmnebis dajgufeba e.w. gvaris, qcevis, gardamavlobis mixedviT? uRlebis wesis
gaTvaliswinebiT ramdeni jgufis zmna (da ara zmnis forma) gvaqvs?
5. ramdenad safuZvliania `legenda” qarTuli zmnis zerTulobis Sesaxeb?
qarTuli zmnis sistemaa zerTuli Tu misi lingvisturi interpretaciebi? 3

Cveni azriT, qarTuli zmnis ”zerTulobis” imitacias qmnis ucxo,


qarTulisTvis arabunebrivi e.w. ”gvaris”, aseve, metad bundovani kategoriis
- ”qcevis” - mixedviT agebuli paradigma. zmnis formacvalebis sqema unda
aigos qarTuli enis bunebidan gamomdinare; indoevropuli Tu sxva
enebisTvis gamosadegi gvari, qceva, gardamavloba... adekvaturad ver axasiaTebs
qarTuli zmnis formebs; garda amisa, qarTuli zmnuri formebi gamosayof-
dasajgufebelia morfologiur-sintaqsuri (formaluri) da ara morfologiur-
semantikuri principiT.

3 problemuri kiTxvebis Sesaxeb ix., agreTve: d. meliqiSvili, 2001; T. uTurgaiZe, 2002.

2
vfiqrob, qarTuli zmnis dasaxasiaTeblad ufro moqnili gzaa paardigmis
ageba morfologiuri yalibis mixedviT; Sdr.:
xmovani prefiqsi (an nuli) + zmnuri Ziri + Temis niSani + kauzativis
niSani (morfologiuri yalibis sqemas akonkretebs zmnis valentoba - pirTa
Sewyobis potencia).
manqanuri Targmanis modelirebisas unda moxdes formaluri yalibebis
mixedviT agebuli paradigmisa da semantikuri paradigmis Sepirispireba.
vfiqrobT, pirTa kombinaciis perspeqtiviT dazustebuli Tanabarzomieri
(msgavsi aRnagobis) morfologiuri yalibis mixedviT agebuli paradigmis
wevrebisaTvis gaioldeba konkretuli semantikuri velis gamokveTa da
manqanisTvis gasagebi logikuri formulebis gamoyvana.
SeniSvna: mag., T.uTurgaiZis azriT(2002, gv. 109), -Tvis Tandebuliani saxeli
zmnur paradigmaSi Sedis.
qarTuli zmnis sruli SesaZleblobebis warmosaCenad zmnuri formawarmoebis
sistema samsafexurovan paradigmad unda warmosdges:
I (didi) paradigma: zmnis formacvaleba yalibebis mixedviT (vakeTeb, vikeTeb,
vukeTeb, vkeTdebi, vukeTdebi, vakeTebineb...); pirobiTad, am xmovanprefiqsian Tu
uprefiqso saxesxvaobebs nakvTebi SeiZleba vuwodoT;
II (klasikuri) paradigma: zmnis mocemuli yalibis cvla mwkrivTa mixedviT
(vakeTeb, vakeTebdi, gavakeTebdi, vakeTe...);
III (mcire) paradigma: zmnis mocemuli yalibis mocemuli mwkrivis formis cvla
pirTa (mxolobiTi, mravlobiTi) kombinaciebis mixedviT (me g-a-keT-eb Sen, me g-a-
keT-eb-T Tqven, me v-a-keT-eb mas, me v-a-keT-eb maT, Cven g-a-keT-eb-T Sen, Cven g-a-keT-eb-T
Tqven, Cven v-a-keT-eb-T mas...).
paradigmis arsebiTi wesi: mwkrivTa rigi SeiZleba Seqmnas mxolod erTi
yalibisa da valentobis mqone formebma; e.i. paradigmis SigniT gamoiricxeba e.w.
inversia (v-wer - m-i-weria) da erTi saxis paradigmis farglebSi sxvadasxva agebulebis
yalibis monacvleoba - yalibTa sesxeba (v-mefob _ v-i-mefe);
sanimuSod warmovadgenT vxatav zmnis formacvalebas:

didi paradigma (yalibTa rigi - ”nakvTebi”):


uxmovanprefiqso erTvalentiani yalibi: v-dgavar, v-dgebi, v-cocxlob;
uxmovanprefiqso orvalentiani yalibi: v-Wam; uxmovanprefiqso samvalentiani
yalibi; v-wer...
a- xmovanprefiqsiani orvalentiani yalibi: v-a-keTeb; a- xmovanprefiqsiani
samvalentiani yalibi: v-a-wer, v-a-keT-eb-in-eb...
e- xmvanprefiqsiani samvalentiani yalibi: v-arTob; e- xmovanprefiqsiani
orvalentiani yalibi: v-e-xmar-eb-i; e-xmovanprefiqsiani samvalentiani yalibi: v-e-
TamaS-eb-i...
i- xmovanprefiqsiani erTvalentiani yalibi: v-i-mal-eb-i; i-xmovanprefiqsiani
orvalentiani yalibi: v-i-wer, m-i-dg-a-s, g-i-dgavar; i- xmovanprefiqsiani
oTxvalentiani yalibi: m-i-Wm-i-e...
u- xmovanprefiqsiani orvalentiani yalibi: v-u-dg-av-a-r; u-
xmovanprefiqsiani samvalentiani yalibi: v-u-wer...
Sdr., Semdegi yalibebi:
me v-xat-av suraTs: miumarTavi moqmedebis gamomxatavi; orvalentiani;
me v-a-xat-av mas suraTs: sazedao moqmedebis gamomxatavi; samvalentiani;

3
me v-a-xat-v-in-eb mas mas: kauzatiuri moqmedebis gamomxatavi samvalentiani;
me v-u-xat-av mas mas: adresatuli moqmedebis gamomxatavi samvalentiani;
me v-i-xat-av suraTs: adresatuli moqmedebis gamomxatavi orvalentiani;
me v-i-xat-eb-i: adresatuli moqmedebis gamomxatavi, erTvalentiani;
me v-e-xat-eb-i mas: uneblie moqmedebis gamomxatavi, orvalentiani;
me v-e-xat-v-in-eb-i mas: kauzatiuri moqmedebis gamomxatavi, orvalentiani;
me da-v-xat-ul-var: unaxavi, miumarTavi moqmedeba, erTvalentiani;
me da-m-i-xat-av-s is: unaxavi moqmedebis gamomxatavi, orvalentiani;
me da-v-xat-v-i-var mas: unaxavi, miumarTavi moqmedeba, orvalentiani;
me miWmevs is mas saWmels: adresatuli moqmedeba, oTxvalentiani;
me da-v-u-xat-av-var mas: unaxavi moqmedeba, orvalentiani yalibi;
daxatuli var: aRweriTi forma, erTvalentiani yalibi...

klasikuri paradigma: (erTi yalibis formebi: mwkrivebi):


me vxatav suraTs (awmyo/momavali dro, TxrobiTi kilo, usruli aspeqti);
me davxatav suraTs (momavali dro, TxrobiTi kilo, sruli aspeqti);
me vxatavdi suraTs (warsuli dro, TxrobiTi kilo, usruli aspeqti);
me davxatavdi suraTs (warsuli/momavali dro, TxrobiTi kilo, sruli
aspeqti);
me vxatavde suraTs (awmyo/momavali dro, kavSirebiTi kilo, usruli
aspeqti);
me davxatavde suraTs (momavali dro, kavSirebiTi kilo, sruli aspeqti);
me vxate suraTi (warsuli dro, TxrobiTi kilo, usruli aspeqti);
me davxate suraTi (warsuli dro, TxrobiTi kilo,sruli aspeqti);
Sen xate suraTi (momavali dro, brZanebiTi kilo, usruli aspeqti);
Sen daxate suraTi (momavali dro, brZanebiTi kilo, sruli aspeqti);
me vxato suraTi (awmyo/momavali dro, kavSirebiTi kilo, usruli aspeqti);
me davxato suraTi (momavali dro, kavSirebiTi kilo, sruli aspeqti).
zog yalibs meti mwkrivi SeiZleba hqondes, zogs naklebi; amis
mixedviT moxdeba zmnebis klasifikacia da ara gvaris, gardamavlobis,
qcevis, diaTezis 4 (da sxv.) mixedviT.
SeniSvna: mexateba yalibis mexata, damexata mwkrivebis formebiT warmodgenili
semantika (warsuli dro + TxrobiTi kilo) Seicvleba modaluri elementis darTvisas:
rom mexata, rom damexata (momavali warsulSi + kavSirebiTi kilo).

mcire paradigma

me g-wer Sen me m-wer Sen Sen wer mas


me g-wer-T Tqven me m-wer-T Tqven Sen wer maT
me v-wer mas me m-wers is Sen g-wers is
me v-wer maT me m-weren isini Sen g-weren isini

Cven g-werT Sen Cven gv-wer Sen Tqven werT mas


Cven g-werT Tqven Cven gv-werT Tqven Tqven werT maT
Cven v-werT mas Cven gv-wers is Tqven g-werT is

4Gd. meliqiSvilis mier warmodgenili analizi (2001) STambeWdavad aiolebs zmnaTa


dajgufebis problemas.

4
Cven v-werT maT Cven gv-werena isini Tqven g-weren isini

is wers mas isini weren mas


is wers maT isini weren maT

msgavsi (Tumca naklulovani) paradigmebi hqondaT Zvel gramatikosebs,


romelTa Rvawli ratomRac miiCqmala sabWoTa periodSi; ix., mag., anton I,
1885 (I S da I, II S da II pirebis ararealizebad kombinaciebs antoni
pirgaklulovnobad miiCnevs); d.yifiani, 1882, gv. 87-88; s. xundaZe, 1904, gv.
115-116 da sxv. Sdr., agreTve, Tanamedrove varianti: T. uTurgaiZe, 2002, gv.
48-59).
SeniSvna: 1. paradigma agebulia metyvelebis aqtSi monawile pirTa aqtiurobis
mixedviT; ramdenadac ena aris I piris (me-s) mier aRqmuli samyaros
gadmocema, umravlesi formebi davalageT pirveli piris mixedviT.

qarTul zmnaSi formalurad Tanabrad aisaxeba realuri subieqtic da


realuri obieqtic; Sesabamisad, vamjobinebT, SemoviRoT teminebi: aRmqmeli
piri/subieqti da moqmedi piri/subieqti. aRsaniSnavia, rom qarTuli ena
ufro orientirebulia aRmqmeli piris gancdis gamoxatvaze: roca erTmaneTs
xvdeba moqmedi da aRmqmeli piris niSnebi, zmnaSi Cans mxolod aRmqmeli
piris niSani (aRmqmeli piri SeiZleba iyos I da II; III piri metyvelebis aqtis
monawile ar aris da verc aRqmeli iqneba). aqve aRvniSnavT, rom
bagismieri+ukanaenismieri qarTulisTvis akrZaluli kompleqsi ar aris;
Sesabamisad, aq ver vilaparakebT morfonologiur akrZalvaze. aSkaraa, rom
gramatikulad ufro Zvelia da Tan aqtiuria aRmqmeli piris niSani (da ara
moqmedisa!); Sdr.:
me gwer Sen da Sen mwer me: enam romeli piric `miiCnia”
aqtualurad/aqtiurad, is gamosaxa zmnis yalibSi.

amrigad, dRemde gaziarebuli da sayovelTaod aRiarebuli uRlebis


sistema qarTuli enisa morfologiur-semantikuri principiTaa Sedgenili.
arsebobs sauRlebeli formebis semantikuri principiT dalagebis cdac
(a.arabuli).
Cveni azriT, qarTuli zmnis paradigma unda aigos morfologiuri
(formaluri) yalibebis mixedviT da ara morfologiur-semantikuri principiT.
qarTuli zmnis formawarmoebis sistema samsafexurovan (ierarqiul)
paradigmad SeiZleba warmosdges:
I (didi) paradigma: zmnis formawarmoeba yalibebis mixedviT (vakeTeb,
vikeTeb, vukeTeb...);
II (klasikuri) paradma: zmnis mocemuli yalibis cvla mwkrivTa mixedviT
(vakeTeb, vakeTebdi, gavakeTebdi, vakeTe...);
III (mcire) paradigma: zmnis mocemuli yalibis mocemuli mwkrivis
formis cvla pirisa da ricxvis mixedviT (vakeTeb, akeTeb, akeTebs, vakeTebT...).

5
damowmebuli literatura:

anton I, 1885 - anton I, qarTuli Rrammatika, Tb., 1885.


gaioz reqtori, 1970 - gaioz reqtori, qarTuli Rrammatika, gamosacemad
moamzada, gamokvleva da leqsikoni daurTo e. nikolaiSvilma, Tb.,
1970.
s. dodaSvili, 1930 - s. dodaSvili, Txzulebani, Tb., 1830.
d. meliqiSvili, 2001 - d. meliqiSvili, qarTuli zmnis uRlebis sistema, Tb., 2001.
T. uTurgaiZe, 2002 - T. uTurgaiZe, gramatikuli kategoriebisa da maTi
urTierTmimarTebisaTvis qarTul zmnaSi, Tb., 2002.
arn. Ciqobava, 1962 - arn. Ciqobava, qarTuli zmnis nakvTeulTa dajgufebis
principisaTvis: ike, XIII, Tb., 1992.
s. xundaZe, 1904 - s. xundaZe, qarTuli gramatika, quTaisi, 1904.
b. jorbenaZe, 1980 - b. jorbenaZe, qarTuli zmnis formobrivi da funqciuri
analizis principebi, Tb., 1980.

Тариел Путкарадзе

О Парадигме Глагола Грузинского языка

Резюме
По нашему мнению, в Грузинском языке формаобразования глагола представляется как
трехступенная парадигма:
1. Большая парадигма: формаобразования глагола по основе глагола: vaketeb/ vakeTeb,
viketeb/vikeTeb, vuketeb/vukeTeb...
2. Классическая прадигма или спряжение: изменение формы глагола по ряду глагола
(mckrivi): vaketeb/vakeTeb, vaketebdi/vakeTebdi, gavaketebdi/gavakeTebdi, vakete/vakeTe...
3. Краткая парадигма: изменение ряда (mckrivi) глагола по лицам и числам:
gaketeb/gakeTeb, vaketeb/vakeTeb, maketeb/makeTeb, aketeb/akeTeb, aketebs/akeTebs,
vaketebt/vakeTebT...

6
Tariel Putkaradze

Towards the issue of logical Paradigm of the Georgian Verb

Difficulties of studying Georgian verb for foreigners, the problems ot machine translation and
papers of analyses of linguistics in scientific literature shows thet Georgian verb series ans structure
have not been placed properly in order till today.
Shared and saknowledged traditional system of conjugation had been compiled in
morphological -semantic principle.
The experiment of placing comjugative forms, according to semantical principle already exists
(A. Arabuli).
We consider that the paradigm must be built according to morphological structure and not with
morphological semantic principles.
Machine translation needs the confrontation of paradigm built according to morphological
paradigm structure. Georgian verb formation system must be shown in three stages Paradigm.

I (big ) Paradigm: verb formation according to structure.

II (classical) paradigm or conjugation: change of concrete verb accordin to series.

III (little) paradigm: change of the verb series and structure according to person and number.