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WELDING

ABSTRACTS

The monthly abstracts journal for those seeking


technical knowledge about welding and allied
processes, and the science of joining

Welding Abstracts is the worlds most comprehensive abstracts journal in


the field of welding technology, providing fast, exhaustive coverage of
technical and business aspects of welding and allied processes, including
brazing, thermal cutting, etc; equipment and materials; properties and
testing involving such essential topics as fatigue, corrosion, and fracture
mechanics; nondestructive testing and quality control; nuclear
engineering and offshore and underwater operations; and, of general
concern, codes and standards, education and training, and health and
safety.
Experts at TWI scan journals, books, conference proceedings,
newsletters, reports, etc and produce hundrends of abstracts every month.
These are transferred to WELDASEARCH, the worlds largest online
database on welding, which contains records dating back to 1967 and is
available on the TWI website (www.twi.co.uk) or via Dialog, STN and
Questel Orbit.
Editorial Staff
Sheila Thomas (Editor)
Margaret Connell
Production
Jackie Lloyd

The abstracts herein are intended to represent the contents of the


original publications. All reasonable case is taken in abstracting and
editing, but TWI can accept no liability in respect of any error or
omission, or of any views expressed, which are those of the original
authors, not of TWI.

TWI
Technology
Engineering

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Welding Abstracts

Vol.24, No.12, December 2011


Contents

Weldasearch Numbers 249147 - 249519

Abstracts - layout explained

iv
MANUFACTURING AND CONSTRUCTION

PROCESSES
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12

ARC WELDING
RESISTANCE WELDING
ENERGY BEAM PROCESSES
SOLID PHASE WELDING
BRAZING
SOLDERING
OTHER JOINING PROCESSES
THERMAL CUTTING
SURFACING
SPRAYING
MICROJOINING
ANCILLARY OPERATIONS

1
9
11
15
16
18
20
28
28
30
34
36

50
51
52
53
54

NUCLEAR ENGINEERING
OFFSHORE AND UNDERWATER OPERATIONS
PIPES, PIPELINES AND VESSELS
WELDED PRODUCTS
WELDED STRUCTURES

55
55
55
57
58

GENERAL
60
61
62
63
64

CODES AND STANDARDS


COMMERCIAL INFORMATION
EDUCATION AND TRAINING
HEALTH AND SAFETY
MISCELLANEOUS

59
62
62
63
64

PRODUCTION
COMMERCIAL
20
21
22
23

AUTOMATION AND ROBOTS


COMPUTERS
EFFICIENCY AND COSTS
REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE

37
39
39
40

70 WELDING INDUSTRY

65

AUTHOR INDEX

66

COMPANY INDEX

75

SUBJECT INDEX

76

EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS


30 EQUIPMENT [FOR WELDING, ETC.]
31 CONSUMABLES [FILLERS, FLUXES, GASES, ETC.]
32 MATERIALS, GENERAL

41
42
44

PROPERTIES AND TESTING


40
41
42
43
44
45
47
48

TENSILE PROPERTIES, TOUGHNESS


FATIGUE
OTHER MECHANICAL PROPERTIES
CORROSION
WELDABILITY AND METALLURGY
RESIDUAL STRESSES
NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
QUALITY CONTROL

46
46
47
48
50
51
53
53

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

01 ARC WELDING
See also abstracts: 03-249188, 03-249298, 03-249350, 03-249361,
03-249399, 20-249330, 20-249332, 20-249348, 20-249453,
22-249219, 22-249314, 22-249325, 23-249291, 23-249313,
30-249166, 30-249246, 30-249310, 30-249318, 31-249389,
31-249411, 32-249244, 40-249391, 43-249154, 44-249364,
48-249390, 52-249441, 60-249228, 62-249486, 63-249238, 63-249385

*01-249148
Argon-hydrogen shielding gas mixtures for activating
flux-assisted gas tungsten arc welding.
HUANG H Y
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.41A, no.11.
Nov.2010. pp.2829-2835. 8 fig., 1 tab., 39 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5623,
1543-1940
[in English]
The effects of activating flux and shielding gas composition on welds
produced in austenitic stainless steel by TIG welding were
investigated. An activating flux (30%TiO2, 25%SiO2, 25%Cr2O3,
20%MoO3) consisting of powder (particle size 70-80 micrometres)
dispersed uniformly with acetone (40:60 vol%) was manually applied
with a brush to produce a layer (150 x 10 x 0.2 mm; 15 mg/square
centimetre) on AISI 304 (0.06%C, 1.27%Mn, 18.4%Cr, 8.2%Ni)
sheets (150 x 150 x 5 mm). Bead-on-plate welds were produced using
A-TIG welding (speed 75 mm/min; 2% thoriated tungsten electrode,
shielding gas flow rate 20 l/min) with varying amount of hydrogen in
the shielding gas (Ar + 0.5-5%H2). A charged-coupled device camera
system was used to observe the arc profile. The results of analyses of
cross sections of the welds are discussed with regard to weld
morphology, microstructures, arc profile, retained delta ferrite content
and angular distortion.
*01-249191
Gas-tungsten arc welding [TIG welding] of magnesium alloys.
LIU L M
In Book: Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys. Ed: L.M.Liu.
Publ: Cambridge, CB21 6AH, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2010.
Part 2: Particular Welding and Joining Techniques. Chapter 11.
pp.160-177. 18 fig., 3 tab., 29 ref. ISBNs: 9781845696924,
9780857090423
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 227775]
The use of TIG welding of magnesium alloys, with and without filler
wire, is reviewed. Following an introduction that discusses the TIG
welding process, the application of TIG welding without filler wire to
the production of Mg alloy joints is described, addressing preparation
for welding, macrographic observation, microstructural observation,
analysis and mechanical properties of the welded joints. The results of
TIG welding with filler are reported also, with discussion of the
welding parameters, the effect of these parameters on weld shape, and
the macro-morphology, microstructure and mechanical properties,
which are compared with those of the autogenous TIG welded joints.
*01-249192
Metal inert gas welding [MIG welding] of magnesium alloys.
SONG G
In Book: Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys. Ed: L.M.Liu.
Publ: Cambridge, CB21 6AH, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2010.
Part 2: Particular Welding and Joining Techniques. Chapter 12.
pp.178-196. 18 fig., 3 tab., 32 ref. ISBNs: 9781845696924,
9780857090423

ARC WELDING

[in English]
The use of pulsed MIG welding to join sheets of the magnesium alloy
AZ31B was investigated. In the first experiment, AZ31B sheets (300 x
130 x 3.5 mm) were joined using pulsed MIG welding (base current 50
A; pulse rework current 50-200 A; wire speed 7.2 m/min; welding
speed 400-1800 mm/min; pulse frequency 15-90 Hz) and extruded Mg
filler wire (diameter 1.6 mm). In a second set of experiments, AC
pulsed MIG welding was used to join AZ31B sheets (300 x 100 x 3
mm for butt and lap joints, 300 x 100 x 5 mm for butt joints). For
sheets of different thickness, the following welding parameters were
used: filler wire diameter 1.6 mm; mean current 103-175 A; mean
voltage 21.7-24.2 V; wire speed 5.5-7.25 m/min; welding speed 800
mm/min. For experiments in which the wire speed was varied from 6.5
to 8.0 mm, the welding parameters used were: filler wire diameter 1.6
mm; mean current 106-130 A; mean voltage 20.2-20.8 V; welding
speed 800 mm/min. A high-speed camera documented the detachment
of droplets and arc shape. The influence of welding parameters on
process stability, metal transfer mode, weld width, weld bead
structure, microstructure, mechanical properties and hardness is
discussed.
*01-249193
Variable polarity plasma arc welding of magnesium alloys.
ZHANG Z D
In Book: Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys. Ed: L.M.Liu.
Publ: Cambridge, CB21 6AH, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2010.
Part 2: Particular Welding and Joining Techniques. Chapter 13.
pp.197-228. 33 fig., 3 tab., 26 ref. ISBNs: 9781845696924,
9780857090423
[in English]
The behaviour of AZ-based magnesium alloys subjected to variable
polarity plasma arc welding (VP-PAW) and to variable polarity plasma
arc weld bonding (VP-PAWB) is explored. The effects of process
conditions on process stability and characteristics of the VP=PAW
welds are described, as is the surface cleaning effect of the process.
Hardness, microstructure and tensile strength were determined for lap
joints in 2.5 mm Mg alloy sheet made by plasma welding in keyholing
mode. The VP-PAWB process is illustrated using the example of lap
joining of extruded AZ31B sheets (250 x 100 x 2.5 mm) with a
structural epoxy adhesive (interlayer 0.1 mm). Issues addressed include
keyhole vs non-keyhole modes, adhesive decomposition during
welding and porosity. The effects of VP-PAW and VP-PAWB are
described with regard to welding parameters, fusion zone
characteristics, mechanical properties, welding temperature fields and
arc plasma behaviour.
*01-249194
Hybrid laser-arc welding of magnesium alloys.
SONG G
In Book: Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys. Ed: L.M.Liu.
Publ: Cambridge, CB21 6AH, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2010.
Part 2: Particular Welding and Joining Techniques. Chapter 14.
pp.229-252. 33 fig., 2 tab., 21 ref. ISBNs: 9781845696924,
9780857090423
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 227322]
A critical review of research and progress in the use of hybrid laser arc
welding with magnesium alloys is presented. The low-power hybrid
welding of magnesium alloys AZ31, AZ61, AZ91 and AZ91D to
themselves and to each other using a laser beam and a TIG arc is
described with regard to: the morphology of the welded seam; the
effects of welding parameters (arc power, defocusing, welding speed,
distance between laser beam and arc); and the microstructure, porosity,

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

ARC WELDING

tensile properties, fatigue strength and hardness of the hybrid welded


joints. The use of filler metal in the hybrid welding process (laser beam
and TIG arc) is examined also, addressing the arrangement of beam, arc
and filler wire feed in relation to welding direction, welding parameters
and defects, and microstructure and tensile strength of the joint. The
practical applications of laser arc hybrid welding of Mg alloy and
possible future trends are briefly discussed.
*01-249195
Activating flux tungsten inert gas welding [A-TIG welding] of
magnesium alloys.
ZHANG Z D
In Book: Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys. Ed: L.M.Liu.
Publ: Cambridge, CB21 6AH, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2010.
Part 2: Particular Welding and Joining Techniques. Chapter 15.
pp.253-273. 21 fig., 3 tab., 23 ref. ISBNs: 9781845696924,
9780857090423
[in English]
The joining of magnesium alloys by A-TIG welding is discussed. The
welding mechanisms when different activating fluxes (MgO, CaO,
TiO2, MnO2, CdCl2, AlF3 or Cr2O2) are present or absent are
described. The effects of A-TIG welding parameters (welding current
60-100 A; arc length 1-2 mm; welding speed 360-480 mm/min,
shielding gas Ar; flow rate 7-12 l/m; electrode diameter 2.4 mm; flux
thickness 1.5-4 mg/square millimetre) on the bead shape,
microstructure, tensile strength and penetration of magnesium alloy
A-TIG welds are examined also.
*01-249218
Weld faster and better - shielding gases for TIG welding - process
influence and possibilities for increasing economy (Schneller
und
besser
schweissen
Schutzgase
beim
Wolfram-Inertgasschweissen ...).
ZAHR J; HERTEL M; FUSSEL U; SCHNICK M
Praktiker, vol.62, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2011. pp.18-23. 6 fig., 10 ref. ISSN:
0554-9965
[in German]
Results are reported of attempts to improve TIG welding performance
by using different mixtures of shielding gases. The experiments
involved TIG welding of unalloyed- and high alloy steels under pure
argon, or argon with an addition of helium, hydrogen or nitrogen.
Numerical simulation and experimental welding procedures were used
to establish interaction between the gases in the mixture and the arc
itself. Diagrams and graphs are presented. Effects of the additions (Ar,
He, H2, N2) on welding speed and penetration, the welding arc and the
formation of the weld itself were investigated. The results proved that
significant lowering of costs could be achieved.
*01-249220
Special structural steels with increased wear resistance and their
behaviour in welding and cutting. Part 2: No clear differences
(Sonderbaustahle mit erhohtem Verschleisswiderstand und ihr
Verhalten beim Schweissen und Schneiden. Teil 2: Keine
deutlichen Unterschiede).
SCHUSTER J; HERMANN J
Praktiker, vol.62, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2011. pp.28-31. 7 fig., 7 tab., 5 ref.
ISSN: 0554-9965
[in German] [Part 1: Praktiker, vol.61, no.12. Dec.2010. pp.478-481;
Weldasearch 247244]
This second part of the article deals with the effect of welding and heat
treatment on the surface hardness and wear resistance of certain special
structural steels, welded to wear resisting steels or hardfaced.

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

Tabulated data show: welding parameters for making butt joints in


12-16 mm plate, parameters for non wear resistant MIG/MAG
surfacing, the same for MIG/MAG surfacing wear resistant steels,
parameters for plasma powder surfacing of non wear resistant steels,
the same for plasma powder surfacing of wear resistant steels and
experiments with MIG/MAG surfacing with wear resistant steels and
amounts of dilution when surfacing three other steels. Hardness and
wear resistance tests were done on the welded and surfaced specimens.
Results are presented in the form of graphs, histograms and tabulated
data.
*01-249226
Muscle men [powerful cranes] from Wilhelmshaven [Germany]
(Kraftprotze aus Wilhelmshaven).
SCHNEE D
Schweiss- und Pruftechnik, no.2. Feb.2011. pp.28-29. 8 fig. ISSN:
1027-3352
[in German]
New welding technology has revolutionised manufacturing at the
Wilhelmshaven factory of Manitowoc Cranes. This company is a
world leader in producing heavy mobile and telescopic cranes under the
names of Manitowoc, Grove, National Cranes and Potain. A typical
example of such a crane is shown. Some of these large cranes can lift
80-450 tonnes. Key to the new development is MAG welding by the
"forceArc" process using the inverter power source "Phoenix 521
puls". This technique is reckoned to give rise to cost savings of up to
50% of manufacturing costs. Examples are presented of welding thick
sections of fine grained structural steels and welded joints are
illustrated.
*01-249247
Calculation of parameters of mechanised gas-shielded welding of
steel.
PENTEGOV I V; PISMIENNYI A S; PETRIENKO O I
Przeglad Spawalnictwa, vol.82, no.7. 2010. pp.33-39. 3 fig., 21 ref.
ISSN: 0033-2364
[in Polish]
A new concept for an analytical solution of the heat balance equation
for electrode extension in MAG welding is presented. The temperature
variation at the filler wire outlet during the heating process,
non-linearity of thermophysical parameters and heat of phase
transition in the filler wire was taken into account. The new method is
used to calculate the main parameters of the arc welding process. This
includes: voltage drop at the electrode free outlet, the electrode start
temperature at the current end, speed of wire feed, the electrode length,
the distance to the weld pool, the average voltage drop from the
electrode end to the weld pool. The physical principles of the process
are explained and calculations shown.
*01-249252
Pulsed MIG welding of AZ31B magnesium alloy.
SONG G; WANG P
Materials Science and Technology, vol.27, no.2. Feb.2011.
pp.518-524. 13 fig., 3 tab., 16 ref. ISSN: 0267-0836
[in English]
The use of pulsed MIG welding to produce continuous butt joints of
AZ31B (Mg, 3.0976%Al, 0.9806%Zn, 0.3036%Mn) magnesium alloy
was investigated. AZ31B alloy sheets (300 x 130 x 3.5 mm) were MIG
welded (base current 50 A; pulse rework current 140-170 A; pulse
current 290-310 A; wire speed 6.5-8.0 m/min; welding speed 700-1200
mm/min; pulse frequency 65-75 Hz; shielding gas 99.99% pure argon;
gas flow 13-16 l/min) using extruded AZ31 (Mg, 2.8797%Al,

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

0.8469%Zn, 0.3294%Mn) and AZ61 (Mg, 6.9089%Al, 0.8790%Zn,


0.1627%Mn) filler wires (diameter 1.6 mm), while a high-speed camera
recorded the detachment of drops. The results of analyses of the
microstructure, tensile properties and fractography of the butt welded
joints, as well as the results of analysis of video captures of drop
detachment, are discussed with regard to the effects of parameters on
weld formation and drop transition during pulsed MIG welding.

*01-249281
Job knowledge. Part 110: Welding of titanium and its alloys. Part
2.
MATHERS G
Connect, no.170. Jan.-Feb.2011. pp.4-5. 1 fig.
[in English] [Part 109, Part 1: ibid., no.169. Nov.-Dec.2010. pp.4-5;
Weldasearch 247554]
Welding advice is provided regarding titanium and its alloys. The
topics addressed include: the problem of porosity and how to prevent
it by care of the gas supply system and cleaning of filler wires;
ductility tip cracking; selecting appropriate filler materials; welding
process selection; and preventing atmospheric contamination during
the welding process. Recommendations are presented regarding
procedures in TIG welding and MIG welding.

ARC WELDING

*01-249299
The first steps of TIG welding in the USA (Die ersten Schritte
des WIG-Schweissens in den USA).
AICHELE G
Schweissen und Schneiden, vol.63, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2011. pp.45-46,
48-49. 1 fig., 13 ref. ISSN: 0036-7184
[in German]
The development of TIG welding for wartime aircraft manufacture,
materials used, applications, further development and introduction in
the UK and Germany are described. An overview is provided of the
work of J K Northrop in developing completely welded, magnesium
fighter planes as an impetus for the development of a suitable welding
process. Contemporary technologies to weld magnesium alloys and
wartime production of magnesium in the USA are outlined. The first
1942 USA report on the welding process, praising the work of R
Meredith, the advantages and applications of the heliarc welding
process are described. A later article which described applications of
the new welding process, a cost comparison with riveting for aircraft
manufacture and the licensing process is summarised. Reports on
further developments in 1944 and 1945 and the introduction of TIG in
Great Britain and Germany are described.

*01-249292
MAG welding of crane components with the "Force-Arc" process
(Metall-Aktivgasschweissen von Krankomponenten ...).
SCHNEE D
Schweissen und Schneiden, vol.62, no.12. Dec.2010. pp.674-676. 7 fig.
ISSN: 0036-7184
[in German] [See also Weldasearch 245298]
Manitowoc Cranes, a leading manufacturer of heavy mobile and
telescopic cranes (80-450 tonnes) reports greatly improved efficiency
in its construction efforts by using "ForceArc" technology. The cranes
are fabricated in high strength fine grained steels welded by MAG- and
submerged arc methods and an inverter power source ("Phoenix 521
puls"). A specimen large weld is shown which has no large grain
(coarse grained) structure in its heat affected zone. The "ForceArc"
process has enabled the manufacturing regime to dispense with three
stages and has resulted in impressive cost savings.

*01-249303
Faster production, better ergonomics - automated welding of fork
lift accessories (Schnellere Produktion, bessere Ergonomie
Automatisiertes Schweissen ...).
GURSKY S H
Praktiker, vol.63, no.3. Mar.2011. pp.72-74. 6 fig. ISSN: 0554-9965
[in German]
The demands of a forklift attachment manufacturer for a new
automated welding machine, the equipment selected and its
performance in use are described. The reasons for the decision, the
intention to integrate TIG welding with cold wire feed, and ergonomic
aspects, are discussed. The two-station welding cell, six-axis robot, and
tandem MAG welding at up to 700 mm/min are described. Topics
discussed include: development of the welding sequence and
parameters with the robotics provider; robot control and operator
input; monitoring of the equipment by sensors in the robot and online
monitoring at the central computer; features of the software such as
virtual representation of the welding cell and simulation of the welding
process; the change from MAG to TIG welding; and the ergonomic
improvements achieved by the use of a hydraulic ejector cylinder.

*01-249297
Determination of efficiency levels in gas shielded welding
processes
(Bestimmung
von
Wirkungsgraden
an
Schutzgasschweissverfahren).
KUSCH M; HALSIG A; THURNER S
Schweissen und Schneiden, vol.63, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2011. pp.30-33. 2
fig., 7 tab., 5 ref. ISSN: 0036-7184
[in German]
Investigations to provide a more exact determination of workpiece
heating needed for processing thermal conduction sensitive materials
and simulation modelling are described. The calorimetric test setup for
the comparative investigations had water media and an inclined test
piece with water rising synchronously as the weld is made. The
testpiece was of length 1000 mm and thickness 1-15 mm. A
water-cooled manual TIG torch was tested with welding currents of
50-300 A, torch to testpiece distance of 2-8 mm and different shielding
gases. For plasma welding a water cooled torch was used. The results
are compared with the TIG results. For MIG/MAG, controlled dip
transfer and spray transfer were tested using a water cooled manual
welding gun. MIG/MAG high power and reduced energy processes
were investigated. Tables of the results are provided.

*01-249312
Application of grey-based Taguchi method for optimising gas
metal arc welding of stainless steels.
SARKAR A; DAS S
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.1. Jan.2011. pp.37-48. 6 fig., 17
tab., 11 ref. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English]
Process parameters in MAG welding of stainless steel were optimised
using the Taguchi method in combination with Grey relational analysis.
Stainless steel (0.0607%C, 8.74%Mn, 13.219%Cr, 1.128%Ni,
0.1492%Mo, 0.0614%V, 0.3561%Cu) plates (100 x 50 x 6 mm)
underwent MAG welding (current 130-160 A; voltage 22.5-30 V;
welding speed 327-723 mm/min; gap between fraying surfaces 1.3 mm;
welding position flat; torch angle 75 degrees; shielding gas CO2; gas
flow rate 15 l/min) with a stainless steel (0.03%C, 1.34%Mn,
18.09%Cr, 8.34%Ni, 0.20%Mo) electrode (diameter 1.2 mm) to
fabricate square butt joints. Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array design was
used to create the experimental design, and the objective functions to
be optimised were derived using signal-to-noise ratio. The experimental

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

ARC WELDING

samples were evaluated visually and via hardness testing, bend testing
and geometry of the weld bead. The multi-response optimisation
problem was solved by means of Grey relational analysis. The results
are discussed with regard to the welding parameters required to
produce the optimum MAG weld.
*01-249320
Arc stability of pulse current gas metal arc welding of low alloy
steel under different pulse parameters and shielding gas
compositions.
GHOSH P K; DEVAKUMARAN K; PIYUSH M
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.2. Apr.2011. pp.29-34, 37-42. 18
fig., 1 tab., 24 ref. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English]
An experimental investigation was performed to study the effect of
pulse parameters with varying content of CO2 in argon during MAG
welding. Bead on plate weld metal deposition was performed using a
1.2 mm diameter mild steel filler wire under Ar-2%CO2 and
Ar-18%CO2 gas shielding at a flow rate of 18 litres per minute. The
pulse performance was also studied as a function of mean weld current
and arc voltage for each gas composition. Behaviour was studied at 200
millisecond intervals at between 9 and 15 locations, Results are
discussed with the objective of forming a basis for improvement in
automation of this welding process.
*01-249323
Stainless Q & A [questions and answers: covered electrodes for
welding 310 stainless steel].
KOTECKI D J
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.2. Apr.2011. AWS Section. p.64. 2
ref. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English] [Similar paper: Welding Journal, vol.90, no.1. Jan.2011.
p.58; Weldasearch 246258]
Centreline cracking on complete joint penetration fillet welds in 310
stainless steel plates (thickness 0.5 in, 12.7 mm) is discussed with
focus on MMA welding consumables' diameter and covering
composition. The ways to avoid cracking of the austenite 310 weld
metal during solidification are considered, including: partial joint
penetration rather than complete; using small diameter electrodes;
E310-15 electrode; electrodes with the lowest possible sulphur and
phosphorus content; and electrodes with a 0.08- 0.15%C range.
*01-249327
A guide to making GTAW [TIG welding] repairs on stainless
steel.
FISHER D
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.2. Apr.2011. AWS Section.
pp.72-76. 11 fig., 1 tab. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English] [Similar paper: Welding Journal, vol.90, no.2. Feb.2011.
pp.50-54; Weldasearch 246331]
Following a summary of the five main types of stainless steel, with
their weldability and typical applications, and a review of the
advantages of the TIG welding process, best practice in TIG welding
for repair of stainless steel in the field is described. Features of the TIG
welding process described include control over heat input and the weld
bead, portability of welding inverters, suitability for out of position
welding, availability of torches that allow access in constricted spaces
and awkward positions, and the use of a gas lens and large cup to
ensure good shielding. Some characteristics of stainless steels which
affect weldability are mentioned, including: relatively low thermal
conductivity; use of colour to indicate suitable heat input; formation of
chromium carbide if heat input is excessive, which results in loss of the

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

protective chromium oxide on the surface, so encourages corrosion;


warping and means of overcoming it using tack welds and high speed
pulsed current welding. A table of compositions is presented for AISI
grades: austenitic SS (minimum 16%Cr and 6%Ni) 304, 304L, 308,
316, 316L and 347; ferritic SS (10.5%-18%Cr); duplex SS 2205;
martensitic SS 416, 440C; and precipitation-hardening martensitic SS
630 or 17-4 PH (17%Cr-4%Ni).

01-249342
Development of a MIAB [magnetically impelled arc butt] welding
module and experimental analysis of rotational behaviour of
arc-simulation of electromagnetic force distribution during
MIAB welding of steel pipes using finite element analysis.
ARUNGALAI VENDAN S; MANOHARAN S;
BUVANASHEKARAN G; NAGAMANI C
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.43,
no.11. 2009. pp.1144-1156. 24 fig., 2 tab., 15 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768,
1433-3015
[in English]
The development of a laboratory module for magnetically impelled arc
butt (MIAB) welding and of a finite element method (FEM)-based
three dimensional model for determining the key parameters of
magnetic flux density and electromagnetic force distribution is
described. The proposed FEM model is verified by means of
experimental data. The topics addressed include the theory underlying
the MIAB welding process; the stages involved in the MIAB welding
process; the chemical composition of T11 grade tubes (0.05-0.15%C,
0.3-0.6%Mn, 1-1.5%Cr, 0.44-0.65%Mo) used in experimental trials;
the parameters used in the MIAB welding experimental trials; and the
FE analysis used to numerically model the MIAB welding system. The
experimental results and the results obtained from the simulation
studies are discussed and compared with regard to magnetic flux
density distribution and electromagnetic force distribution during the
MIAB welding process.

01-249344
Numerical analysis for effect of process parameters of
low-current micro-PAW [micro-plasma arc welding] on
constricted arc.
XU P Q; YAO S; HE J P; MA C W; REN J W
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.44,
no.3. 2009. pp.255-264. 9 fig., 1 tab., 13 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768,
1433-3015
[in English]
The influence of process parameters on the arc plasma during
low-current microplasma arc welding (micro-PAW) was investigated
experimentally and by means of a numerical analysis model.
Micro-PAW of a thin stainless steel (0.08%C, 2.00%Mn,
18.0-20.0%Cr, 8.0-10.5%Ni) foil was carried out using the following
parameters: arc length 3-7 mm; nozzle neck-in 0.5-2.5 mm; welding
current 0.8-15 A; welding voltage 15-30 V; plasma gas flow 0.5-1
l/min; shielding gas flow 3-7 l/min. The appearance of the constricted
microplasma arc was characterised using image sampling. A
mathematical model that simulated the electromagnetic phenomena and
fluid field in the plasma arc was developed. The experimental and
numerical results are discussed with regard to current density
distribution, electromagnetic force distribution, flow velocity
distribution and plasma arc appearance.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

01-249352
Optimisation of quality characteristics parameters in a pulsed
metal inert gas welding process using grey-based Taguchi
method.
PAL S; MALVIYA S K; PAL S K; SAMANTARAY A K
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.44,
no.11. 2009. pp.1250-1260. 8 fig., 9 tab., 21 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768,
1433-3015
[in English]
The process parameters influencing quality characteristics of pulsed
MIG welding (PMIGW) were optimised by means of Taguchi's
orthogonal array (OA) with grey relational analysis. The process
parameters used in the grey-based Taguchi OA were background
voltage (12-20 V), pulse voltage (27-39 V), pulse frequency (101-171
Hz), pulse duty factor (0.35-0.75), wire feed rate (7-11 m/min) and
table feed rate (3.098-6.363 mm/s). Data were obtained from an
experiment in which two steel (0.139%C, 0.499%Mn, 0.019%Cr,
0.024%Ni, 0.056%Cu) plates (125 x 100 x 8 mm) with a V-shaped
joint preparation (groove angle 30 degrees; root face 2 mm; root gap 2
mm) and a constant gap of 2 mm underwent PMIGW to produce a
single side butt joint. The welded sample was examined for tensile
strength, bead geometry, transverse shrinkage, angular distortion and
deposition efficiency, and the impact of individual process parameters
on these welding quality parameters was determined by means of
analysis of variance (ANOVA).
01-249353
Application of PCA [principal component analysis]-based hybrid
Taguchi method for correlated multicriteria optimisation of
submerged arc weld: a case study.
DATTA S; NANDI G; BANDYOPADHYAY A; KUMAR PAL P
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.45,
no.3. 2009. pp.276-286. 3 fig., 13 tab., 23 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768,
1433-3015
[in English]
The application of a principal component analysis (PCA)-based
hybrid Taguchi method to solve the problem of optimising correlated
multiple criteria for the submerged arc welding (SAW) process is
described. Depth of penetration, reinforcement, bead width and
percentage dilution were selected as correlated features of bead
geometry, whereas voltage (25-31 V), wire feed rate (340-1600
cm/min), traverse speed (46-150 cm/min) and electrode stick-out
(25-33 mm) were the variables assumed to make up the process
environment. Experimental bead-on-plate SAW of mild steel plates
(thickness 10 mm) was conducted using copper-coated AWS
A/S5.17:EH14 electrode wire (diameter 3.16 mm) and AWS
A5.17/SFA5.17 flux (grain size 0.2-1.6; basicity index 1.6). The
correlated features of bead geometry were examined, and the resulting
data were used in optimisation processes using the PCA-based hybrid
Taguchi method and using a grey-based Taguchi technique. The results
of the PCA-based hybrid Taguchi approach and the grey-based
Taguchi approach for solving multicriteria optimisation problems are
discussed and compared.
01-249371
Phase formation in 6060/4043 aluminium weld solidification.
CONIGLIO N; CROSS C E; DORFEL I; OSTERLE W
Materials Science and Engineering A, vol.A517, no.1-2. 20 Aug.2009.
pp.321-327. 10 fig., 4 tab., 25 ref. ISSN: 0921-5093
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 226255]
The effects of silicon content (0.42-5.30%) and cooling rate on the
solidification and microstructure of 6060 AlMgSi alloy (Al, 0.42%Si,

ARC WELDING

0.59%Mg, 0.19%Fe, 4 mm thickness) were investigated. Welded joints


were made using the TIG process and alloy 4043 filler metal wire (Al,
5.3%Si, 0.22%Fe, 0.8 mm diameter). A thermal analysis was carried
out on both welds and alloy castings. The significant changes in cast
microstructure at cooling rates higher than 27 deg.C/second and the
low-temperature solidification reactions obtained with rapid cooling are
discussed. The limited effects of increasing the weld metal silicon
content on weld solidification range and microstructure are considered
in relation to weldability and weld quality.
*01-249382
New welding automation concept for shipyards.
WELDING AND CUTTING
Welding and Cutting, vol.10, no.4. 2011. pp.208-209. 3 fig. ISSN:
1612-3433
[in English]
A welding automation system that allows the use of robotic welding in
a confined environment, typical of later stages of ship block
manufacture, is described. The "Mobile Automatic Arc" system was
developed jointly by the Finnish company Kempii Oy and the Danish
supplier of automation solutions Inrotech. The opportunities and
benefits offered by the system in shipyard applications are highlighted.
KEMPPI OY
*01-249383
A stairway to quality.
SCHNEE D
Welding and Cutting, vol.10, no.4. 2011. pp.209-211. 9 fig. ISSN:
1612-3433
[in English]
The application of "Force Arc", a MIG/MAG welding process for
joining structural steels (such as S235 and S355) is described. An
example application involving the manufacture of a steel stairway is
presented and the advantages of the system in terms of improved weld
quality, reduced welding time, and the ability to bridge large gaps
during pre-assembly of complex staircases, are described.
*01-249388
Development of a cost-effective seam tracking system for the
automated GMA [MIG/MAG] welding of aluminium alloys.
REISGEN U; STEIN L; GEFFERS C; DILGER K;
NITSCHKE-PAGEL T; BABORY H
Welding and Cutting, vol.10, no.4. 2011. pp.240-245. 6 fig., 11 ref.
ISSN: 1612-3433
[in English]
A seam tracking system was developed, using the heat flow transferred
to the welding torch by the welding process to guide the weld during
the automated MIG welding of aluminium alloys. The system,
consisting of a stand-alone control box and a detection unit, is
described, covering the variants for single wire welding and twin wire
welding. The underlying functional principle, the control box, the
sensor element and detection unit are introduced. Aspects of height and
lateral control, are then described. The fields of application, as well as
the limitations and peculiarities of the welding head guiding system are
discussed also.
*01-249393
Pulsed Laser-TIG hybrid welding of coated unalloyed steel thin
sheets.
BIRDEANU V; CIUCA C; IACOB M
Buletinul Institutului National de Cercetare-Dezvoltare in Sudura si

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

ARC WELDING

Incercari de Materiale-ISIM Timisoara, vol.20, no.2. 2011. pp.31-34.


16 fig., 8 ref. ISSN: 1453-0392
[in English] [Journal also known as: Sudarea si Incercarea
Materialelor - Welding & Material Testing]
[http://www.bid-isim.ro/bid_arhiva/bid2011/birdeanu-2_2011.pdf]
The application of a pulsed laser-TIG welding hybrid welding process,
combining a pulsed Nd:YAG laser source and a pulsed TIG arc, to join
coated unalloyed steel sheet, is described. Butt welded joints were
produced with no joint preparation in sheets of 1.5 mm thickness,
using TIG as the leading process. Welds were made with coated test
pieces and with others where the coating had been removed in the
region of the joint. Test samples incorporating the weld were extracted
for detailed studies including macroscopic examination of the weld
surface to locate craters, cracks and inclusions, microstructural
characterisation, hardness measurements (HV5), and static tensile and
bend testing (fracture location, maximum deformability angle without
cracking). The results can be used to establish the proper process
parameters for butt welding using the proposed hybrid technique.
*01-249400
Quality evaluation of tube welding of pressure equipment from
CrNi austenitic steels.
COMAJ M
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.3. Mar.2009. pp.68-71. 6 fig., 3 tab., 11
ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
Factors affecting the quality, particularly the delta ferrite (DF) content,
of tube and tube-to-plate welds in austenitic stainless steels were
investigated. After a discussion of the metallurgy of CrNi stainless
steels at welding temperatures and at cryogenic (-196 deg.C)
temperatures, two series of tests are reported, using X5CrNi18-10 (EN
10028-7) steels (0.036%C, 0.92%Mn, 17.19%Cr, 9.13%Ni).
Tube-to-tube TIG welding on 2 mm or 2.6 mm thickness tube was
performed at two heat inputs, with and without EN12072 filler, and
using orbital welding; tube-to-jacket TIG and MAG welds were made
with filler (MAG with flux-cored EN12073). DF content was
measured for each test weld. The need for DF measurements in
addition to mechanical tests in evaluating quality for cryogenic
applications is highlighted.
*01-249401
Submerged arc welding in manufacture of evaporator membrane
walls.
PECHA J; AKOSSY A; STANO D; MRAZ M
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.4. Apr.2009. pp.95-99. 9 fig., 3 tab., 10
ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
The use of submerged arc welding (SAW) with solid or flux-cored wire
in the fabrication of membrane walls for evaporators was assessed.
Fillet welding requirements between tube, typically 4.5 mm wall
thickness of 16Mo3 steel and spacer, typically 6 mm thickness
13CrMo4-5 steel are set out. Welding tests were made using solid wire
(EN 756:52Mo) and flux (EN 760; SAAR178ACH5) and flux-cored
wire (T2Mo + SAAR177ACH5). Detail of performance achieved and
practical experiences are reported. Future trends towards the use of
one-sided MIG welding or hybrid laser-arc welding are discussed.
*01-249402
Effect of active fluxes on bead geometry in remelting of steel
galvanised plates by plasma arc.
SEJC P
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.4. Apr.2009. pp.100-105. 13 fig., 6

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

tab., 11 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525


[in Slovak]
The effect of using activated flux on the bead shape in remelting of
galvanised steel sheet was investigated. Sheet of 2.5 mm thickness
DP600 (0.113%C, 1.44%Mn, 1.25%Al) with 16.7 micrometre
thickness zinc coating was used for bead-on-plate remelting
experiments with a plasma arc. Experimental variables included use of
PATIG SA activated flux, 70 or 100 A current, with a range of
remelting speeds and energy inputs, and tungsten electrode in the plane
of the plasma nozzle or set back 2 mm. Weld pool width, profile and
through-thickness penetration were evaluated.
*01-249417
Preheat temperature of welding boiler membrane walls with
supercritical parameters from T24 steel.
PECHA J; KRAJCI D
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.11-12. Nov.-Dec.2009. pp.287-292.
14fig., 4 tab., 13 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
The use of preheat to improve welded joint properties of membrane
walls in boilers operating in the supercritical zone (to give reduced
emissions) was investigated. Current boiler design trends are reviewed,
including the use of Cr-Mo modified T24 steel (0.05-0.1%C,
0.3-0.7%Mn, 2.2-2.6%Cr, 0.9-1.1%Mo, 0.2-0.3%V). Tests were
conducted on a pair of pipes 38 mm diameter, 6.3 mm wall thickness
of T24 steel (0.02%C, 0.52%Mn, 2.32%Cr, 0.96%Mo), automatically
submerged arc welded with intermediate spacer plate using matching
filler (0.11%C, 0.57%Mn, 2.53%Cr, 0.95%Mo). Torch preheating in
the range 100-200 deg.C was correlated with post-welding hardness of
weld metal and HAZ, and a recommended heat cycle was derived.

*01-249418
Improving wear properties of surface layer castings of AlSi7Mg
alloy by GTAW [TIG welding] remelting process.
ORLOWICZ A W; TUPAJ M
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.11-12. Nov.-Dec.2009. pp.293-297. 6
fig., 2 tab., 15 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
Experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of TIG surface
remelting on the surface hardness and frictional wear characteristics of
cast AlSi7 alloy (Al, 7.4%Si, 0.3%Mn, 0.25%Mg). Single scan line
remelting was performed for a range of currents, scan speeds and
energy inputs. Cross-sectional profiles of the affected zone were
measured, and hardness and frictional wear characteristics were
determined. Regression analysis was used to establish the effect of
each variable and was correlated with microstructural changes
observed.
*01-249430
Determination of optimum welding parameters for 1534 steel
grade applying mathematical modelling (Odredivanje optimalnih
parametera ...).
CORIC A
Zavarivanje, vol.53, no.1-2. Jan.-Apr.2010. pp.5-13. 6 fig., 12 tab., 11
ref. ISSN: 0044-1902
[in Croatian]
MAG welding conditions for case hardening steel grade 1534 VP
(0.47%C, 0.88%Mn, 0.09%Cr, 0.027%Cu) were investigated by
numerical modelling and experiment. Welds were made with different
levels of preheat temperature (150, 300, 450 deg.C) and energy input
(15 or 22 kJ/cm). The filler used was Kb52-FD (0.07%C, 1.2%Mn,

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

0.8%Ni) and shielding gas was Ar-18%CO2. Heat affected zone


hardness and toughness were determined. This data was analysed to
establish optimum levels for the two variables.

*01-249434
Automated MAG [MIG/MAG] welding of the girder structure for
the railway wagon dedicated for container transportation
(Automatsko MAG zavarivanje ...).
SAMARDZIC I; SIGURNJAK M; NOVAK D
Zavarivanje, vol.53, no.3-4. May-Aug.2010. pp.83-91. 23 fig., 3 tab., 4
ref. ISSN: 0044-1902
[in Croatian]
MAG welding of the load carrying structure for a railway wagon
designed to transport containers is described. The main components,
two longitudinal beams, are assembled with welded butt and T joints
from steel grades S355J2G3 and S355J2G3C by automatic MAG
welding. The welding equipment used is described in detail. Joint
preparations, and welding parameters are presented. Microstructure of
two example fillet welds was analysed and hardness distribution across
the same joint was determined.

*01-249445
MAG welding of joints in pressure vessels from ferritic and
austenitic steels with flux-cored wires in active gas shielding.
KOZMOVA R; COMAJ M
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.59, no.7-8. July-Aug.2010. pp.165-167. 6 fig.,
4 tab., 3 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
A process of MAG welding of cryogenic pressure vessels made from
fine grained ferritic steel and austenitic stainless steel is discussed. A T
joint was made between parent metals P355 NL1 (0.16%C, 1.48%Mn)
and X5CrNi1810 (0.04%C, 1.19%Mn, 19.0%Cr, 9.01%Ni of 11.4 mm
thickness. Flux cored filler wire Tetra S 309L (0.037%C, 1.6%Mn,
25.53%Cr, 13.06%Ni, 0.13%Mo) of 1.2 mm diameter was applied in 3
passes under Ferromix C8 (Ar, 8%CO2) shielding gas. The process is
described in comparison with joints made using filler wire containing
18%Cr, 8%Ni, 6%Mn and shielding gas M21. Weld metal content of
delta ferrite, hardness distribution across the welds, yield strength,
tensile strength and V notch toughness at -60 deg.C were determined.

*01-249448
Quality prediction of fillet welds fabricated by method 135 based
on welding process monitoring.
HRSTKA D; NEUMANN H
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.59, no.9-10. Sept.-Oct.2010. pp.206-212. 15
fig., 7 tab., 5 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Czech]
Some variations of the welding process settings when making MAG
welded fillet welds were evaluated and monitoring process and
recording of parameters are discussed. Different monitoring systems
are reported. Structural steel parent metal S235 JR of 8 mm thickness
was MAG welded using ESAB OK Aristorod wire of 1.2 mm diameter
with shielding gas Ferromaxx Plus (Ar, 12%CO2, 20%He). The
WeldMonitor 3.5 system was used to monitor the welding process
parameters and a Shewhart regulation diagram was used to aid the
identification of weld defects. Welding voltage and contact tip welding
distance were determined. Software NIS Elements 4.12 was used to
examine the welds. Welding speed and wire feed speed were analysed
to determine the instability of the welding process.

ARC WELDING

*01-249452
Effect of welding parameters on weld pool geometry in MAG
welding method.
MORAVEC J; NEUMANN H
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.59, no.11-12. Nov.-Dec.2010. pp.250-255. 7
fig., 2 tab., 3 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Czech]
The effects of welding travel speed (0.195-0.892 m/minute), wire feed
speed (2.517-9.511 m/minute), voltage (17.4-26.8 V) and current
(131-341 A) on the shape and dimensions of a fillet weld molten pool
were investigated. The double ellipsoid model was used for heat source
calculations. The equations used are described. To validate the
calculations, butt test welds were made of S255J2G3 steel sheets of 5
mm in thickness using MAG welding under Euromix M21 (Ar,
12%CO2) shielding gas. Filler metal OK Autrod 12.51 of 1.2 mm
thickness was used with 0 mm joint gap. The welding power source
BDH 550 Puls Syn was used for welding with WeldMonitor 3.5
program for monitoring and registering the process parameters. Weld
microstructure was analysed and geometry of the weld pool was
examined using NIS Elements AR2.30 program.
*01-249456
Effect of various factors on toughness in P92 SAW [submerged
arc welding] weld metal.
CHOVET C; GALAND E; LEDUEY B
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.60, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2011. pp.16-21. 11 fig., 4
tab., 9 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak] [Similar paper: Competence, no.4. May 2009. pp.5-12;
Weldasearch 241790][See also Weldasearch 234890 and 236254]
Submerged arc welding experiments were carried out in order to
optimise the composition of P92 steels to achieve greater toughness of
the welded joints. This work is within the scope of a general attempt
to improve the efficiency of thermal power plants fabricated in the
new 9%Cr steels. The influence of the following elements was studied:
0.07-0.12%C,
1.2-1.35%Mn,
0.13-0.34%Si,
8-9.6%Cr,
0.41-0.68%Mo, 0.93-1.12%Co, 0.18-0.24%V, 0.031-0.063%Nb,
1.28-1.74%W, 0.02-0.04%Ni, 10-25 ppm B, 400-480 ppm N. Weld
metals were deposited using a basic flux and flux cored wires to obtain
the required alloying elements. Effects on toughness of boron, nitrogen,
tungsten, titanium, carbon and chromium were examined in detail. The
microstructure of weld metal as solidified and after reheating was
examined. This exercise led to the formulation of an optimised steel
composition and a seamless flux cored wire that had a promising
toughness/creep compromise.
*01-249461
Through steel and glass, artist seems to defy gravity.
SWARTZ J
Welding Journal, vol.90, no.10. Oct.2011. pp.36-40. 7 fig. ISSN:
0043-2296
[in English]
The combination of artist, fabricator and businessman is explored
through the work of a glass and steel welding sculptor. Using
MIG/MAG and TIG welding techniques, Jeff Rumaner is helped with
Miller Diversion 180 (thin materials and alloy TIG welding);
Millermatic 211 (thick steel MIG/MAG welding) and Miller Spectrum
375 X-Treme (plasma cutting) machines.
*01-249463
Ceramic backing enhances one-sided welding.
SONG T Z; DENG H; XU Z M; NIU X L; YAO J C
Welding Journal, vol.90, no.10. Oct.2011. pp.48-51. 7 fig., 6 tab., 4 ref.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

ARC WELDING

ISSN: 0043-2296
[in English] (Article preprinted with permission from Modern Welding,
published by Chengdu ONLY Welding Industry Development Co., Ltd.,
Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China)
The fabrication of a bridge using low alloy steel Q345D plate in box
girders with one-sided FCA welding with CO2 shielding gas and
ceramic backing is presented. Steel Q345D plate (0.18%C, 0.31%Si,
1.34%Mn, 0.003%Ni, 0.01%P, 0.001%S, 0.005%V, 0.004%Ti,
0.003%Al) and ceramic pads (27-37%Al2O3, 40-45% SiO2,
4-10%MgO, 2-4%FeO, 3-6% other) are used. Butt joint welding
parameters are: 20-24 l/min gas flow; 1.2 mm wire diameter; 220-260 A
current; 22-28 V voltage; 24-32 cm/min speed; and DC: reverse
connection polarity. The weld composition (0.036%C, 0.52%Si,
1.40%Mn, 0.013%P, 0.011%S), tensile properties and toughness were
determined. Quality control measures are described.
*01-249464
Double groove welds [butt welds] (Welding workbook datasheet
327).
WELDING JOURNAL
Welding Journal, vol.90, no.10. Oct.2011. p.142. 1 fig. ISSN:
0043-2296
[in English] (Excerpted from the Welding Handbook, Vol.1, ninth
edition, and AWS A3.0M/A3.0:2010, Standard Welding Terms and
Definitions)
A range of two-sided butt joint types are illustrated: double square
butt, double bevel butt, double V butt, double J butt, double U butt,
double flare bevel (tube flat on plate), and double flare V butt (tubes
side by side).
*01-249465
Laser enhanced metal transfer. Part 1: System and observations.
HUANG Y; ZHANG Y M
Welding Journal, vol.90, no.10. Oct.2011. Supplement: Welding
Research. pp.183s-190s. 17 fig., 23 ref. ISSN: 0043-2296
[in English]
The effect of using a laser beam with a MAG welding gun to influence
the metal transfer mode and weld metal droplet size and to control
where the droplet landed in the weld pool was investigated. An
experiment is described in which a modified MIG/MAG welding
process worked with a low power laser to control drop globular
direction and improve weld formation. An analysis of the metal
transfer mode was made by use of a series of high speed images. Bead
on plate welds were deposited onto mild steel using ER70S-6 0.8 mm
diameter wire, a CV continuous waveform power supply, 12 l/min Ar
shielding gas flow, 6.6 mm/s travel speed; 26, 28, 30, 32 V; 106, 127,
148, 169 mm/s wire feed speeds; 135 A max; and 0, 46, 54, 62 W/sq
mm laser intensities. Sequential photographs of the metal transfer
mode using different wire feed speeds, compared with and without the
laser, are presented.
*01-249469
Effect of arc ultrasonic vibration on microstructure of joint of
plasma arc "in situ" welding of SiCp/6061Al.
LEI Y C; XUE H L; HU W X; LIU Z Z; YAN J C
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol.16, no.7.
Oct.2011. pp.575-580. 10 fig., 3 tab., 17 ref. ISSNs: 1362-1718,
1743-2936
[in English]
[http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/stwj]
An experimental plasma welding process incorporating an ultrasonic
excitation source was set up in order to study the effects of ultrasonic

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

vibration of the arc during welding on the microstructure of particle


reinforced aluminium metal matrix composite SiCp/6061 sheets. The
arc vibration equipment system is described. Sheets of 3 mm thickness
were prepared by in-situ weld alloying/plasma arc welding. The
chemical composition of the aluminium alloy 6061 was Al, 0.35%Cu,
0.76%Mg, less than 0.05%Ni, 1.25%Si, less than 0.05%Ti. Prior to
welding, the material was T6 treated and the microstructure examined.
A flux-cored wire filler (Al, 15%Ti, 3%Si) was used during welding.
The frequency of the ultrasonic excitation current was varied from 20
to 70 kHz during the welding process. Microstructure of the weld zone
was examined after welding using SEM. X-ray energy dispersive
spectroscopy was used for phase composition analysis. Weld
microstructures made with and without arc ultrasonic excitation were
compared.
*01-249471
Metal transfer characteristics of GMAW [MIG/MAG welding]
with strip electrode.
ZHENG S M; GAO H M; LIU X
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol.16, no.7.
Oct.2011. pp.586-591. 12 fig., 2 tab., 13 ref. ISSNs: 1362-1718,
1743-2936
[in English]
[http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/stwj]
An experimental investigation was carried out to study the
characteristics of metal transfer and welding arc behaviour in MAG
welding with strip electrode using a high speed digital camera system.
Emphasis was placed on examination of the droplet motion of the
metal during its detachments. During welding a 0.2 mm thickness filler
metal of SUS 304 stainless steel strip (0.8%C, 0.03%Si, 1%Si, 2%Mn,
0.04%P, 18-20%Cr, 8-10.5%Ni), with a flat contact tip, was used and
the shielding gas was Ar, 5%CO2. The parent metal was a Q235 low
carbon steel (0.156%C, 0.052%S, 0.192%Si, 0.393%Mn, 0.032%P,
0.032%Cr, 0.029%Ni) of 6 mm thickness. During welding, the strip
electrode feed rate was varied from 6 to 9 m per minute, the arc voltage
from 26 to 29 V and the average welding current from 242 to 340 A.
Bead on plate welded were made in the flat position. The metal
transfer process with strip was analysed for the different weld
parameters and compared with the situation when welding with a filler
wire. The mechanism of droplet movement along the strip electrode
end is discussed in detail with reference to the influence of welding
parameters and the behaviour of the arc.
*01-249476
Hydrocarbon-metal reactions during metal arc welding under oil
(MAW-UO).
ALMOSTANEER H; CADIGAN C; LIU S; OLSON D L;
RICHARDS R; LIANG H J
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol.16, no.7.
Oct.2011. pp.619-629. 8 fig., 8 tab., 37 ref. ISSNs: 1362-1718,
1743-2936
[in English]
[http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/stwj]
Aspects of an automated arc welding process (MAW-UO), carried out
under oil for in service repair of pipelines and storage tanks, were
investigated. Details of dissociation and ionisation that occur during the
welding process are described, taking the arc plasma and oil vapour
bubble zones in turn, followed by a description of the chemical
reactions that occur as the organic compounds break down and carbon
monoxide forms, using paraffins as a representative hydrocarbon group
(C5-C11). Welds were made on ASTM A36 (0.14%C, 0.786%Mn)
low carbon steel plates in oil using ER70S-6 filler wire (0.06%C,

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

1.46%Mn). Three oil samples were analysed: a bulk oil sample never
exposed to MAW-UO; a post-weld sample taken from an oil tank after
1 minute of MAW-UO; and one taken after 7 minutes exposure to
MAW-UO. Oil samples were distilled to remove high boiling residues
before identification of composition by gas chromatography-mass
spectrometry (GC-MS) to validate the arc behaviour mechanistic
model. Weld metal compositions and microstructures were determined;
the quantity of carbon derived from hydrocarbon decomposition was
calculated, and the roles of carbon and quenching on the distribution of
plate and lath martensite were analysed.

*01-249489
Chromium-molybdenum steels (Welding workbook datasheet
324).
INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.3. July 2011. AWS Section. p.103.
2 tab. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English] (Excerpted from the Welding Handbook, Vol.4. ninth
edition)[Similar paper: Welding Journal, vol.90, no.6. June 2011. p.94;
Weldasearch 247884]
A datasheet on welding chromium molybdenum (Cr-Mo) steels
(0.5-9%Cr,
0.5-1%Mo).
Recommended
minimum
preheat
temperatures for welding Cr-Mo steels with a range of compositions
using covered low hydrogen electrodes for various thicknesses (up to
13 mm, 13-25 mm and over 25 mm) are tabulated. Suggested welding
consumables for the range of Cr-Mo steels for MMA, TIG, GMA,
FCA and submerged arc welding are also provided.

02 RESISTANCE WELDING
See also abstracts: 20-249334, 43-249278, 44-249398, 47-249311,
48-249295

*02-249198
Resistance spot welding of magnesium alloys.
LIU L M; FENG J; ZHOU Y
In Book: Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys. Ed: L.M.Liu.
Publ: Cambridge, CB21 6AH, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2010.
Part 2: Particular Welding and Joining Techniques. Chapter 18.
pp.351-366. 7 fig., 20 ref. ISBNs: 9781845696924, 9780857090423
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 238235, 224922, 247567 and
247566]
The application of resistance spot welding (RSW) to magnesium alloys
is reviewed. The fundamentals of RSW, including general principles,
dynamic resistance and weld nugget microstructure, are described, and
the importance of surface condition in RSW of Mg alloys is
highlighted, as is the importance of welding current, weld time and
electrode force among welding parameters. Nugget growth and
microstructure in Mg alloys are compared with those of steel and
aluminium alloys. RSW of Mg alloys to other alloys (particularly Al
alloys) and to steel is discussed, and the equipment used in the RSW
process is outlined. Possible future trends in the field of RSW of Mg
alloys are briefly examined.

RESISTANCE WELDING

*02-249221
Avoidable trouble. Defects and their prevention in resistance
welding; electrical domain. Part 1: Choice and basic adjustment
of the welding machine (Vermeidbarer Arger - Fehler und deren
Vermeidung beim Widerstandsschweissen; elektrischer Bereich Teil 1 ...).
POLROLNICZAK H; ARETZ W
Praktiker, vol.62, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2011. pp.32-36. 4 fig., 4 tab., 1 ref.
ISSN: 0554-9965
[in German] [See also Weldasearch 227718, 231779, 233061]
Hints are made to assist small and medium enterprises make the most
of their resistance welding equipment and avoid defects, as they may
not have the necessary expert knowledge in electronics, engineering and
materials technology. Tabulated data outline welding tasks, the
necessary parameters as well as technical data on a pneumatic powered
spot welding installation with AC (400 V, 50 Hz). Aspects of welding
current and its application are discussed. Pre-welding trials are
recommended and basic differences between trial welding and
production are explained.
*02-249282
HAZ [heat affected zone] microstructures and local mechanical
properties of high strength steels resistance spot welds.
DANCETTE S; MASSARDIER-JOURDAN V; FABREGUE D;
MERLIN J; DUPUY T; BOUZEKRI M
ISIJ International, vol.51, no.1. Jan.2011. pp.99-107. 14 fig., 4 tab., 31
ref. ISSN: 0915-1559
[in English]
The microstructures and local mechanical properties in the HAZs of
high strength steels subjected to resistance spot welding (RSW) were
investigated numerically and experimentally. Finite element analysis
was used to develop a model (1200 elements) of RSW (electrode
diameter 6-8 mm; welding force 350-650 daN; welding time 4(7+2)-11
50 Hz welding current periods; holding time 11-25 50 Hz welding
current periods; experimental welding current 5.9-11.1 kA; simulation
welding current 7.2-13.5 kA; water cooled, 6 l/min) of DP590 steel
(0.075%C, 1.440%Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu) sheets (thickness 1.0-3.0 mm), and
the thermal cycles experienced in the spot weld were estimated from
numerical simulations of the RSW process. Experimental simulations
of spot welding thermal cycles were carried out using Gleeble
apparatus to simulate the RSW (temperature 700-1200 deg.C) of
DP450 steel (0.055%C, 1.235%Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu) and DP980
(0.135%C, 1.905%Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu) steel sheets (100 x 12 x 0.7 mm).
The heat-treated specimens were subjected to microstructural analysis
and microhardness and tensile testing. The results are discussed with
regard to the effects of the thermal cycles on microstructures and
constitutive behaviours in the HAZ.
*02-249305
Observing limits - defects and their avoidance in resistance
welding: in the field of electricity. Part 2: Required cable
cross-section in connection of the welding machine and
permissible welds per minute (Grenzen beachten - Fehler und
deren Vermeidung beim Widerstandsschweissen; ...).
POLROLNICZAK H; ARETZ W
Praktiker, vol.63, no.3. Mar.2011. pp.81-85. 4 tab., 5 ref. ISSN:
0554-9965
[in German] [Part 1: ibid., vol.63, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2011. pp.32-36;
Weldasearch 249221]
Calculations of required technical data for the connecting cable are
described and equations worked through. Determining the conductor
cross section according to permitted continuous current and highest

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

RESISTANCE WELDING

10

welding current of the welding machine is examined. An equation for


measurement according to the continuous current under thermal
considerations is provided. Measurement according to maximum
allowed voltage drop, thermal replacement current for specific welding
tasks, taking into account maximum allowed voltage drop in connection
lines and allowed thermal loading of welding transformer and cycle
sequence for different tasks are all examined. Calculations of allowed
welds per minute for a series of spot welds and sheet combinations are
outlined. Calculations for thermal total current for a working cycle time
of 1 minute, of less than one minute and start of the next cycle after
one minute and for a working cycle time of longer than one minute are
described.
*02-249409
Quality of resistance spot welds on galvanised steel sheets.
MISICKO R; KASCAK L; VINAS J; FUJDA M
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.7-8. July-Aug.2009. pp.189-192. 18
fig., 3 tab., 14 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
Experiments were performed to determine the optimum resistance spot
welding parameters for joining three overlapped 1 mm thickness sheets
of galvanised steel, with application to car body fabrication. In two
series of tests, using 10 and 12 welding cycles, spot welds were made
at four values of current in the range 6-7.7 amp on D51D+Z (EN
10142:2000, 0.15%C) steel. Weld quality was evaluated by
macrostructural and microstructural examination and measurements of
load-carrying capacity.
*02-249468
Effects of welding parameters on mechanical properties and
microstructure of resistance spot welded DP600 joints.
ZHANG P; XIE J; WANG Y X; CHEN J Q
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol.16, no.7.
Oct.2011. pp.567-574. 14 fig., 2 tab., 15 ref. ISSNs: 1362-1718,
1743-2936
[in English]
[http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/stwj]
An experimental study was carried out to investigate the effects of
welding parameters, including electrode force, welding current and
welding time on the mechanical properties and microstructure of
resistance spot welded DP600 lap joints. Dual phase DP600 high
strength steel with a thickness of 1.7 mm and a chemical composition
of (0.084%C, 0.009%P, 0.0073%S, 0.01%Si, 0.032%Cr, 0.315%Mo,
0.057%Al, 0.017%N) was used in the experiments. Weld electrode
force varied between 2-3.5 kN, weld current between 6-12 kA and
weld time between 8-17 seconds. Tensile shear tests were performed
after welding. The tensile shear load and failure energy was measured
as a function of weld time, weld current and weld force. Microstructure
of the welded joints was examined. The effects of welding parameters
on nugget diameter and penetration rate, as well as on microhardness
were examined also.
*02-249480
Resistance microwelding of crossed Pt-10lr and 316 LVM
stainless steel wires.
HUANG Y D; PEQUEGNAT A; FENG J C; KHAN M I; ZHOU Y
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol.16, no.7.
Oct.2011. pp.648-656. 13 fig., 1 tab., 26 ref. ISSNs: 1362-1718,
1743-2936
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 240446]
[http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/stwj]
An experimental investigation was made to study the resistance

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

microwelding of dissimilar crossed wire joints of Pt-10Ir (Pt, 10%Ir)


and low carbon vacuum melted 316 stainless steel (0.024%C,
1.84%Mn, 0.75%Si, 17.47%Cr, 14.73%Ni, 2.76%Mn, 0.017%P,
0.001%S, 0.04%Cu, 0.024%N) wires of 0.38 mm diameter. The
electrode displacement and dynamic contact resistance at the faying
interface were measured using a data acquisition system during
welding. Two different welding sequences were used, including double
and single pulse processes. In the single pulse process, the electrode
force was varied from 1-5 kgf and the current varied between 100 and
500 A. For the double pulse welding, two pulses were applied with
different electrode forces and current levels, which were selected
following observations during conventional single pulse welding in
order to optimise the joint breaking force. Weld surface condition,
geometries and cross-sections were examined using SEM. The joint
strength was measured for three or more welds at each set of
parameters by subjecting the joints to tensile shear loading.

*02-249491
Electrode dressing makes a better spot weld.
KUSANO H
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.3. July 2011. Special Issue. AWS
Section. pp.110-114. 10 fig., 1 tab. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English] (Based on paper presented at the AWS Detroit Section's
Sheet Metal Welding Conference XIV, Livonia, MI, USA, 12-14 May
2010)[Similar paper: Welding Journal, vol.90, no.5. May 2011.
pp.28-32; Weldasearch 247479]
An analysis of the copper electrode face during resistance welding of
galvanised steel is presented highlighting the correlation of alloy layer
with the number of welds and tips to optimise tip dressing are
presented. A CuCrZr electrode with a 16 mm diameter cap tip was
used to weld galvanised steel and the thickness of the layer of alloy
(79%Fe, 13%Zn, 6%Cu, 0.8%Cr, 0.8%Al) on the cap tip was
measured following 100, 300, 400 and 500 welds. Use of tip dressers is
discussed focusing on inline autoelectric motor tip dressers. Tip
dressing guidelines (weld numbers, optimal tip dressing conditions,
weld parameters, cutting life, verification devices, chips/shaving
management) cutting blade selection and benefits of tip dressers (costs,
splatter reduction) are discussed.

02-249513
Resistance welding - Vickers hardness testing (low-force and
microhardness) of resistance spot, projection, and seam welds.
BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION;
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION;
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION
British Standard BS EN ISO 14271: 2011. Publ: London W4 4AL, UK;
British Standards Institution; 2011. 12pp. 4 fig., 1 ref. ISBN:
9780580674785
[in English] (French and German versions also exist)(Supersedes BS EN
ISO 14271: 2001. 12pp; [Weldasearch 204356])
This standard describes the procedures for hardness testing of etched
cross sections of resistance spot, projection and seam welds in order to
determine Vickers hardness in the low load or microhardness range of the
weld nugget, HAZ and parent metal. It is applicable to welds made in
ferrous and non-ferrous metal sheets with a thickness 0.5-6 mm. The
standard covers recommended forces for testing resistance welds, test
pieces, test equipment, testing procedures and positions of the
indentations, and the information to be included in the test report.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

11

02-249514
Resistance welding - destructive tests of welds - pressure test of
resistance seam welds.
BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION;
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION;
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION
British Standard BS EN ISO 17654: 2011. Publ: London W4 4AL, UK;
British Standards Institution; 2011. 9pp. 2 fig. ISBN: 9780580688553
[in English] (French and German versions also exist)(Supersedes BS EN
ISO 17654: 2003. 9pp; [Weldasearch 209575])
This standard specifies requirements for a pressure test on resistance
seam welds in the destructive testing of welds in metallic materials, in
order to determine the suitability of the material, process equipment,
process parameters and other factors relevant to container construction
by resistance seam welding. It applies to single sheet thicknesses ranging
from 0.3 mm to 3.2 mm.

ENERGY BEAM PROCESSES

*03-249197
Laser welding of magnesium alloys.
SHAN J
In Book: Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys. Ed: L.M.Liu.
Publ: Cambridge, CB21 6AH, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2010.
Part 2: Particular Welding and Joining Techniques. Chapter 17.
pp.306-350. 36 fig., 6 tab., 69 ref. ISBNs: 9781845696924,
9780857090423
[in English]
The application of laser welding to the joining of magnesium alloys is
reviewed. The laser welding process is characterised (largely using mild
steel as an example) with regard to the physical process, and the
influence of the welding parameters, such as the character and power of
the laser beam, welding speed, focal position, heat input and the
importance of and selection of shielding gas, is examined. The
weldability of Mg alloys and the advantages of using laser welding are
outlined, and the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg
alloys that have undergone laser welding are described. The nature and
causes of defects that are typically found in laser welded Mg alloys are
03 ENERGY BEAM PROCESSES
explored, including solidification cracking, liquation cracking, molten
pool collapse and hydrogen porosity. Finally, the outlook for this
See also abstracts: 01-249194, 01-249393, 01-249465, 09-249260,technique and possible future trends are outlined.
09-249261, 11-249450, 23-249229, 32-249379, 43-249370, 44-249398,
52-249441, 60-249498, 63-249308
*03-249296
The importance of moving gradually from the capillary front in
laser welding and cutting. Part 1 (Zur Bedeutung von gleitenden
*03-249174
Stufen an der Kapillarfront beim Schweissen und Schneiden ...).
Laser technique shortens welding process for heat-treatable steels.
BERGER P; SCHUSTER R; ZVYAGOLSKAYA M; HUGEL H;
PRAKTISCHE METALLOGRAPHIE/PRACTICAL METALLOGRAPHY
SCHAFER P
Praktische Metallographie/Practical Metallography, vol.47, no.12. Dec.2010.
Schweissen und Schneiden, vol.63, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2011. pp.20-26,
p.735. 2 fig. ISSN: 0032-678X
27-28. 10 fig., 49 ref. ISSN: 0036-7184
[in English]
[in German]
A process developed by the Laser Zentrum Hannover (LZH) and Institute
Investigations of phenomena influencing the quality of fibre laser and
for Electrotechnology (ETP) for one step inductive hardening and
disc laser welding in the 1 micrometre wavelength range are described
welding for multi-part heat treatable steel constructional elements is outlined.
with an outline of the theoretical background and visualisation of
A structural diagram of the laser processing head developed for this technique
capillary dynamics. The concept of energy coupling and fluid
is provided. The parts are heated to a temperature of over 900 deg.C,
mechanical processes is illustrated by a short summary of studies of
welded and then quenched. The advantages of the head and the process
welding and cutting. Outlines are given of studies of deep penetration
described.
welding, cutting, Fresnel absorption as a determining parameter of
LASER
ZENTRUM
HANNOVER
EV;
INSTITUTE
movement of the keyhole, the mechanisms of the pulse input into the
ELECTROTECHNOLOGY, LEIBNIZ UNIVERSITAT HANNOVER
molten mass with advance of the keyhole along the weld and the effect
of plasma in the capillary. Visualisation experiments in water for a CW
laser of 10.6 micrometre wavelength, power 500-1000 W, for 5
seconds with zero and 6.7 m/min feed speed and in ice of -7 deg.C,
*03-249188
beam power of 500-1000 W, feed speeds of 1-10 m/min are described.
The joining of magnesium alloy to steel.
LIU L M
In Book: Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys. Ed: L.M.Liu.
*03-249298
Publ: Cambridge, CB21 6AH, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2010.
Laser-MIG hybrid welding - extension from the macro- into the
Part 1: General. Chapter 6. pp.63-78. 13 fig., 2 tab., 25 ref. ISBNs:
microrange
(Laserstrahl-MIG-Hybridschweissen
Die
9781845696924, 9780857090423
Erweiterung vom Makro- in den Mikrobereich).
[in English]
REISGEN U; OLSCHOK S; MAVANY M
The production of welded joints composed of magnesium alloy and
Schweissen und Schneiden, vol.63, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2011. pp.34-40.
steel is reviewed. The problems that arise in joining Mg alloys to steel
17 fig., 1 tab., 9 ref. ISSN: 0036-7184
are outlined, as are the physical and chemical properties of these
[in German] [See also Weldasearch 241137]
metals. The principles for the hybrid laser TIG welding of lap joints
The results of tests on laser-MIG hybrid welding and mechanical
between sheets of AZ31B Mg alloy and Q235 low carbon steel are
technological properties of the resulting welds are described. The test
outlined, including use of a nickel interlayer. Properties of the welded
equipment was a laser unit with two diode pumped fibre lasers of
joints were investigated, with focus on the effects of process
wavelength 1070 nm, maximum beam power 250 and 200 W and a laser
parameters (laser power, welding speed, defocusing; TIG current) on
of 300 W power, MIG power supply for 0-32 V and 2-200A,
lap shear strength and microstructure. The distribution of nickel was
modified contact tube, wire feed unit for 0.3-1.6 mm diameter at
determined in the joints made with an Ni interlayer and the bonding
0.05-20 m/min feed rate. The parent materials were stainless steel
mechanism was investigated. Future trends in the joining of Mg alloys
(X5CrNi18-10 and X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2) and aluminium Al99.5.
to steel are outlined.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

ENERGY BEAM PROCESSES

12

Mechanical-technological properties of welds in austenitic CrNi steel


using hardness measured according to DIN EN ISO 6507-1 and tensile
tests are described. Results of micro hybrid welding tests on sheet of
thickness 0.25 mm in X5CrNi18-8 are described. For aluminium
welding tests, sheet of thickness 0.5 mm in Al 99.5 and filler wire
SG-AlSi12 were used.
*03-249322
Laser welding of precision engineering components.
GOPAL K A; MURUGAN S; VENUGOPAL S;
KASIVISWANATHAN K V
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.2. Apr.2011. pp.54-59. 9 fig., 4
tab., 2 ref. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English]
A presentation is made of the techniques used in the production of a
variety of intricate precision engineering components fabricated using
laser welding (LBW). A brief introduction to the LBW process is given
and the details of the Nd-YAG pulsed solid-state laser system
available at the Indira Ghandi Centre for Atomic Research Centre,
India, are presented. Examples of fabricated components include MI
coil termination in an eddy current based position sensor and a sodium
leak detector in a diverse safety rod drive mechanism of a prototype
fast breeder reactor, and austenitic stainless steel 316 components for
an Ir-192 high dose rate source holder, used in cancer treatment, for the
Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Mumbai. Laser welding
parameters are presented and results are discussed for each trial.
*03-249331
Laser welding of root welds of thick joints of heat-resistant steel.
CHERNAYA T I; TSARYUK A K; SIORA A V; SHELYAGIN V D;
KHASKIN V Yu
Paton Welding Journal, no.2. Feb.2010. pp.14-17. 5 fig., 3 ref. ISSN:
0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
Experiments to determine optimum process conditions for laser root
welding of turbine rotors are summarised and recommendations are
made. Preliminary experiments were conducted using butt joints in 5
mm thickness type 20 steel (0.2%C, 0.5%Mn) and a solid state laser.
Effects of laser power (2.5 - 4 kW), shielding gas mixture (CO2, 0 or
18%Ar), and laser focus relative to the surface were evaluated with
respect to welding defects and back bead shape. This experience was
carried forward to root welding in V or U groove in 30 mm thickness
25Kh2NMFA heat resistant steel (0.22%C, 0.44%Mn, 1.87%Cr,
1.38%Ni, 0.36%Mo, 0.04%V) with and without SV-08G2S filler wire,
with 250-300 deg.C preheat. A set of recommended process conditions
was derived and is listed.
03-249339
Improvement of mechanical properties of Inconel 718 electron
beam welds - influence of welding techniques and postweld heat
treatment.
MADHUSUDHANA REDDY G; SRINIVASA MURTHY C V;
SRINIVASA RAO K; PRASAD RAO K
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.43,
no.7. 2009. pp.671-680. 9 fig., 7 tab., 17 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768,
1433-3015
[in English]
The effects of welding techniques and PWHT on electron beam welded
(EBW) Inconel 718 joints were investigated. Solution-treated sheets of
Inconel 718 (50.0%Ni+Co, 0.08%C, 0.35%Mn, 20.0%Cr, 2.7%Mo,
0.56%Al, 1.13%Ti, 0.15%Cu, 4.93%Nb) of dimensions 205 x 105 x
3.1 mm underwent EBW using the following parameters: gun to work

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

distance 275 mm; accelerating voltage 55 kV; beam current 22-25 mA;
beam focus on or slightly above the surface; welding speed 1.5 m/min;
vacuum level 0.04 Pa; heat input 48.4-55 J/mm. Joints were produced
either using no electron beam oscillation or using the following
oscillation patterns and constant amplitude: sinusoidal, square,
triangular, ramp, circular and elliptical. After undergoing one of two
solutionising treatments (980 deg.C or 1080 deg.C for 1 h, air cooling),
the welded samples were subjected to a duplex ageing treatment
consisting of 8 h furnace cooling at 720 deg.C followed by 8 h air
cooling at 620 deg.C. Joint microstructure (particularly Laves phase
content), distribution of Nb, hardness, yield strength, tensile strength,
elongation and locus of failure were determined. The results are
discussed with regard to weld Nb segregation, Laves phase formation
and response to ageing.

03-249340
3D finite element temperature field modelling for direct laser
fabrication.
YANG J; WANG F
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.43,
no.11. 2009. pp.1060-1068. 10 fig., 1 tab., 19 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768,
1433-3015
[in English]
The development of a three-dimensional finite element temperature
field model capable of describing the thermal dynamics behaviour that
occurs during direct laser fabrication (DLF), also known as laser
engineered net shaping, is discussed. The topics addressed include
features of DLF temperature field modelling; difficulties and possible
solutions; and heat transfer and equations related to modelling of the
DLF process. A case study involving repair by laser surfacing is
described and solved using the applied temperature field model. The
effects of non-linear thermal properties in pure nickel on the
temperature distribution in the model are estimated.

03-249341
Statistical analysis of recast formation in laser drilled acute
blind holes in CMSX-4 nickel superalloy.
LEIGH S; SEZER K; LI L; GRAFTON-REED C; CUTTELL M
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.43,
no.11. 2009. pp.1094-1105. 11 fig., 6 tab., 22 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768,
1433-3015
[in English]
The influence of welding parameters on the metallurgy and drilling
velocity during laser percussion drilling of CMSX-4 nickel superalloy
was investigated. Acute blind holes were laser drilled in CMSX-4
sheets of thickness 2 mm using a 300 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser (laser
head inclination 30 degrees; assist gas oxygen) delivered via a 300
micrometre optical fibre and emitting at a wavelength of 1.06
micrometres. A central composite design and a response surface
method were applied to identify the significant processing factors and
relationships with measured outputs: the independent process
variables selected for study were pulse energy (2-5 J), pulse width
(0.2-0.6 ms), pulse frequency (30-100 Hz) and gas pressure (200-600
kPa), and the thickness of the recast layer on the internal walls of the
drilled holes was selected as the primary response variable of interest.
The maximum thickness of the recast layers on the walls and at the
bottom of the holes was measured, and the drilling velocities were
determined. The results of statistically modelling the experimental data
and the optimisation of the laser drilling process are discussed. Results
are applicable to gas turbine aero engine blades.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

13

03-249345
Effects of heat input on microstructure and mechanical property
of Al/Ti joints by rectangular spot laser welding-brazing method.
CHEN Y B; CHAN S H; LI L Q
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.44,
no.3. 2009. pp.265-272. 12 fig., 2 tab., 18 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768,
1433-3015
[in English]
The effects of heat input on dissimilar titanium/aluminium alloy butt
joints produced by means of a novel laser welding-brazing method with
cored filler wire were investigated. A laser welding-brazing process in
which the CO2 laser beam (laser power 2.4 kW; double shielding gas
argon) was modulated to a 2 x 4 mm rectangular spot was used to join
5A06 aluminium alloy (Al, 5.8-6.8%Mg, 0.1%Cu, 0.5-0.8%Mn,
0.4%Fe, 0.2%Zn) and Ti-6%Al-4%V alloy (Ti, 5.5-6.8%Al,
3.5-4.5%V, 0.3%Fe) in a butt joint configuration with heat inputs of
144-720 kJ/m. An Al-12%Si (Al, 12.0%Si, 0.15%Ti, 0.1%Mg,
0.3%Cu, 0.15%Mn, 0.8%Fe, 0.2%Zn) flux-cored filler wire (diameter
2 mm) was fed in front of the laser beam at an angle of 30 degrees. The
joints' microstructure and chemical constitution were determined, the
crystal phases of the reaction layer were analysed, and the joint tensile
strengths were evaluated. The results are discussed with regard to weld
appearance and interfacial microstructures.
03-249347
Study of formability of tailor-welded blanks in plane-strain
stretch forming.
PANDA S K; RAVI KUMAR D
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.44,
no.7. 2009. pp.675-685. 14 fig., 4 tab., 25 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768,
1433-3015
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 243488]
The formability of tailor-welded blanks (TWBs) subjected to
plane-strain stretching was investigated. The parent materials were low
carbon drawing quality (DQ) steel (0.072%C, 0.430%Mn, 0.023%Al)
sheets of thickness 1.0 mm and ultralow carbon interstitial free (IF)
steel (0.008%C, 0.088%Mn, 0.068%Al, 0.056%Ti, 0.026%Nb) sheets
of thickness 1.0 mm or 1.5 mm, and sheets of both materials were used
in galvanised and ungalvanised conditions. A CO2 laser was used to
laser weld (continuous wave mode; key hole welding; shielding gas
argon) three different types of TWBs (IF1.5/IF1.0; IF1.0/DQ1.0; IF1.5
galvanised/IF1.5 ungalvanised) using the welding parameters of 3.1 kW
beam power and 1500 mm/min bed travel speed for blanks that differed
in thickness and 4.2 kW beam power and 1500 mm/min bed travel
speed for blanks that differed in coating condition. Sections from the
laser welded specimens were microscopically examined and rectangular
blanks (180 x 125 mm) were subjected to limited dome height (LDH)
testing in plane-strain condition. Finite element analysis was used to
study the effects of thickness, properties, surface condition and weld
orientation. The results are discussed with regard to the LDH, the
strain distribution and the influence of weld line movement on
formability.
03-249350
Analysis of weld pool dynamic during stationary laser-MIG
hybrid welding.
GAO Z G; WU Y X; HUANG J
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.44,
no.9. 2009. pp.870-879. 7 fig., 1 tab., 24 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768,
1433-3015
[in English]
A mathematical model simulation of weld-pool development and

ENERGY BEAM PROCESSES

dynamic process during stationary spot laser-MIG hybrid welding is


described. The transient numerical model is designed to shed light on
the nature of heat transfer and fluid flow during the welding process
and takes into consideration typical phenomena of both MIG welding
and laser welding. The topics addressed include the governing
equations of the model; application of the volume-of-fluid method;
solidification modelling; enthalpy modelling; driving sources for liquid
metal movement and convection; laser absorption coefficients; and heat
source considerations. The iterative scheme used to solve the governing
differential equations and all related supplemental considerations are
outlined. The application of the mathematical model to spot laser-MIG
hybrid welding of an aluminium-magnesium alloy is described.
03-249355
Microstructure and mechanical properties of similar and
dissimilar stainless steel electron beam and friction welds.
MADHUSUDAN REDDY G; SRINIVASA RAO K
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.45,
no.9. 2009. pp.875-888. 20 fig., 5 tab., 13 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768,
1433-3015
[in English]
Similar and dissimilar stainless steel welds produced by means of
friction welding and by means of electron beam (EB) welding were
studied in terms of their microstructural and mechanical properties.
The parent metals were AISI 430 ferritic stainless steel (0.06%C,
0.4%Mn, 17.0%Cr), AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel (0.06%C,
1.38%Mn, 18.4%Cr, 8.17%Ni) and AISI 2205 duplex stainless steel
(0.03%C, 2.00%Mn, 22.5%Cr, 5.5%Ni, 3.0%Mo). In the friction
welding experiments, rods (diameter 18 mm) of the parent metals were
joined using the following parameters: friction force 3 kN; forge force 6
kN; burn off 5 mm; soft force 2 kN; upset time 1 s; spindle speed 1485
rev/min. In the EB welding experiments, plates (thickness 20 mm) of
the parent metals were welded in a square butt joint configuration using
the following parameters: beam focused on work surface; gun to work
distance 275 mm; accelerating voltage 60 kV; beam current 132 mA;
speed 13.3 mm/s; vacuum level 40 Pa. Weld microstructure,
distribution of Cr and Ni in the interfacial zone, residual stress
distribution, hardness, elongation, transverse and notch tensile
strength, and impact toughness were determined. The results are
discussed with regard to the insights they provide into the
microstructure-property relationships in fusion and solid-state welding
of dissimilar stainless steel combinations.
03-249361
Effects of copper addition on microstructure and strength of the
hybrid laser-TIG welded joints between magnesium alloy and
mild steel.
LIU L M; QI X D
Journal of Materials Science, vol.44, no.21. 2009. pp.5725-5731. 11
fig., 20 ref. ISSN: 0022-2461
[in English]
The effects of using a copper interlayer in the hybrid laser-TIG
welding of magnesium alloy to mild steel were investigated. AZ31B
Mg alloy (Mg, 3%Al, 1%Zn, 0.2%Mn) and Q235 steel (0.2%C,
0.7%Mn) were welded using an Nd:YAG laser and a TIG torch in a lap
joint configuration in which the 80 x 60 x 1.7 mm AZ31B sheet was
placed atop the 80 x 60 x 1.2 mm Q235 sheet with a 8 x 65 x 0.1 mm
Cu (99.9% purity) sheet serving as an interlayer. The hybrid laser-TIG
welding parameters used were as follows: tilting angle 40 degrees; TIG
current 100 A; laser power 400 W; welding speed 850 mm/min;
shielding gas flow 15 l/min. Weld macromorphology, microstructure
and element distribution were determined. Specimens also underwent

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

ENERGY BEAM PROCESSES

14

tensile shear testing and analysis of fractured weld beads. The results
are discussed with regard to the factors affecting joint strength, the
formation of phases in the joint microstructure and the joining
mechanism.

03-249372
Quantitative characterisation of the microstructure of an
electron-beam welded medium strength Al-Zn-Mg alloy.
DESCHAMPS A; RINGEVAL S; TEXIER G; DELFAUT-DURUT L
Materials Science and Engineering A, vol.A517, no.1-2. 20 Aug.2009.
pp.361-368. 12 fig., 13 ref. ISSN: 0921-5093
[in English]
The effects of precipitation hardening and autogenous EB welding on
the microstructure, solute element distribution, grain structure and
fine-scale precipitation of a medium strength AlZnMg alloy (Al,
4.56%Zn, 1.18%Mg, 7 mm thickness) were investigated. Welded joints
were fabricated and then subjected to full solution treatment followed
by air cooling and ageing. The grain morphology and texture were
evaluated by electron back-scatter diffraction and transmission electron
microscopy. The homogeneously distributed small grain structure of
the weld nugget is described and the effects of zinc content on nugget
microstructure are discussed. The differences in volume fraction after
post-welding heat treatment was examined in terms of the magnitude of
solute depletion. The relative precipitate sizes and volume fractions in
the weld nugget are considered in terms of microhardness.

*03-249399
Laser hybrid welding with high power fibre laser - new chances
for use of laser technology.
JASNAU U; SUMPF A
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.3. Mar.2009. pp.63-67. 15 fig., 2 ref.
ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
The use of fibre lasers for hybrid laser - MIG/MAG welding is
discussed, illustrated by commercially available equipment and
industrial applications, particularly shipbuilding. The availability of
fibre lasers up to 10 kW power is noted; their advantages over other
laser types is explained. Equipment described and illustrated includes a
mobile control unit, laser-GMA hybrid tractor systems, and welding
gantries. Performance of hybrid laser-MAG welding systems was
assessed in one-sided butt welding of 8 mm thickness steel and primed
steel and two-sided welding of 16 mm thickness plate; full-penetration
welding of 10 mm thickness T-joint; and assembly of sandwich panels.

*03-249443
The effect of unprecise parts positioning on joints strength
during laser brazing galvanised sheets by car-body production.
MATYSOVA M; SEJC P
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.59, no.7-8. July-Aug.2010. pp.157-160. 5 fig.,
1 tab., 3 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
The effect of inaccurate alignment of automobile body components on
joint strength during laser brazing was investigated. A Nd:YAG laser
and CuSi3 hot filler wire were used to join galvanised steel sheets of
0.8 mm thickness in car body production in Volkswagen Slovakia. The
brazing procedure is outlined. Possible reasons for joint defects are
reported including incorrectly set process parameters and inaccurate
alignment or dimension of the components. Test joints were made to
examine the causes of the change in the gap width between the sheets.
The joint tensile strength was measured and evaluated according to
Volkswagen's own standards.

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

*03-249467
Effects of laser parameters on porosity formation: investigating
millimetre scale continuous wave Nd:YAG laser welds.
NORRIS J T; ROBINO C V; HIRSCHFELD D A; PERRICONE M J
Welding Journal, vol.90, no.10. Oct.2011. Supplement: Welding
Research. pp.198s-203s. 11 fig., 19 ref. ISSN: 0043-2296
[in English]
Porosity formation was investigated in milliscale continuous seam
Nd:YAG laser keyhole mode welds in 304L austenitic stainless steel
(0.03%C, 0.36%Si, 1.73%Mn, 18.09%Cr, 8.57%Ni, 0.16%Mo,
0.2%Cu, 0.06%N, 0.024%P, 0.001%S). The 304L samples (100 mm x
25.4 mm x 1.27 mm) with weld length 89 mm were analysed using
X-ray radiography to identify three porosity types (uniform,
transitional, root). The effects of CW power (250-1200 W), travel
speed (13-51 mm/s), energy input and lens focal length (80, 120, 160,
200 mm) were evaluated for the Nd:YAG welding of two side-butted
flat plates. Ultra-high purity (UHP) argon shielding gas at flow rate of
33 l/min was used. A geometric model correlating porosity to laser
beam spot size and penetration depth was verified.
*03-249470
Mechanical properties and strengthening mechanisms in laser
beam welds of pure titanium.
LIU H; NAKATA K; YAMAMOTO N; LIAO J
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol.16, no.7.
Oct.2011. pp.581-585. 3 fig., 5 tab., 25 ref. ISSNs: 1362-1718,
1743-2936
[in English]
[http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/stwj]
An experimental investigation was performed to study the mechanical
properties and strengthening mechanisms in laser welded joints of
grade 2 commercially pure titanium (Ti, 0.004%C, 0.0023%H,
0.078%O, 0.006%N, 0.048%Fe). Samples of 4 mm thickness sheet
were bead-on-plate welded using an IPG YLR-1000 fibre laser welding
system. Laser powers ranged from 8 to 10 kW and welding speeds
from 2 to 8 m per minute. Both top and bottom surfaces were shielded
using high purity argon gas to minimise surface oxidation. Weld
cross-sections were examined using SEM and electron back-scattering
diffraction maps were taken to analyse the microstructure. Hardness
distribution and tensile properties were measured and compared to
those of the parent metal, for the different weld parameters. The
influence of weld parameters on the microstructure, tensile properties
and strengthening mechanisms is discussed, with reference to
microalloying elements picked up by the weld metal during welding (C,
H, O and N).
*03-249478
Measurements of fluid flow on keyhole front during laser
welding.
ERIKSSON I; POWELL J; KAPLAN A F H
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol.16, no.7.
Oct.2011. pp.636-641. 10 fig., 21 ref. ISSNs: 1362-1718, 1743-2936
[in English]
[http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/stwj]
An experimental investigation was carried out to study the melt flow
velocities on the front face of a keyhole created during bead on plate
laser welding of a 2.4 mm thickness 304 stainless steel. Flow
measurements were made using a high speed camera and a streak image
technique supported by a 2-D fast Fourier transform analysis. A large
diameter laser beam was used in order to obtain a view deep into the
keyhole. Welds were made over a wide range of laser powers from 3 15 kW and speeds between 50 and 250 mm per second. The effect of

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

15

changing speed at a fixed power, changing power at a fixed speed and


the effect of increasing power and speed together to give results at
constant line energy were observed.

03-249505
Laser welding of plastics.
KLEIN R
Book. Publ: D-69469 Weinheim, Germany; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH
& Co. KGaA; 2012. 260pp. 5 Chapters. Numerous fig., tab., ref.
ISBNs:
9783527409723,
9783527636983,
9783527636969,
9783527636976
[in English] [Individual chapters 2, 3, and 4: Weldasearch
249506-249508][See also Weldasearch 235906 and 234066]
A comprehensive survey of the technology of laser welding of
thermoplastics is presented. Topics covered include material
properties of plastics (types of plastics, thermal and optical
properties); laser sources and their beam characteristics including beam
shaping; principles and theory of laser beam interaction with plastics;
laser beam welding processes, variants, process conditions and weld
quality control; and selected case studies. Extensive illustrations and
references are included, with selected background theory and equations.

SOLID PHASE WELDING

03-249508
Process of laser plastic welding.
KLEIN R
In Book: Laser Welding of Plastics. Book. Publ: D-69469 Weinheim,
Germany; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012. Chapter 4.
pp.141-215. 84 fig., 1 tab., 82 ref. ISBNs: 9783527409723,
9783527636983, 9783527636969, 9783527636976
[in English]
Variants of the laser welding process and conditions with application
to thermoplastics are described. Topics covered include: welding
geometries (butt joints and transmission mode); laser beam control
variants (contour, fast contour repetition, shaped beam, masked
workpiece, TWIST beam scanning, glass ball clamping); hybrid
processes with near infrared or ultrasound energy sources; workpiece
beam absorption strategies (surface coatings, absorptive additives, use
of lasers with selected wavelengths); joint geometries (joint design,
tolerances, clamping, gap bridging); and quality issues (control,
monitoring methods, sensors).

04 SOLID PHASE WELDING


*03-249506
Laser sources for plastic welding.
KLEIN R
In Book: Laser Welding of Plastics. Book. Publ: D-69469 Weinheim,
Germany; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012. Chapter 2.
pp.71-108. 39 fig., 7 tab., 30 ref. ISBNs: 9783527409723,
9783527636983, 9783527636969, 9783527636976
[in English]
An overview is given of laser beam sources, their characteristics,
interaction with plastics workpieces and their control. After a brief
introduction to laser radiation, four laser sources are described: diode
lasers, Nd:YAG lasers, fibre lasers and CO2 lasers. For each one, the
principle of operation, wavelength range and common areas of usage
for plastics welding are given. Beam guidance and focusing systems are
described: use of fibres, mirror and optical systems. Some typical
equipment configurations for plastics welding are described.

*03-249507
Basics of laser plastic welding.
KLEIN R
In Book: Laser Welding of Plastics. Book. Publ: D-69469 Weinheim,
Germany; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012. Chapter 3.
pp.109-140. 29 fig., 1 tab., 44 ref. ISBNs: 9783527409723,
9783527636983, 9783527636969, 9783527636976
[in English]
Controlling mechanisms of the physical process of laser heating of
plastics and subsequent bonding are described. Absorption
mechanisms of laser radiation are identified (direct and indirect
absorption, and hindered absorption due to scattering within the
plastic). Conversion of laser beam energy into heat and derivation of
the heat conduction equation are described. Mechanisms of heat
dissipation are described and illustrated. Computer simulation of the
above processes are also discussed. Theoretical fusion processes of
amorphous and semicrystalline thermoplastics are described, and
factors affecting the compatibility of different plastics for welding are
identified.

*04-249200
50 years of explosion welding.
LYSAK V I; DOBRUSHIN L D
Paton Welding Journal, no.11. Nov.2009. pp.3-5. 7 ref. ISSN:
0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya
Svarka)[See also p.2 and unnumbered page opposite inside front
cover]
A brief history of explosive welding research and development is
presented. This is correlated with industrial developments requiring the
joining of dissimilar metals or use of composite materials, such as
aerospace and nuclear engineering industries.

*04-249251
Accelerated grain refinement during accumulative roll bonding
by nanoparticle reinforcement.
SCHMIDT C W; KNIEKE C; MAIER V; HOPPEL H W;
PEUKERT W; GOKEN M
Scripta Materialia, vol.64, no.3. Feb.2011. pp.245-248. 4 fig., 16 ref.
ISSN: 1359-6462
[in English]
A new method of controlled and homogenous nanoparticle distribution
during accumulative roll bonding (ARB) of aluminium is described.
Comminution in stirred media mills was used to produce ceramic
nanoparticle (Al2O3, ZrO2 and SiC) suspensions in which the
nanoparticles (Sauter mean diameter 10 nm) were electrostatically
stabilised against aggregation during comminution by adjusting the pH.
Reinforcement during ARB was ensured by the application of SnO2 in
water. During each of ten ARB cycles, airgun spraying (0.4 MPa) was
used to apply about 6 cubic millimetres of ceramic particles from the
stabilised aqueous suspension (5 wt.% solid fraction) onto aluminium
AA1050A (min.99.5% pure) sheets (300 x 100 x 1 mm), after which
the sheets were warmed to 125 deg.C for 300 s and rolled down to
50% of their initial thickness. The results of mechanical and
microstructural characterisations of the samples are discussed

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

BRAZING

16

*04-249329
Pressure welding of micro-dispersed composite material AMg5 +
27%Al2O3 with application of rapidly solidified interlayer of
eutectic alloy Al + 33%Cu.
FALCHENKO Yu V; MURAVEJNIK A N; KHARCHENKO G K;
FEDORCHUK V E; GORDAN G N
Paton Welding Journal, no.2. Feb.2010. pp.7-10. 8 fig., 13 ref. ISSN:
0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
Optimum process conditions for vacuum pressure welding of AMg5 +
27%Al2O3 cast composite were investigated. Tests were performed
on butt joints in 4 mm thickness sheet, scraped to remove surface
oxide; surfaces were joined directly, joined using a 0.15 mm thickness
foil interlayer of aluminium ADI, and using a 0.07 mm thickness foil of
rapidly solidified Al, 33%Cu (Al2Cu in Al solid solution). Vacuum
pressure welding was carried out with and without a forming device
causing forced plastic shear. Process parameters (time, temperature and
pressure) were noted for optimum performance, which was assessed
by joint shear tests, microstructural examination, hardness
measurements and X-ray microprobe analysis.
04-249349
Transient liquid phase (tlp) diffusion bonding of Ti45Ni49Cu6
P/M components using Cu interlayer.
KEJANLI H; TASKIN M; KOLUKISA S; TOPUZ P
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.44,
no.7. 2009. pp.695-699. 9 fig., 2 tab., 11 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768,
1433-3015
[in English]
The effects of process parameters on transient liquid phase (TLP)
diffusion bonding of shape memory alloy Ti-Ni-Cu-based powder
metallurgy (P/M) components were investigated. Ti, Ni and Cu
powders (purity 99.5-99.9%) were mixed, cold compacted into
cylinders (diameter 11 mm; length 16 mm) and sintered at 830 deg.C
for 1 h in a protective argon atmosphere. The cooled
45%Ti-49%Ni-6%Cu sintered P/M components were cut to form
bond surfaces (length 13 mm) and underwent diffusion bonding
(process pressure 20 MPa; duration 40-60 min; temperature 850-1000
deg.C; argon atmosphere) using copper foil (purity 99.8%; thickness
10 micrometres) as an interlayer. Microstructure, shear strength and
hardness distribution across the bond interface and parent material
were determined. The results are discussed with regard to the integrity
of diffusion bonded 45%Ti-49%Ni-6%Cu P/M components.

05 BRAZING
See also abstracts: 03-249345, 43-249386

*05-249149
Infrared brazing Fe3Al using Ag-based filler metals.
SHIUE R K; LI Y; WU S K; WU L M
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.41A, no.11.
Nov.2010. pp.2836-2843. 10 fig., 2 tab., 18 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5623,
1543-1940
[in English]
The use of pure Ag and Bag-8 (72%Ag, 28%Cu) braze alloys in the
infrared brazing of Fe3Al (Fe-28Al-2Cr) was evaluated. Fe3Al sheets
were prepared and brazed in an infrared furnace (heating rate 10
deg.C/s; vacuum 0.00005 mbar; average cooling rate 1.5 deg.C/s) using
Ag and Bag-8 foils (thickness 50 micrometres) as filler metals. For
specimens that used pure Ag as the filler metal, the brazing time was

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

60-300 s and the brazing temperature was 800-980 deg.C, whereas for
specimens that used Bag-8, the brazing time and brazing temperature
were 180-600 s and 800-980 deg.C, respectively. The results of
analyses of the brazed specimens are discussed with regard to the
wetting behaviour of the filler metals on Fe3Al substrate; SEM and
energy dispersive spectrometric observations; and shear strength.
*05-249190
Brazing and soldering of magnesium alloys.
WATANABE T
In Book: Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys. Ed: L.M.Liu.
Publ: Cambridge, CB21 6AH, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2010.
Part 2: Particular Welding and Joining Techniques. Chapter 8.
pp.97-121. 26 fig., 10 tab., 20 ref. ISBNs: 9781845696924,
9780857090423
[in English]
The application of brazing, soldering and ultrasonic welding to
magnesium alloys is examined. The surface preparation of Mg alloys
prior to joining is discussed with reference to the surface film formed
on Mg, the joinability of aluminium and Mg alloys, and how to
improve the joinability of Mg alloy via surface treatment. Ultrasonic
welding is reported of test pieces surface treated by wet polishing, dry
polishing or HF pickling. Development is described of a brazing filler
for joints in forged magnesium alloy AZ31; compositions based on In,
27-35%Mg, 0-6%Zn were evaluated to obtain a mix having a melting
point below 480 deg.C and alloys of Mg, 27-29%Sn, 19-20%In,
0-6%Al were evaluated to find a more affordable alternative; joint cross
tensile strength was determined. A flux-free ultrasonic method for
brazing of forged test pieces of AZ31B Mg alloy is introduced, in
which the indium based filler without zinc was used; joint tensile
strength was determined as a function of brazing temperature (470-490
deg.C) and vibration time, and microstructures were examined to
elucidate the bonding process. The soldering of Mg alloys is briefly
reviewed, covering solderability, solder compositions based on Mg and
Zn, and the microstructure and strength of some soldered joints in
AZ31 and AM50.
*05-249234
Practical examples of diffusion brazing.
WINIOWSKI A; ROZANSKI M
Przeglad Spawalnictwa, vol.82, no.4. 2010. pp.26-31. 10 fig., 14 ref.
ISSN: 0033-2364
[in Polish]
Investigations on the diffusion brazing process and applications of this
process to joining of new types of materials are presented. This
includes design and manufacture of a test stand for induction brazing in
vacuum. Research on diffusion brazing of copper/silver joints, copper
(Cu-ETP) or brass (M63) with a tin interlayer, aluminium and its
alloys (EN AW 1050, EN AW 3004), titanium and its alloys (Ti Grade
2 brazed with filler B-Ag72Cu-780, copper or nickel; TiAl48Cr2Nb2
with Cu or AgCu) is discussed and presented. New technology for a
diffusion brazed joint of zirconium insert with copper body is
discussed. Microstructures of some diffusion brazed joints are shown.
Physical principles of diffusion brazing are explained.
*05-249321
Development of brazed joints using induction heating system for
high temperature nuclear applications.
CHAURASIA P K; MURUGAN S; VENUGOPAL S;
KASIVISWANATHAN K V
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.2. Apr.2011. pp.43-46, 51-53. 7
fig., 4 tab., 4 ref. ISSN: 0046-9092

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

17

[in English]
The development of high temperature brazed joints for thin-walled
instrumented capsules that are used for evaluating the irradiation
performance of fuel and structural materials in a nuclear reactor, is
presented. A procedure was established to braze a thermocouple of
1-1.5 mm diameter through the end plug of the fuel pin in a leak-tight
manner to prevent the release of fission gases that may reach pressures
of up to 10 MPa at temperatures of 550 deg.C. Brazing parameters
such as temperature, time, vacuum level and brazing gap width were all
considered during the development procedure. Trials were carried out
using the boron-containing nickel brazing alloy BNi-2 (Ni, 0.03%C,
4.5%Si, 3.1%B. 7%Cr, 3%Fe) and boron-free alloy BNi-7 (Ni, 10%P,
14%Cr). Silicon and boron additives were used to reduce the melting
temperature of the brazing alloys. The parent metal was a stainless
steel 316L of composition (0.03%C, 0.4%Si, 17%Cr, 13%Ni,
0.001%B, 0.03%P). Trials involved brazing in an electrical furnace and
using RF induction heating. Tests were carried out to detect helium
leakage through the brazed joints. Sections of the brazed joint were
prepared for hardness testing and compared to the hardness of the
stainless steel parent metal.

*05-249387
Applications of MIG brazing and requirements on the filler
materials - gentle on the materials and flexible.
EBBINGHAUS M
Welding and Cutting, vol.10, no.4. 2011. pp.232-235. 8 fig., 2 ref.
ISSN: 1612-3433
[in English] [Similar paper: Schweisstechnik Soudure [in German],
vol.99, no.7. 13 Dec.2010. pp.26-28; Weldasearch 247072]
The advantages of MIG brazing as an alternative to MIG welding,
applications for this process and the status of the technology is
discussed. Among the application examples is car body manufacture;
many specific examples of MIG brazing applications are shown in a
diagram - the filler compositions used are CuSi3Mn1, where the silicon
component plays a crucial role, and CuAl7 which is stronger and gives
joints with increased intergranular cracking resistance. The manufacture
of housings for solenoid valves is featured, where the fillers used
include CuAl8Ni2Fe2Mn2, CuAl5Ni2Mn or CuAl7. Manufacture of
shelves from galvanised steels and surfacing of pressure columns of
42CrMoV4 steel for presses by MIG brazing are mentioned, and the
fillers recommended are respectively CuAl8Ni2Fe2Mn2 (A216M) and
CuAl7 (A2155/8M). Selection of consumables and brazing parameters
is discussed, including for aluminised steel sheet, galvanised steel, high
strength and ultra-high strength steel sheets and filler suitable for
phosphating.

*05-249413
Oxidation and corrosion resistance of brazed joint.
KOSNAC L; RUZA V; KOLENAK R
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.9-10. Sept.-Oct.2009. pp.241-246. 5
fig., 12 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak] [See also Weldasearch 155927]
Oxidation and corrosion mechanisms occurring in a variety of brazed
joints, their detection and effect upon joint properties are discussed.
Parent materials considered include copper and its alloys, aluminium
alloys, low alloy steels and austenitic stainless steels. Brazing alloys
include CuP, AgCuP, AlSi with Cu, Sn Cd or An additions, and
AgCuZn compositions. Effects of chloride content in fluxes and of
brazing atmosphere are discussed. Dominant corrosion mechanisms are
noted for each combination of materials and conditions, together with
metallographic and strength test methods appropriate to their
evaluation.

BRAZING

*05-249439
Soldering by the application of brazing solder using ultrasonic
welding (Tvrde spajkovanie s apikaciou ...).
BRODA T; HERRMANN J; UHLMANN M
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.59, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2010. pp.18-24. 22 fig., 2
tab., 7 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
A process for flux free brazing of dissimilar materials was investigated
using ultrasonic welding to attach the filler material to the parent metal.
Parent materials used were aluminium, austenitic stainless steel
X5CrNi1810 and DC01 (1.0330) low carbon steel. The filler metals
used were B-Ag44CuZn-680/780, B-Ag72Cu-780, B-Al88Si-575/590
and B-Cu-1083 according to DIN EN 1044. The filler was applied to
the surface of the workpiece by ultrasonic spot welding. Joints
between similar and dissimilar material pairs were made by brazing;
resistance brazing, laser brazing, furnace brazing and induction brazing
were evaluated. Tensile shear strength and microstructures of the
resulting joints were investigated.

*05-249444
High temperature soldering [brazing] of stainless steels.
AUGUSTIN R; KOLENAK R; RUZA V
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.59, no.7-8. July-Aug.2010. pp.161-164. 7 fig.,
4 tab., 5 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
Properties of high temperature brazed stainless steel joints were
examined. Copper and austenitic stainless steel 17 246 (0.02%C,
1.27%Mn, 19.30%Cr, 8.12%Ni, 0.06%Mo, 0.63%W, 0.36%Ti) were
brazed using two high temperature nickel alloy brazing fillers NI102-01
(Ni, 6.5%Cr, 4.5%Si, 3.0%B, 0.05%C, 4.0%Fe and NI102-02 (Ni,
7.0%Cr, 4.0%Si, 2.0%B, 0.15%C, 4.5%Fe). Test joints were made in a
vacuum furnace PZ 810 at 1050-1200 deg.C. Wetting, chemical
microanalysis and diffusion regions at the interface between parent
metal and filler were investigated. Tensile strength was evaluated for a
Cu/steel tube joint.

*05-249488
Brazing Q&A [Questions and Answers] [Ni-Cr-P brazing alloys].
KAY D
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.3. July 2011. AWS Section. p.102.
ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English] [Similar paper: Welding Journal, vol.90, no.4. Apr.2011.
p.22; Weldasearch 247137]
The use of nickel-based brazing filler metals containing Cr and P for
joining nickel alloys and stainless steels in a furnace under partial
pressure is discussed. Such fillers include grades AWS BNi-6, BNi-7
and BNi-12. The suitability of phosphorus-containing brazing filler for
nickel superalloys and stainless steels is contrasted. Problems with
partial pressure atmospheres in a vacuum furnace (dewpoints,
outgassing) are mentioned, as is the importance of high temperatures
for the reactions when brazing chromium-containing metals such as
Inconel and stainless steels.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

SOLDERING

18

06 SOLDERING
See also abstracts: 05-249190, 11-249153, 11-249284, 11-249421,
11-249424, 11-249425, 11-249427, 11-249428, 11-249429,
12-249179, 31-249358, 31-249359, 31-249362, 31-249365,
31-249405, 31-249419, 31-249420, 31-249442

*06-249152
Dissolution and interface reactions between palladium and tin
(Sn)-based solders: Part 1: 95.5Sn-3.9Ag-0.6Cu alloy.
VIANCO P T; REJENT J A; ZENDER G L; HLAVA P F
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.41A, no.12. Dec.2010.
pp.3042-3052. 15 fig., 24 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5623, 1543-1940
[in English]
The interface reactions between Pd (99.9% pure) substrates and
lead-free Sn-Ag-Cu (Sn, 3.9%Ag, 0.6%Cu) molten solder were
investigated. The solder alloy (liquidus temperature 217 deg.C) was
applied to Pd sheets (10 x 6.35 x 0.30 mm) by partially immersing
them edge-on into molten solder baths (240-350 deg.C for 5-240 s),
after which they were withdrawn and allowed to air cool. After
solidification, the specimens were cross sectioned through both
immersed and non-immersed areas. The results of analyses of the
specimens are discussed with regard to the interface microstructure
produced at different temperatures; the rate kinetics of dissolution and
growth of the intermetallic compound layer; the comparative
behaviours of Pd and Ag dissolution; and interface properties and
possible engineering applications.
*06-249168
Damping characteristics of Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu and Sn-37Pb solders
studied by dynamic mechanical analysis.
CHANG S H; WU S K
Scripta Materialia, vol.63, no.10. Nov.2010. pp.957-960. 4 fig., 1 tab.,
19 ref. ISSN: 1359-6462
[in English]
Studies of pure Sn and of Sn-37%Pb and Sn, 3%Ag, 0.5%Cu solders,
focusing on low-frequency damping properties at electronic
component working temperatures, are described. Pure tin, Sn-37%Pb
and Sn-3%Ag-0.5%Cu solders were melted at 300 deg.C for 0.5h, 300
deg.C for 0.5 h and 800 deg.C for 10 h respectively to form bulk alloy
ingots and test pieces were prepared from the ingots (30.0 x 6.5 x 1.3
mm3). Microstructure was observed using SEM. Differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC) was used to determine the melting temperatures at
constant heating rate of 10 deg.C/min. Dynamic mechanical analysis
was used to test low frequency damping properties. Curves for
internal friction and temperature for pure Sn metal, Sn-37%Pb and
Sn-3%Ag-0.5%Cu solders at a constant applied strain and heating rate
with frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 10 Hz are discussed referring to
athermal damping background and high-temperature damping
background (HTDB). Logarithmic plots for temperatures of the HTDB
for Sn-37%Pb and DSC results for Sn-37%Pb and Sn-3%Ag-0.5%
solders are discussed.
*06-249169
Characterisation
of
ternary
Ni2SnP
layer
in
Sn-3.5Ag-0.7Cu/electroless Ni (P) solder joint.
KANG H B; BAE J H; YOON J W; JUNG S B; PARK J W;
YANG C W
Scripta Materialia, vol.63, no.11. Nov.2010. pp.1108-1111. 4 fig., 14
ref. ISSN: 1359-6462
[in English]

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

A study of the ternary Ni2SnP layer in Sn, 3.5%Ag,


0.7%Cu/electroless Ni (P) solder joints using in situ TEM is described.
BGA solder balls of Sn, 3.5%Ag, 0.7%Cu, diameter 0.5 mm on a flame
retardant PCB, plated by electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG)
with 0.15 micrometres Au layer and 5 micrometres Ni(P) layer were
studied. TEM images of the interfacial reaction between Sn, 3.5%Ag,
0.7%Cu and electroless Ni (P) plate layer after reflow at 280 deg.C for
60 s and after annealing at 200 deg. C for 5 minutes are discussed. The
results of scanning TEM/EDS analysis and nano beam electron
diffraction (NBED) results of interfacial reaction regions are discussed.
High magnification TEM micrographs of the ternary Ni2SnP layer
showing Kirkendall voids are described.
*06-249250
Interfacial reaction in Cu/Sn/Cu system during the transient
liquid phase soldering process.
LI J F; AGYAKWA P A; JOHNSON C M
Acta Materialia, vol.59, no.3. Feb.2011. pp.1198-1211. 9 fig., 4 tab.,
50 ref. ISSN: 1359-6454
[in English]
The interfacial reaction of a thin pure tin foil sandwiched between two
pieces of copper foil parent metal during transient liquid phase (TLP)
soldering was investigated. The 99.9% pure Sn foil (12 mm x 10 mm
by 0.025 mm) was placed between sheets of 99.9% pure Cu foil (12
mm x 10 mm by 0.1 mm). The specimen was placed in a vacuum
reflow oven; heated to 220 deg.C within 3 minutes at below 5 mbar;
held at that temperature for 5 min during purging with forming gas
(N2-2%H2; 450 l/min; 1.5 bar); and evacuated to less than 5 mbar again
while undergoing heating to 260-340 deg.C within 3 min. Reflow was
conducted at 260-340 deg.C for 5-480 min under forming gas
(N2-2%H2; 450 l/min; 1.5 bar). The results of characterisation and
thickness measurement of the intermetallic compounds formed in the
Cu/Sn/Cu specimen are discussed with regard to the interfacial
microstructure; the thicknesses of the residual Sn, Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn
layers; and the kinetics of the interfacial growth of the Cu6Sn5 and
Cu3Sn layers.
*06-249275
Solder joint embrittlement - its not just gold.
ENGELMAIER W
Global SMT & Packaging, vol.11, no.2. Feb.2011. pp.58-59, 61. 6 fig.,
11 ref. ISSN: 1474-0893
[in English]
A brief overview of the problem of soldered joint embrittlement is
presented. The role in embrittlement of platelet-like crystals formed by
the intermetallic compounds of tin with gold, silver and palladium is
addressed, and the ductile-to-brittle transition of Sn-based solders is
discussed. Microstructural mechanisms that contribute to cracking
under impact and thermal cycling are described.
*06-249285
Mechanical properties of Pb-free SnAg solder joints.
KELLER J; BAITHER D; WILKE U; SCHMITZ G
Acta Materialia, vol.59, no.7. 25 Feb.2011. pp.2731-2741. 12 fig., 1
tab., 20 ref. ISSN: 1359-6454
[in English]
Lead-free SnAgCu solder joints were investigated with regard to their
mechanical properties in comparison with conventional eutectic SnPb
solder joints. Solder (Sn, 0-5%Ag, 0.4%Cu) discs (diameter 3 mm;
thickness 230 micrometres) were sandwiched between two Cu sheets
(20 x 10 x 1 mm) and reflowed (soldering temperature 250-340 deg.C;
time at max. temperature 3 min; cooling rate 1 deg.C/s) in a vacuum

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

19

SOLDERING

furnace under a reducing atmosphere. The samples were


microstructurally characterised and tested for shear strength, ductility
and hardness, and the findings were compared with those obtained for
conventional PbSn solders under identical experimental conditions. The
results are discussed with regard to the effects of solder composition
on the microstructure of SnAgCu solder joints.

(solder foil thickness 0.1 mm; flux 22%ZnCl2 + 2%NH4Cl in water;


260 deg.C; 90 s) together; tensile and shear strengths, microstructure
and of the thickness of the interfacial intermetallic compounds were
determined. The results are discussed with regard to improving the
properties of SAC305 by means of doping with trace amounts of
elements.

*06-249286
Morphology of the tin whiskers on the surface of a
Sn-3Ag-0.5Cu-0.5Nd alloy.
CHUANG T H; JAIN C C
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.42A, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.684-691. 10 fig., 2 tab., 19 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5623, 1543-1940
[in English]
The growth and morphology of tin whiskers on a Sn-Ag-Cu alloy
containing a rare earth (RE) element were investigated. Ingots of the
RE-doped alloy (Sn, 3%Ag, 0.5%Cu, 0.5%Nd) were prepared, cut,
ground and polished. Some specimens were stored in air at either room
temperature or 150 deg.C. The microstructure of intermetallic
compounds, the morphologies of tin whiskers and the chemical
compositions of both as-cast and air-stored specimens were examined.
The results are discussed, and a "successive compressive stress model"
that accounts for the growth of tin whiskers on the surface of a
RE-containing solder is proposed.

*06-249422
Lead-free wave soldering.
BARBINI D; BATH J
In Book: Lead-Free Solder Process Development. Ed: G.Henshall,
J.Bath and C.A.Handwerker. Publ: Hoboken, New Jersey 07030,
USA; John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 2011. Chapter 3. pp.45-69. 4 fig., 12
ref. ISBN: 9780470410745
[in English]
Wave soldering using lead-free solders is reviewed, addressing the
optimisation required to achieve good results. The topics explored
include wave-soldering process boundaries (fluxes, preheating, wave
height, wave contact length, conveyor speed); soldering temperatures
on electronic chips and main soldering waves; solder alloys suitable for
use in lead-free soldering (SnAgCu, SnCu); the role of nitrogen in wave
soldering; the influence of the printed circuit board design on the
formation of wave solder joints (solder bridging, hole-fill defects, open
or skipped joints, solder balls); and standards used for wave soldering.
Possible research directions are briefly suggested.

*06-249328
Tips for creating consistency in soldering.
INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.2. Apr.2011. Brazing and Soldering
Today. pp.77-79. 4 fig. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English] (Based on information from OK International)[Similar
paper: Welding Journal, vol.90, no.3. Mar.2011. Brazing and
Soldering Today. pp.60-62; Weldasearch 247109]
The factors which allow for consistent and repeatable hand soldering
processes in a high throughput environment are discussed. The topics
covered are: tip-heater interplay (commercial soldering iron
performance ratings); tip characteristics (size and shape); heater
control strategy (fixed power ratings, digital temperature meter,
thermal loading, temperature overshoot and undershoot); energy
management (inductive heating compared with conventional); speed
and cost (financial example).
06-249357
Effects of small accounts of Ni/P/Ce element additions on the
microstructure and properties of Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder alloy.
DONG W X; SHI Y W; LEI Y P; XIA Z D; GUO F
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol.20, no.10.
Oct.2009. pp.1008-1017. 13 fig., 1 tab., 35 ref. ISSN: 0957-4522
[in English]
The effects of doping SAC305 (Sn, 3.0%Ag, 0.5%Cu) solder alloy
with small quantities of the elements nickel, phosphorus and cerium
were investigated. Ingots (80 x 20 x 5 mm) of SAC305, SAC305Ni (Sn,
3.0%Ag, 0.5%Cu, 0.1%Ni), SAC305P (Sn, 3.0%Ag, 0.5%Cu, 0.01%P)
and SAC305Ce (Sn, 3.0%Ag, 0.5%Cu, 0.05%Ce) were fabricated. The
solders were tested to determine their melting temperatures, wetting
properties and anti-oxidation abilities. In addition, hot cracking of the
solders was investigated by placing solder in a slot (30 x 5 x 3 mm) in
the middle of a copper specimen (50 x 30 x 4 mm) and conducting
reflow soldering (260 deg.C; 75 s) before allowing the specimen to cool
to room temperature in air. The resulting hot cracking was
microscopically examined and measured. Copper bars (diameter 10 mm
by length 5 mm and diameter 5 mm by length 2.5 mm) were soldered

*06-249423
Lead-free rework.
DONALDSON A
In Book: Lead-Free Solder Process Development. Ed: G.Henshall,
J.Bath and C.A.Handwerker. Publ: Hoboken, New Jersey 07030,
USA; John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 2011. Chapter 4. pp.71-93. 22 fig., 3
tab., 12 ref. ISBN: 9780470410745
[in English]
Advice on reworking of lead-free soldered joints is provided. The
topics addressed include surface mount technology (SMT) hand
soldering and touching up (passive components rework, QFP/gull wing
rework, ECO wiring, solder pad repair); rework of ball grid array
(BGA) chip scale packages (heat sink removal, thermocouple
placement, solder removal by wicking, fluxing); procedures for rework
of BGA sockets using solder paste; X-ray inspection of rework;
through-hole hand-soldering rework; through hole mini-pot/solder
fountain rework; and best practices and rework equipment calibrations.
Possible research directions are briefly suggested.

*06-249426
Testability of lead-free printed circuit assemblies.
REINOSA R D; ALLEN A M
In Book: Lead-Free Solder Process Development. Ed: G.Henshall,
J.Bath and C.A.Handwerker. Publ: Hoboken, New Jersey 07030,
USA; John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 2011. Chapter 7. pp.151-172. 25 fig., 7
tab., 7 ref. ISBN: 9780470410745
[in English]
The testability of printed circuit assemblies (PCAs) and the challenges
that arise from the move to greater use of lead-free solders are
discussed. The difficulties associated with probing lead-free solder
pastes and flux residues are illustrated using the results of research into
contact repeatability. The increased wear and contamination of
in-circuit test probes caused by lead-free materials is outlined. The
effect of transient bend flexure modes when lead-free PCAs are
subjected to in-circuit testing is examined also.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

OTHER JOINING PROCESSES

20

*06-249495
Influence of reactive process gases on zinc solders on aluminium
and steel.
TIEMANN S; LIE L; HOLLANDER U; MOHWALD K; BACH F W
Welding and Cutting, vol.10, no.5. 2011. pp.314-317. 5 fig., 5 ref.
ISSN: 1612-3433
[in English]
An experimental procedure was performed to study the influence of
reactive process gases on zinc solders on aluminium and steel. Surface
activation as a result of mixing reactive gasses with inert gas, allowing
avoidance of the use of commercial fluxes, was developed. Hydrogen
chloride and silane were used in combination to create a reducing and
surface activating atmosphere. The chemical reactions of silane in
oxygen and in water are presented together with those of zinc and zinc
oxide with hydrogen chloride and aluminium oxide with zinc chloride.
Wetting and soldering experiments were performed in a furnace with a
gas supply panel for controlling the gas flow. Wetting experiments
were first performed on aluminium and steel while using silane and
hydrogen chloride in a nitrogen atmosphere. Hydrogen chloride was
varied from 800 ppm to 2700 ppm. The zinc solder was applied and
samples were heated for 10 minutes above 420 deg.C with maximum of
440 deg.C. Zinc coatings were arc-sprayed onto aluminium and the
zinc coating was remelted at 440 deg. C in silane-enriched nitrogen
containing 2,700 ppm hydrogen chloride. Soldering experiments were
performed for hybrid components of aluminium and steel with zinc foil
during which the amount of HCl was varied between 800 and 1900
ppm in silane-enriched and silane-free atmospheres.
06-249503
Specification for torch soldering.
AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY
US Standard AWS C3.11M/C3.11: 2011. 1st Edition. Publ: Miami, FL
33126, USA; American Welding Society; 2011. 25pp. 2 fig., 3 ref.
ISBN: 9780871717931
[in English]
Processes and procedures for torch soldering are specified. Manual,
semi-automatic or fully automatic flame soldering of Cu, Fe, Ni, Al,
Mg, Sn, Pb and Zn alloys, ceramics, precious metals and refractory
metals are covered. Specifications include joint classification, process
requirements (equipment, materials, process procedures and
qualification) and quality assurance provisions for destructive and
nondestructive testing and acceptance.

07 OTHER JOINING PROCESSES


See also abstracts: 01-249193, 03-249355, 05-249190, 11-249466,
20-249354, 30-249479, 42-249363

*07-249150
Al-to-Mg friction stir welding: effect of material position, travel
speed, and rotation speed.
FIROUZDOR V; KOU S
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.41A, no.11.
Nov.2010. pp.2914-2935. 29 fig., 7 tab., 32 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5623,
1543-1940
[in English]
The effects of variations in welding conditions on microstructure and
tensile strength of butt friction stir welds (FSW) of Al to Mg alloys
were investigated. Sheets (76 x 51 x 1.6 mm) of 6061-T6 Al (Al,
0.52%Fe, 0.62%Si, 0.28%Cu, 0.08%Mn, 0.89%Mg, 0.19%Cr.
0.02%Zn, 0.01%Ti) and AZ31 Mg (Mg, 0.5%Mn, 1.0%Zn, 3.0%Al)

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

were butt welded together using FSW carried out by a Lagun FTV-1
milling machine (counter-clockwise rotation speed 1000-2200 rpm;
travel speed 38-305 mm/min; H13 tool steel; tool shoulder diameter 10
mm; tool tilt 3 deg. forward; threaded pin; pin diameter 4 mm; pin
length 1.3 mm). Relative to the rotating tool, the 6061 Al sheet was on
either the advancing or the retreating side. The tool was offset to Al,
Mg or neither. When the tool was offset to 6061 Al, the axis of the
tool was shifted 1.5 mm into the 6061 Al sheet, whereas when the tool
was offset to AZ31 Mg, it was shifted 1.5 mm into the AZ31 Mg
sheet. Power input was determined from torque measurements. An
etching procedure was used to reveal Al, Mg, Al3Mg2 and Al12Mg17
in the microstructure. The results of torque, power and force
measurements; temperature measurements; tensile testing; and weld
microstructure analysis are discussed.
*07-249155
Friction stir lap welding of magnesium alloy to steel: a
preliminary investigation.
JANA S; HOVANSKI Y; GRANT G J
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.41A, no.12. Dec.2010.
pp.3173-3182. 11 fig., 4 tab., 12 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5623, 1543-1940
[in English]
The feasibility of using friction stir welding (FSW) to join a magnesium
alloy to steel was investigated. AZ31B magnesium alloy sheet (100 x
305 x 2.33 mm) was placed either on electrogalvanised (EG) mild steel
sheet (100 x 305 x 0.8 mm) or on hot-dipped galvanised (HDG)
high-strength, low-alloy (HSLA) steel sheet (100 x 305 x 1.5 mm) with
a 38 mm overlap and with the AZ31 sheet's rolling direction transverse
to the welding direction. The sheets underwent FSW (revolution 700
rpm; travel speed 100 mm/min; tilt 0 deg.; plunge depth 2.45 mm; weld
length 240 mm; H13 steel tool with scrolled convex shoulder and
cylindrical pin; tool shoulder diameter 12.8 mm; pin diameter 4.9 mm;
pin height 2.34 mm) using a high stiffness, precision FSW machine in
the position-controlled mode. The dissimilar-metal weld joints were
subjected to metallographic analysis, tensile testing and analysis of the
joint interface microstructure. The results of these analyses are
discussed.
*07-249156
Formation of liquid and intermetallics in Al-to-Mg friction stir
welding.
FIROUZDOR V; KOU S
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.41A, no.12. Dec.2010.
pp.3238-3251. 15 fig., 7 tab., 30 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5623, 1543-1940
[in English]
The formation of intermetallic compounds and liquid during
dissimilar-metal friction stir welding (FSW) of Al alloy to Mg alloy
was investigated. FSW was used to join 6061 Al (Al, 0.62%Si,
0.28%Cu, 0.08%Mn, 0.89%Mg, 0.19%Cr, 0.02%Zn, 0.01%Ti,
0.52%Fe) to AZ31 (Mg, 0.5%Mn, 1.0%Zn, 3.0%Al) in two
configurations: a lap joint between overlapping sheets (76 x 70 x 1.6
mm; 6061 Al sheet on top; overlap 38 mm) and a butt weld between
adjoining sheets (76 x 51 x 1.6 mm). The lap FSW parameters were:
H13 steel tool; concave shoulder; shoulder diameter 10 mm; tilt 3 deg.;
threaded pin; pin diameter 4 mm; pin length 1.5 or 2.3 mm; travel
speed 38 mm/min; rotation speed 1400 or 2200 rpm. The parameters
for the butt FSW, which was carried out with 6061 Al on the
advancing site, were: H13 steel tool; concave shoulder; shoulder
diameter 10 mm; tilt 3 deg.; threaded pin; pin diameter 4 mm; pin
length 1.3 mm; travel speed 38 or 254 mm/min; rotation speed 2200
rpm. Additional lap welding was carried out near the edge of the sheet
of the upper sheet and liquid droplets sqeezed out during welding

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

21

solidified along the edge. The results of temperature measurements


during lap FSW; colour etching and X-ray diffraction examination,
electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and transmission microscopic
observation of intermetallic compounds in the stir zone; optical
microscopic examination and EPMA of droplets squeezed out during
welding; and differential scanning calorimetry are discussed.
*07-249158
Global and local mechanical properties and microstructure
friction stir welds with dissimilar materials and/or thicknesses.
ZADPOOR A A; SINKE J; BENEDICTUS R
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.41A, no.13. Dec.2010.
pp.3365-3378. 8 fig., 4 tab., 50 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5623, 1543-1940
[in English]
In the context of tailor-made blanks (TMBs), properties and
microstructure of a wide range of friction stir welded (FSW) joints of
dissimilar aluminium alloys and different thicknesses were investigated.
Friction stir welding of 2024-T3 and 7075-T6 aluminium alloys in ten
different combinations and thicknesses (1.2-2.5 mm) was carried out
with the welding parameters (weld angle 2 deg.; inclination angle 0-2.1
deg.; tool shoulder diameter 6-13 mm; pin diameter 3-5 mm; rotational
speed 400-1500 rpm; travel speed 100-400 mm/min; tool force 3.5-12
kN) optimised for each configuration. The results of analyses of the
weld specimens are discussed with regard to microstructural features,
global mechanical properties, local mechanical properties and fracture
mechanisms. The conclusions regarding the effects that thickness and
material difference have on the microstructure and global and local
mechanical properties of FSW TMBs are summarised.

OTHER JOINING PROCESSES

partner is chosen, are discussed. Clinching process requirements,


clinching automation and the choice of software packages for body
assembly and clinching of fully pre-painted panels are discussed. The
challenges of joining castings, extrusions, sheet, forgings, etc. and where
welding will fit in the future of joining at the company are mentioned.
The possibilities of ultrasonic spot welding are described.
JAGUAR; LAND ROVER
*07-249165
Still the poor relation.
SMITH S D
Automotive Manufacturing Solutions. Nov.-Dec.2009. pp.50-51. 2 fig.
ISSN: 1471-6038
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 249164]
The use of structural adhesives in automobile manufacture is discussed.
The advantages of adhesive over mechanical fastening are described.
The experience of Jaguar Land Rover using these adhesives in
structural body-in-white (BIW) on spot welded and riveted joints and
their research into the adhesives are outlined. The lifecycle of adhesive
joints and results of long term testing are mentioned. The limited
availability of product suppliers for automotive applications and the
impact of use of adhesive bonding on crashworthiness are described.

*07-249161
Texture development in near-alpha Ti friction stir welds.
FONDA R W; KNIPLING K E
Acta Materialia, vol.58, no.19. Nov.2010. pp.6452-6463. 11 fig., 3
tab., 44 ref. ISSN: 1359-6454
[in English] [Corrigendum ibid., vol.59, no.5. Mar.2011. p.2240]
The microstructure and crystallographic textures produced during
friction stir welding (FSW) of titanium alloy Ti-5111 at three weld
travel speeds were investigated and results compared with previous
findings. Friction stir welding of Ti-5111 (Ti, 5%Al, 1%Sn, 1%Zr,
1%V, 0.8%Mo) plate (6 mm thickness) was investigated using travel
speeds of 0.4, 1 and 1.7 mms-1 and a constant tool rotation rate (234
rpm). The weld exit holes near the plate mid thickness were examined
by backscattered electron (BSE) imaging and electron back-scattered
diffraction (EBSD) to study the grain structure and textures of the
welds. The results are discussed referring to thermocouple curves,
transverse cross-sections, tool geometry, plan-view cross-sections,
BSE images and EBSD scans. The manipulation of pole figures to
analyse the textures and use of orientation distribution functions
(ODFs) are described in detail. Crystallographic textures were
correlated with those predicted from bcc and hcp simple shear textures.

*07-249181
Effect of post-welding heat treatments on mechanical properties
of double lap FSW [friction stir welding] joints in high strength
aluminium alloys.
CERRI E
Metallurgical Science and Technology, vol.29, no.1. 2011. pp.32-39.
11 fig., 2 tab., 22 ref.
[in English] [Similar article: Materials and Design, vol.32, no.6. June
2011. pp.3465-3475]
Influences of different post weld heat treatments on the microstructure
and mechanical properties in double-lap joints made by friction stir
welding were studied. Central sheet of thickness 2 mm in 7075-T6 Al
alloy (Al, 1.2-2%Cu, 2.1-2.9%Mg, 5.1-6.1%Zn) was put in long
transverse direction (to limit rolling texture effects) between two
external sheets of thickness 1.3 mm in 2024-T3 Al alloy (Al,
3.8-4.9%Cu, 1.2-1.8%Mg, 0.3-0.9%Mn). External sheets were welded
parallel to the rolling direction. Joint thermal stability was examined by
performing heat treatments at 200-450 deg.C for 0.5-6 h. Room
temperature deformation was used to measure the joint tensile strength
and strain hardening coefficient. Microhardness profiles were measured
for transversal sections to show hardness homogeneity conditions at
top, bottom and central nugget zone, and along the whole measured
profile. Mechanical properties of parent metals and joints before heat
treatment were determined for comparison purposes. Microstructure,
grain size and morphology of different regions of the joints were
examined before and after welding, after heat treatment and after
mechanical testing.

*07-249164
Strength without sparks.
SMITH S D
Automotive Manufacturing Solutions. Nov.-Dec.2009. pp.44-48. 6 fig.
ISSN: 1471-6038
[in English]
In an interview with the chief technical specialist, body engineering, of
Jaguar Land Rover cars, about bonding and joining trends, the use of
the self-pierce rivets (SPR) process is discussed. Grades of rivet
hardness and suppliers used are described. The type of fastener
method used, personnel training for riveting and how a rivet system

*07-249196
Friction stir welding of magnesium alloys.
ZHANG H
In Book: Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys. Ed: L.M.Liu.
Publ: Cambridge, CB21 6AH, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2010.
Part 2: Particular Welding and Joining Techniques. Chapter 16.
pp.274-305. 23 fig., 65 ref. ISBNs: 9781845696924, 9780857090423
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 227313]
A review of the current state of understanding and development of
friction stir welding (FSW) of magnesium alloys is presented. The
topics discussed include: welding parameters and procedures; the range

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

OTHER JOINING PROCESSES

22

of shapes available for friction stir welding tools; materials to which


FSW has been or is being applied (Mg-Al-Zn, Mg-Al-Mn, AM50,
AM60, AZ31, AZ61, AZ91); microstructures that are observed in
FSW joints in Mg alloys, covering nugget, thermomechanically affected
zone and HAZ; properties of FSW welds in Mg alloys (tensile, fatigue,
corrosion, hardness); weld defects that may occur in FSW Mg alloys
(surface shape imperfections, porosity and the effects of process
conditions, lack of penetration); and applications of FSW Mg alloys.
Future trends in this technique are suggested, and sources of additional
information and advice are listed.

*07-249199
Electromagnetic pulse welding of magnesium to aluminium
sheets.
KORE S; IMBERT J; ZHOU Y; WORSWICK M
In Book: Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys. Ed: L.M.Liu.
Publ: Cambridge, CB21 6AH, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2010.
Part 2: Particular Welding and Joining Techniques. Chapter 19.
pp.367-379. 9 fig., 37 ref. ISBNs: 9781845696924, 9780857090423
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 238843, 232520 and 242321]
The application of electromagnetic (EM) welding to the joining of
magnesium alloy sheets to aluminium alloy sheets is reviewed. The
fundamental theory of EM welding is outlined, and the necessary
equipment is described. The welding technique is illustrated, and the
materials used in the process are discussed. The effects of welding
conditions on joint shear strength and microstructure are reported.
Safety guidelines that should be applied when working with the EM
welding setup are listed.

*07-249201
Development of concepts of the lower boundary of explosion
welding of metals.
LYSAK V I; KUZMIN S V
Paton Welding Journal, no.11. Nov.2009. pp.6-11. 8 fig., 37 ref. ISSN:
0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
Evolution of the theory of bonding in explosive welding is traced, with
emphasis on development of a parameter lower boundary for efficient
joint formation. Theories and equations by which the lower bound was
defined in terms of collision angle, contact point velocity, average plate
mass, pressure, time and temperature are reviewed.

*07-249202
Influence of deformation mechanism in the collision zone of
material pairs on selection of optimum parameters of explosion
welding.
BONDAR M P
Paton Welding Journal, no.11. Nov.2009. pp.12-15. 3 fig., 12 ref.
ISSN: 0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
Physical processes affecting the bonding efficiency in explosive
welding, and hence the selection of appropriate process parameters, are
discussed. Theories of bond formation due to a band of plastic
deformation localisation (BPDL) at the interface are reviewed,
including the relationship between material grain size and shear
deformation. The use of axisymmetric explosive loading of hollow
thick walled cylinders for studying BPDL development is reviewed.
Experiments on copper samples, relating grain size to deformation
velocity and contact angle, and thence to BPDL width, are reported.

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

*07-249203
Channel effect in explosion welding.
DOBRUSHIN L D; FADEENKO Yu I; ILLARIONOV S Yu;
SHLENSKY P S
Paton Welding Journal, no.11. Nov.2009. pp.16-17. 1 fig., 8 ref. ISSN:
0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
Published and experimental data which clarify the mechanisms of
surface erosion during explosive welding of long steel parts are
reviewed and collated. When welding long joints, debris travelling at
super detonation velocity builds up in the joint gap ahead of the
detonation front. Experiments were performed using a steel cylinder
(St20) and concentric shell, of 600 mm length, to study the debris and
the weld surface state. A mechanism is proposed in which secondary
surface erosion is attributed to the surface temperature rise caused by
primary particle impingement.
*07-249204
Features of explosion welding of titanium to steel in a shielding
atmosphere.
PERVUKHINA O L; PERVUKHIN L B; BERDYCHENKO A A;
DOBRUSHIN L D; PETUSHKOV V G; FADEENKO Yu I
Paton Welding Journal, no.11. Nov.2009. pp.18-22. 5 fig., 1 tab., 8 ref.
ISSN: 0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
Mechanisms controlling the weldability of large steel/Ti bimetal plates
by explosive welding were investigated. When welded in air, high
defect levels were found at distances of 1 metre from the weld
initiation point. Particle trapping at the extreme end of the plates was
used to study particulate matter ejected ahead of the moving weld line.
Microscopy and microprobe analysis were used to identify titanium
oxide particulates, which were not present when welding was
performed in an inert atmosphere. A thermodynamic study identified
partial melting of the titanium surface. Industrial bonding of VTI to
steels 09G2S, 12Kh18N10T or ST20 was performed successfully.
*07-249205
Peculiarities of instability of the process of explosion cladding of
large-size billets.
SILCHENKO T S; KUZMIN S V; LYSAK V I; DOLGY Yu G
Paton Welding Journal, no.11. Nov.2009. pp.22-27. 6 fig., 1 tab., 23
ref. ISSN: 0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
A proposal is made as to mechanisms contributing to instabilities of
the welding process occurring during explosive cladding of long
workpieces. A literature review was conducted and a summary of
experimental investigations is presented. Three proposed controlling
mechanisms are discussed. The possibility of gap increase ahead of the
contact point, caused by the shock wave, was investigated
experimentally. Detail of the methods and measurements for a copper
flier plate and steel target plate are summarised. Controlling
mechanisms are proposed.
*07-249206
Modelling and application of high-velocity explosion welding
processes.
SMIRNOV G V; SHUGANOV A D; STEFANOVICH R V;
YADEVICH A I; PETROV I V; KAMORNY A A;
KONOPLYANIK V A; LUCHENOK A R; TOLOSHNY A A;
BOGDANOVICH P T; DZICHKOVSKY O A
Paton Welding Journal, no.11. Nov.2009. pp.28-36. 8 fig., 13 ref.
ISSN: 0957-798X

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

23

[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)


Studies by Belarus researchers on the theory of explosion welding are
reviewed. Physical concepts underlying the mathematical model are
described, and capabilities of numerical modelling of the joint formation
process under subsonic oblique collision conditions are demonstrated.
Simple semi-empirical calculation methods are presented, and examples
of practical applications of explosion welding and treatment are given.
Bimetal examples cited include Mo/W, Ti/W, Ti/A516 steel, Cu/Ti,
Al/steel, Al/Ti and Zr bronze/Mo.

*07-249207
On the influence of shock wave on welding gap increase in
production of large-sized sheet components by explosion welding.
BESSHAPOSHNIKOV Yu P; KOZHEVNIKOV V E;
CHERNUKHIN V I; PAJ V V
Paton Welding Journal, no.11. Nov.2009. pp.36-38. 2 fig., 2 tab., 9 ref.
ISSN: 0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
Dependence of the length of the shock wave in the joining zone on
path length of the detonation wave was studied for the case of
explosive welding of titanium to steel. It was proposed that the gap
between flier plate and target plate increased due to shock-compressed
air. Experiments were performed using 5 mm thickness Ti, bonding to
60 mm thickness, 2.1 x 2.2 m 09G2S steel tubesheet with 4 mm gap.
Measurements and calculation were used to determine the change in
collision angle and gap as a function of path length.

*07-249208
Determination of the parameters of shock-compressed gas in the
welding gap ahead of the contact point in explosion cladding.
BONDARENKO S Yu; RIKHTER D V; PERVUKHINA O L;
PERVUKHIN L B
Paton Welding Journal, no.11. Nov.2009. pp.39-41. 2 fig., 11 ref.
ISSN: 0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
Dynamic characterisation of the shock-compressed gas in the gap
between plates in explosion cladding is reported. The calculation
procedure is set out, divided into two parts: calculation of the gas
parameters (pressure, temperature); and calculation of the geometric
extent of the effect. An hypothesis is put forward, based upon gas
thermal ionisation to form a plasma in the gap between plates.

*07-249209
Industrial applications of explosion clad (Review).
BANKER J G
Paton Welding Journal, no.11. Nov.2009. pp.42-46. 8 fig., 1 tab., 18
ref. ISSN: 0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
Uses of explosive cladding are reported. After a brief history of the
process, typical sizes, shapes and materials suitable for explosive
cladding are reported. A performance comparison is made with hot
rollbonding and weld overlay surfacing. Applications, principally from
chemical and petrochemical industries, are described and illustrated.
Use in fabrication of tubesheets and in transition joints for joining
incompatible metals by conventional welding methods are covered also.
Typical metal combinations suitable for explosive welding are
tabulated.

OTHER JOINING PROCESSES

*07-249211
Explosive cladding for ITER [international thermo-nuclear
experimental reactor] components.
CARTON E; STUIVINGA M
Paton Welding Journal, no.11. Nov.2009. pp.49-52. 8 fig., 5 ref. ISSN:
0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
Development of explosive cladding procedures to meet fabrication
needs of ITER components is reported. Proposed ITER materials and
environments are outlined, including the use of Be and W cladding on
Cu. Experimental explosive cladding of W onto Cu was performed.
Detail of the test piece design, a discussion of the ductile-to-brittle
transition temperature of W as a function of thickness, use of W foil
for cladding at room temperature and use of preheat for cladding with 2
mm thickness W are reported.
*07-249212
New technology for production of joints on high-strength
aluminium alloys by explosion welding.
ILLARIONOV S Yu; DOBRUSHIN L D; FADEENKO Yu I
Paton Welding Journal, no.11. Nov.2009. pp.57-60. 5 fig., 4 tab., 3 ref.
ISSN: 0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
Development of an explosion-welded transition piece with application
to joining of hard-to-weld seven series aluminium alloys for use in civil
aircraft fabrication is reported. Weldability issues with heat-hardening
alloys are explained. Experiments were performed using Al 7050 target
material, 150 mm thickness and Al 7017-T651 (10 mm) or Al 7018 (10
or 15 mm) Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys as the cladding material, which was
subjected to heating (465 deg.C, 1 h) and water quenching before
welding to decrease strength and increase ductility. After explosion
welding with parallel flier plate, joints were evaluated for
microstructure, static tear strength and hardness at intervals up to 70
days. Improved properties due to natural ageing were developed.
Materials so treated were then butt-weldable by laser or EB welding.
*07-249213
Application of emulsion explosives for explosion welding.
SILVESTROV V V; PLASTININ A V; RAFEJCHIK S I
Paton Welding Journal, no.11. Nov.2009. pp.61-64. 3 fig., 2 tab., 12
ref. ISSN: 0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
Characteristics of low-velocity emulsion explosives, formulated with
hollow glass microballoons and having a detonation velocity of 2-3
km/s, are presented and their application is considered for explosive
cladding. Cladding is described of steel or copper plates with foils (Al,
Ti, stainless steel, bronze, Cu, Mo) of 0.1-0.3 mm thickness without a
damping layer between the plates and flyer foil, or using a sheet of
plastic between emulsion and foil. Also described is the explosive
welding of a steel tube 11 mm in diameter to a steel bushing by the
parallel welding technique proposed for tube to tube plate welds.
*07-249214
Production of aluminium-steel bimetal with profiled interface.
BOGUNOV A Z; KUZOVNIKOV A A
Paton Welding Journal, no.11. Nov.2009. pp.65-68. 5 fig., 2 tab., 9 ref.
ISSN: 0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
The microstructure and strength properties of explosively welded
Al-steel joints were investigated as a function of surface preparation.
Parallel, square-sided grooves were cut in the mating surfaces of A5M
aluminium and St3 steel to be welded, with groove width and depth as

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

OTHER JOINING PROCESSES

24

experimental variables. It was postulated that, in addition to explosive


welding, a riveting action, in which troughs and peaks are forced
together, helps to improve weld strength. Microstructure, X-ray
fluorescence analysis, hardness and tensile strength of welds were
evaluated and mechanisms discussed. Use on anode assemblies for
electrolytic cells at aluminium plants is reported.
*07-249215
Possibility of preservation of shape and size of cylindrical tubular
billets of moulds in explosion cladding.
MESHCHERYAKOV Yu P; OGOLIKHIN V M; YAKOVLEV I V
Paton Welding Journal, no.11. Nov.2009. pp.68-70. 4 fig., 1 tab., 7 ref.
ISSN: 0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
Experiments were performed to establish the optimum process
conditions for fabricating copper/steel cylinders by explosive welding,
for use as moulds in vacuum arc or electroslag remelting furnaces.
Copper cylinders 0.76-1.8 m in length, 100-430 mm internal diameter,
23-54 mm wall thickness were to be externally clad with steel of 7-10
mm thickness to reduce distortion in use. Using a specially designed
test piece, a series of experiments were performed with the bore of the
Cu pipe filled, to prevent distortion during explosive welding. Fillings
were metal shot (alone or with water), saltpetre and gun grease.
Distortion was measured for various pipe sizes and explosive changes.
Reasons for selection of metal shot are discussed.
*07-249216
Integrated technologies of producing multipurpose layered
composite materials.
TRYKOV YU P; GUREVICH L M; SHMORGUN V G
Paton Welding Journal, no.11. Nov.2009. pp.71-75. 8 fig., 1 tab., 16
ref. ISSN: 0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
An overview is given of research into processing routes for multi-layer
composite metallic materials, including intermetallic compounds. The
process is based upon explosive welding, combined with hot rolling
and heat treatment. The report covers materials selection (e.g. Ti/Al/Ti;
Ti/steel/Ti; Cu/Al/Cu), process combinations, experimental and
computational optimisation of parameters, and determination of
strength and thermal properties of composites, including the influence
of intermetallics on strength as a function of temperature. Some
application examples are described, including a heat exchanger
combining Ti, Al, Cu, Mg and steel, and cable made with fibrous
intermetallic composites.
*07-249217
List of main monographs on explosion welding.
PATON WELDING JOURNAL
Paton Welding Journal, no.11. Nov.2009. p.76. 41 ref. ISSN:
0957-798X
[in English] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
References are listed for 41 books and monographs on explosive
welding, published 1966-2009, predominantly, but not exclusively, in
countries of the former Soviet bloc.
*07-249248
Friction stir welded structural materials: beyond Al-alloys.
CAM G
International Materials Reviews, vol.56, no.1. Jan.2011. pp.1-48. 37
fig., 10 tab., 244 ref. ISSN: 0950-6608
[in English]

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

The current state-of-the-art regarding the application of friction stir


welding (FSW) to structural materials other than aluminium alloys is
reviewed. Following an introduction that provides an overview of the
fundamentals of the FSW process and the general process aspects of
weld variables, microstructural evolution and grain refinement, the use
of FSW to join magnesium alloys, copper alloys, steels, titanium alloys
and particulate reinforced metal matrix composite materials is
discussed with regard to the physical metallurgy, weld microstructure,
hardness and tensile properties of these materials. Finally, key
problems and issues, such as residual stresses and a lack of cost
effective tools, that are associated with the friction stir welding of
these materials are outlined.

*07-249276
Forming and joining - forging ahead.
THE ENGINEER
The Engineer, vol.296, no.7812. 28 Feb.2011. pp.38, 40, 42. ISSN:
0013-7758
[in English]
An overview of pioneering research into forming and joining processes
that could revolutionise manufacturing is presented. The topics
discussed include research being undertaken at the Advanced Forming
Research Centre at Strathclyde University in Glasgow, Scotland, into
superplastic deforming and automated forging of gas-turbine
compressor aerofoils; and research by The Welding Institute (TWI
Ltd) in Cambridge, England, into a linear friction welding process for
manufacturing bladed disc components for a next-generation aero
engine, friction stir welding, a laser-welding technique for joining
synthetic textiles to natural fabrics, a faster method of inspecting and
testing joints in composite materials, and ways of testing joints at high
temperature in molten salt (to 1100 deg.C) or gas (to 900 deg.C).

*07-249283
Back-of-the-envelope calculations in friction stir welding velocities, peak temperature, torque, and hardness.
ARORA A; DEBROY T; BHADESHIA H K D H
Acta Materialia, vol.59, no.5. Mar.2011. pp.2020-2028. 8 fig., 3 tab.,
61 ref. ISSN: 1359-6454
[in English]
Methodologies that allow important friction stir welding (FSW)
parameters to be approximately determined without requiring
time-consuming and complex calculations were developed and tested.
The viscous flow of an incompressible fluid induced by a solid rotation
disc was used as the basis for an approximate analytical solution of
three-dimensional weld metal flow velocity fields that was tested
against a numerical model using FSW (tool shoulder radius 9.5-12.5
mm; pin radius 3-5 mm; pin length 6.2-9.9 mm; rotating velocity
20.94-47.12 rad/s; axial pressure 37.75-130.7 MPa) of AA2524
aluminium alloy, 304L stainless steel and a titanium alloy (Ti, 6%Al,
4%V) as examples. An improved non-dimensional correlation for
estimating peak temperature was developed and tested against
experimental data for different weld pitches (tool shoulder diameter 25
mm; pin diameter 6 mm; welding velocity 400 mm/min) for the
aluminium 2024, 5083 and 7075 alloys. An analytical method for
estimating torque was developed and tested against experimental
measurements made at various tool rotational speeds during FSW of
AA2524 and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. A correlation between hardness in the
thermomechanically affected zone and the chemical composition of
FSW processed aluminium alloys was derived.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

25

*07-249288
Mechanical property and microstructure of linear friction welded
Waspaloy.
CHAMANFAR A; JAHAZI M; GHOLIPOUR J; WANJARA P;
YUE S
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.42A, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.729-744. 23 fig., 2 tab., 58 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5623, 1543-1940
[in English]
The nickel-based superalloy Waspaloy was studied with regard to its
mechanical properties and microstructural evolution following linear
friction welding (LFW). Rectangular Waspaloy (Ni, 17.08%Cr,
12.87%Co, 1.00%Fe, 4.12%Mo, 3.35%Ti, 1.07%Al, 0.07%Al,
0.07%B, 0.01%Zr, 0.04%C) blocks (length 13 mm; width 11 mm;
height 18 mm) underwent LFW (frequency of oscillation 40-80 Hz;
amplitude of oscillation 2-3 mm; pressure during oscillation 50-90
MPa; specific power input 637-3438 kW/square metre; room
temperature; no protective atmosphere) with the oscillation
perpendicular to the height by width cross section. The welded
samples were subjected to microhardness and tensile strength testing;
elongation strain across the weld was determined; the evolution of the
microstructure was examined by means of optical microscopy, electron
backscatter diffraction, high-resolution SEM and TEM. The
morphology, distribution, size and volume fraction of the gamma prime
phase from the weld interface to the parent metal were determined
also, and temperature variation in the thermomechanically affected
zone was measured in additional LFW experiments. A method of
extruding oxide layers into the flash is suggested as a means of
improving weld properties.
*07-249289
Microstructure evolution during friction stir welding of
mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V.
PILCHAK A L; TANG W; SAHINER H; REYNOLDS A P;
WILLIAMS J C
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.42A, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.745-762. 22 fig., 1 tab., 57 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5623, 1543-1940
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 235325]
The evolution of the microstructure of mill-annealed titanium alloy (Ti,
6%Al, 4%V) as it undergoes friction stir welding (FSW) was studied.
A tungsten 1%La2O2 tool (diameter 25 mm; probe length 9.9 mm;
rounded probe; no flute, threads or re-entrant features) was used in the
FSW (tool back tilt 1 degree; rotation 120-800 rpm; welding speed
50.8-203.2 mm/min; shielding gas argon) of bead-on-plate welds on
Ti-6Al-4V plates (thickness 10.3 mm). During welding, temperatures
were measured at two positions in the tool, and the microstructure and
texture of the welded specimens were studied to provide insight into
microstructure evolution and into the formation of fine beta grains in
the stirred zone during the FSW process. A fully automated technique
based on an understanding of the Burgers orientation relationship was
used to reconstruct the beta phase orientations from as-collected alpha
phase data.
*07-249294
Development of a technology for joining at low temperatures by a
combination of size effect and exothermic reactions (Entwicklung
einer Technologie zum Fugen bei niedrigen Temperaturen
durch Kombination von Grosseneffekten ...).
WILDEN J; JAHN S; FISCHER G; BARTOUT D; MILAHIN N;
HANNACH T; DRESCHER V E
Schweissen und Schneiden, vol.62, no.12. Dec.2010. pp.688-691. 5
fig., 5 ref. ISSN: 0036-7184
[in German] [Similar article: Welding and Cutting, vol.9, no.6. 2010.

OTHER JOINING PROCESSES

pp.338-339; Weldasearch 245880][See also Weldasearch 231462]


Experiments and model formation to determine constraints to design a
process combining size effect and exothermic reaction are described.
An overview is given of the influence of the size effect on
thermophysical properties of metals in nanotechnology (very thin foils
melting at lower temperatures) and its use for joining a multilayer
nanostructure. A finite element model was developed for heat transfer
in filler metal layers. A diagram is provided, showing temperature
distribution (900-1500 deg.C) at reaction speeds of 0.6-10 m/s for a
100 micrometre NiAl foil, with steel substrate and 0.5 mm and 31
micrometre filler metal coatings. Details are given of TEM
investigations into the foil structure before and after reaction, high
speed video imaging to determine reaction speed, and micro hardness
tests. An image and cross section is provided of the sample steel
component joined with nanofoil. The manufacture of a functional
model is outlined.
07-249337
Theoretical and experimental investigation into friction stir
welding of AA 5086.
JAMSHIDI AVAL H; SERAJZADEH S; KOKABI A H
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.42,
no.11. 2009. pp.531-544. 14 fig., 4 tab., 31 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768,
1433-3015
[in English]
The relationship between heat input and the microstructure of the
thermomechanically affected zone of AA5086 aluminium alloy that has
undergone friction stir welding (FSW) was investigated. A
three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of thermal stress was used
to predict welding heat input and thermal and mechanical responses
during the FSW process. Also a series of experiments was conducted in
which 150 x 50 x 5 mm sheets of AA5086 alloy (Al, 3.79%Mg,
0.513%Mn, 0.097%Cr, 0.254%Fe) in annealed and in work-hardened
conditions underwent single-pass FSW in a butt weld configuration
using a rotational speed of 900-1500 rev/min and a welding speed of
6-15 cm/min. The FSW tool had a shoulder diameter of 20 mm, a
conical pin of 6 mm diameter and an inclination angle of 1 degree.
Temperature variations at different positions were measured, and the
weld's microstructure, microhardness, and yield and tensile strengths
were determined. Temperature, strain and stress distribution during the
FSW process under different working conditions predicted by the FE
model are discussed and compared with the experimental findings.
07-249338
In-process heat treatments to improve FS [friction stir]-welded
butt joints.
FRATINI L; BUFFA G; SHIVPURI R
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.43,
no.7. 2009. pp.664-670. 11 fig., 1 tab., 14 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768,
1433-3015
[in English]
The possibility of using in-process cooling to improve the performance
of friction stir welded (FSW) AA 7075-T6 aluminium alloy butt joints
was investigated. FSW (tool rotation speed 715-1500 rev/min; feed rate
105-214 mm/min; rotational pitch 0.07-0.30 degrees) using a H13 steel
tool (shoulder diameter 12 mm; tilt angle 2 degrees) with a cylindrical
steel pin (diameter 4.00 mm; height 2.70 mm) was employed to weld
100 x 30 x 3 mm sheets of AA7075-T6 Al alloy. The welded joints
were developed under three different cooling conditions: in free air
without any external thermal conditioning; with a flow of compressed
air (800 kPa) following tool movement during the FSW process; and
with a flow of water (0.5 l/min) over the sheets following tool

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

OTHER JOINING PROCESSES

26

movement. Specimens from the welded joints were subjected to tensile


and hardness testing, fractographic analysis and metallurgical analysis.
The results are discussed with regard to the specific thermal
contribution conferred to the joints under each of the examined cooling
treatments and the effects of the external refrigerants on joint
performance.
07-249343
The effects of casting and forging processes on joint properties in
friction-welded AISI 1050 and AISI 304 steels.
SUNAY T Y; SAHIN M; ALTINTAS S
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.44,
no.1. 2009. pp.68-79. 17 fig., 9 tab., 22 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768,
1433-3015
[in English]
The joint properties of hot-forged or investment-cast AISI 1050
medium carbon steel friction welded to machined AISI 304 austenitic
stainless steel were investigated and compared. Forged and cast AISI
1050 steel (0.48-0.50%C, 0.60-0.90%Mn) and AISI 304 steel (max.
0.8%C, max. 2.0%Mn, 18-20%Cr, 8-10.50%Ni) were used to fabricate
specimens with a diameter of 10 mm and a length of 60 mm. The
dissimilar materials joints were produced by means of a specially
designed and constructed continuous-drive friction welding device that
allowed friction time and forging pressure to be automatically
controlled and that used the following welding parameters: friction time
10-14 s; friction pressure 1.2-1.7 MPa; forging pressure 2.5-4.0 MPa.
The optimum process parameters required to maximise the tensile
strength of joints made with hot-forged or investment-cast AISI 1050
medium carbon steel were determined using factorial design. The
performances of the cast and forged joints are discussed and compared
in terms of tensile strength, hardness and microstructure.
07-249356
Effect of shoulder size on the temperature rise and the material
deformation in friction stir welding.
ZHANG Z; LIU Y L; CHEN J T
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.45,
no.9. 2009. pp.889-895. 7 fig., 39 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768, 1433-3015
[in English]
The influence of the size of the tool shoulder on temperature
distribution and material deformation during friction stir welding
(FSW) was investigated using a fully coupled thermo-mechanical
model. The boundary conditions of the finite element model and the
contact model are described. The model was applied to a scenario in
which a round workpiece (diameter 80 mm; thickness 3 mm) composed
of Al 6061-T6 alloy undergoes FSW (tool angular velocity 290
rev/min; axial pressure 90 MPa; welding speed 2 mm/s) using a
cylindrical pin without a thread (pin diameter 8 mm; shoulder diameter
16-24 mm). The results are discussed with regard to the relationships
between shoulder size and maximum temperature, temperature
distribution, power efficiency, grain growth, recrystallisation and
material deformation on the advancing and retreating sides.
07-249367
Multi-pass friction stir welding in alloy 7050-T7451: effects on
weld response variables and on weld properties.
BROWN R; TANG W; REYNOLDS A P
Materials Science and Engineering A, vol.A513-514. 15 July 2009.
pp.115-121. 12 fig., 1 tab., 30 ref. ISSN: 0921-5093
[in English]
The effects of multiple runs (five) during friction stir welding of 7050
AlZnMg alloy (Al, 6.2%Zn, 2.3%Mg, 2.3%Cu, 0.12%Zr, 6.4 mm

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

thickness) were investigated. Microstructure, weld metallurgy,


hardness, tensile strength and residual stresses were measured. Process
parameters included tool rotation speed of 540 rpm and welding speed
of 6.77 mm/second. Square overlapping butt welds were made at the
interface between plates. The slight changes in mechanical properties
and microstructure in the heat affected zone, welded joint and parent
metal with increasing number of runs are discussed. Multiple friction
stir weld runs could be carried out throughout the same material
without needing to modify the process parameters.
07-249368
Finite element process monitoring of inertia friction welding
advanced nickel-based superalloy.
GRANT B; PREUSS M; WITHERS P J; BAXTER G; ROWLSON M
Materials Science and Engineering A, vol.A513-514. 15 July 2009.
pp.366-375. 14 fig., 1 tab., 24 ref. ISSN: 0921-5093
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 208863 and 208864]
A mathematical model is presented for the inertia friction welding
process. The model was developed from a sequentially coupled
thermal and mechanical finite element model using the DEFORM-2D
software package. Test welds were made in RR1000, an advanced high
gamma content nickel-based superalloy (Ni, 15%Cr, 14-19%Co,
4.75%Mo, 3%Al, 3.8%Ti, 1.8%Ta). Thermal and residual stress
predictions were validated by analysis of gamma distribution across
the weld region and neutron diffraction measurements, respectively,
with good agreement between model and experimental data. The
validated model was used to study the effects of welding pressure on
material flow, microstructure, thermal characteristics and residual
stresses. The reductions in width of the heat affected zone and the
increase in peak temperature and strain rate with increasing weld
pressure are discussed.
*07-249415
Performance of friction stir welding in similar and dissimilar
thin plate [sheet] joining.
VILACA P; QUINTINO L; EMILIO B; LOUREIRO A;
RODRIGUES D M
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.11-12. Nov.-Dec.2009. pp.275-281. 8
fig., 3 tab., 66 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
Material flow and microstructural changes were investigated during
friction stir welding of 1 mm sheet of aluminium alloys 5182-H111
(Al, 4-5%Mg, 0.2-0.5%Mn) and 6016-T4 (Al, 1-1.5%Si,
0.25-0.6%Mg). The FSW tools used were either smooth with a conical
recess or had scrolled shoulders. Microhardness and microstructure
across the welds were determined. Weld hardness distribution was
measured and tensile properties were determined using test pieces cut
transverse to the weld; results were related to microstructure. Flow
patterns in the stirred zone were analysed.
*07-249437
Friction stir overlap welding of thick 2124 aluminium plate
(Trecie miesacie zvaranie ...).
HAVER W van; GEURTEN A; MEESTER B de; DEFRANCQ J
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.59, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2010. pp.3-14. 15 fig., 5
tab., 17 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
Assembly by friction stir welding was evaluated as an alternative to
milling from thick plate in fabrication of 30 mm flanges on 44 mm plate
in the hard to weld aerospace aluminium alloy 2124 (Al, 1.28%Mn,
4%Cu). Two pieces of the flange material were placed on top of each
other on the base plate, then friction stir welding was performed

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

27

through them and into the base plate. The result was milled to the
shape of the required flange. Effects on microstructure of the heat of
friction stir welding was investigated using 2124 T851 and 2124 T4.
Test welds were made in one or two passes, with standard, Triflat or
Triflute tool shape, at 5, 55 or 60 mm/minute welding speed and 200 or
300 rpm, plunge force 26-65 kN and tool tilt 0 or 1.5 degrees. Weld
macrostructure, microstructure, hardness distribution, and resistance to
electrochemical corrosion were determined.
*07-249472
Investigation of interfacial bonding between Na2O-B2O3-SiO2
solder and silicon carbide substrate.
LUO Z H; JIANG D L; ZHANG J X; LIN Q L; CHEN Z M;
HUANG Z R
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol.16, no.7.
Oct.2011. pp.592-596. 4 fig., 28 ref. ISSNs: 1362-1718, 1743-2936
[in English]
[http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/stwj]
The reactions and microstructure at the joint interface during the
joining process of SiC/glass solder/SiC were investigated by
microstructure observation, chemical structure and element analysis,
and wetting behaviour calculation. The Na2O3-B2O3-SiO2 glass
structure used in the investigation was obtained by melting a mixture of
the powder at a molecular ratio of 3:44:53 respectively, giving a
thermal expansion coefficient close to that of the SiC substrate. The
glass powder was ground further to give a particle size of less than 10
micrometres, which then acted as the joining solder in the process.
Joining surfaces were mated together in a sandwich structure in an
electric resistance furnace at a temperature of 1150 deg.C for 10
minutes. A separate process was carried out to investigate the possible
reaction between the SiC and glass phase during which a defined
amount of SiC combined with solder powder at a ratio of 1:5 was
applied onto the SiC surface using the same heat treatment conditions
but with an extended holding time at joining temperature of 5 hours.
FTIR analysis was performed on these samples to examine
composition and chemical bonds, and microstructure was observed
using SEM, EPMA. The vitrified bonds at the interface between the
SiC and the solder were also measured.
*07-249473
Effect of tool geometry on mechanical and microstructural
behaviours in dissimilar friction stir welding of AA 5086-AA
6061.
JAMSHIDI AVAL H; SERAJZADEH S; KOKABI A H;
LOUREIRO A
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol.16, no.7.
Oct.2011. pp.597-604. 9 fig., 6 tab., 16 ref. ISSNs: 1362-1718,
1743-2936
[in English]
[http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/stwj]
An experimental investigation was carried out to study the effect of
tool geometry on the mechanical behaviour and microstructure during
dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW) of 5 mm thickness plates of
5086-O (Al, 4.12%Mg, 0.447%MN, 0.030%Cu, 0.105%Cr, 0.244%Si,
0.343%Fe) and 6061-T6 (Al, 0.91%Mg, 0.083%Mn, 0.328%Cu,
0.065%Cr, 0.663%Si, 0.491%Fe) aluminium alloys. Prior to welding
the 5086 alloy was annealed at 345 deg.C for 1.5 hours. The 6061 alloy
was first annealed at 413 deg.C for 2 hours and then artificially aged at
160 deg.C for 18 hours. Single pass FSW welds were made using tools
of H13 steel. Three different tool geometries were used: concave
shoulder and conical probe with three grooves; a flat shoulder and
threadless cylindrical probe; and a tool with a flat shoulder and a

OTHER JOINING PROCESSES

threaded cylindrical probe. Weld rotational speed and welding speed


were varied for each tool parameter. The microstructure was examined
after welding. EPMA and energy dispersive x-ray analysis were
performed to determine the distribution of Mg in the stirred zone, as a
measure of the mixing of the two workpieces. Vickers hardness and
transverse and longitudinal tensile strengths were determined.
Temperature changes during and after FSW were recorded using
thermocouples inserted at different positions of the advancing and
retreating sides of the weld line.
*07-249474
Novel spot friction stir welding of 6061 and 5052 Al alloys.
SUN Y F; FUJII H; TAKAKI N; OKITSU Y
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol.16, no.7.
Oct.2011. pp.605-612. 14 fig., 1 tab., 27 ref. ISSNs: 1362-1718,
1743-2936
[in English]
[http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/stwj]
An experimental investigation was carried out to study a novel,
two-step friction stir spot welding method applied to similar joining of
1 mm thickness aluminium alloy 6061-T6 and 5052 (fully annealed)
sheets. The process was developed with the aim of improving the
mechanical properties of the joints by removing the keyhole. Similar
metal joints were made in 6061 (Al, 0.59%Si, 0.38%Fe, 0.26%Cu,
0.03%Mn, 0.96%Mg, 0.25%Cr, 0.02%Zn, 0.04%Ti) and 5052 (Al,
0.1%Si, 0.22%Fe, 0.01%Cu, 0.01%Mn, 2.24%Mg, 0.22%Cr,
0.01%Zn, 0.01%Ti); two sheets of each alloy were welded on an
overlap area of 30 mm by 30 mm. In the first stage of the welding
process, a specially designed back plate with round dent on the surface
was used to form a protuberance on the back side of the joint due to
the flow of materials into the dent. In the second step, a probeless
rotating tool was used to remove the protuberance as well as the
keyhole which formed in the first plate due to the retraction of the
probe. After welding optical microscopy was used to characterise the
macrostructure of the joints. EBSD measurements were also made. The
microstructures at the centre of the stir zone after the second step, as
well as the parent metal were also characterised by TEM. Mechanical
properties of the joint were investigated by Vickers hardness tests and
shear tensile tests. Metal flow in this process was compared with that
in conventional FSW spot welding.
*07-249477
Microstructural mapping of friction stir welded AA 7075-T6 and
AlMgSc alloys using electrical conductivity.
SANTOS T G; MIRANDA R M; VILACA P; TEIXEIRA J P;
DOS SANTOS J
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol.16, no.7.
Oct.2011. pp.630-635. 9 fig., 3 tab., 13 ref. ISSNs: 1362-1718,
1743-2936
[in English]
[http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/stwj]
Electrical conductivity field analysis was applied to bead on plate
friction stir welding (FSW) of AlMgSc and AA 7075-T6 aluminium
alloys, to identify the potential application of this technique to map
and characterise microstructural transformations. FSW was performed
on cold rolled plates of 3.3 mm and 6 mm thickness AlMgSc (Al,
4-4.5%Mg, 0.2%Fe, 0.4-1%Mn, 0.15%Si, 0.1-0.3%Sc, 0.03-0.2%Zr)
and 10 mm thickness 7075-T6 (87.1-91.4%Al, 0.18-0.28%Cr,
1.2-2%Cu, less than 0.5%Fe, 2.1-2.9%Mg, less than 0.3%Mn, less
than 0.4%Si, 5.1-6.1%Zn) with different welding parameters. Welding
rotational speed was varied from 180 to 335 revs per minute, travel
speed varied between 1 to 6.22 mm per minute and FSW was

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

THERMAL CUTTING

28

performed under "hot", "intermediate" and "cold" conditions (based on


tool rotation and travel speeds). Electrical conductivity profiles were
measured at half depth and compared with the hardness profiles and
microstructures observed under optical and SEM. EDS was used to
identify existing precipitates.

08 THERMAL CUTTING
See also abstracts: 03-249341

*08-249227
Investigation into properties of carbon electrodes for air
carbon-arc cutting (Badanie wlasnosci elektrod weglowych ...).
NIAGAJ J
Biuletyn Instytutu Spawalnictwa, vol.54, no.6. 2010. pp.26-31. 14
fig., 5 tab., 5 ref. ISSN: 0867-583X
[in Polish]
The effectiveness of air carbon arc cutting was investigated. Plates of
steel S355J2 (15 mm x 300 mm x 500 mm) were cut using different
types of electrodes: carbon electrodes made by Carbo-Graf (type
ESM-257) and electrodes type C. The quality of the electrodes was
assessed and physical and mechanical parameters determined by SGL
Carbon Polska S.A. in Raciborz. The influence of the copper coating
on the electrodes on their cutting efficiency was analysed. Advantages
and disadvantages of air carbon arc cutting are discussed.

*08-249240
Robotisation of sheets cutting and bevelling - 15 years of
experiences.
PILAT Z
Przeglad Spawalnictwa, vol.82, no.6. 2010. pp.24-27. 3 fig., 5 ref.
ISSN: 0033-2364
[in Polish]
The introduction of robotic systems for cutting (oxy-fuel and plasma)
and bevelling of metal plates is discussed. Robotised cutting equipment
manufactured by Industrial Research Institute for Automation and
Measurements are described. This includes stands with the following
robots: URP-6, KUKAKR16, KUKAKR16F and KR60L30HA.
Examples of cutting systems equipped with robots are shown and their
applications discussed. Advantages of robotic systems are given and
compared to manual processes.

*08-249433
Comparison of acetylene and propane-butane gas cutting
(Usporedba plinskog rezanja acetilenom ..).
KOZUH Z; GLOGOVIC Z; GARASIC I; PETROVIC V
Zavarivanje, vol.53, no.3-4. May-Aug.2010. pp.73-81. 7 fig., 10 tab.,
21 ref. ISSN: 0044-1902
[in Croatian]
Following an outline of the principles of flame cutting, acetylene and a
mix of butane with propane were compared as fuel gases for oxyfuel
cutting. The influence of fuel gas composition on cut quality, cutting
speed and costs was examined with reference to steel composition,
plate thickness, preheating and flame temperature. In experimental
work, cutting of structural steel S235JR (0.17%C) plate of thickness
15, 20 and 30 mm was investigated. The appearance of cut faces was
compared for plate cut at a rate of 350-960 mm/minute. Fuel gas
consumption was determined and costs were compared.

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

09 SURFACING
See also abstracts: 01-249220, 23-249319, 30-249166, 50-249397,
54-249412

*09-249162
Microstructure and properties of laser clad coatings studied by
orientation imaging microscopy.
OCELIK V; FURAR I; HOSSON J T M de
Acta Materialia, vol.58, no.20. Dec.2010. pp.6763-6772. 12 fig., 3
tab., 43 ref. ISSN: 1359-6454
[in English]
The use of orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) to study the
relationship between the processing parameters and microstructure and
properties of laser surfacing is described. A 2 kW Nd:YAG laser was
used to surface a 25 mm diameter 42CrMo4 steel bar substrates
(0.90-1.20%Cr,
0.38-0.45%C,
<0.40%Si,
0.60-0.90%Mn,
0.15-0.30%Mo) at four scanning speeds ((1, 2.5, 7.5 and 15 mms-1).
Laser power (600 to 1750 W) and powder feed rate (21 to 250 mgs-1)
of Eutroloy 16012 cobalt alloy (Co, 29.5%Cr, 8.5%W, 1.6%C,
1.2%Si) were varied to achieve similar track height and width for each
scan speed. Single laser tracks and continuous surfacing were
deposited. The bar was horizontally mounted in a rotation clamp. The
resulting grain structure observable in the OIM transverse
cross-section image and longitudinal cut in the middle of the laser track
is discussed. The influence of the laser beam scanning speed,
solidification texture, orientation relationship on the coating/substrate
interface and microstructure of the coatings are examined.
*09-249177
Microstructural
characterisation
of
a
polycrystalline
nickel-based superalloy processed via tungsten-inert-gas-shaped
metal deposition.
CLARK D; BACHE M R; WHITTAKER M T
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B, vol.41B, no.6. Dec.2010.
pp.1346-1353. 13 fig., 28 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5615, 1543-1916
[in English]
The microstructure of a tungsten inert gas (TIG) deposited, shaped
metal deposited structure of nickel-based super alloy IN718, built up
of 35 layers of weld beads, was analysed. Four specimens of the
as-deposited structure were polished, chemical polished and inspected
for porosity by optical microscope. They were then etched with a
solution of 10 ml HN03, 20 ml HC1, 25 ml distilled water and 10 ml
hydrogen peroxide. Microstructural analysis by SEM and chemical
analysis by SEM fitted with energy dispersive X-ray dispersion
(EDX) were performed. The specimens were then heat treated in a high
vacuum furnace, repolished, etched and the microstructure re-examined
especially for delta or Laves phases, porosity, orientation of
microstructural features and axis of epitaxy. The observations were
discussed in detail. The results for the TIG based SMD process and
previous trials with MIG were compared.
*09-249243
Problems of wear and modification of the surface layer of marine
engine heads.
NOWACKI J; WYPYCH A
Przeglad Spawalnictwa, vol.82, no.7. 2010. pp.2-7. 18 fig., 4 tab., 6
ref. ISSN: 0033-2364
[in Polish]
The influence of welding conditions (heat input, multi-layer welding)
on high temperature oxidation resistance was investigated for marine

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

29

engine heads made from 13CrMo4-5 cast steel (0.16%C, 0.19%Si,


0.645%Mn, 0.94%Cr, 0.47%Mo, 0.015%S, 0.012%P, 0.47%Cu,
0.019%Al) hardfaced with nickel alloy. Inconel 625 (Ni, 22%Cr,
9%Mo, 3.3%Nb, 1.0%Fe, 0.2%Si, 0.2%Mn, 0.02%C) was used for
hardfacing by overlay welding using the MIG method in an argon
atmosphere. The Panasonic PerformArc robot was used with two
different heat inputs: 620J/mm and 2100J/mm. The chemical
composition, microstructure and phase compositions were analysed in
single, double and three layer padding welds. Results are presented and
discussed.

*09-249253
Effect of dilution on GTAW [TIG welding] Colmonoy 6 (AWS
NiCr-C) hardface deposit made on 316LN stainless steel.
RAMASUBBU V; CHAKRABORTY G; ALBERT S K;
BHADURI A K
Materials Science and Technology, vol.27, no.2. Feb.2011.
pp.573-580. 8 fig., 5 tab., 21 ref. ISSN: 0267-0836
[in English]
The effects of dilution during deposition of multiple layers of nickel
based Colmonoy 6 (Ni, 0.7%C, 14.3%Cr, 4.25%Si, 3.0%B, 4.0%Fe)
hardfacing on 316L austenitic stainless steel (0.024%C, 1.2%Mn,
17.7%Cr, 10.8%Ni, 2.0%Mo) were investigated. One to five layers of
Colmonoy 6 (100 x 15 mm) were deposited on stainless steel plates
(125 x 75 x 30 mm) by means of TIG overlay welding (preheat
temperature 400 deg.C; interpass temperature 400 deg.C; filler rod
diameter 4 mm; shielding gas argon; shielding gas flow rate 10 l/min; arc
voltage 13 V; welding current 105 A; welding speed 0.8 mm/s), and the
deposits were cooled in vermiculite powder. The hardfacing deposits
were characterised in terms of their microstructure, hardness and
dilution of different layers by the parent metal. The results of these
analyses are discussed in an effort to correlate the hardness and
microstructure of the individual layers with dilution from the substrate
austenitic stainless steel.

*09-249260
Experimental study on surface characteristics of laser cladding
layer regulated by high-frequency microforging.
FAN X F; ZHOU J; QIU C J; HE B; YE J; YUAN B; PI Z Q
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol.20, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.456-464. 9 fig., 5 tab., 35 ref. ISSNs: 1059-9630, 1544-1016
[in English]
The effect of high-frequency microforging on the mechanical
performance of a metal layer deposited by laser surfacing was studied;
the mechanical and ultrasonic apparatus used are described with
diagrams. Two Ni-based powders, Ni60A and Ni25A (feed rate 7.05
g/min) and a transverse-flow CO2 laser (1.6-3 kW) were used to coat a
steel 20 tube spirally. The layer thickness produced was 0.4-1.2 mm
with substrate preheated to 100 deg.C. Surfaces were subjected to
microplastic deformation by hot forging with a punch operated at 20
and 20-30 Hz for Ni25A and Ni60A, respectively, to give more than
five runs at laser scanning intervals of 1 mm. Cracking and changes to
the surface microstructure were studied by optical microscopy and
SEM. Residual stress was measured by x-ray diffractometry and
changes in the surface hardness and friction and wear characteristics
were investigated.

SURFACING

*09-249261
Theoretical and experimental investigation of gas flows, powder
transport and heating in coaxial laser direct metal deposition
(DMD) process.
KOVALEV O B; ZAITSEV A V; NOVICHENKO D; SMUROV I
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol.20, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.465-478. 15 fig., 5 tab., 20 ref. ISSNs: 1059-9630, 1544-1016
[in English]
To increase the effectiveness of control of the powder supply in the
coaxial CO2 laser direct metal deposition process, the processes
occurring in the nozzle and gas flow were visualised and the multilayer
flows of the nozzle, carrier and shaping gases in the gas-jet coaxial
supply and transport of powder particles were numerically simulated.
Assumptions and boundary conditions are given for the simulations,
and the use of Navier-Stokes equations is explained. The trajectory
method was used to describe the thermodynamics and transport of the
particles. A CCD camera optical diagnostic system was used to
monitor the stability of particle flux and measure in-flight velocity and
size of individual particles of Metco 42C stainless steel. The laser was
operated at 2-5 kW and the focal length was 230 mm. Powder was fed
at up to 80 g/min through a special coaxial nozzle with Ar as shaping
gas, Ar-He as carrier gas and Ar-He as nozzle gas.

*09-249301
Surfacing in industrial applications (Das Auftragschweissen im
industriellen Anwendungsfeld).
BARTHOUX J P; KRUGER J
Schweisstechnik Soudure, vol.100, no.1. 7 Feb.2011. pp.14-17.
(French translation of article: pp.18-19). 7 fig.
[in German and French] [Similar articles: Stainless Steel World, vol.22.
Nov.2010. pp.51-53, 55; Weldasearch 249166; and Welding and
Cutting, vol.10, no.1. 2011. pp.23-25; Weldasearch 247308][See also
Weldasearch 211629]
An overview of equipment available for different industrial
applications of surfacing (repair or preventative protection) and
buttering is provided. .A detailed description of deposition of layers
for buttering is provided and the use of TIG hot wire welding for
surfacing is described. Approaches to minimise dilution are
outlined.Torch selection criteria outlined include workpiece dimensions
and shape, area accessibility and welding position, and short
descriptions of different torch designs are provided. Example
applications described include equipment used for weld overlay of tank
bottoms, double hot wire feed for surfacing inside tubes (8-12 m
length) and a rotatable welding head for surfacing when the workpiece
cannot be moved is described.

*09-249335
Technology for wide-layer hard-facing of crankshafts.
ZHUDRA A P; KRIVCHIKOV S YU; PETROV V V
Paton Welding Journal, no.2. Feb.2010. pp.32-35. 5 fig., 1 tab. ISSN:
0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya
Svarka)[See also Weldasearch 242768, 106483]
Process conditions for hardfacing of large-size diesel generators
crankshafts are reported. Repair of worn, medium carbon steel
crankshafts by deposition of up to 3 mm thickness of weld metal
(0.3%C, 2%Mn, 4%Cr, 0.8%Mo, 0.45%Ti) using 2 mm diameter
self-shielding flux-cored wire PP-Np-30Kh4G2SM is described. Torch
oscillation, combined with workpiece rotation was used to achieve 70
mm width coverage on journals up to 300 mm diameter. Rationale for
range selection for each process parameter is discussed and final

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

SPRAYING

30

recommendations are made. Equipment and procedures for industrial


application are given.
*09-249407
Practical experience from surfacing with strip electrodes.
KUBENKA M
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.7-8. July-Aug.2009. pp.181-184. 6 fig.,
7 tab., 8 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
The processes and applications of submerged arc surfacing and
electroslag surfacing are described; three applications to repair of
industrial equipment are reported. Austenitic stainless steel (0.015%C,
1.8%Mn, 23.5%Cr, 14%Ni) hardfacing by submerged arc overlay
welding of cylindrical vessels used in paper recycling; electroslag
surfacing of ASTM A350 steel ball-cocks (0.35%C, 0.6-1.35%Mn,
0.3%Cr, 0.4%Ni) with 309LNb stainless steel (0.012%C, 1.8%Mn,
20.4%Cr, 13.5%Ni, 2.8%Mo) and of ASTM A694 (0.3%C, 1.5%Mn)
with two layers of Inconel 625; and submerged arc resurfacing
(0.04%C, 0.7%Mn, 17%Cr) of hydraulic piston rods previously
overlayed with A406 (0.1%C, 0.5%Mn, 16%Cr) steel.

10 SPRAYING
See also abstracts: 43-249263

*10-249151
The corrosion and wear performance of microcrystalline
WC-10Co-4Cr and near-nanocrystalline WC-17Co high velocity
oxyfuel sprayed coatings on steel substrate.
SAHA G C; KHAN T I
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.41A, no.11.
Nov.2010. pp.3000-3009. 13 fig., 5 tab., 31 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5623,
1543-1940
[in English]
The corrosion and wear properties of an industrially standard
microcrystalline WC-10Co-4Cr (W, 10%Co, 5%C, 4%Cr, 1% other)
coating and of a novel duplex near-nanocrystalline WC-17Co (W,
18.5%Co, 5.6%C, 1.11%O) cermet composite coating HVOF sprayed
onto a steel substrate were studied and compared. The engineered
near-nanocrystalline WC-17Co powder (size 0.5-50 micrometres)
consisted of a mostly spherical WC core (6%Co ductile phase) encased
in a coating (11%Co binding phase). The two powders were used as
feedstock and applied to annealed AISI 1080 steel (0.18%C,
0.65%Mn) flat plates (100 x 25 x 12 mm) and cylindrical rods (10 x
6.30 mm) via HVOF (spraying speed 0.2 m/s; spraying distance 230
mm; feed rate 38 g/min) using a water-cooled Diamond Jet 2700 spray
gun and a 9MPDJ powder feeder. The results of analyses of the
specimens are discussed and compared with regard to corrosion
resistance, porosity, microhardness and sliding abrasive wear.
*10-249160
The influence of powder porosity on the bonding mechanism at
the impact of thermally sprayed solid particles.
KAMNIS S; GU S; VARDAVOULIAS M
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.41A, no.13. Dec.2010.
pp.3517-3524. 10 fig., 1 tab., 17 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5623, 1543-1940
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 206941]
A previously developed particle impact model was further developed
to provide insight into the effect that particle porosity has on the
efficiency of deposition during HVOF thermal spraying. The finite

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

element commercial solver ABAQUS/Explicit was used to develop a


model of solid impact dynamics that accounts for strain hardening,
thermal softening and heating caused by frictional and plastic
dissipation. The model was applied to the dynamic tracking of particle
impingement during the deposition of WC-Co powder (spherical
particles; diameter 20 micrometres) on a flat surface with a uniform
temperature (27 deg.C). The effects of different particle porosities on
strain, deformation mechanisms and bonding are discussed, and critical
impact conditions are explored. A potential approach to improving the
deposition of a hard cermet coating that involves the use of a
specifically designed porous powder is proposed. New insights into
the interaction between plastic deformation and bonding formation are
summarised.
*10-249163
Air-plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings that are resistant to
high-temperature attack by glassy deposits.
DREXLER J M; SHINODA K; ORTIZ A L; LI D S; VASILIEV A L;
GLEDHILL A D; SAMPATH S; PADTURE N P
Acta Materialia, vol.58, no.20. Dec.2010. pp.6835-6844. 8 fig., 4 tab.,
50 ref. ISSN: 1359-6454
[in English] [Corrigendum ibid., vol.59, no.5. Mar.2011. p.2241]
Yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs)
containing Al and Ti in solid solution were deposited using
air-plasma-spray (APS) and their thermal stability and calcium
magnesium-aluminosilicate (CMAS) resistance properties studied.
YSZ+20Al+5Ti TBC (20 mol.% Al2O3, 5 mol.%TiO2: wt%
73.0%ZrO2, 6.8%Y2O3, 16.9%Al2O3, 3.3%TiO2) of 0.125 mm
thickness was APS deposited onto Ni-based substrates. and Reference
7YSZ TBCs of 200 micrometre thickness were produced for
comparison. Samples were heat treated in air at 1200-1300 deg.C for
24-72 h. A uniform 35 mg/cm2 layer of simulated calcium magnesium
aluminosilicates (CMAS) glass frit was applied to the as-sprayed
TBCs and heat-treated at 1200 deg.C for 24 h. The microstructures
were compared, TEM micrographs of TBCs were studied and Rietveld
analysis of the XRD patterns was performed. The findings and their
implications are discussed in context of gas turbines and the use of
single phase solid solution powders in TBCs.
*10-249255
Plasma and particle temperature measurements in thermal
spray: approaches and applications.
MAUER G; VASSEN R; STOVER D
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol.20, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.391-406. 11 fig., 1 tab., 61 ref. ISSNs: 1059-9630, 1544-1016
[in English]
Techniques for measuring the temperature of plasma and particles in
thermal spray processes are reviewed. Use of the enthalpy probe,
computer tomography and optical emission spectroscopy
incorporating the Boltzmann plot method for measuring plasma
temperatures is described. The use of multicolour pyrometry for
in-flight measurement of particle temperatures is discussed, and the
principle, calibration and experimental procedures are given in detail.
Sensor systems for particle diagnostics are compared.
*10-249256
WC-Co and Cr3C2-NiCr coatings in low- and high-stress
abrasive conditions.
KASPAROVA M; ZAHALKA F; HOUDKOVA S
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol.20, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.412-424. 13 fig., 2 tab., 22 ref. ISSNs: 1059-9630, 1544-1016
[in English]

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

31

The abrasive wear of coatings of WC-Co and Cr3C2-NiCr deposited


by HVOF spraying was tested under low and high stress conditions
and their adhesive and cohesive properties were examined by tensile
testing. The wear rate was measured according to ASTM G65 and
ASTM B611 by the dry sand steel wheel method under loads of 22
and 56 N with alumina and silica sand. The results were compared with
those from the dry sand rubber wheel method. The wear mechanism is
discussed in detail. SEM was used to study the effects of the
high-stress abrasive conditions.
*10-249257
Improvement of in-flight alumina spheroidisation process using a
small power argon DC-RF hybrid plasma flow system by helium
mixture.
TAKANA H; JANG J; IGAWA J; NAKAJIMA T;
SOLONENKO O P; NISHIYAMA H
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol.20, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.432-439. 11 fig., 1 tab., 14 ref. ISSNs: 1059-9630, 1544-1016
[in English]
To enhance plasma enthalpy and thus improve process efficiency, the
effect of adding He (up to 8%) to the main Ar gas flow in the in-flight
alumina spheroidisation process in DC RF inductively coupled plasma
was studied. The effects of in-flight powder velocity and temperature
with different DC nozzle diameters were also investigated. The anode
was Cu and the cathode was Cu-W. RF power was 6.6 kW at 4 MHz
and DC power was 1.1 kW. Detailed drawings of the process and of
the plasma torch are given.
*10-249258
Nanocrystalline NiAl coating prepared by HVOF [high velocity
oxyfuel] thermal spraying.
ENAYATI M H; KARIMZADEH F; TAVOOSI M; MOVAHEDI B;
TAHVILIAN A
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol.20, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.440-446. 8 fig., 3 tab., 12 ref. ISSNs: 1059-9630, 1544-1016
[in English]
The microstructure of nanocrystalline coatings (20 nm) of mechanically
alloyed NiAl powder (10 nm) deposited on low-C steel by HVOF
spraying was studied in detail by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning
calorimetry, SEM and TEM and their hardness was measured.
Spraying parameters were oxygen flow rate 830 l/min, fuel flow rate
210 and 240 ml/min, fuel/oxygen volume ratio 0.0253 and 0.029, spray
distance 360 mm, powder rate 80 g/min and three runs were made.
Crystallite size was calculated by the Williamson-Hall formula.
*10-249259
Effect of Mn on the formation of oxide buildups upon
HVOF-sprayed MCrAlY-ceramic-type cermet coatings.
HUANG T S
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol.20, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.447-455. 15 fig., 2 tab., 9 ref. ISSNs: 1059-9630, 1544-1016
[in English]
Tests were conducted to simulate manganese oxide and iron oxide
build-up on rolls in which a CoCrAlY-CrB2-Y2O3 powder mixture
was spray coated onto SUS 316 stainless steel with use of a HVOF
gun and the coatings were subjected to tests to study the effect of Mn
on the formation of oxide build-up. Spray parameters were: oxygen
253 l/min, propylene 77 l/min, air 376 l/min, spray distance 230 mm
and spray rate 38 g/min. A thin layer of Fe3O4 or Mn3O4 oxide was
spread on the coatings of two plates, which were then sandwiched
together with a central steel strip having a Mn content of 0.38 or
1.32%, respectively, and clipped firmly together. The test was carried

SPRAYING

out at 900 deg.C in a reducing atmosphere of N2-3%H2 at 40 ml/min.


The oxide build-up was examined visually and cross-sections were
examined by SEM. The method was applied to oxide build-up on a
hearth roll, as used in a continuous annealing line for steel sheet. The
mechanism of build-up formation is discussed and a schematic diagram
is presented.
*10-249262
Preparation and microstructure characterisation of mullite
coatings made of mullitised natural andalusite powders.
AN Y L; LIU G; ZHAO X Q; CHEN J M; ZHOU H D; HOU G L
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol.20, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.479-485. 9 fig., 2 tab., 25 ref. ISSNs: 1059-9630, 1544-1016
[in English]
Natural andalusite powder (5-20 micrometre) was heated to 1480
deg.C at 10 deg.C/min and kept there for 4 h to give a mullitised
powder, which was then spray-dried and plasma-sprayed for coating
1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel pre-coated with a NiCrAlY bondcoat.
Plasma spray parameters were: Ar flow rate 40 l/min, powder gas flow
rate 8 l/min, injector angle 90 degrees, powder feed rate 33 g/min, spray
distance 100 mm, current 450-600 A and voltage 50-65 V. The
microstructure was studied by SEM coupled with energy-dispersive
x-ray analysis. Phase composition was studied by x-ray diffractometry
of coatings obtained at spraying power 22.5-39.0 kW, and
compositions of the andalusite powder before and after spray-drying
and of the mullite coating were analysed by energy-dispersive x-ray
fluorescence spectrometry.
*10-249264
Numerical modelling of Ar-N2 plasma jet impinging on a flat
substrate.
SELVAN B; RAMACHANDRAN K; PILLAI B C; SUBHAKAR D
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol.20, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.534-548. 20 fig., 2 tab., 47 ref. ISSNs: 1059-9630, 1544-1016
[in English]
Axisymmetric and three-dimensional numerical models of an Ar-N2
plasma jet impinging on a flat substrate were developed to study the
thermal interaction between the jet and the substrate. The effects of gas
flow rate, arc current and stand-off distance on the temperature and
velocity of the plasma jet and on the thermal flux to the substrate were
investigated. The plasma spray torch was operated at 16-22.2 kW,
400-600 A and 34-42.7 V, with 20-30 l/min Ar and 3 l/min N2 to give
five different cases. The effect of air entrainment was studied also.
*10-249265
Influence of plasma intensity on wear and erosion resistance of
conventional and nanometric WC-Co coatings deposited by APS
[air plasma spraying].
BONACHE V; SALVADOR M D; GARCIA J C; SANCHEZ E;
BANNIER E
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol.20, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.549-559. 15 fig., 5 tab., 25 ref. ISSNs: 1059-9630, 1544-1016
[in English]
The effect of plasma intensity on wear and erosion resistance was
studied for coatings made by atmospheric plasma spraying with a
robot-controlled plasma gun to deposit micrometric (0.5-2 micrometre)
and nanometric (50-200 nm) WC-12%Co powder (Metco 72F-NS and
Infralloy S7412, respectively) onto a grit-blasted substrate. Spraying
parameters were Ar 69 l/min, He 120 l/min, plasma arc intensity 625 A
and 475-725 A, spraying distance 110 mm, spraying velocity 1 m/s
and mass rate 30 g/min. The phases in the coatings were identified by
x-ray diffraction, and SEM coupled with energy-dispersive x-ray

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

SPRAYING

32

spectrometry was used to analyse the powders, as-sprayed coatings


and abraded surfaces. Porosity was measured by analysis of
cross-sectional images. Microhardness tests were carried out with a
500 g load and 15 s dwell time. The Vickers indentation method was
used to estimate fracture toughness with a 1 kg load. The effect of
impact angle and wear debris on erosion behaviour was investigated
and the mechanism of erosion identified.
*10-249266
Bioactive glass-ceramic coatings synthesised by the liquid
precursor plasma spraying process.
XIAO Y F; SONG L; LIU X G; HUANG Y; HUANG T; CHEN J Y;
WU Y; WU F
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol.20, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.560-568. 8 fig., 51 ref. ISSNs: 1059-9630, 1544-1016
[in English]
Liquid precursors, prepared by hydrolysis using HNO3 and aqueous
NH3 as catalysts, were used
in the synthesis of
P2O5-Na2O-CaO-SiO2 bioactive glass-ceramic coatings (BGCC) by
plasma spraying. A sol precursor was similarly produced in alcoholic
solution with HNO3 as catalyst. The sol and liquid precursors, the
feedstocks in a robotically controlled DC air plasma spraying system,
were directly injected into the plasma plume without atomisation. The
BGCC were sprayed onto Ti alloy at a distance of 130 mm with N2
and H2 flow rates of 100 and 18 scfh, respectively. Anode diameter
was 7 mm at the exit of the plasma torch, scanning step size was 5
mm, and the temperature of the substrate immediately after spraying
was 350-400 deg.C. The effects of spray power (30 and 36 kW) and
precursor feed rate (8.5 and 17 ml/min) on the microstructure and
properties of the coatings was studied. The in vitro bioactivity of a
predominantly amorphous BGCC was assessed by SEM.
*10-249267
Corrosion of magnesium-aluminium alloys with Al-11Si/SiC
thermal spray composite coatings in chloride solution.
ARRABAL R; PARDO A; MERINO M C; MOHEDANO M;
CASAJUS P; MATYKINA E
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol.20, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.569-579. 13 fig., 5 tab., 32 ref. ISSNs: 1059-9630, 1544-1016
[in English]
The corrosion behaviour was investigated of sand blasted Mg (99.9%)
and Mg-Al-Zn alloys (AZ31, AZ80 and AZ91D), coated with
Al-11%Si containing 5-30% SiC particles (SiCp) by using a 28 kW
flame spray gun. A neutral flame (O2-acetylene) was used with a
spraying distance of 15 cm, traverse rate of 150 cm/min and feeding
rate of 1.0 g/s. After spraying, the coatings were cold pressed at 32
MPa. Both substrate and coatings were characterised by SEM,
energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis and x-ray diffraction. Surface
roughness and hardness were measured. The corrosion characteristics
of the coatings were tested by AC and DC electrochemical
measurements in 3.5% NaCl (pH 6.5). Corroded surfaces were
examined to identify corrosion mechanisms.
*10-249268
Reactive atmospheric plasma spraying of AlN coatings: influence
of aluminium feedstock particle size.
SHAHIEN H; YAMADA M; YASUI T; FUKUMOTO M
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol.20, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.580-589. 11 fig., 1 tab., 42 ref. ISSNs: 1059-9630, 1544-1016
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 233432]
The effect of particle size (3, 15 and 30 micrometre) of Al feedstock
powders in reactive atmospheric plasma spraying of AlN coatings onto

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

mild steel SS400 and stainless steel SUS304 was studied at spray
distances of 100-300 mm. Spraying parameters were: N2 primary gas
100 l/min and 330.9 kPa; H2 secondary gas 5 l/min and 344.7 kPa; and
Ar carrier gas 1.6 l/min. A high-speed two-colour pyrometer was used
for in-flight measurement of the temperature and velocity of particles.
Sprayed particles were collected on carbon tape and analysed by x-ray
diffraction to study the nitriding of particles during flight. The
microstructure of the coatings and the collected particles was examined
by SEM. Hardness of the coatings was determined. A schematic
diagram of the aluminium nitriding process is presented.
*10-249269
Multiobjective optimisation of atmospheric plasma spray process
parameters to deposit yttria-stabilised zirconia coatings using
response surface methodology.
RAMACHANDRAN C S; BALASUBRAMANIAN V;
ANANTHAPADMANABHAN P V
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol.20, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.590-607. 9 fig., 5 tab., 52 ref. ISSNs: 1059-9630, 1544-1016
[in English]
Response surface methodology was used to optimise atmospheric
plasma spray deposition of yttria-stabilised zirconia thermal barrier
coatings by relating the main input parameters, such as power,
stand-off distance, primary gas flow rate, carrier gas flow rate and
powder feed rate, to tensile bond strength, lap shear bond strength,
deposition efficiency, porosity and hardness. A scheme of
investigation was devised to handle the parameters, results and
conclusions relating to the torch and to the chemical composition and
morphology of the powder feedstock. Parameters were identified by
plasma spray deposition of ZrO2-7% Y2O3 (45-55 micrometre)
directly onto grit-blasted AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel to produce
a coating thickness of 285-315 micrometre. Spray parameters were:
power 22-30 kW, primary gas flow rate 25-45 l/min, stand-off distance
90-130 mm, powder feed rate 15-35 g/min and carrier gas flow rate
3-11 l/min. The model-building technique is discussed in detail.
*10-249270
Transient oxide formation on APS [air plasma spray] NiCrAlY
after oxidation heat treatment.
PUETZ P; HUANG X; YANG Q; TANG Z
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol.20, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.621-629. 9 fig., 6 tab., 31 ref. ISSNs: 1059-9630, 1544-1016
[in English]
The effects of temperature and heating time on oxide formation on
high-velocity air plasma sprayed Ni67Cr22Al10Y coatings (200-250
micrometre) on Ni-based Hastelloy were studied. Spray parameters
were: total nozzle flow rate 260 l/m, Ar-10%N2-25%H2 carrier gas
flow rate 12 l/m, powder feed rate 50 g/min, spray distance 175 cm.
Heating was carried out in an air furnace at 1000-1100 deg.C for 1-10
h. The coatings were examined by SEM, energy dispersive x-ray
spectrometry and x-ray diffraction.
*10-249271
Numerical study to examine the effect of porosity on in-flight
particle dynamics.
KAMNIS S; GU S; VARDAVOULIAS M
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol.20, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.630-637. 6 fig., 2 tab., 21 ref. ISSNs: 1059-9630, 1544-1016
[in English]
An in-flight particle computational fluid dynamics model was extended
to include the effect of microporosity of particles in the HVOF thermal
spray process. The calculation used thermophysical properties for a

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

33

WC-Co powder with particle diameter 10-60 micrometre and porosity


0-6%. The effect of porosity on particle velocity, temperature and
deposition were studied.
*10-249272
Hexaferrite/polyester
composite
coatings
for
electromagnetic-wave absorbers.
LISJAK D; BEGARD M; BRUEHL M; BOBZIN K; HUJANEN A;
LINTUNEN P; BOLELLI G; LUSVARGHI L; OVTAR S;
DROFENIK M
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol.20, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.638-644. 6 fig., 1 tab., 34 ref. ISSNs: 1059-9630, 1544-1016
[in English]
The production of composite coatings by atmospheric plasma
spraying is described and the application of the coatings for absorption
of electromagnetic waves at 45-75 GHz is demonstrated. The
composite comprised BaFe12O19 as the ceramic material having high
magnetic loss and polyester as the polymer having dielectric losses.
Spraying parameters were injection diameter 1.8 mm at an angle of 90
degrees, current 500 A, Ar carrier gas flow rate 2.5 l/min, Ar 60 l/min,
H2 1 l/min and spray distance 100 mm. The coating microstructures
were examined by SEM coupled with energy-dispersive x-ray
spectrometry. X-ray diffraction and IR spectrometric analysis were
carried out also. Relative permeability and permittivity and
electromagnetic absorption of the coatings were calculated from
scattering parameters using a Matlab code.
*10-249300
Quality
assurance of
[thermal] spraying
equipment
(Qualitatssicherung an den Spritzgeraten).
RUFF H; RYBAK C
Schweisstechnik Soudure, vol.100, no.1. 7 Feb.2011. pp.12-13. 1 fig.
[in German]
Procedures before or after thermal spraying which can influence the
coating quality, and the need for cooperation between the spraying
firm and component engineering department, are discussed. Causes of
spraying equipment malfunction and a suggested maintenance
document are outlined. Additional preparation during the design and
during repairs is described. The proposal that the design engineer
determines mechanical preparation, differentiating according to
component, the wear it will undergo and type of coating needed, is
described. Using the example of a case hardened shaft with a region
reduced in diameter through wear in service, the processing steps to
regenerate the worn region are described. The repair and spraying of a
corroded machine plate are outlined.
10-249351
A new approach to develop high temperature foam core sandwich
structures using air plasma spraying.
AZARMI F; COYLE T; MOSTAGHIMI J; PERSHIN L
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.44,
no.9. 2009. pp.900-905. 15 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768, 1433-3015
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 24549]
A procedure is described for using air plasma spraying (APS) to
deposit skin layers for rapidly fabricating high-temperature foam core
sandwich structures. Nickel alloy foam (Ni, 9.27%Al) was cut to the
dimensions of 127 x 76 x 10 mm and prepared by means of a very
simple grit-blasting technique. The foam surface was fixed in front of a
spraying gun by means of a sample holder with a 127 x 76 x 10 mm
window. APS was used to apply Metco AMDRY 625 (Ni, 21.5%Cr,
8.5%Mo, 3%Nb, 3%Fe, 0.5%Co) powder with a particle size of 78
micrometres to the nickel alloy foam surface under the following

SPRAYING

parameters: spray distance 50 mm; feed rate 28 g/min; current 630 A;


power 25 kW; argon gas flow rate 25 standard litres/minute). Skin
thicknesses of 0.05-0.15 mm and 0.4-0.6 mm on the sandwich
structures were achieved by 3 passes and 10 passes, respectively. A
schematic of the sample holder assembly and cross-section images of
the final sandwich structure are presented.

10-249366
Young's moduli of cold and vacuum plasma sprayed metallic
coatings.
RAJ S V; PAWLIK R; LOEWENTHAL W
Materials Science and Engineering A, vol.A513-514. 15 July 2009.
pp.59-63. 4 fig., 2 tab., 34 ref. ISSN: 0921-5093
[in English]
The influence of temperature (27-1000 deg.C) on the dynamic Young's
modulus of copper alloy and NiCrAlY monolithic coating alloys was
investigated using impulse excitation and tensile static moduli
measurement techniques. The coatings (19-25 mm thickness) were
fabricated by cold spray or vacuum plasma spray deposition
processes. Alloy powders had the compositions Cu, 8%Cr; Cu,
26%Cr; Cu, 8%Cr, 1%Al; Cu, 23%Cr, 5%Al and Ni, 17%Cr, 6%Al,
0.5%Y, deposited on rotating aluminium or steel mandrels. The
decrease in Young's modulus with increasing temperature is discussed.
The significant increase in Young's modulus with the addition of 1%Al
to Cu-8%Cr is examined in terms of the initial annealing of the cold
worked microstructure resulting from cold spray deposition.

*10-249494
Forming of thermally coated sheets for the production of
plastic-metal hybrids with positive-locking joints.
TILLMANN W; TEKKAYA A E; RAUSCHER B; RUTHER B
Welding and Cutting, vol.10, no.5. 2011. pp.310-313. 5 fig., 1 tab., 14
ref. ISSN: 1612-3433
[in English] [Similar paper Thermal Spray Bulletin, no.1. 2011.
pp.64-68.; Weldasearch 248929]
The results obtained during process development for the production of
plastic-metal hybrids with positive locking joints are reported. The
development of thermal spraying technology and its advantages in this
process are outlined. The process chain used during the forming of
thermally coated sheets is presented schematically and involves the
application of a porous thermally sprayed coat applied to a metal
sheet by means of arc spraying with a flux cored wire. Investigations
were conducted on St14 steel sheet using a coating composition of Fe,
29%Cr, 1.6%Si, 1.6%Mn, 3.8%B. The sprayed sheet was then
inserted in a forming/plastic coating tool in which the injection
moulding pressure both formed the sheet and coated it with
polypropylene. The internal pressure of the tool was recorded with
the aid of integrated pressure sensors, producing a plastic melt which
interlocks with the metal sheet. Adhesive pull strength tests were
performed in order to characterise component properties as a function
of coating and porosity content. The potential of the process chain is
reported for provisional use with other lightweight materials such as
aluminium, titanium or magnesium.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

MICROJOINING

34

11 MICROJOINING
See also abstracts: 02-249480, 03-249322, 06-249152, 06-249275,
06-249423, 47-249274

*11-249153
Dissolution and interface reactions between palladium and tin
(Sn)-based solders: Part 2: 63Sn-37Pb alloy.
VIANCO P T; REJENT J A; ZENDER G L; HLAVA P F
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.41A, no.12. Dec.2010.
pp.3053-3064. 17 fig., 18 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5623, 1543-1940
[in English] [Part 1: ibid., vol.41A, no.12. Dec.2010. pp.3042-3052;
Weldasearch 249152]
The interface reactions between Pd (99.9% pure) sheet (0.30 mm
thickness) and tin-based (63%Sn, 37%Pb) molten eutectic solder were
investigated under test conditions commensurate with those that occur
during soldering assembly processes. The solder alloy was applied to
the Pd tabs by partially immersing them edge-on into molten solder
baths (215-320 deg.C for 5-240 s). EPMA was used to determine the
composition of the interface reaction layer and SEM for interface
microstructure. The results of analyses of the specimens are discussed
with regard to the interface microstructure produced at different
temperatures; the rate kinetics of Pd dissolution and growth of the
intermetallic compound layer; and the comparative behaviours of
Sn-Pb/Pd and Sn-Ag-Cu/Pd couples.
*11-249180
Estimating the reliability of encapsulated wire bonds.
ENGELMAIER W
Global SMT & Packaging, vol.10, no.12. Dec.2010. pp.42-43. 5 fig., 2
tab., 6 ref. ISSN: 1474-0893
[in English]
The determination of long term fatigue reliability in a
temperature-cyclic operating environment for an encapsulated bonding
wire when there is inadequate information of its material properties is
described. The bonding wire was 99Al1Si and its modulus of elasticity,
elongation and breaking strength were known but not the ductility
needed to estimate the fatigue life of the wire. The method used to
determine the ductility and fatigue behaviour are described in detail and
a Weibull plot of thermal cycling fatigue results for 99AL1Si wire
bonds for three different temperature cycles is provided.
*11-249284
Analysis and experimental verification of the competing
degradation mechanisms for solder joints under electron current
stressing.
KE J H; YANG T L; LAI Y S; KAO C R
Acta Materialia, vol.59, no.6. Apr.2011. pp.2462-2468. 9 fig., 19 ref.
ISSN: 1359-6454
[in English]
The competition between formation of a pancake-type void in the
solder and excessive consumption of the metallisation layer, the two
major degradation mechanisms thought to occur in flip chip soldered
joints subjected to current stressing, was investigated. The effects of
temperature on copper and tin electromigration fluxes in a Cu/Sn/Cu
system were analysed, and the findings were used to describe the
evolution of the dominant microstructure under current stressing at
different temperatures. The analysis was verified by comparison with
the results of an experiment in which a soldered joint made using Sn,
0.7%Cu solder (normal diameter 145 micrometres; contact window
diameter 90 micrometres) between a chip atop Al, Ti, Ni and Cu

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

arranged in layers (thicknesses 1.2, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.8 micrometres,


respectively) and a substrate with a Cu metallisation layer (thickness
15 micrometres) was subjected to electromigration tests under high and
low temperatures (electron current 0.64-3.50 A; temperature 60-180
deg.C). The results of microstructural analysis of the stressed soldered
joints are discussed.
11-249360
Effect of EFO [electrical flame off] parameters on Cu FAB [free
air ball] hardness and work hardening in thermosonic wire
bonding.
PEQUEGNAT A; HANG C J; MAYER M; ZHOU Y; MOON J T;
PERSIC J
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol.20, no.11.
Nov.2009. pp.1144-1149. 6 fig., 7 tab., 15 ref. ISSN: 0957-4522
[in English]
The relationship between electrical flame off (EFO) parameters and the
hardness and work hardening properties of free air balls (FABs)
composed of copper and gold was investigated. Standard Cu wire and
Au wire 24 micrometres in diameter underwent EFO using the
following parameters: current 45-250 mA; EFO time for Cu wire
0.118-1.03; EFO time for Au wire 0.11-0.53; shielding gas N2 +
5%H2; flow rate 0.5 l/min. The diameters of the resulting FABs were
measured and fitted to a second order polynomial in order to determine
the EFO parameters that will yield FABs with a diameter of 49.0-51.0
micrometres. The deformability of the FABs was measured using an
online test. Microhardness in the centre of cross-sections of Cu and
AU FABs and bonded balls (BBs) was also measured by means of a
Vickers hardness test. The results of the online deformability test and
the traditional Vickers hardness test are discussed and compared with
regard to the effects of the EFO parameters.
*11-249421
Lead-free surface mount technology.
BATH J; NGUYEN J; SETHURAMAN S
In Book: Lead-Free Solder Process Development. Ed: G.Henshall,
J.Bath and C.A.Handwerker. Publ: Hoboken, New Jersey 07030,
USA; John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 2011. Chapter 2. pp.15-44. 12 fig., 1
tab., 67 ref. ISBN: 9780470410745
[in English]
An overview of developments and challenges in the field of lead-free
surface mount technology is presented. The topics addressed include
no-clean and water-soluble lead-free solder pastes; solder paste
handling; board and stencil design; screen printing and printability
concerns associated with lead-free solder pastes; paste inspection;
component placement and paste tackiness; reflow soldering and reflow
profiles; comparisons of the influence of nitrogen and air atmosphere
during the reflow of lead-free solders; head-in-pillow component
soldering defects; visual inspection of lead-free solder joints; automated
optical inspection; X-ray inspection; and in-circuit testing and
functional testing. Potential research directions are outlined.
*11-249424
Lead-free alloys for BGA/CSP [ball grid array/chip scale
packaging] components.
HENSHALL G
In Book: Lead-Free Solder Process Development. Ed: G.Henshall,
J.Bath and C.A.Handwerker. Publ: Hoboken, New Jersey 07030,
USA; John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 2011. Chapter 5. pp.95-124. 19 fig., 5
tab., 61 ref. ISBN: 9780470410745
[in English]
Topics relating to the use of lead free solder alloys in the

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

35

manufacturing of ball grid array (BGA)/chip scale packages (CSPs) are


reviewed. The topics addressed include limitations of near-eutectic
SnAgCu alloys; new lead-free alloys based on SnAgCu (some
microalloyed with Bi, Ni, Cr, Co, Ge, In, La, Ce, Sb, Ti or Mn) and
SnAgCu alloys currently being used for area array packaging; benefits
of new alloys for BGAs and CSPs, including resistance to mechanical
shock (drop failure) and to bending; technical concerns regarding
surface mount assembly (effect of Ag content on melting point,
backward compatibility with SnPb solder); thermal fatigue resistance;
management of new alloys in terms of assessment for acceptability;
and updating industry standards and industry research activities.
Future research directions are outlined.
*11-249425
Growth mechanisms and mitigation strategies of tin whisker
growth.
SU P
In Book: Lead-Free Solder Process Development. Ed: G.Henshall,
J.Bath and C.A.Handwerker. Publ: Hoboken, New Jersey 07030,
USA; John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 2011. Chapter 6. pp.125-150. 18 fig., 4
tab., 28 ref. ISBN: 9780470410745
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 226040]
The phenomenon of whisker growth on pure tin is reviewed, focusing
on matte tin. The topics addressed include the role of stress in whisker
growth; standard acceleration tests such as the air-to-air thermal
cycling test, the low-temperature/low-humidity storage test and the
high-temperature/high-humidity storage test; mitigation strategies such
as optimising plating electrode selection, optimising the plating process
setup, using an underplate and applying heat treatment; and whisker
growth on board-mounted components. The wetting of component
leads by solder and consequences of mixing of lead plating with solder
for microstructure and whisker growth are described. Whisker growth
induced by corrosion in the case of board mounted components is
discussed briefly.
*11-249427
Board-level solder joint reliability of high-performance
computers under mechanical loading.
NEWMAN K
In Book: Lead-Free Solder Process Development. Ed: G.Henshall,
J.Bath and C.A.Handwerker. Publ: Hoboken, New Jersey 07030,
USA; John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 2011. Chapter 8. pp.173-204. 37 fig.,
31 ref. ISBN: 9780470410745
[in English]
The use of mechanical loading to determine the reliability of solder
joints in printed wiring boards (PWBs) used in high-performance
computers is reviewed. The topics addressed include establishing PWB
strain limits for manufacturing; characterising the fracture strength of
surface mount component joints by means of bend, drop, high-speed
solder ball shear/pull and other test methods; characterising the fracture
strength of PWBs; characterising PWB strain during board assembly
by means of optical methods and unpackaged and packaged drop
testing; predicting fracture of solder joints by means of analytical and
computational models; and optimisation of fracture strength by the
application of surface finishes, choice of solder alloy, and exposure to
heat in assembly and use.
*11-249428
Lead-free reliability in aerospace/military environments.
WOODROW T A; BATH J
In Book: Lead-Free Solder Process Development. Ed: G.Henshall,
J.Bath and C.A.Handwerker. Publ: Hoboken, New Jersey 07030,

MICROJOINING

USA; John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 2011. Chapter 9. pp.205-241. 22 fig.,
12 tab., 36 ref. ISBN: 9780470410745
[in English]
The issue of the reliability of lead-free soldering technology in
aerospace and military applications is discussed, with emphasis on US
standards and associated testing and research activities in the USA.
The topics addressed include the aerospace/military consortia that are
producing technical data and developing specifications and guidelines
required for the transition to lead-free electronics; lead-free control
plans for electronics intended for use in aerospace/military
environments; and concerns regarding lead-free electronics, such as
thermal fatigue resistance, vibration fatigue resistance, mechanical
shock resistance, and formation of tin whiskers and tin pest.
*11-249429
Lead-free reliability in automotive environments.
PARKER R D
In Book: Lead-Free Solder Process Development. Ed: G.Henshall,
J.Bath and C.A.Handwerker. Publ: Hoboken, New Jersey 07030,
USA; John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 2011. Chapter 10. pp.243-254. 4 fig., 1
tab., 5 ref. ISBN: 9780470410745
[in English]
The issue of the reliability of lead-free soldering technology in
automotive applications is discussed. The topics addressed include
performance risks and concerns; legislation guiding the transition to
lead-free automotive electronics; reliability requirements for
automotive environments; failure modes in lead-free solder joints;
consequences of the transition to lead-free automotive electronics on
component procurement and management; and balancing the need for
change against the risks faced by automotive manufacturers as a
consequence of the transition to lead-free design.
*11-249450
Laser microwelding of metallic materials.
BRUNCKO J
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.59, no.9-10. Sept.-Oct.2010. pp.219-222. 4
fig., 8 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
A process of laser micro welding of metals is discussed. The
requirements concerning high energy concentration and energy
localisation are specified. Effects of timing of laser beam pulses on
weld macrostructure are presented. Technological processes using
pulsed laser welding are reported; limitations of pulsed laser welding
are discussed. Equipment suitable for laser microjoining, including
Nd:YAG laser with an optical system, are reported. Applications of
laser micro welding in electronics, health care, jewellery and machine
repairs are covered.
*11-249466
Application of electro-spark deposition as a joining technology.
GOULD J
Welding Journal, vol.90, no.10. Oct.2011. Supplement: Welding
Research. pp.191s-197s. 17 fig., 4 tab., 30 ref. ISSN: 0043-2296
[in English]
The process of electro-spark deposition (ESD) welding was evaluated
for microwelding of powder metallurgy nano-structured ferritic alloys
(NFAs; MA957 ferritic stainless steel stabilised with Y-Ti-O
precipitates) and the joining of dissimilar high volume fraction gamma
prime Ni-based superalloys to refractory metals. Welding parameters
for the NFA, MA957 (10 mm x 17 mm x 2 mm) samples in a butt
configuration with scalloped joint preparation were: 3 mm diameter
and 100 mm long matching welding electrode with 90 degree tip angle;

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

ANCILLARY OPERATIONS

36

400 Hz pulse rate; 50 micro F capacitance; 150 V; 1200 rev/min


electrode rotation; 6 A; ASAP power supply. Dissimilar joints with
refractory alloys were made with T-111 (Ta, 8%W, 2%Hf) or Mo47%Re, each welded to Ni based superalloy MarM-247 using the
following parameters: 1.6 mm diameter Hastelloy-X electrode;
enhanced shielding (hard glove box with minus 70 deg.C. and 1 ppm
O); 180 A ; 60 micro s pulse width. Joint macrostructure, yield
strength and tensile strength were determined. Thermal analysis was
used to investigate cooling rates numerically. Results are discussed
with reference to splat solidification, welding time and process
applications.

12 ANCILLARY OPERATIONS
See also abstracts: 01-249417, 01-249418, 09-249260, 10-249494,
50-249171, 52-249302

*12-249170
Influence of thermo-mechanical parameters on texture and
tensile behaviour of friction stir processed Mg alloy.
YU Z Z; CHOO H; FENG Z L; VOGEL S C
Scripta Materialia, vol.63, no.11. Nov.2010. pp.1112-1115. 3 fig., 1
tab., 28 ref. ISSN: 1359-6462
[in English]
The influence of variations in friction stir processing (FSP) parameters
(rotation rates and travel speeds) on texture and mechanical properties
of Mg alloy AZ31B are described. Friction stir processing of AZ31B
plate (Mg, 2.5-3.5%Al, 0.7-1.3%Zn) 6.5 mm thickness was carried out
using FSP tool of H-13 steel, rotation speeds of 300-1200 rpm and
travel speeds of 0.03-1.1 m/s. The volume averaged texture in the stir
zone was measured using neutron diffraction. Tensile tests of
specimens from the longitudinal direction of the stir zone were
performed and the relationship between FSP parameters, texture and
tensile behaviour are discussed. Thermomechanical inputs are
discussed in relation to the Zener-Hollomon parameter.

*12-249179
Clean "no clean", or use a water wash solder paste?
DIEPSTRATEN G; LAWRENCE T
Global SMT & Packaging, vol.10, no.12. Dec.2010. pp.10-14, 16. 11
fig., 5 tab., 5 ref. ISSN: 1474-0893
[in English] (Originally published in the Proceedings, SMT [Surface
Mount Technology] International Conference and Exhibition, Orlando,
FL, USA, 24-28 Oct.2010)
Investigations to study the feasibility of cleaning a no-clean solder
paste and to determine the best cleaning method are described. Reflow
soldering of no-clean SnPb, SAC 305 and SN100C pastes on copper
was carried out and the reflowed samples were washed. The
parameters were cleaning temperature (35-65 deg.C), cleaning time
(5-20 min) and concentration of detergent (0, 10% and 20%). The
amount of residues removed was determined by weighing the samples.
Further tests, on boards soldered with three different no-clean solder
pastes using spray in air and ultrasonic cleaning are described. They
were tested for cleanliness by visual inspection and ionic
contamination measuring. Further experiments to test cleaning of small
components with low stand-off and to determine the impact of the
reflow profile on cleaning of the solder paste are described. The
challenges of lead-free soldering on the cleaning process are discussed.

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

*12-249279
Effect of Mg content on the minimum grain size of Al-Mg alloys
obtained by friction stir processing.
MORISHIGE T; HIRATA T; UESUGI T; TAKIGAWA Y;
TSUJIKAWA M; HIGASHI K
Scripta Materialia, vol.64, no.4. Feb.2011. pp.355-358. 2 fig., 2 tab.,
25 ref. ISSN: 1359-6462
[in English]
The effect of magnesium content on the minimum grain size produced
in Al-Mg alloys that have undergone friction stir processing (FSP) was
investigated. Sheets (thickness 3 mm) of the aluminium alloys 5052
(Al, 2.5%Mg) and 5083 (Al, 4.6%Mg, 0.7%Mn) were subjected to
FSP (weld length 80 mm) using a cylindrical tool (shoulder diameter 12
mm; probe diameter 4 mm; probe length 2.9 mm; tool rotational speed
300 rpm; traversal speed 200 mm/min; liquid nitrogen quenching). The
temperature during FSP was measured; the microstructure of the
treated samples was evaluated; the grain size was determined; and the
stacking fault energy was used to estimate the solute effect of Mg
content on minimum grain size.
*12-249290
Microstructure and texture evolution during friction stir
processing of fully lamellar Ti-6Al-4V.
PILCHAK A L; WILLIAMS J C
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.42A, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.773-794. 21 fig., 1 tab., 63 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5623, 1543-1940
[in English]
The evolution of the microstructure and texture of fully lamellar
investment-cast Ti-6Al-4V as it undergoes friction stir processing
(FSP) was studied. Ti-6Al-4V (Ti, 6%Al, 4%V, 0.23%Fe, 0.19%O)
plates (ca. 175 x 175 x 1.5 cm) underwent hot isostatic pressing (101.3
MPa; 2 hours; 896 deg.C) followed by slow cooling, then annealing (2
hours; 845 deg.C) followed by slow cooling. The plates were subjected
to FSP (tool travel 5.1-10.2 cm/min; tool rotation speed 100-150 rpm;
down force 14.7-38.7 kN; plunge depth ca. 1.8-2.54 mm) using one of
two smooth and featureless tools (tool A 19.05 mm shoulder diameter,
5.08 mm pin diameter, 1.27 mm pin length, 1 degree back tilt; tool B
larger diameter pin, larger shoulder, ca. 30 degree taper). The
microstructure and texture of the transition, HAZ and stirred zones of
the weld specimens were examined using SEM, TEM and electron
backscatter diffraction, and the prior beta grain orientations were
reconstructed. The literature regarding grain refinement during friction
stir welding and processing of alpha + beta titanium alloys is briefly
reviewed, as is recrystallisation terminology.
*12-249306
Taking the right decision - selection and use of weld protection
sprays (Die richtige Entscheidung treffen - Auswahl und
Awendung von Schweissschutzsprays).
HOFFMANN P
Praktiker, vol.63, no.3. Mar.2011. pp.86-87. 1 fig. ISSN: 0554-9965
[in German]
Considerations to be made when selecting protection sprays for
prevention of adhesion of spatter, including safety for the workforce
and biodegradability of materials, are discussed. A list of criteria for
weld protection sprays is provided. Fluids and methods which are not
highly flammable, poisonous or damaging to the environment are
outlined. Testing of water based products for nonporous over-welding,
especially for fillet welds, and the need to compare the different sprays
and check their effect on following processes such as cleaning and
coating are mentioned. The variety of spraying systems available are
outlined. Examples from industry such as the post processing savings

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

37

and defect free results of a manufacturer of mobile telephone masts for


hot dip galvanising, car manufacturer test results for lack of porosity of
MIG welds and compatibility with cathodic dip coating are outlined.
*12-249336
Determination of additional resistances to sheet panel
displacement over dead roller table of assembly and welding
lines.
ROYANOV V A; KOROSTASHEVSKY P V
Paton Welding Journal, no.2. Feb.2010. pp.36-40. 6 fig., 3 tab., 7 ref.
ISSN: 0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya
Svarka)[See also Weldasearch 232797]
Transportation of steel sheet panels over roller conveyors during
assembly and welding operations is considered; the extra force needed
to drive a panel with sagging front end over a roller, its dependence on
panel properties and roller spacing were analysed. Equations were
derived covering effects of steel type and thickness, roller diameter and
spacing and resultant incremental power required from the drive
motors.
*12-249375
Deformation of tailor welded blanks during forming.
NARASIMHAN K; NARAYANAN R G
In Book: Tailor Welded Blanks for Advanced Manufacturing. Ed:
B.L.Kinsey and X.Wu. Publ: Cambridge, CB22 3HJ, UK; Woodhead
Publishing Ltd., 2011. Part 1: Processing and Modelling. Chapter 2.
pp.24-47. 15 fig., 3 tab., 39 ref. ISBN: 9781845697044
[in English]
Factors affecting the forming behaviour of tailor-welded blanks, such as
parent metal thickness ratios, strength ratios and welding parameters
are examined. The use of the rule of mixtures to study the stress-strain
behaviour is described, and the effect of weld orientation, thickness
ratio, strength ratio, hardening ratio and weld strength on tensile
behaviour is explored. Experimental forming limits are given for IF, DP
590 and SPCC 440 steel sheets. Anisotropic and mechanical factors
affecting weld line movement are examined and recommendations are
given for the design of stepped tools for forming tailor-welded blanks.
Use of finite-element simulation is described with the assumption that
the weld region is represented as a weld line.
*12-249376
Mechanics-based modelling of tailor welded blank forming.
KINSEY B L
In Book: Tailor Welded Blanks for Advanced Manufacturing. Ed:
B.L.Kinsey and X.Wu. Publ: Cambridge, CB22 3HJ, UK; Woodhead
Publishing Ltd., 2011. Part 1: Processing and Modelling. Chapter 3.
pp.48-67. 16 fig., 3 tab., 18 ref. ISBN: 9781845697044
[in English]
Models for predicting the limiting thickness and strength ratio and the
forming behaviour of tailor-welded blanks are described. Calculations
for weld line movement, forming height, material draw-in ratios and
nonuniform binder force are given and results of experiment and
simulation are compared. The effect of the assumptions in the models
on the predicted values is discussed.
*12-249377
Numerical simulation modelling of tailor welded blank forming.
ZADPOOR A A; SINKE J; BENEDICTUS R
In Book: Tailor Welded Blanks for Advanced Manufacturing. Ed:
B.L.Kinsey and X.Wu. Publ: Cambridge, CB22 3HJ, UK; Woodhead

AUTOMATION AND ROBOTS

Publishing Ltd., 2011. Part 1: Processing and Modelling. Chapter 4.


pp.68-94. 2 fig., 1 tab., numerous ref. ISBN: 9781845697044
[in English]
Difficulties encountered in the finite-element method modelling of
tailor-welded blanks are described with particular emphasis on the
weld area and whether or not it should be included in the simulation.
Problems with lack of symmetry in the model and the various
strategies for meshing in the weld zone are explored. Yield function and
strain hardening models are described and models are classified
according to damage criteria as well as by their physical, semiphysical
and phenomenological properties. Three types of theoretical prediction
of failure in tailor-welded blanks are described: the
Marciniak-Kuczynski theory and the bifurcation and ductile fracture
techniques. Application of numerical modelling to the design of die sets
and of the tailor-welded blanks is examined and future trends in friction
stir welding and multiple-material tailor-welded blanks are outlined.
*12-249447
Fatigue strength of AlSi7Mg alloy castings with surface refined
by GTAW [TIG welding] process.
ORLOWICZ A W; MROZ M
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.59, no.9-10. Sept.-Oct.2010. pp.203-205. 6
fig., 15 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
Fatigue strength of a casting of aluminium alloy AlSi7Mg (Al, 4%Si,
0.31%Mn, 0.25%Mg, 0.15%Fe, 0.044%Sr, 0.015%Cu) with a surface
melted by a TIG arc was investigated. TIG surface treatment was
carried out with a tungsten electrode of 4 mm diameter and helium
shielding gas. The effect of varying the process parameters was
investigated by treating surfaces at 150-300 A, 200-800 mm/minute. A
flow calorimeter was used to increase the extraction of heat from the
castings during the process. The width and depth of the treated areas
were determined. Tensile strength, fatigue strength, fracture surfaces
and microstructure were analysed. The relationship between
microstructure and mechanical properties is discussed.

20 AUTOMATION AND ROBOTS


See also abstracts: 01-249382, 01-249388, 08-249240

*20-249330
Evaluation of quality of the arc self-adjustment process.
TSYBULKIN G A
Paton Welding Journal, no.2. Feb.2010. pp.11-13. 2 fig., 11 ref. ISSN:
0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
The steady-state process in the welding circuit during MIG/MAG
welding was investigated and the accuracy of the arc self-adjustment
process was estimated using the error index method. The study has
application to control efficiency in robotic arc welding. Equations were
derived defining the accuracy and time of transient arc self-adjustment
processes. Some worked examples are presented. Use of the equations
in development of an adaptive arc sensor is mentioned.
*20-249332
Optimal control of formation of weld reinforcement.
DOLINENKO V V; SKUBA T G; KOLYADA V A;
SHAPOVALOV E V
Paton Welding Journal, no.2. Feb.2010. pp.17-22. 6 fig., 14 ref. ISSN:
0957-798X

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

AUTOMATION AND ROBOTS

38

[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya


Svarka)[See also Weldasearch 227062]
Development of control algorithms for a laser TV sensor feedback
system measuring weld bead reinforcement in MAG welding is
reported. A dynamic model of weld reinforcement formation was
developed and tested experimentally using pulsed MAG welding with
Sv-08G2S wire on carbon steel plate. MATLAB software was then
used to develop control algorithms which were robust against current
and voltage fluctuations and could accommodate monitoring delays in a
practical system.
*20-249334
Portable system of monitoring and control of resistance spot
welding process.
RUDENKO P M; GAVRISH V S
Paton Welding Journal, no.2. Feb.2010. pp.27-31. 5 fig., 9 ref. ISSN:
0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya
Svarka)[See also Weldasearch 235299, 233292]
Interfacing of a portable computer system (PCS) (e.g. smart phone,
netbook or laptop) to a resistance spot welding machine, and
performance of the integrated system are described. Based upon earlier
developments, the KSU KS-03 interface unit was designed, with USB
or wireless communication to the PCS, allowing the PCS to perform
intensive computation associated with statistical analysis of monitored
signals (current, voltage, force, electrode acceleration), neural network
and fuzzy logic calculations for process control, and to provide expert
system support for parameter selection and quality control.
Performance and capabilities of the integrated system are described.
20-249348
An adaptive inverse control method based on SVM [support vector
machine] fuzzy rules acquisition system for pulsed GTAW [TIG
welding] process.
HUANG X X; GU W; SHI F H; CHEN S B
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.44,
no.7. 2009. pp.686-694. 7 fig., 3 tab., 15 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768,
1433-3015
[in English]
A method of adaptive inverse control for TIG welding that is based on
a support vector machine-fuzzy rules acquisition system
(SVM-FRAS) is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive
inverse control method was demonstrated in a simulation, in which it
was applied to pulsed TIG welding of aluminium alloy LD10 (250 x 50
x 4 mm) in a closed flat butt joint configuration using the following
parameters: pulse AC welding current; base pulse current 90 A; current
frequency 50 Hz; base/peak current duration 250/250 ms; electrode
diameter 4 mm; electrode angle 85 degrees; arc length 4.5 mm; welding
speed 3 mm/s; shielding gas 99.99%Ar. Background knowledge of the
fuzzy basis function inference system and SVM for regression
estimation is provided. The SVM-based FRAS with adaptive learning
and the architecture of the SVM-FRAS-based adaptive inverse control
are described.
20-249354
Automatic seam-tracking of friction stir welded T-joints.
FLEMING P A; HENDRICKS C E; WILKES D M; COOK G E;
STRAUSS A M
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.45,
no.5. 2009. pp.490-495. 6 fig., 14 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768, 1433-3015
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 236887]
"WeaveTrack", a method for implementing automatic seam-tracking for

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

friction stir welding (FSW), is described. An extremum-seeking control


technique, WeaveTrack uses the force experienced by the FSW tool as
the feedback signal to maintain a desired position by weaving back and
forth during welding. "WeaveTrack" was applied to FSW (rotation
speed 1000 rev/min; welding speed 5 cm/min) of different
configurations of AA6061 aluminium alloy T joints consisting of
horizontal and vertical members (thickness 3.175 mm and 9.525 mm,
respectively) using a "Flared TriFlute" tool (tool shoulder diameter
15.875 mm; probe length 3.81 mm; probe diameter 5 mm). The
weave-welded joints were examined in terms of cross-sectional
appearance and tensile strength and were compared with
nonweave-welded joints. The impact of weave welding on weld quality
and the incorporation of "WeaveTrack" seam-tracking into existing
FSW control systems are discussed.
*20-249431
Robotic welding of heavy and large products (Robotsko
zavarivanje teskih ...).
KOVAC D
Zavarivanje, vol.53, no.1-2. Jan.-Apr.2010. pp.15-21. 11 fig., 3 ref.
ISSN: 0044-1902
[in Czech]
Equipment for use in robot arc welding of large and heavy workpieces
is discussed. Topics addressed include welding cell layout, positioning,
clamps, guidance systems and sensors.
*20-249449
Robotic pipe welding.
LIPNEVICIUS G
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.59, no.9-10. Sept.-Oct.2010. pp.213-215. 7
fig., 1 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
Equipment and procedures for robotic welding of pipes are discussed.
The robot system controls the welding process including distance
calculations, ignition, welding itself and process monitoring. Pipe
materials used in examples include duplex and superduplex stainless
steels, nickel alloys and aluminium alloys. Benefits of automated
cutting and welding of pipes, including productivity, range of weldable
joint designs, safety and precision are described. The methods suitable
for welding in the 1GR-AWS position are covered. The limitations of
automated aluminium pipe welding are specified.
*20-249453
Robotic GTAW [TIG] welding of hardenable aluminium alloys.
KOLARIK L; KOVANDA K; VALOVA M; DUNOVSKY J
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.59, no.11-12. Nov.-Dec.2010. pp.256-263. 7
fig., 1 tab., 8 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Czech]
A process of robotic TIG welding of precipitation hardening AlMgSi
alloys is discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of production using
robots are reported. A complex robot workstation in a welding
laboratory at Czech Technical University, Prague is described including
an ArcMate 100 iC robot, PI 320 AC/DC power source with a D.O.C.
system for creating a surface cleaning action during TIG welding,
sensor systems, and a RoboGuide software for production process
simulation. Difficulties of welding of aluminium alloys in the 6XXX
series are presented with an overview of alloy welding in shielding gas
mixtures of Ar and He. To investigate the effects of presetting certain
parameters for robot TIG welding, test welds were made as butt joints
in sheet of 3 mm thickness of AlMg1Si1Mn A 6082 (Al, 0.6-1.2%Mg,
0.7-1.3%Si, 0.4-1.0%Mn) in the precipitation hardened state (T6).
After NDT, hardness, macrostructure and microstructure of the welds

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

39

were analysed. The effect of frequency (50-100 Hz) and pulsing of the
filler metal wire feed (0.4-0.96 m/minute) on the quality of the welds
(appearance of top and root of the weld) in welding with alternating
current was examined. The crystallisation of the weld metal in the
pulsed TIG welding was investigated.
*20-249496
Adaptively controlled high brightness laser-arc hybrid welding.
ALLEN C; SHI S; HILTON P A
Welding and Cutting, vol.10, no.5. 2011. pp.318-321. 6 fig., 3 tab.
ISSN: 1612-3433
[in English] (Paper published in ILAS Supplement to AILU magazine,
issue 63, July 2011)[Similar paper: Paper presented at Power Beam
Processing Technologies (ICPBPT2010), International Conference,
Beijing, China, 25-29 Oct.2010. 8pp; Weldasearch 247471]
Hybrid laser MAG welding with real time adaptive control was
demonstrated by performing stringent quality (ISO 13919-1 class B)
butt joints in structural steels using a high brightness 5 kW Yb fibre
laser combined with conventional arc welding equipment. Butt welds
were made between S355 grade steel plates of 8 mm thickness and
between AISI 304 stainless steel (6 mm thickness) using a laser vision
seam tracking system to enable a seven-axis robot to track the joint in
real time. Tolerance limits regarding either joint gap or mismatch were
investigated by varying wire feed rate, weld speed and focusing height
for the former, and weld speed, laser focus position and offset of laser
beam for the latter.

21 COMPUTERS
See also abstracts: 62-249224, 62-249440

*21-249438
Numerical welding simulations. Part 1: basics (Numericke
simulace svarovani -1. cast, obecne zaklady).
SLOVACEK M; TEJC J
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.59, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2010. pp.15-17. 2 fig., 7
ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak] [See also Weldasearch 221556]
The use of numerical analyses for simulation of welding is presented.
Three different analyses using the SYSWELD programme by ESI
Group are included: analyses of shrinkage during and after welding,
analyses of local models to determine the deformation of the whole
unit, and transient welding analyses with almost all process conditions
considered. Materials and types of welding were discussed, including
MMA, MIG, MAG and TIG welding. The uses of the numerical
analytical techniques are discussed.

22 EFFICIENCY AND COSTS


See also abstracts: 08-249433, 30-249225, 70-249414

*22-249219
Quality up, costs down - manual welding in harbour crane
construction with a MAG [welding] process variant (Qualitat
rauf, Kosten runter - Schweissen von Hand im Hafenkranbau ...).
BOTHUR C
Praktiker, vol.62, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2011. pp.24-26. 4 fig. ISSN:
0554-9965
[in German]

COMPUTERS

Demag Cranes AG has greatly improved its manufacturing technology


by the introduction of "Sharc", a variant of manual MAG arc welding.
The company's profile is briefly described showing it to be a world
leader in large crane making, operating as it does in 16 countries over
five continents. The Sharc equipment is illustrated as are examples of
fillet and butt welds that it has produced. Welding rates of up to 0.120
m/s can be achieved and melting rates over 150% above previous
methods. Demag reckons its crane manufacturing costs are significantly
reduced and the Sharc installation will be amortised in a very short
time.
*22-249314
Estimating the direct costs of arc welding (Welding workbook
datasheet 320a).
INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.1. Jan.2011. AWS Section. p.62. 1
tab. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English] (Excerpted from the Welding Handbook, Vol.1. ninth
edition) [See also Weldasearch 227529]
Suggested formulae for estimating the direct costs of arc welding are
presented. The total cost of the weld is based on equations
representing factors such as consumables, power, labour and
overheads.
*22-249317
Control costs by avoiding overwelding.
INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.1. Jan.2011. AWS Section.
pp.69-70. 2 fig. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English] [Similar paper: Welding Journal, vol.89, no.12. Dec.2010.
pp.32-33; Weldasearch 245397](Excerpted from AWS Certified
Supervisor Manual for Quality and Productivity Improvement, Chapter
10 - Welding Economics and Variables)
The economic implications of overwelding (over-large welds causing
waste of filler metal and excessive arc-on time) are presented through
discussion of the factors affecting the decision regarding joint
preparation shape and the sources of overwelding. Selection of joint
preparation and weld type is considered (fillet or butt welds; single or
doubled sided weld; distortion control; and backgouging) and
overwelding sources (design specification of over-sized welds; welder
error; and poor parts fitup) are discussed. A technical illustration of
cost control using fillet sizes of 3.175, 4.763, 6.350, 7.937 and 9.525
mm is presented to compare overwelding filler metal and welder arc
time costs. Exacerbation of distortion caused by overwelding is
mentioned. The roles of design engineer and welding supervisor in
helping to avoid overwelding are highlighted.
*22-249325
How to choose a bulk GMAW [MIG/MAG welding] wire package.
BYALL L
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.2. Apr.2011. AWS Section.
pp.66-67. 4 fig. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English] [Similar paper: Welding Journal, vol.90, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.44-45; Weldasearch 247106]
The savings in time and money which can be achieved through bulk
MIG/MAG filler wire packaging options are discussed. Waste streams
(cardboard, wood, steel, plastic), wire placement in welding joint, risk
of tangling, setup, floor space and storage capacities are considered.
The packaging of and applications for each of the following are
indicated, including the benefits and drawbacks of each option: rotated
reels or drums; nonrotated reels; nonrotated fibreboard drums; and
nonrotated corrugated cardboard box.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE

40

*22-249490
Welding advances in tube and pipe applications.
HARRIS I D
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.3. July 2011. Special Issue. AWS
Section. pp.104-109. 11 fig., 4 ref. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English] (Paper based at the Tube and Pipe Seminar, FABTECH
International & AWS Welding Show, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2-4
Nov.2010)[Similar paper: Welding Journal, vol.90, no.6. June 2011.
pp.58-62; Weldasearch 247879]
The advances in welding technology which can increase tube and pipe
welding productivity for single, multirun and narrow groove (narrow
gap) applications are identified and described. Tandem gas metal arc
welding in the horizontal, vertical and overhead positions is described
and productivity compared with single wire welding. Issues associated
with narrow gap butt configuration are briefly discussed and the use of
a prototype narrow groove tandem GMA welding gun for welding of
thick sections is reported and illustrated using HSLA 100 (5 in
thickness) and nickel alloy 690. Pipeline girth welding using hybrid
laser beam welding (MIG/MAG-LBW) for X80 and X100 pipe and
high productivity TIG using EWI "DeepTIG" powder and wire for
steels, stainless steels and nickel-base alloys are discussed.

23 REPAIR AND MAINTENANCE


See also abstracts: 01-249327, 01-249476, 43-249154, 50-249397

*23-249229
Repair HPDL [high power diode laser] welding of cracks in the
ring of the nozzles set of the aircraft engine turbine (Naprawcze
spawanie laserem diodowym ...).
KLIMPEL A; JANICKI D; LISIECKI A; WILK Z; BURDA M;
ST KLIMPEL A
Biuletyn Instytutu Spawalnictwa, vol.54, no.6. 2010. pp.44-47. 6 fig.,
3 tab., 5 ref. ISSN: 0867-583X
[in Polish]
Investigations on the repairing process of longitudinal cracks in nozzle
rings in a turbine engine TW2-117 of the helicopter MI-8 were carried
out. The rings were made from austenitic steel EI-835 of two
compositions: inner ring 0.08%C, 0.64%Si, 5.9%Mn, 23.9%Cr,
16.1%Ni, 0.02%Mo, 0.40%N and outer ring 0.10%C, 0.53%Si,
5.85%Mn, 23.2%Cr, 16.3%Ni, 0.03%Mo, 0.40%N. Analysis of the
cracks was made and reasons of failure explained. Repair was done
using a high power diode laser (HPDL) using optimum welding
parameters. Microstructure and macrostructure of the repaired area
were examined.
*23-249291
New welding process for repair of damaged rails (Neues
Schweissverfahren
fur
die
Reparatur
beschadigter
Eisenbahnschienen).
SCHWEISSEN UND SCHNEIDEN
Schweissen und Schneiden, vol.62, no.12. Dec.2010. pp.672-673. 5 fig.
ISSN: 0036-7184
[in German] [Similar article: Welding and Cutting, vol.9, no.6. 2010.
pp.338-339; Weldasearch 245880] [See also Weldasearch 246329]
A novel technique for the cost-effective repair of discrete defects on
the running surfaces of rails is described. The semi-automatic process
developed by Corus Rail uses open arc welding with flux cored filler
wire. Heat input is low, to control transformation in the heat affected
zone microstructure. Automatic and more controlled operations replace
aspects of the conventional MMA process that frequently give rise to

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

variability in the quality of repairs. Factors that contribute to the cost


effectiveness and technical robustness of the introduced repair
technique are outlined. The four steps applied in the technique are
described. Key conclusions arising from a comparative evaluation of
the existing MMA welding technique and the new process are
summarised.
CORUS

*23-249313
In-situ weld repair of cracked shrouds of turbine and
characterisation of the weld joint.
DIVYA M; DAS C R; ALBERT S K; RAMASUBBU V;
BHADURI A K; SIVARAMAN P
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.1. Jan.2011. pp.49-57. 16 fig., 2
tab., 11 ref. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English]
The in-situ repair of cracked shrouds in the third stage of a
low-pressure turbine at a nuclear power plant and the characterisation
of the weld joint are reported. The damaged portion of the shroud,
which was composed of AISI 414 martensitic stainless steel (SS), was
removed, and a new portion (100 x 40 x 3) was joined to the remaining
portion by means of TIG welding (current 50-60 A; voltage 12 V; heat
input 1.1 kJ/mm; shielding gas 99.99%Ar; preheat temp. 250 deg.C;
interpass temp. 200 deg.C; post heating 250 deg.C for 15 min) using
ER410NiMo (0.02%C, 0.45%Mn, 12.5%Cr, 5.0%Ni, 0.50%Mo,
0.32%Cu) wire (diameter 0.8 mm). Weld deposition was also used to
build up the tenon heads of the blades. The repair welds underwent
in-situ, two-stage PWHT (650 deg.C for 2 h + 600 deg.C for 4 h). A
mock-up piece that was made of the same parent and welding materials
and underwent the same welding process and PWHT were
characterised in detail with respect to microstructures and mechanical
properties. Separate weld pads prepared using AISI 414 martensitic SS
and ER410NiMo wire were similarly characterised. The results are
discussed with regard to the information revealed regarding the
properties of the repair weld.

*23-249319
Reclamation of rack teeth of tilting mechanism of mixer of steel
melting shop of Bhilai Steel Plant.
SOOD R
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.2. Apr.2011. pp.25-28. 6 fig., 7
tab., 2 ref. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English]
The welding procedure required to revive the tilting mechanism of the
mixer at an Indian steel plant is presented and discussed.
Considerations include the selection of welding consumable, welding
parameters, preparation, preheat and post heat treatment, and
precautions necessary for the overall procedure. The metal rack was of
40Ni2Cr/Mo28 steel to IS 1570 (0.35-0.45%C, 0.1-0.35%Si,
0.4-0.7%Mn,
1.25-1.75%Ni,
0.9-1.3%Cr,
0.2-0.35%Mo).
Photographs showing the worn teeth of the rack are presented. MMA
welding was chosen as the most suitable welding method using a low
hydrogen, low heat input MS electrode for the base run with
composition 0.06%C, 0.4-0.5%Si, 1.3%Mn, 0.01%P, 0.01%S. A low
heat input, highly alloyed filler electrode of composition 0.12%C,
6.5%Mn, 0.02%P, 0.02%S, 1.02%Si, 19.94%Cr, 10.5%Ni, 1.4%Mo
was used for the subsequent weld run.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

41

*23-249432
Repair - the application of welding technology [Part 1]
(Reparatura - primjena tehnologije zavarivanja ...).
JAVOR F
Zavarivanje, vol.53, no.1-2. Jan.-Apr.2010. pp.22-25. 3 fig., 6 ref.
ISSN: 0044-1902
[in Croatian]
The history and development of weld repair are described, including
repair techniques used before the end of the 19th century (e.g. by
blacksmith welding), arc welding with carbon electrodes, underwater
welding in shipyards, welding in space, and new materials.
*23-249435
Repair - the application of welding technology and related
activities (Part 2) (Reparatura - promjena tehnologije zavarivanja
...).
JAVOR F
Zavarivanje, vol.53, no.3-4. May-Aug.2010. pp.93-98. 8 fig., 7 ref.
ISSN: 0044-1902
[in Croatian] [Part 1, ibid, no.1-2. Jan.-Apr.2010. pp.22-25.
Weldasearch 249432]
Causes of damage that necesitate welding repair are discussed. These
include irregularities in the transport, handling and storage; incorrect
installation or alteration; process errors; and effects of natural
disasters, war, terrorism or sabotage.
23-249481
Derailment on the Bure Valley Railway, Norfolk 30 May 2011.
RAIB BULLETIN
RAIB [Rail Accident Investigation Branch] Bulletin, no.04. 2011. 7pp.
6 fig.,
[in English]
[http://www.raib.gov.uk/publications/bulletins/bulletins_2011/bulletin_
04_2011.cfm]
The findings of an investigation into a derailment on the Bure Valley
Railway (BVR), UK, are presented. Results of metallurgical
examination of the failed axle are listed and discussed, and attention is
paid to the presence of hydrogen in the weld metal, suggesting possible
use of damp electrodes. Evidence was identified of fatigue fracture and
rapid crack growth where the axle journal end was built up with weld
metal as a repair measure. The history of the failed wheelset is outlined
and BVR procedures concerning the wheelsets are briefly highlighted.
The consequences of the accident and subsequent actions taken by
BVR are then discussed. Finally conclusion and learning points from
the accident are presented.

30 EQUIPMENT [FOR WELDING, ETC.]


See also abstracts: 02-249305, 03-249174, 07-249356, 20-249334,
60-249510, 60-249511, 63-249307, 63-249316

*30-249166
Cladding in the field of industrial applications.
BARTHOUX J P; KRUGER J
Stainless Steel World, vol.22. Nov.2010. pp.51-53, 55. 7 fig. ISSN:
1383-7184
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 248679 and Weldasearch 249301]
An overview of equipment available for different industrial
applications of surfacing (repair or preventative protection) and
buttering is provided. .A detailed description of deposition of layers

EQUIPMENT [FOR WELDING, ETC.]

for buttering is provided and the use of TIG hot wire welding for
surfacing is described. Approaches to minimise dilution are outlined.
Torch selection criteria outlined include workpiece dimensions and
shape, area accessibility and welding position, and short descriptions
of different torch designs are provided. Example applications described
include equipment used for weld overlay of tank bottoms, double hot
wire feed for surfacing inside tubes (8-12 m length) and a rotatable
welding head for surfacing when the workpiece cannot be moved is
described.
*30-249225
Regular checks of the compressed air installation reduce (not
only) the energy costs (Regelmassige Kontrollen der
Druckluftinstallation senken (nicht nur) die Energiekosten.
SCHWEISS- UND PRUFTECHNIK
Schweiss- und Pruftechnik, no.2. Feb.2011. pp.21-23. 5 fig. ISSN:
1027-3352
[in German]
Details are given of equipment and advice offered by Atlas Copco
Tools (ACT) on the most efficient practices in using pneumatic
devices. Many workshops routinely use tools for grinding, drilling,
polishing etc. powered by compressed air. Photographs show workers
using such equipment. Inefficient use can be costly, for example
acceptable unavoidable leakage rates are around 5% but losses of
15-30% are quite common. In addition, an air pressure supply should
be 7 bar (700 kPa) but if the pressure falls below 5 bar (500 kPa) the
use efficiency drops by up to 50%. A photograph shows a
recommended pressure checking device. ACT provides a free booklet
with advice on efficient use of pneumatic equipment.
ATLAS COPCO TOOLS GMBH
*30-249246
Welding power sources - structure and characteristics.
DABROWSKI A
Przeglad Spawalnictwa, vol.82, no.7. 2010. pp.24-32. 10 fig., 2 tab.
ISSN: 0033-2364
[in Polish]
The operating principles of welding power sources are introduced.
Welding machines with constant voltage (CV) and constant current
(CC) are compared. Introduction of welding rectifiers is discussed.
Inverter sources are characterised with reference to MMA, TIG and
pulsed TIG welding processes. Semi-automatic welding machines are
described also. Their implementations, functionality and suitability for
different welding methods are given (CV Step Control, Chopper CV
Synergia, Chopper CV Synergia Puls, Inverter CV Synergia Puls CC).
Different arc characteristics are described. Pulsed arc welding is
explained. Construction of a simple CC single-phase welding machine
is shown and examples of CC welding rectifiers and welding inverter
are given. Parameter working ranges are discussed, including effects on
metal transfer modes.
*30-249310
Practical reliability, availability and acceptability aspects of
modern arc welding equipment.
PAUL A K
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.1. Jan.2011. pp.19-29. 10 fig., 3
tab., 13 ref. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English]
Misconceptions regarding the reliability and availability of inverter
technology that hinder its acceptance for use in arc welding are
addressed. The topics discussed include the evolution of arc welding
technology and improvements in performance; acceptability criteria

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

CONSUMABLES [FILLERS, FLUXES, GASES,


ETC.]

42

regarding process innovations; the role played by operating conditions


in creating certain failure modes; predicting reliability in the design of
welding equipment; field failure data; and equipment packaging and
handling.
*30-249315
Reducing gas surges improves GMAW [MIG/MAG welding]
profitability.
GREEN R
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.1. Jan.2011. AWS Section.
pp.63-64. 3 fig., 1 ref. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English] [Similar paper: Welding Journal, vol.89, no.10. Oct.2010.
pp.32-33; Weldasearch 244634]
A review of shielding gas usage, through a determination of peak surges
and use of flow control equipment, is presented with a view to cost
reductions. Three designs are compared for cost savings: flow gauge
(REG/FG) Gas Guard; flow meter (REG/FM) at 172.4 kPa; and
REG/FM at 344.7 kPa.
*30-249318
Stud welding technologies for a greener future.
HSU C; PHILLIPS D
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.1. Jan.2011. AWS Section.
pp.71-75. 6 fig., 2 ref. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English] [Similar paper: Welding Journal, vol.89, no.10. Oct.2010.
pp.38-42; Weldasearch 244636]
A review of arc stud welding technological improvements and
innovations which save time, money and energy are presented with
emphasis on the automotive industry and renewable energy
applications. The topics addressed include: disadvantages of using
compressed air to convey studs; an inverter with digital signal
processors synchronised with stud motion plunge; an "Eco Escape"
stud feeder which cuts compressed air consumption by 62%; welding
machines which go into "sleep" mode when not in use; the design of
intelligent stud welding inverters (built-in weld heat input monitor, gun
motion monitor, weld cable and connector circuit impedance monitor);
and "green" fastening applications.
*30-249333
Prospects of increasing energy characteristics of flash butt
welding.
KUCHUK-YATSENKO S I; NEJLO Yu S; GAVRISH V S;
GUSHCHIN R V
Paton Welding Journal, no.2. Feb.2010. pp.23-27. 3 fig., 1 tab., 11 ref.
ISSN: 0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya Svarka)
Developments in electrical energy supply systems for flash butt
welding are overviewed. Loading down of 3-phase mains supplies by
single phase high power requirements is highlighted and developments
to obviate this from 1960 onwards are described, including frequency
converters and secondary circuit current rectification. Development of
these principles, based upon modern electronics availability, energy
storage capacitors and the need for large cross-section welding of pipes
and rails is described.
*30-249384
New materials and torch shapes increase range of plasma cutting
applications.
WELDING AND CUTTING
Welding and Cutting, vol.10, no.4. 2011. pp.213-215. 2 fig. ISSN:
1612-3433

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011


[in English] [See also Weldasearch 244454]
The development of plasma torches for cutting and gouging
applications is described, with particular emphasis on design changes
with respect to torch shapes and materials. The changes, devised by
engineers from Hypertherm, were intended to produce improvements
in the torch characteristics in terms of their robustness, handle
ergonomics and access for tight locations, and also their suitability for
robotic and pipe cutting applications. The approach taken by
Hypertherm engineers to achieving these objectives are explained
briefly.
HYPERTHERM

*30-249479
Impact of tool wear on joint strength in friction stir spot welding
of DP980 steel.
MILES M P; RIDGES C S; HOVANSKI Y; PETERSON J;
SANTELLA M L; STEEL R
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol.16, no.7.
Oct.2011. pp.642-647. 10 fig., 1 tab., 34 ref. ISSNs: 1362-1718,
1743-2936
[in English]
[http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/stwj]
An experimental study was carried out to investigate the wear of
friction stir welding tools composed of a combination of
polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) and tungsten-rhenium (30
or 40%W-Re) during friction stir spot welding (FSSW) of DP980 steel.
Spot welds were produced in a tight pattern on two overlapped sheets
of DP980 sheet steel of 1.4 mm thickness. Lap shear test specimens
were prepared for evaluation of joint strength after approximately
every additional 100 welds. Tool wear was measured each time wear
testing was interrupted to produce lap shear specimens. The silhouette
of the tool was photographed by placing it in an optical comparator, in
order to measure its wear. Spot weld lap shear strength was measured
over time in order to evaluate the effective tool life. Microhardness
maps were also generated for welds made with both tools in order to
show the effect of tool material on joint properties.

31 CONSUMABLES [FILLERS, FLUXES,


GASES, ETC.]
See also abstracts: 01-249218, 01-249323, 01-249401, 01-249456,
05-249190, 07-249213, 11-249424, 22-249325, 43-249386,
44-249455, 45-249416, 60-249236, 60-249499, 63-249238

*31-249186
Welding materials for magnesium alloys.
LIU L M
In Book: Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys. Ed: L.M.Liu.
Publ: Cambridge, CB21 6AH, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2010.
Part 1: General. Chapter 4. pp.23-37. 9 fig., 4 tab., 10 ref. ISBNs:
9781845696924, 9780857090423
[in English]
An introduction to welding filler materials and preparation methods to
make these for the welding of magnesium alloys is presented.
Information is provided regarding the composition of Mg alloy filler
wires, recommended filler metals for arc welding of Mg alloys and the
selection of Mg alloy filler wires. Detailed descriptions of the hot
extrusion process and hot pull process for making filler wires are
provided. The component design, microstructure and strength of filler
materials are discussed also.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

CONSUMABLES [FILLERS, FLUXES, GASES,


ETC.]

43

31-249358
Rate-dependent deformation of Sn-3.5Ag lead-free solder.
SEFTON D E; RIST M A; GUNGOR S
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol.20, no.11.
Nov.2009. pp.1083-1089. 7 fig., 27 ref. ISSN: 0957-4522
[in English]
The material constitutive behaviour of eutectic Sn-3.5%Ag lead-free
solder was investigated. Cylindrical cast ingots of Sn-3.5%Ag solder,
which were machined to a length of 18 mm and a diameter of 12 mm,
underwent microstructural examination. Test pieces were also
subjected to compression testing (temperature 0-125 deg.C; fixed strain
rate 0.000003-0.003/s), and flow behaviour was examined. Rate
equations that incorporated linear hardening and diffusion-controlled
recovery were used to model stress-strain curves. The results are
discussed and compared with data from supplementary tension and
creep experiments and from the literature.

31-249359
Influence of minor Bi additions on the interfacial morphology
between Sn-Zn-xBi solders and a Cu layer.
CHEN J; SHEN J; MIN D; PENG C F
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol.20, no.11.
Nov.2009. pp.1112-1117. 3 fig., 1 tab., 16 ref. ISSN: 0957-4522
[in English]
The interfacial morphology between reflowed ternary Sn-Zn-Bi solders
and a Cu layer was studied to shed light on the possible effects of
minor additions of Bi. Solder pastes containing Sn-9%Zn,
Sn-8%Zn-1%Bi or Sn-8%Zn-3%Bi were placed on Cu (purity
99.99%) sheets (25 x 25 x 0.3 mm), and a reflow process was carried
out at 250 deg.C for 1 h. Microstructure and elemental distribution in
the soldered joints were determined. The results are discussed with
regard to crack formation across the interface between the solder and
the Cu substrate and to the thickness and grain size of intermetallic
compound layers in the joints.

31-249362
Study of phase compositions of Al-Se [Si]-Ge alloys for designing
solders for aluminium alloys.
OSINTSEV O E; BETSOFEN S YA; KONKEVICH V Yu;
BETSOFEN M S; STEPANOV V V
Russian Metallurgy (Metally), vol.2009, no.3. Sept.-Oct.2009.
pp.231-236. 4 fig., 2 tab., 5 ref. ISSNs: 0036-0295, 1555-6255
[in English]
The phase compositions of the ternary aluminium-silicon-germanium
system were studied in order to design solders with liquidus
temperatures below 570 deg.C for use with aluminium alloys. Ingots of
six eutectic alloys (Al, 7.0-11.5%Si, 2.0-24.0%Ge), one hypoeutectic
alloy with a primary alpha phase (Al, 8.0%Si, 7.6%Ge) and one
hypereutectic alloy with primary beta (Si, Ge) crystals (Al, 12.0%Si,
8.5%Ge) were fabricated and hot and cold rolled to produce sheets,
foils and a cladding layer on the surface of alloy sheets that underwent
soldering. The Al-Si-Ge solder alloys were subjected to electron-probe
microanalysis, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction
analysis to study the phase compositions. Flux-free lap soldering was
carried out in a vacuum furnace in the presence of magnesium vapour
(pressure 0.0004 Pa), and the resulting soldered joints were subjected
to static tension testing and corrosion resistance testing. The
experimental data were compared with those obtained for a binary
eutectic AK12 silumin and used to develop phase quantitative analysis
methods. The results are discussed with regard to optimising the
chemical and phase composition of a suitable Al-Si-Ge solder and its
production process.

31-249365
Effects of Ga-Ag, Ga-Al and Al-Ag additions on the wetting
characteristics of Sn-9Zn-X-Y lead-free solders.
WANG H; XUE S B; CHEN W X; ZHAO F
Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics, vol.20, no.12.
Dec.2009. pp.1239-1246. 11 fig., 3 tab., 12 ref. ISSN: 0957-4522
[in English]
A study was carried out into how the wetting characteristics of
Sn-9%-X-Y lead-free solders are affected by adding gallium-aluminium,
gallium-silver and aluminium-silver binaries. Alloys were prepared that
had the following compositions: Sn, 9%Zn; Sn, 9%Zn, 0-1.0%Ga,
0-0.5%Ag; Sn, 9%Zn, 0.3-1.0%Ga, 0.002-0.01%Al; and Sn, 9%Zn,
0.002-0.01%Al, 0.1-0.5%Ag. The wetting characteristics of the solders
were examined using copper coupons (30 x 5 x 0.3 mm), rosin mildly
activated flux and the wetting balance method (temperature 235 deg.C;
immersion speed 4 mm/s; immersion depth 2 mm; immersion duration
10 s). In addition, Cu substrate was dipped into the solders for 30 s at
235 deg.C, followed by immersion in 99%CH3OH + 0.5%HCl +
0.5%HNO3, and the exposed intermetallic compounds were
characterised and the distribution of Ga, Al, Zn and Sn on the solder
was analysed. The results are discussed with regard to the effects of
the binary element additions on wettability, surface properties and
interface reactions, and a mechanism that explains how these additions
improve wettability is proposed.

*31-249389
The effect of flux on formation of the primary structure of TIG
welds made on aluminium and aluminium alloys.
SAIDOV R; ABDURAKHMANOV R; TADJIEV D; KUSCH M;
JOHN B
Welding and Cutting, vol.10, no.4. 2011. pp.248-253. 8 fig., 3 tab., 7
ref. ISSN: 1612-3433
[in English]
The primary structure of welds made on aluminium alloys using TIG
welding, assisted with scouring flux containing modifying components,
was studied. Scouring flux constituents were fluorides and chlorides of
alkali and alkaline earth metals, while modifying components were Zr,
B or Ti as halides. The scouring and modifying fluxes were applied as a
thin layer of paste on the backside of the joint prior to welding, and
their effect on the process of primary crystallisation and formation of
the crystal structure of the weld metal was studied in welds prepared
using sheets made of various aluminium, Al-Mn, Al-Mg and
Al-Cu-Mn alloys (EN 573-3 specifications: EN AW-1050A, EN
AW-1070A, EN AW-3103, EN AW-5051A, EN AW-5754, EN
AW-2219). The results of microstructural characterisation are
presented and discussed.

*31-249405
Soldering without lead.
SEBO P; SVEC P; JANICKOVIC D
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.5-6. May-June 2009. pp.145-146. 2
fig., 3 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak] [See also Weldasearch 232788]
An overview of international research and development on lead-free
solders is presented with focus on studies COST 531 (lead-free solder
materials) and COST MP0602 (advanced solder materials for high
temperature application). Content of these studies is summarised;
involvement of several Slovak institutes is highlighted.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

MATERIALS, GENERAL

44

*31-249411
Effect of composition of shielding atmosphere on selected
technological properties of welding with MGAW [MAG welding]
method.
REVEL O; MUCHA M
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.9-10. Sept.-Oct.2009. pp.223-228. 14
fig., 1 tab., 5 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
The role of shielding gas mixture in determining the operational
weldability envelope in MAG welding was investigated. Deposits
were made on S235 steel, using N70S filler wire of 1 mm diameter, and
five shielding gas mixtures: 100%CO2; Ar - 3, 8, 18 or 25%CO2; or Ar
- 3%CO2 - 1%O2. Evaluation included determination of process
parameters for stable operation in short-circuit, spray and globular
transfer modes; levels of fume emission; and spatter associated with
each test condition.
31-249419
Lead-free solder process development.
HENSHALL G; BATH J; HANDWERKER C A
Book. Publ: Hoboken, New Jersey 07030, USA; John Wiley & Sons
Inc. for Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; 2011. 280pp.
10 Chapters. Numerous fig., tab., ref. ISBN: 9780470410745
[in English] [For abstracts of individual chapters see Weldasearch
249420-249429]
Developments in the field of lead-free soldering processes are
reviewed. The book, which has a particular focus on the continuing
challenges associated with the production of lead-free electronic
components, both addresses the evolution of lead-free soldering
technology in key areas and serves as a practical guide to address
issues of concern in this field. The topics addressed include
developments in legislation to make products more environmentally
friendly; surface mount technology; wave soldering optimisation;
reworking; alloy choice; tin whisker growth; testing of lead-free printed
circuit assemblies; solder joint integrity; component performance; and
automatic electronics.
*31-249420
Regulatory and voluntary drivers for environmental
improvement: hazardous substances, life-cycle design, and end of
life.
HAWLEY J
In Book: Lead-Free Solder Process Development. Ed: G.Henshall,
J.Bath and C.A.Handwerker. Publ: Hoboken, New Jersey 07030,
USA; John Wiley & Sons Inc.; 2011. Chapter 1. pp.1-14. 5 tab., 22
ref. ISBN: 9780470410745
[in English]
Regulatory trends and voluntary efforts in the global electronics
industry that are aimed at designing more environmentally friendly
electronic products are reviewed. The topics covered include legislation
and voluntary initiatives that address substances of environmental
concern; legislation and voluntary initiatives that encourage more
environmentally friendly and energy-efficient products and production
methods; and legislation and voluntary initiatives that address recycling
and take-back of electronic products.
*31-249442
High temperature lead-free solders.
SEBO P; SVEC P; JANICKOVIC D
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.59, no.7-8. July-Aug.2010. pp.155-156. 3 ref.
ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

Development and ongoing research into high temperature lead free


solders in international project COST MP0602 are presented. The
requirements are reported, including strength, thermal and electrical
conductivity, structure stability, and mechanical properties for these
solders in different uses. The main aims of MP0602 are presented
including creating a database with thermodynamic data for selection of
soldering alloys. The advantages of Au alloys and Al-Zn alloys are
discussed. Results obtained concerning different concentrations of Ag
in Sn-10%Bi-Ag solders and their effect on Cu plate wetting are
described. The effect of Ag content on the shear strength of this solder
was examined in copper joints.
*31-249454
Application of new shielding gas for welding of pressure vessels.
KOZMOVA R
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.59, no.11-12. Nov.-Dec.2010. pp.263-265. 5
fig., 3 tab., 3 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
An overview is presented of the Ferroline X4 shielding gas mixture for
welding of pressure vessels. The advantages of 96%Ar + 4%O2
(Ferroline X4) are reported, including improved oxidation potential and
fluidity of weld metal. Test butt joints with V joint preparation and T
joints were made in P355NL2 (0.12%C, 1.44%Mn, 0.15%Ni,
0.029%Nb) pressure vessel steel plate of 12 mm thickness and using
filler metal G465MG3Ni1 (0.08%C, 0.73%Si, 1.11%Mn, 0.84%Ni)
under Ferroline X4 shielding gas. Mode of metal transfer and spatter
were observed. Yield strength, tensile strength, bend strength, and
impact toughness at -60 deg.C in the weld metal and heat affected zone
were determined.
*31-249457
Quality increase of agglomerated fluxes using fused
semiproducts.
GOLOVKO V V; GALINIC V I; GONCAROV I A
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.60, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2011. pp.22-24. 4 fig., 7
ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
Improving the quality of agglomerated fluxes by adding fused
components is discussed. Criteria for selection of flux are discussed
including technological, metallurgical and economic factors. Properties
of fused and agglomerated fluxes were examined using a ten point scale.
At the E.O. Paton Institute, Kiev, Ukraine, a method of double
purification of slag, which is added to the flux, was reported. The use
of residue from iron alloy production, slag from welding and low
quality manganese ore in fluxes is discussed. Desirable welding
properties of agglomerated fluxes with added fused components are
reported.

32 MATERIALS, GENERAL
See also abstracts: 01-249281, 42-249404

*32-249159
Effect of substrate composition on Sn whisker growth in pure Sn
films.
MILLER S M; SAHAYM U; NORTON M G
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.41A, no.13. Dec.2010.
pp.3386-3395. 12 fig., 3 tab., 31 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5623, 1543-1940
[in English]
The influence of the presence of Zn in the substrate layer on

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

45

spontaneous whisker formation in pure Sn sheet was investigated, and


the feasibility of using Zn to prevent whisker growth was assessed. An
alkaline electrolyte (142.096 g/l sodium tin (IV) oxide, 14.960 g/l
sodium hydroxide) was used to electroplate (duration ca.45-474 s;
plating thickness 1-10 micrometres; current density 50 mA/square
centimetre; voltage 3.5-4.0 V; temperature 85-95 deg.C) pure Cu and
brass (70%Cu, 30%Zn) sheets (25 x 25 x 1 mm). After cleaning, drying
and ageing at room temperature in air, the samples were periodically
examined via field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy
dispersive spectroscopy; the Sn/substrate interface was characterised
in cross sections of the 10 micrometre Sn-plated samples; and the
compositions of various regions in the cross section were determined.
The results of these analyses and the use of Zn to mitigate whisker
growth are discussed.

32-249182
Welding and joining of magnesium alloys.
LIU L M
Book. Publ: Cambridge, CB21 6AH, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd;
2010. 2 Parts. 19 Chapters. 402pp. Numerous fig., tab., ref. ISBNs:
9781845696924, 9780857090423
[in English] [For abstracts of individual chapters, see Weldasearch
249183 and 249199]
A detailed review of welding techniques for use with magnesium alloys
is presented. The first part of the review addresses general issues in
magnesium welding and joining, whereas the second part focuses on
specific welding and joining techniques. The review also examines the
application of more recent techniques to magnesium alloys.

*32-249183
Introduction to the welding and joining of magnesium.
LIU L M
In Book: Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys. Ed: L.M.Liu.
Publ: Cambridge, CB21 6AH, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2010.
Part 1: General. Chapter 1. pp.3-8. 19 ref. ISBNs: 9781845696924,
9780857090423
[in English]
An overview of the welding and joining of magnesium alloy is
presented. The background of welding and joining these alloys is
reviewed, and the characteristics of magnesium alloy welded joints
under dynamic load, the efficient MIG welding of magnesium alloys,
and the dissimilar welding of magnesium alloys to other metals are
described.

*32-249187
Welding and joining of magnesium alloys to aluminium alloys.
LIU L M
In Book: Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys. Ed: L.M.Liu.
Publ: Cambridge, CB21 6AH, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2010.
Part 1: General. Chapter 5. pp.38-62. 20 fig., 4 tab., 27 ref. ISBNs:
9781845696924, 9780857090423
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 230151 and 230262]
Techniques for welding magnesium alloys to aluminium alloys are
described. The techniques addressed are laser-TIG hybrid welding,
diffusion bonding and laser weld bonding. The welding mechanisms and
resulting microstructural and mechanical properties associated with
each technique are examined, and future trends in the joining
technology of Mg and Al are briefly discussed.

MATERIALS, GENERAL

*32-249244
Influence of the rolling direction of the metal steel sheet with
thermo-mechanical treatment on the quality of welded joints.
GORKA J; MILER G
Przeglad Spawalnictwa, vol.82, no.7. 2010. pp.8-13. 12 fig., 7 tab., 10
ref. ISSN: 0033-2364
[in Polish]
The welding parameters for thermomechanically treated steel S700MC
(0.06%C, 0.17%Si, 1.68%Mn, 0.006%Mo, 0.006%V, 0.047%Nb,
0.122%Ti, 0.037%Al, 0.006%N, 0.003%S, 0.008%P) were optimised.
The influence of the rolling direction of plate of thickness 10 mm on
the quality of the final product was analysed. The MAG welding
method was used with Megafil 742M flux cored wire of diameter 1.2
mm and the active shielding gas mixture M21. Nondestructive and
destructive tests were performed in parent material and HAZ. This
included: visual observations, magnetic particle inspection,
radiographic examination, microstructural and macrostructural
observations, microhardness measurements and a range of mechanical
tests (tensile, impact (-20 deg.C) and bend tests).
32-249346
Evaluation of interface bonding strength of aluminium/silicon
carbide.
SOZHAMANNAN G G; BALASIVANANDHA PRABU S
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, vol.44,
no.3. 2009. pp.385-388. 4 fig., 3 tab., 12 ref. ISSNs: 0268-3768,
1433-3015
[in English]
The strength of the interface bonds formed in a metal matrix composite
of aluminium/silicon carbide prepared under different processing
temperatures was examined. A melt joining process (furnace
temperature 700-800 deg.C; holding time 30 min; heating rate 8-15
deg.C) was carried out in which an alpha SiC plate was brought into
contact (no force) with liquid aluminium alloy (Al, 1.83%Cu, 0.68%Si,
0.102%Mg, 0.221%Mn, 0.762%Fe, 0.786%Zn) in a steel mould and
allowed to cool as a single unit. Samples were cut from the resulting
casting specimen of bonded Al/SiC. The results of microstructural
examination of the bond region; analysis of the intermetallic
composition of the interface region; and measurement of the tensile
strength of the bonded samples and of the microhardness of the
interface region are discussed.
*32-249379
Advanced
high-strength
steel
tailor
welded
blanks
(AHSS-TWB's).
WU X
In Book: Tailor Welded Blanks for Advanced Manufacturing. Ed:
B.L.Kinsey and X.Wu. Publ: Cambridge, CB22 3HJ, UK; Woodhead
Publishing Ltd., 2011. Part 2: Applications. Chapter 6. pp.118-163. 25
fig., 1 tab., 44 ref. ISBN: 9781845697044
[in English]
An overview is presented of the characteristics and fabrication of
advanced high-strength steel tailor-welded blanks (AHSS-TWBs) and
the benefits of their application in the automotive industry. The
microstructure is described, including dual-phase and multiple-phase
AHSS, containing martensite, bainite and austenite surrounded by
ductile ferrite, in transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP) and
twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) steels, and in hot-formed steels.
Fabrication methods covered include laser cutting, laser welding,
friction stir welding, MIG/MAG welding, and techniques for joining
aluminium and steel. Tests for microhardness, tensile tests and
formability tests such as the cup dome test are described and data on

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

TENSILE PROPERTIES, TOUGHNESS

46

example welds is presented. Comparisons are made between DP780


and TRIP780 steels and an example is given of hot stamping of boron
steel for automotive parts.
*32-249459
Aluminium Q&A [Questions and Answers: Al-Li alloys].
ANDERSON T
Welding Journal, vol.90, no.10. Oct.2011. pp.18-20. 2 fig., 1 tab. ISSN:
0043-2296
[in English]
The weldability and uses of aluminium-lithium (Al-Li) alloy Weldalite
2195 is discussed. The history of lithium additions is described
initially as a method of reducing aluminium alloy density and increasing
stiffness and later, with the addition of Cu and Zr, increased strength
alloys. The weldability problems of Alloy 2195 (Al, 4.0%Cu, 1.0%Li,
0.4%Ag, 0.4%Mg, 0.14%Zr) are documented as oxide layer formation
and the high reactivity of Li. Studies comparing the weldability of
Al-Li alloys 2195 and 2319 using variable polarity plasma arc welding
(VPPAW) are noted for hot cracking and surface-crack toughness as a
function of temperature.

40 TENSILE PROPERTIES, TOUGHNESS


40-249369
Characterisation of cast stainless steel weld pools by using ball
indentation technique.
DAS G; DAS M; SINHA S; GUPTA K K; CHAKRABARTY S;
RAY A K
Materials Science and Engineering A, vol.A513-514. 15 July 2009.
pp.389-393. 7 fig., 3 tab., 26 ref. ISSN: 0921-5093
[in English]
The microstructure, fracture toughness, yield strength, tensile strength,
strain hardening exponent and strength coefficient of cast stainless steel
welds were investigated. Mechanical properties were determined using
the ball indentation technique due to limited material volume available.
Fracture toughness was determined using the computation of
continuum damage mechanics, based on the formation of voids beneath
the indenter. Two filler wires of cast stainless steel (0.05%C,
2.38%Mn, 25.54%Cr, 1.23%Si, 9.3%Ni, 0.03%P and 0.07%C,
0.46%Mn, 33%Cr, 1.17%Si, 11.57%Ni, 0.028%P) were used to
deposit weld pools on a copper substrate. The amount of ferrite
present in the deposited metal was estimated. The superior yield and
tensile strength of weld metals with higher Cr content and a greater
amount of ferrite in the weld metal is discussed.
*40-249391
Causes of hydrogen embrittlement in the case of drawn-arc stud
welding.
CRAMER H; BOHME D; JENICEK A
Buletinul Institutului National de Cercetare-Dezvoltare in Sudura si
Incercari de Materiale-ISIM Timisoara, vol.20, no.2. 2011. pp.21-24. 7
fig., 1 tab., 5 ref. ISSN: 1453-0392
[in English] [Journal also known as: Sudarea si Incercarea
Materialelor - Welding & Material Testing][Similar paper: Schweissen
und Schneiden [in German], vol.62, no.9. Sep.2010. pp.502-507;
Weldasearch 246250]
[http://www.bid-isim.ro/bid_arhiva/bid2011/cramer-2_2011.pdf]
Factors influencing the hydrogen content of drawn arc welded stud
welds and their fracture behaviour were investigated and the results
were used to highlight the causes of hydrogen embrittlement in stud
welds. Weld specimens comprised plate and studs of structural steel

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

S235, 19MnB4 or 8MnSi7 and austenitic stainless steel X5CrNi1810,


used as matching or dissimilar pairs. Stud welds were made using a
ceramic collar, and the humidity content of the collars was altered (e.g.
storage in a cellar, water bath or chamber, or by drying in a furnace
immediately prior to use). The influence of the plate surface was
examined also: sand blasted, untreated (with scale), oil moistened and
water moistened. Hydrogen content and distribution in test specimens
was determined. Weld bend angle and tensile strength were determined
and the fracture location was noted. Fracture strength of welds stored
for 3 days or 8 weeks was compared with that of welds as-made. An
example of the use of SEM investigations to determine fracture
behaviour is described and the connection between fracture behaviour
and fracture location discussed.

41 FATIGUE
See also abstracts: 54-249233, 60-249517

*41-249518
Fatigue life prediction methods of seam-welded joints.
KANG H T; LEE Y L
In Book: Metal Fatigue Analysis Handbook. Practical Problem-Solving
Techniques for Computer-Aided Engineering. Ed: Y.L.Lee,
M.E.Barkey and H.T.Kang. Publ: Oxford OX5 1GB, UK; Elsevier
Butterworth-Heinemann; 2012. Chapter 10. pp.383-427. 21 fig.,
numerous ref. ISBN: 9780123852045
[in English]
Parameters affecting fatigue lives of seam welded joints and fatigue life
prediction methods (nominal stress approaches, structural stress
approaches and notch pseudo stress or RXMX approach) are
described and discussed particularly in the context of the automotive
industry. Structural stress approaches are discussed with reference to
the literature and with particular reference to Dong's approach
proposing a mesh insensitive structural stress parameter and to
Fermer's approach proposing a fatigue damage parameter. Variable
amplitude multiaxial fatigue analyses are discussed.

*41-249519
Fatigue life prediction methods of resistance spot-welded joints.
KANG H T; LEE Y L
In Book: Metal Fatigue Analysis Handbook. Practical Problem-Solving
Techniques for Computer-Aided Engineering. Ed: Y.L.Lee,
M.E.Barkey and H.T.Kang. Publ: Oxford OX5 1GB, UK; Elsevier
Butterworth-Heinemann; 2012. Chapter 11. pp.429-460. 14 fig.,
numerous ref. ISBN: 9780123852045
[in English]
Factors affecting fatigue life of resistance spot welds and methods of
fatigue life prediction are presented. Primary mechanical parameters
affecting fatigue life discussed include: nugget diameter; sheet metal
thickness; specimen width; parent metal strength; specimen types and
multiaxial loading. Fatigue life prediction methods are classified into
three groups: load life approach; linear elastic fracture mechanics
approach and structural stress approach. Calculation of
structural-stress-based stress intensity factors and interface-force
based stress intensity factors is covered. Applications of the methods
are discussed with reference to the literature.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

47

42 OTHER MECHANICAL PROPERTIES


See also abstracts: 02-249513

*42-249157
Modelling creep strength of welded 9 to 12 pct Cr steels.
MAGNUSSON H; SANDSTROM R
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.41A, no.13. Dec.2010.
pp.3340-3347. 13 fig., 31 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5623, 1543-1940
[in English]
A fundamental model for creep was used to examine the effects of
weld-simulated heat treatments of 9-12%Cr steels. The model, which
assumes a mechanically homogeneous material (9%Cr, 0.2%V,
0.06%N), takes into consideration particle coarsening, particle
dissolution and subgrain coarsening when making predictions regarding
the heat-affected microstructure of these steels. Using a size
distribution of particles, dissolution simulations of MX carbonitride
and M23C6 carbide particles were carried out. Data regarding the
predicted heat-affected microstructure were used as input for creep
rate modelling. The predictions made by the model regarding creep
strength were compared to experimental observations on cross-weld
material.
*42-249178
Creep crack growth data and prediction for a P91 weld at 650
deg.C.
HYDE T H; SABER M; SUN W
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, vol.87, no.12.
Dec.2010. pp.721-729. 19 fig., 3 tab., 23 ref. ISSN: 0308-0161
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 223706]
Experimental creep crack growth tests and finite element creep crack
growth analyses for P91 steel parent material and cross-weld compact
tension (CT) specimens are described. The parent material was P91
steel (0.11%C, 0.36%Mn, 0.022%Si, 8.74%Cr, 0.98%Mo, 0.12%Nb,
0.08%Cu, 0.21%V). Uniaxial and notched bar specimens were taken
and creep tested in air under constant loads, at 650 deg. C. A chart of
uniaxial creep data and a table for creep crack growth test conditions
with main results are provided. The creep damage constitutive
equations are outlined and the determination of material constants
values for parent material, weld metal and HAZ material is described.
The FE model used for creep crack growth prediction and the method
of determining the alpha value for HAZ using CT specimen tests are
described.
*42-249273
Creep fracture behaviour of dissimilar weld joints between T92
martensitic and HR3C austenitic steels.
CAO J; GONG Y; YANG Z G; LUO X M; GU F M; HU Z F
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, vol.88, no.2-3.
Feb.2011. pp.94-98. 5 fig., 1 tab., 18 ref. ISSN: 0308-0161
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 248606]
Dissimilar weld joints between T92 martensitic steel (0.11%C,
0.46%Mn, 8.76%Cr, 0.25%Ni, 0.36%Mo, 0.21%V) and HR3C
austenitic steel (0.06%C, 1.24%Mn, 24.63%Cr, 20.29%Ni) were
characterised in terms of their long-term service life and creep fracture
behaviour. T92 pipe (outer diameter 48 mm; thickness 8.4 mm)
underwent heat treatment (normalising 1050 deg.C for 20 min;
tempering 760 deg.C for 60 min), as did HR3C pipe (outer diameter
48.26 mm; thickness 10.16 mm) (solution treated at 1110 deg.C). TIG
welding under 100%Ar shielding gas with filler material Inconel 82/182
(Ni, 0.030%C, 2.90%Mn, 20.0%Cr) were used to fabricate T92/HR3C

OTHER MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

weld joints, which then underwent PWHT (760-770 deg. C; 2 h). Weld
specimens were subjected to creep tests (625 deg.C; 110-180 MPa)
and microstructural and fractographic analysis. The results are
discussed with regard to service life predictions and the creep fracture
mechanism.
42-249363
Prediction of hardness minimum locations during natural ageing
in an aluminium alloy 6061-T6 friction stir weld.
WOO W; CHOO H; WITHERS P J; FENG Z
Journal of Materials Science, vol.44, no.23. 2009. pp.6302-6309. 7 fig.,
1 tab., 30 ref. ISSN: 0022-2461
[in English]
A method for predicting areas of minimum hardness arising due to
natural ageing in heat-treatable 6061-T6 aluminium alloy that has
undergone friction stir welding (FSW) is described. A 306 x 306 x 6.5
mm rolled plate of heat-treated (6 h at 185 deg.C) 6061 Al alloy (Al,
1.0%Mg, 0.6%Si, 0.3%Cu) underwent FSW along the centreline using
a H-13 steel tool and the following parameters: travelling speed 4.7
mm/s; rotation speed 1250 rev/min clockwise; compressive force 8000
kN; tool shoulder diameter 19.05 mm; pin diameter 6.35 mm; pin
length 6.23 mm. During FSW, the temperature distributions were
measured, and after FSW, weld specimens were microstructurally
characterised and subjected to Vickers microhardness testing and
tensile testing. 6061-T6 Al alloy specimens of dimensions 20 x 50 x
6.5 mm underwent isothermal furnace heat treatment (peak
temperature 250-550 deg.C; peak temperature duration ca. 10 s; water
quenching) and were subjected to hardness testing. The data were used
to construct a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of thermal
evolution under FSW, and hardness profiles were predicted by the
model. The predictions are discussed and compared with those
obtained from the existing Myhr and Grong model.
*42-249404
Creep properties of new 23Cr15Ni6Mn1.5W austenitic steel and
its weldments.
BRZIAK P; BERNASOVSKY P; PALO M; ZIFCAK P; VLASAK T;
HAKL J; PECHA J; VYROSTKOVA A
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.5-6. May-June 2009. pp.123-128. 13
fig., 4 tab., 7 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
Measurements were made of the creep properties of Corus Steel's
austenitic steel grade BGA4 (0.11%C, 6.1%Mn, 22.9%Cr, 15.4%Ni,
2.7%Cu, 1.49%W, 0.61%Nb, 0.31%V, 0.14%Mo) and its weldments;
a metallographic analysis was performed also. Long term creep tests of
parent metal were performed at 625-725 deg.C; results were compared
with those from other equivalent steels. Simulated HAZ with Tmax
1100 and 1250 deg.C, and welded joints made using a matching covered
electrode and multipass MMA welding of 15 mm thickness plate were
also tested for strength and creep properties. Metallographic studies of
parent metal, HAZ and weld metal were performed using optical,
scanning and transmission electron microscopy.
42-249504
Tribocorrosion of passive metals and coatings.
LANDOLT D; MISCHLER S
Book. Publ: Sawston, CB22 3HJ, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd.;
2011. 574pp. 3 Parts. 19 Chapters. Numerous fig., tab., ref. ISBNs:
9781845699666, 9780857093738
[in English]
Tribocorrosion fundamentals, measurement methods and prevention
methods and tribocorrosion issues in medicine (artificial joints,

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

CORROSION

48

biomedical implants) and in engineering (nuclear power, marine


environments, automotive cooling systems, chemical mechanical
polishing and elevated temperatures in the metal working industry) are
presented. Discussion of coatings for tribocorrosion protection
includes thermally sprayed coatings (HVOF and plasma sprayed),
PEO coatings, PVD coatings and multilayered coatings. Use of coatings
in the offshore oil and gas industry is briefly discussed and failure
analysis case studies are presented of a carbon steel plasma sprayed
ceramic piston rod and of a piston rod with HVOF sprayed NiCr
metallic coating both following less than two years offshore service.

43 CORROSION
See also abstracts: 05-249413, 10-249267, 52-249408

*43-249154
Effect of repair welding on electrochemical corrosion and stress
corrosion cracking behaviour of TIG welded AA2219 aluminium
alloy in 3.5 Wt Pct NaCl solution.
VENUGOPAL A; SREEKUMAR K; RAJA V S
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.41A, no.12. Dec.2010.
pp.3151-3160. 10 fig., 5 tab., 18 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5623, 1543-1940
[in English]
The effects of weld repair on the electrochemical corrosion and stress
corrosion cracking (SCC) behaviour of TIG-welded AA2219
aluminium alloy (Al, 5.95%Cu,) were investigated. The AC-TIG
welding method (current 341-350 A; voltage 15 V; arc voltage 7.0-7.4
V; electrode diameter 6 mm; torch speed 200 mm/min) and AA2319
filler wire (Al, 6.1%Cu) were used to butt weld AA2219-T87
aluminium plates (500 x 250 x 7.5 mm) perpendicular to the plate
rolling direction. Radiographic examination of these as-welded
specimens identified defective portions of the weld metal that were
removed, and repair welding was carried out manually using the same
welding parameters, except for the current, which was 220-250 A. The
as-welded and as-repaired specimens were subjected to microstructural
examination; microhardness testing; tensile testing; immersion
corrosion testing in 3.5% NaCl solution for 24 h; potentiodynamic
polarisation testing in 3.5% NaCl solution; slow strain rate testing in
3.5% NaCl solution and in air; and fractographic examination. The
results of these analyses are discussed.

*43-249176
Failure analysis of some petrochemical plant components.
LI D Y; LI J C; ZHAO M; JIANG Q; WANG J P
Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology, vol.45, no.6.
Dec.2010. pp.461-467. 14 fig., 4 tab., 10 ref. ISSN: 1478-422X
[in English]
Failure analysis of five components in a petrochemical factory showing
shorter than expected working lives and suggested improvements are
discussed. Details of the working environment, temperature, pressure,
dimensions and working life are given for each part. Analysis of
macroscopic views, micrographs and SEM images for the parts are
discussed and recommendations described. Exposure analysis for
alternative materials was carried out by immersing test pieces in similar
environments for 750 h. Samples were also exposed in the plant for 1
year. The components analysed were: AlSl 304 stainless steel cooling
elbow in a chlorination reactor; the electrolyte feed (hypochlorite and
chlorine concentrations 100 and 80 ppm respectively) pipeline of
1Cr18Ni9Ti steel; tubing from ethylene cracking decomposition

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

furnace of HP40 alloy, 24%Cr, 34%Ni, 0.45%C; upper pressure cover


of chlorination reactor made of AlSl 304 stainless steel and the heat
exchanger tubing made of Ni200 alloy were investigated.

*43-249189
Corrosion and protection of magnesium alloy welds.
LIU L M
In Book: Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys. Ed: L.M.Liu.
Publ: Cambridge, CB21 6AH, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2010.
Part 1: General. Chapter 7. pp.79-94. 18 fig., 2 tab., 29 ref. ISBNs:
9781845696924, 9780857090423
[in English]
The corrosion of magnesium alloy weldments and ways of protecting
against corrosion are reviewed. The corrosion characteristics of Mg
alloy joints are described, using laser arc hybrid welded AZ91 Mg
sheet and joints of Mg alloy joined to mild steel by hybrid laser arc
welding and Mg alloy soldered to aluminium alloy 6013 as examples.
The use of arc spray technology to deposit a protective coating of
aluminium onto similar (AZ31/AZ31) and dissimilar (AZ31/Q235 mild
steel) welded lap joints is described, including the use of epoxy resin
sealing, hydrothermal sealing or micro-arc oxidation of the sprayed
coating to overcome porosity in the sprayed coating and to improve
the corrosion resistance is described.

*43-249245
Pitting corrosion of welded joints of austenitic steel
X6CrNiTi18-10.
PARZYCH S; PAWLOWSKI B; KRAWCZYK J; BALA P
Przeglad Spawalnictwa, vol.82, no.7. 2010. pp.14-17. 4 fig., 1 tab., 15
ref. ISSN: 0033-2364
[in Polish]
Investigations into pitting corrosion in an austenitic stainless steel
X6CrNiTi18-10 (0.05%C, 0.44%Si, 1.33%Mn, 17.2%Cr, 9.1%Ni,
0.33%Ti, 0.009%N, 0.002%S, 0.03%P) were carried out for samples
from cooling water pipes that were TIG welded with filler type
308LSi. Analysis of the cooling water, visual observations,
fractographic analysis, and macrostructure and microscopic
examinations were performed. The reasons for pitting and crevice
corrosion in welds made from austenitic steels are explained and
recommendations are given for minimising the risk of this phenomenon.

*43-249263
Effect of sealing treatment on corrosion resistance of
plasma-sprayed NiCrAl/Cr2O3-8 wt.%TiO2 coating.
ZHANG J L; WANG Z H; LIN P H; LU W H; ZHOU Z H;
JIANG S Q
Journal of Thermal Spray Technology, vol.20, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.508-513. 7 fig., 2 tab., 10 ref. ISSNs: 1059-9630, 1544-1016
[in English]
The effect of sealing treatments using epoxy and silicone resins on
corrosion behaviour of low carbon steel coated with a bond layer of
NiCrAl and a working layer of CT8 (Cr2O3-8%TiO2 was studied
using the salt spray test and by electrochemical analysis. The samples
were immersed for 30 min in solutions of epoxy or silicone resins,
then, respectively, left in the solution for 2 days at room temperature
or removed and heated at 115 deg.C. The sealed samples were polished
to remove surplus sealant before analysis of the microstructure by
optical microscopy, SEM/energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray
diffraction and corrosion testing. The salt spray test was carried out in
a salt fog generated from 3.5% NaCl solution (pH 6.5-7.2) and the

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

49

weight loss was measured. The electrochemical analysis involved


exposing an area of 0.58 cm2 to a 3.5% NaCl solution and measuring
the current density and potential using a scanning speed of 1 mV/s.
*43-249277
Filler selection for weldments in type 316L stainless steel, for hot
organic acid service.
ORSMOND C P M; PISTORIUS P C
Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology, vol.46, no.1.
Feb.2011. pp.24-31. 13 fig., 7 tab., 14 ref. ISSN: 1478-422X
[in English]
The performance was investigated of nine commercial fillers used in
stainless steel welds when exposed to hot organic acids (acetic acid or
propionic acid alone or mixed, or in mixtures with isobutanoic acid,
butanoic acid, isopentanoic acid, pentanoic acid). Square edged shallow
grooves were cut in type 316L austenitic stainless steel (0.015%C,
1.5%Mn, 18.2%Cr, 11.9%Ni, 2.0%Mo) coupons (300 x 100 mm), and
MMA welding was used to deposit single beads using a range of fillers:
type 626, type 825, type 904L, type 316L, type 317L, type 309L,
type 309MoL, SAF 2205 and SAF 2507 filler materials
(18.0-25.1%Cr, 9.6-39.8%Ni, 0.96-5.7%Mo). In addition, shielding gas
consisting of argon containing controlled nitrogen additions was used to
produce weld beads with type 309L filler. Weld metal compositions
and microstructures were determined and compared. After treatment
by pickling and passivating, the coupons were installed in production
columns and exposed to production conditions (exposure time 120-214
days, temperature 85-180 deg.C). The samples underwent
post-exposure visual analysis for inconsistencies, pitting and galvanic
corrosion; evaluation of differences in the corrosion rates of fillers and
parent metal; and analysis of phases in the weld beads. The results are
discussed with regard to the partitioning of elements in the weld metal
and the effect of nitrogen and choice of filler on corrosion behaviour.
*43-249278
Effect of welding conditions on corrosion behaviour of spot
welded coated steel sheets.
BANERJEE G; PAL T K; BANDYOPADHYAY N;
BHATTACHARJEE D
Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology, vol.46, no.1.
Feb.2011. pp.64-69. 6 fig., 5 tab., 12 ref. ISSN: 1478-422X
[in English]
The effects of welding parameters on the corrosion behaviour of
resistance spot welded (RSW) galvannealed (GA) steel sheets were
investigated with car body applications in mind. GA-coated (thickness
10 micrometres) HIF340 steel (0.0035%C, 0.36%Mn, 0.038%Ti,
0.005%Nb, 0.0013%B, 0.0034%N) was spot welded (welding current
7-9 kA; cycles 6-10; weld heat input 775.7-1309 kJ). In the case of
both the parent metal and the HAZ of the spot welded samples, the
thickness of the GA coating was measured; potentiostatic (3.5% NaCl
solution) and galvanostatic (0.250 kg/l NaCl, 0.05 kg/l ZnSO4; current
density 0.005 A per square centimetre) studies of corrosion behaviour
were carried out; and the coating microstructure and presence of
intermetallic phases was evaluated. The results are discussed with
regard to how different welding conditions affect the microstructure
and corrosion susceptibility of RSW joints of GA coated and uncoated
HIF340 steel, and the role of welding heat.
*43-249324
Testing for corrosion (Welding workbook datasheet 322).
INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.2. Apr.2011. AWS Section. p.65. 2
fig. ISSN: 0046-9092

CORROSION

[in English] (Excerpted from the Welding Handbook, Vol.1, ninth


edition)[Similar paper: Welding Journal, vol.90, no.3. Mar.2011. p.86;
Weldasearch 247110]
Factors affecting the corrosion resistance of welded joints are listed,
and both weight loss and ultrasonic test methods used to establish
corrosion resistance are briefly described. Suitable corrosion test pieces
are described, including notes regarding surface preparation.

*43-249326
Ni-Cr-Mo alloy shows versatility in corrosion resistance.
CARON J L; BRITTON M A; MECK N S; WHITE H J
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.2. Apr.2011. AWS Section.
pp.68-71. 6 fig., 4 tab., 3 ref. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English] (Based on a presentation by Henry J. White at the AWS
Welding Corrosion-Resistant Alloys Conference, Chicago, Ill, USA, 18
Nov.2009)[Similar paper: Welding Journal, vol.90, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.40-43; Weldasearch 247105]
Corrosion rates of weld metals and parent metals of Ni-Mo-Cr alloys
under various temperatures, in acid and salt solutions are reported,
comparing performance of Hastelloy Hybrid-BC1 (max. 0.01%C, max.
0.08%Si, 0.25%Mn, 15%Cr, 62%Ni, 22%Mo, max. 2%Fe, 0.5%Al)
with other alloys. The other nickel alloys tested for comparison were
B-3 (Ni, 28.5%Mo, max. 3%Mn, 1.5%Cr, 1.5%Fe, max. 0.5%Al, max.
3%Ti, max. 3%W); C-276 (16%Cr, 57%Ni, 16%Mo, 5%Fe, max.
2.5%Co, max. 0.35%V, 4%W); C-22 (22%Cr, 56%Ni, 13%Mo, 3%Fe,
max. 2.5%Co, max. 0.35%V, 3%W); and C-2000 (max. 0.01%C, max.
0.08%Si, max. 0.5%Mn, 23%Cr, 59%Ni, 16%Mo, max. 3%Fe, max.
0.5%Al, max. 2%Co, 1.6%Cu). Parent metal corrosion resistance was
determined in acids as a function of solution concentration and
temperature (up to 250 deg.C), including exposure to 2.5%HCl with
oxygen (oxidising conditions) or nitrogen (reducing conditions) purge.
Pitting and crevice corrosion resistance was determined according to
ASTM G48 methods C & D (6% ferric chloride and 1%HCl). Weld
metal test pieces were prepared by TIG welding, an autogenous root
run and then a cover pass with AWS ERNi-MoCr-1 filler, and
subjected to similar corrosion tests. Weldability of Hybrid-BC1 is
briefly discussed, including suitable processes (TIG, MIG/MAG,
submerged arc), filler, pre-weld heat treatment, stress relieving PWHT,
and control of heat input to minimise precipitation in the HAZ.

43-249370
Slow strain rate stress corrosion cracking behaviour of as-welded
and plasma electrolytic oxidation treated AZ31HP magnesium
alloy autogenous laser beam weldment.
BALA SRINIVASAN P; RIEKEHR S; BLAWERT C; DIETZEL W;
KOCAK M
Materials Science and Engineering A, vol.A517, no.1-2. 20 Aug.2009.
pp.197-203. 11 fig., 38 ref. ISSN: 0921-5093
[in English]
The microstructure, hardness, tensile strength and stress corrosion
cracking of laser welded thin-section AZ31HP magnesium alloy were
investigated. Sheets (2.5 mm thickness) of AZ31HP (Mg, 3%Al,
1%Zn, 0.4%Mn) were butt-welded using an autogeneous Nd:YAG
laser system. The influence of plasma electrolytic oxidation treatment
on the stress corrosion cracking was determined also. The fracture in
the interface between weld metal, fusion boundary and heat affected
zone was examined in terms of the grain coarsening in the narrow
HAZ. The slight improvement in stress corrosion cracking resistance
through plasma electrolytic oxidation treatment is discussed.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

WELDABILITY AND METALLURGY

50

*43-249386
Interfacial corrosion of joints brazed in stainless steels with
low-temperature silver brazing alloys.
ROBERTS P M
Welding and Cutting, vol.10, no.4. 2011. pp.228-231. 2 fig., 2 tab.
ISSN: 1612-3433
[in English]
Aspects are considered of the corrosion when exposed to moisture of
brazed stainless steel joints at the interface where parent metal and
braze metal are in contact (interfacial corrosion). The main
characteristics of the different types of stainless steel (ferritic,
austenitic, or martensitic) are introduced, highlighting the main
differences in terms of their chemical composition (in particular the Cr
and Ni contents), magnetic properties, suitability for heat-treatment,
and industrial applications. The theory and practice of interfacial
corrosion, and the main measures taken to avoid this mode of failure in
brazed stainless steel joints are then discussed, focusing in particular
on selection of brazing filler metals and fluxes. Examples presented are
of martensitic stainless steel brazed using FH10 flux and fillers AG301
(Ag, 15%Cu, 16%Zn, 19%Cd), AG351 (Ag, 15.5%Cu, 15.5%Zn,
16%Cd, 3%Ni) or Ag, 26%Cu, 2%Mn, 2%Ni, 6%In that were exposed
to oxygenated moisture. The roles of Ni and Cd in the filler and of Fe
diffusion is discussed briefly. In particular, the application of
appropriate (silico-fluoride) fluxing to improve resistance against
interfacial corrosion is described briefly.

44 WELDABILITY AND METALLURGY


See also abstracts: 01-249323, 01-249327, 01-249371, 01-249456,
03-249372, 03-249507, 04-249329, 06-249357, 07-249161,
07-249204, 07-249212, 32-249459, 62-249486

*44-249184
Welding metallurgy of magnesium alloys.
LIU L M
In Book: Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys. Ed: L.M.Liu.
Publ: Cambridge, CB21 6AH, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2010.
Part 1: General. Chapter 2. pp.9-15. 2 tab., 16 ref. ISBNs:
9781845696924, 9780857090423
[in English]
A review of magnesium alloy weldability is presented. The topics
addressed include the physical properties of magnesium in comparison
with those of iron and aluminium; problems that may arise during the
welding of Mg alloys; and the characterisation of welding Mg alloys to
other metals.

*44-249185
Preparation for welding of magnesium alloys.
LIU L M
In Book: Welding and Joining of Magnesium Alloys. Ed: L.M.Liu.
Publ: Cambridge, CB21 6AH, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2010.
Part 1: General. Chapter 3. pp.16-22. 3 fig., 4 tab., 3 ref. ISBNs:
9781845696924, 9780857090423
[in English]
The preparations that should be undertaken prior to the welding of
magnesium alloys are reviewed. The topics discussed include the
importance of surface treatments; chemical pretreatment methods;
pretreatment methods for filler wire; joint preparations for welding;
and preheating and postweld treatments.

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

*44-249287
An investigation of the massive transformation from ferrite to
austenite in laser-welded Mo-bearing stainless steels.
PERRICONE M J; DUPONT J N; ANDERSON T D; ROBINO C V;
MICHAEL J R
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol.42A, no.3. Mar.2011.
pp.700-716. 15 fig., 5 tab., 59 ref. ISSNs: 1073-5623, 1543-1940
[in English]
The effect of composition and cooling rate on the massive solid-state
transformation from delta-ferrite to gamma-austenite in laser welded
molybdenum-bearing stainless steels was investigated. Arc button
melting was used to manufacture 31 Mo-bearing stainless steel alloys
of varying composition (0-0.07%Mn, 12.24-23.3%Cr, 7.8-15.18%Ni,
0.01-10.95%Mo, 0-0.45%Al). Each button (ca. 50 g) was subjected to
autogenous laser welding (power at button surface 370 W; weld
separation ca. 5 mm; welding speed 4.2-42 mm/s; shielding gas argon)
using a 500 W continuous wave Nd:YAG laser. The microstructures of
the specimens were examined to evaluate the distribution of alloying
elements within the fusion zone of each weld; to analyse the primary
delta-ferrite and primary gamma-austenite compositions of the welds;
to identify phases; and to identify the crystal structure of unknown
phases. The results are discussed with regard to primary ferrite
solidification; ferrite-austenite
solidification mode; massive
transformation following ferrite-austenite solidification; and the
relationship between thermodynamics and massive transformation.
44-249364
Effect of nitrogen and nickel on the microstructure and
mechanical properties of plasma welded UNS S32760
super-duplex stainless steels.
MIGIAKIS K; PAPADIMITRIOU G D
Journal of Materials Science, vol.44, no.23. 2009. pp.6372-6383. 12
fig., 6 tab., 52 ref. ISSN: 0022-2461
[in English]
The effects of adding nitrogen to the plasma operation gases and of
adding nickel to the filler metal on plasma transferred arc (PTA) welds
on super-duplex stainless steels were investigated. UNS32760
super-duplex stainless steel (0.02%C, 0.66%Mn, 25.2%Cr, 6.9%Ni,
3.7%Mo, 0.62%Cu, 0.63%W, 0.24%N) plates (thickness 6 mm) were
plasma welded in three passes using the following parameters: welding
current 80 A; welding speed 2 mm/s; heat input 1 kJ/mm; plasma gas
flow 0.3 l/min; backing gas flow 10 l/min; shielding gas flow 7 l/min; arc
length 2 mm; tip diameter 2.06 mm; electrode diameter 2.56 mm/ filler
metal diameter 1.5 mm. The mixture for the plasma, shielding and
backing gases was either pure Ar, Ar + 2%N, Ar +5%N or Ar +
10%N, and either a high-Ni filler metal (0.015%C, 0.7%Mn,
25.13%Cr, 9.23%Ni, 3.16%Mo, 0.58%Cu, 0.62%W, 0.22%N) or one
with the same composition as the parent metal was used. The N
content and ferrite-austenite phase ratio of the weld specimens were
measured, and the ferrite and austenite phases were characterised.
Also, Vickers microhardness and tensile properties were determined
and fracture surfaces were analysed. The results are discussed with
regard to the metallographic and mechanical effects of N and Ni on
PTA welds in super-duplex stainless steels.
*44-249398
Operational weldability of Zinkodur A-H 260 high-strength zinc
coated thin plates for automotive industry.
BRZIAK P; MINARIK R; BERNASOVSKY P
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2009. pp.34-38. 9 fig., 5
tab., 15 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

51

The use of resistance spot welding and laser beam welding for lap
joining of galvanised steel sheet was evaluated. Requirement was lap
welding of two 0.8 mm thickness sheets of Zincodur A-H260
microalloyed steel (0.005%C, 0.59%Mn, 0.029%Al, 0.023%Ti,
0.036%Nb) with 2-sided 10-17 micrometre hot zinc coating. For each
method, the operational parameter envelope was established
experimentally, joint macrostructure and microstructure were
investigated, and hardness and joint strength were measured. For seam
welding with a 4 kW Nd:YAG laser, joint fit-up was critical.

*44-249446
Effects of alloying elements on properties of duplex stainless
steel weld metals.
KARLSSON L; RIGDAL S; BERGQUIST E L; ARCINI H
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.59, no.9-10. Sept.-Oct.2010. pp.195-202. 8
fig., 7 tab., 12 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
Effects of alloying elements on microstructure and mechanical
properties of weld metals of duplex stainless steel were examined. In
the first experiment, lean duplex steel weld metals containing 5.0%Mn,
21.7%Cr, 4.0%Ni, 0.16-0.28%N were studied. Two wires (5.0%Mn,
21.7%Cr, 4.0%Ni, 0.5%Cu, 0.15%N and 5.0%Mn, 21.7%Cr, 4.0%Ni,
0.5%Cu, 0.2%N) were used in MIG/MAG welding with three
different shielding gases (Ar-2%O2, Ar-30%He-1%O2 and
Ar-30%He-1.8%N2). In the second experiment, the effects of adding
vanadium to 22%Cr duplex stainless steel weld metal were
investigated. Submerged arc welds were prepared using filler wire
22Cr9Ni3Mo (0.02%C, 1.3%Mn, 22%Cr, 9%Ni, 3%Mo, 0.17%N) of
3.2 mm diameter with vanadium added to the flux to obtain 0.1%V,
1%V and 2%V in the weld metal. In both experiments, weld metal
composition, tensile strength, impact toughness at -20 and -40 deg.C,
hardness and microstructure (particularly solidification structure, grain
boundary nitrides, grain size and ferrite content) were investigated.

*44-249455
Increasing fatigue life with low transformation temperature
(LTT) welding consumables.
KARLSSON L; MRAZ L
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.60, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2011. pp.8-15. 10 fig., 7
tab., 29 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak] [See also Weldasearch 238793]
An investigation of benefits of low transformation temperature (LTT)
filler metals on fatigue life is presented. LTT fillers, with martensite
start temperature at 150-205 deg.C, modify residual stresses and help
reduce the effects of contraction. Fillet welded cruciform test pieces
were prepared from Weldox 700 (0.13%C, 1.18%Mn, 0.27%Cr,
0.04%Ni, 0.13%Mo) steel plate of 8 mm thickness and yield point of
800 MPa and also in steel of yield point 900 MPa. Experimental metal
cored filler wires contained 0.014%C, 1.26%Mn, 8.5%Cr, 8.9%Ni,
0.03%Mo; 0.048%C, 0.53%Mn, 1%Cr, 12.5%Ni, 0.39%Mo,
0.014%C, 1.27%Mn, 13.4%Cr, 6.1%Ni, 0.07%Mo; and max.0.02%C,
max.2%Mn, 15-18%Cr, 6-8%Ni, max.2%Mo. For comparison, similar
joints were made with commercial fillers: MAG welding using solid
filler wire OK Autrod 89 (0.09%C, 1.9%Mn, 0.3%Cr, 2.2%Ni) or
metal cored filler wire OK Tubrod 14.03 (0.07%C, 1.7%Mn, 0%Cr,
2.3%Ni) under Ar+2%CO2 shielding gas; and MMA welding using
covered electrode OK 75.78 (0.047%C, 2.03%Mn, 0.43%Cr, 3%Ni).
Tensile and impact toughness (-40 deg.C) of all weld metal test pieces
were determined. Also, fatigue strength and residual stress distribution
for welds were determined. Results are discussed with reference to
weld metal transformation temperatures.

RESIDUAL STRESSES

*44-249475
Austenite formation during heat treatment of P92 power plant
steel welds: dependence of A1 temperature on compositional
changes.
CHALK K M; SHIPWAY P H; ALLEN D J
Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, vol.16, no.7.
Oct.2011. pp.613-618. 3 fig., 5 tab., 14 ref. ISSNs: 1362-1718,
1743-2936
[in English]
[http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/maney/stwj]
Effects of variations in composition on the A1 temperature of P92
steels and appropriate fillers were investigated by modelling and
experiment, to help in selection of post weld heat treatment
temperature. An equation was derived to predict the Ae1 temperature
as a function of composition for consumables designed for use with
these steels. Three types of MMA multi-pass weld pads were made
on P92 plate (0.1%C, 0.45%Si, 0.45%Mn, 8.62%Cr, 0.33%Mo,
0.27%Ni, 0.019%Al, 0.076%Nb, 0.21%V, 1.86%W, 0.47%N,
0.0034%B, 0.015%P, 0.002%S) using 4 mm diameter electrodes and
interpass temperatures between 200 and 300 deg.C. The weld metals
had compositions of 0.11%C, 0.2%Si, 0.78%Mn, 8.73%Cr,
0.345%Mo, 0.64%Ni, 0.04%Cu, 0.043%Nb, 0.199%V, 1.66%W,
0.047%N, 0.011%P, 0.005%S and 0.09%C, 0.42%Si, 0.99%Mn,
8.74%Cr, 0.49%Mo, 0.42%Ni, 0.04%Cu, 0.08%Nb, 0.23%V,
1.59%W, 0.048%N, 0.011%P, 0.006%S and 0.1%C, 0.23%Si,
0.59%Mn, 9.82%Cr,1.41%Mo, 0.7%Ni, 1.09%Co, 0.02%Cu,
0.05%Nb, 0.25%V, 0.24%N, 0.007%B, 0.013%P, 0.009%S. Samples
were machined from the centre of each weld pad to avoid effects of
dilution from the parent plate. The Ac1 temperature of the weld metals
and the P92 steel was measured by dilatometry. The effect of the
composition of the steels on the predicted Ae1 temperature was
studied by thermodynamic modelling. The difference between the
measured Ac1 and the calculated Ae1 is discussed, with reference to
microstructure (particularly austenite formation) and published work
by Santella.

45 RESIDUAL STRESSES
45-249147
Residual stresses in ceramic-to-metal joints: diffraction
measurements and finite element method analysis.
VILA M; PRIETO C; ZAHR J; PEREZ-CASTELLANOS J L;
BRUNO G; JIMENEZ-RUIZ M; MIRANZO P; OSENDI M I
Philosophical Magazine, vol.87, no.35. Dec.2007. pp.5551-5563. 7
fig., 23 ref. ISSNs: 1478-6435, 1478-6443
[in English]
The application of spatial-resolved neutron strain scanning to
investigate the residual stress (RS) field of nickel/silicon nitride
diffusion bonds is described. Si3N4 and Ni sheets (10 x 10 x 5 mm)
were joined in a hot-press furnace (1150 deg.C for 60 min; cooling rate
2 deg.C/min; applied pressure 50 MPa; vacuum atmosphere 20 Pa; no
interlayer). A D1A two-axis neutron diffractometer with a GE
vertically focusing monochromator (wavelength 2.99 angstroms,
incident slit 1 x 1 mm; horizontal focus ca. 1.2 mm; gauge volume ca. 1
mm3) was used to directly determine strain profiles directly. The
joining process was simulated by means of finite element method
(FEM) calculations based on a coupled temperature displacement
procedure implemented in the ABAQUS code. The resulting data
regarding residual stresses and strains were compared with
experimental strain data for validation purposes, and the
FEM-calculated strain field was used to determine the RS field across
the entire sample. The findings are discussed.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

RESIDUAL STRESSES

52

*45-249172
An inverse method for reconstruction of the residual stress field
in welded plates.
FARRAHI G H; FAGHIDIAN S A; SMITH D J
Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology,
vol.132, no.6. Dec.2010. pp.061205.1-061205.9. 11 fig., 1 tab., 29 ref.
ISSN: 0094-9930
[in English]
An analytical method to reconstruct the residual stress distribution
from a limited set of experimental measurements of residual stresses in
a welded plate using the Airy stress function is described. A detailed
listing and explanations of the equations used, including the Airy stress
function to determine the residual stress distribution is provided.
Previous experimental results and the reconstructed stress profiles are
analysed and discussed for a sample of IN718 creep resistant nickel
super alloy. The solution of the inverse problems was stabilised using
the Tikhonov-Morozov stabilisation theory.
*45-249210
Widening of technological capabilities of explosion treatment for
reducing residual stresses in welded joints on up to 5000 m3
decomposers.
LOBANOV L M; DOBRUSHIN L D; BRYZGALIN A G;
ILLARIONOV S Yu; SHLENSKY P S; VOLGIN L A;
LASHKEVICH V G; GRABAR E V
Paton Welding Journal, no.11. Nov.2009. pp.46-48. 4 fig., 2 ref. ISSN:
0957-798X
[in English and Russian] (Translated from Avtomaticheskaya
Svarka)[See also Weldasearch 239629]
Experiments to evaluate the applicability of explosive stress relief to
large, thick-walled vessels such as decomposers used in aluminium
plants are reported. Issues addressed were use on welded joints in 40
mm thickness St3 steel and use of incremental treatment of long welded
joints. Residual stress distributions were measured, with and without
explosive stress relief, in CO2 arc welds (17 passes) in 40 mm
thickness St3 steel, and in 3-pass welds in 10 mm thickness, 1500 x
500 mm plate treated in two increments. Commercial application was
approved.
*45-249249
Critical comparison of two independent measurements of
residual stress in an electron-beam welded uranium cylinder:
neutron diffraction and the contour method.
BROWN D W; HOLDEN T M; CLAUSEN B; PRIME M B;
SISNEROS T A; SWENSON H; VAJA J
Acta Materialia, vol.59, no.3. Feb.2011. pp.864-873. 10 fig., 1 tab., 41
ref. ISSN: 1359-6454
[in English]
The residual stresses in a circumferential, partial penetration weld
produced in a uranium tube by electron beam welding were measured
using neutron diffraction and the contour method. The sample was a
chamfered down tube (length 131.3 mm; inner diameter 121.5 mm; wall
thickness 8-14 mm) made of as-cast uranium with high carbon content
(approximately 700 ppm by weight). The tube consisted of two cast
cylinders machine fitted at a step joint and joined by means of a
two-pass partial penetration, autogenous EB weld in which the first
pass, with a focused electron beam, penetrated roughly half of the
thickness and bonded the cylinders, whereas the second pass, with a
defocused beam, produced a cosmetic weld. The neutron diffraction
approach obtained strain measurements from the three lattice
parameters of uranium's orthorhombic crystal structure, and the
measured strains, weighted by spatially varying texture components,

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

were used to determine stresses. The contour method used a novel


two-step process, and a modified version of the standard data-analysis
protocol was employed. The results of both approaches are discussed
and compared with regard to texture variation and residual strains.

*45-249254
Finite element analysis of metallurgical phase transformations
in AA 6056-T4 and their effects upon the residual stress and
distortion states of a laser welded T-joint.
ZIAN-UL-ABDEIN M; NELIAS D; JULLIEN J F; BOITOUT F;
DISCHERT L; NOE X
International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, vol.88, no.1.
Jan.2011. pp.45-56. 18 fig., 5 tab., 25 ref. ISSN: 0308-0161
[in English]
The finite element (FE) method was used to analyse metallurgical
phase transformations and their effects on residual stresses and
distortions induced in an aluminium alloy AA 6056-T4 (Al, 0.71%Mg,
0.87%Si, 0.67%Cu, 0.62%Mn, 0.07%Fe, 0.18%Zn) T-joint produced
with laser beam welding (LBM). Five T-joint specimens were
produced in which an AA 6056-T4 stiffener (300 x 100 x 2.5 mm) was
vertically joined to an AA 6056-T4 base sheet (300 x 200 x 2.5 mm)
by means of Nd:YAG LBW (beam power 2500 W per torch; travel
speed 5 m/min; shielding gas pure argon; shielding gas flow rate 20
l/min) performed in a keyhole regime with two welding heads.
Measurements were made of the temperature of the welded joints, the
dimensions of the fusion zone and the field displacement of the
T-joints. These data were used to conduct a thermo-mechanical FE
analysis using ABAQUS and a thermo-metallo-mechanical analysis
using Sysweld. The experimentally validated FE models were
compared and used to predict residual stress states, with and without
metallurgical phase transformations.

*45-249416
Comparison of residual stress distribution in fillet joints with
standard and low transformation temperature weld metals.
HIRAOKA K; YAMAMOTO J; SHIGA C; MRAZ L; MIKULA P
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.11-12. Nov.-Dec.2009. pp.282-286. 11
fig., 2 tab., 18 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak] [See also Weldasearch 232693]
Numerical simulation was used to study the differences in residual
stress distribution in a boxing fillet weld when conventional weld metal
was replaced by weld metal having a low transformation temperature.
Simulations were performed for Akost 780 MPa steel (0.11%C,
0.84%Mn, 0.78%Ni, 0.43%Mo, 0.23%Cu) parent metal plate of 20
mm thickness using a matching filler (0.05%C, 1.25%Mn, 1.3%Ni,
0.53%Mo, 0.57%Cu) with transformation temperature (TT) 510 deg.C
and also with a filler having a low transformation temperature (LTT) of
110 deg.C (0.05%C, 0.69%Mn, 9.51%Ni, 0.3%Mo, 11.1%Cu),
assuming a heat input of 1.9 kJ/mm. Simulations included strength
profiles across the weld from surface down to 5 mm depth, variations
in yield stress of weld metal during cooling and residual stress
distributions through the weld toe at different depths. Results were
compared with experimental data obtained by neutron diffraction.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

53

47 NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING
See also abstracts: 07-249477, 48-249374, 50-249171, 60-249502,
60-249512

*47-249274
5D solder paste inspection - merits beyond 3D technology.
BIEMANS H
Global SMT & Packaging, vol.11, no.2. Feb.2011. pp.8-10, 12-13. 10
fig. ISSN: 1474-0893
[in English]
The benefits of five-dimensional solder paste inspection (5D SPI) are
discussed. Following a brief review of 2D and 3D SPI techniques and
their shortcomings, the combination of the strengths of both
approaches into a 5D SPI technique is outlined. The application of
real-time SPC software to 5D SPI is discussed. A high-speed
post-print SPI system, the Marantz PowerSpector S1, is very briefly
described.
*47-249311
Non destructive characterisation of resistance spot welded joints
by ultrasonic technique.
CHAKRABORTY G; PAL T K; PALIT SAGAR S; PARIDA N
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.1. Jan.2011. pp.30-36. 6 fig., 3 tab.,
16 ref. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English]
Resistance spot welded (RSW) joints were characterised using an
ultrasonic technique. Galvannealed interstitial free steel (0.0035%C,
0.35%Mn, 0.005%Nb, 0.0299%Al, 0.0379%Ti) sheet (thickness 1
mm) underwent RSW (electrode pressure 280 daN; electrode tip
diameter 6 mm; 7-9 kA 6-12 cycles; weld heat input 775.7-1309 kJ). A
200 MHz pulser-receiver with a 20 MHz longitudinal probe in pulse
echo mode was used to ultrasonically assess the quality of five spot
welded samples in increasing order of heat input. The spot welded
joints were also subjected to shear tensile strength testing and analysis
of microstructure, distribution of precipitates and dislocation density.
The results are discussed with regard to the effects of the welding
parameters on the size and properties of weld nuggets and the
performance of ultrasonic quality evaluation of RSW joints.
*47-249484
Non-destructive evaluation of welds - an overview.
VENKATRAMAN B; MENAKA M
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.3. July 2011. Special Issue.
pp.71-80. 13 fig., 4 ref. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English]
A review is presented of visual, radiography and ultrasonic
non-destructive testing NDT) techniques as the key NDT methods
owing to their widespread use and applicability in the welding
industry. Advances in these methods are also discussed. The visual
inspection at various stages, including pre-welding, during welding and
post-weld are briefly outlined and visual inspection tools used are
reviewed. The advantages, suitability and requirements of radiographic
testing are discussed, with reference to type of joint, type of defect,
qualification of personnel and health and safety. Evolution of this
method is also briefly mentioned. Specific reference is made to the
advent of digital radiographic imaging and two examples of this
technique including computerised or filmless radiography and real time
radiography are described in more detail. Application of real time
radiography of welds using flat panel detectors, known as digital
detector arrays (DDA) are reviewed and the advantages real time

NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING

radiography and image processing are summarised. Lastly the process


of ultrasonic testing is reviewed. The technical process and advantages
compared with other NDT methods are summarised. Phased array and
time of flight diffraction techniques are discussed in more detail.

48 QUALITY CONTROL
See also abstracts: 10-249300, 60-249230

*48-249223
Demands on the business. In-house production inspection to
[German Standard] DIN E 10910-1 (Anforderungen an den
Betrieb. Werkseigene Produktionskontrolle nach DIN EN
10910-1).
KLOTZKI V
Praktiker, vol.62, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2011. pp.42-46. 2 fig., 4 tab. ISSN:
0554-9965
[in German]
Changes in welding production have now come about since the German
and European Standard DIN EN 1090-1 has replaced DIN EN
18800-7. According to Chapter 6.3 of DIN EN 1090-1, future
production control must be documented and certified in accordance
with this standard. This article describes how this must be done. A
photograph demonstrates an inappropriate, uncertifiable welded joint.
Details of the standards requirements are outlined and an example of a
valid certificate is shown. Terms of DIN EN 1090-2 are discussed and
tabulated data indicate the classes of damage phenomena. Methods of
testing the welds include: dye penetrant, ultrasonic, radiographic,
magnetic powder etc.

*48-249295
Investigations into the resistance spot welding of steel sheets
with reference to a standardised material approval process
(Untersuchungen
zum
Widerstandspunktschweissen
von
Stahlfeinblechen
mit
Bezug
auf
einen
normierten
Werkstofffreigabeprozess).
FRITZSCHE C; HOFEMANN M; VEIT J
Schweissen und Schneiden, vol.62, no.12. Dec.2010. pp.692-696. 7
fig., 3 tab., 2 ref. ISSN: 0036-7184
[in German]
The present state of the German steel and iron test sheet SEP 1220-2
for resistance spot welding is explained and results of tests
representing the SEP material approval testing are described.
Experimental tests carried out on hot-dip galvanised thin sheet (1.2 mm
thickness) steels HCT780XD, HC340LAD and DX54D are described.
Welding equipment operated in the medium frequency DC, providing
welding currents up to 41 kA and electrode force up to 6 kN. Welding
current and tool life of test materials were determined for quality
limits. Testing of quasistatic loading with direct tension and tensile
shear tests and of joint strength using dynamic oscillating load on H
test pieces is described and results discussed. Results of metallographic
investigation using microscopic images of parent material, heat affected
zone and fusion zone of the joint are discussed.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

QUALITY CONTROL

54

48-249304
"Everything is controlled by contract" and other errors - from the
daily life of a welding supervisor in the field of pharmacy and
associated industries [Part 1] ("Alles ist vertraglich geregelt"
und andere Irrtumer - aus dem Alltag einer Schweissaufsicht ...).
WARZAWA M
Praktiker, vol.63, no.3. Mar.2011. pp.76-80. 11 fig. ISSN: 0554-9965
[in German] [Similar article: DVS Berichte, no.267. pp.282-287;
Weldasearch 248555]
The need for a standardised, simple quality assurance system for
welds, especially in pharmaceutical equipment, is discussed. The lack
of reliable definitions for tack welds, discolouration, ferrite content and
the demands on welds in pharmaceutical facilities and danger of cross
contamination of batches due to welding gaps are described. The harm
caused to weld quality by fingerprints (if not wearing permitted rubber
gloves to touch pipelines) is outlined. Documentation needed for welds
in pharmaceutical pipes is described in detail and questions are raised
about not documenting the weld when a pipe feeds through a container
wall, and also about welds for transport hooks and identification
plates. Complaints about regulations for tack welds and the need to
document them are outlined. Problems of welding two low sulphur
content stainless steels and where an orbital weld meets a longitudinal
weld are noted.
*48-249374
Weld integrity of tailor welded blanks.
LI M M
In Book: Tailor Welded Blanks for Advanced Manufacturing. Ed:
B.L.Kinsey and X.Wu. Publ: Cambridge, CB22 3HJ, UK; Woodhead
Publishing Ltd., 2011. Part 1: Processing and Modelling. Chapter 1.
pp.3-23. 16 fig., 3 tab., 8 ref. ISBN: 9781845697044
[in English]
Imperfections found in tailor-welded blanks are described and
destructive and nondestructive methods used in production quality
control are detailed. Imperfections identified include pinholes and
craters in the weld, no-weld when no fusion occurs, lack of fusion
when the weld is misaligned, lack of penetration when only a partial
weld is formed, concavity when there is insufficient filler in the weld,
undercutting which produces notches at the edges of the HAZ,
porosity which gives discontinuities in the weld, and hard weld where
the hardness of the weld is too high relative to the parent material.
Off-line destructive testing methods include the cup test and tearing
test for fracture studies, cross-sectioning to find the geometric profile
and microstructure of the weld, and the microhardness test for
measurement of hardness in the HAZ and the fusion zone. On-line
nondestructive tests include surface inspection using a machine vision
camera, analysis of the weld for lack of penetration using a high-speed
camera, laser triangulation to detect concavity and undercut of the
weld, and detection of discontinuities by testing with ultrasound, an
electromagnetic acoustic transducer, an eddy current device, a magnetic
flux leakage detector and x-ray imaging. Recommendations are given for
preventing weld imperfections in the production process and methods
of identifying appropriate quality monitoring systems are discussed.
*48-249390
Short circuit GMA [MIG/MAG] welding process quality
assessment based on electric arc acoustic emissions.
HUANCA CAYO E; ABSI ALFARO S C
Buletinul Institutului National de Cercetare-Dezvoltare in Sudura si
Incercari de Materiale-ISIM Timisoara, vol.20, no.2. 2011. pp.15-20. 6
fig., 1 tab., 13 ref. ISSN: 1453-0392
[in English] [Journal also known as: Sudarea si Incercarea

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

Materialelor - Welding & Material Testing]


[http://www.bid-isim.ro/bid_arhiva/bid2011/cayo-2_2011.pdf]
A method to assess the welding quality in short circuit MIG/MAG
welding, using electric arc acoustic emissions, is described. The
stationary short circuit rates and the sound level pressure from the
electric arc were measured acoustically and used as criteria to indicate
the weld quality. The method was applied to assess the quality of dip
transfer MAG bead-on-plate welds deposited onto AISI 1020 steel
plates (6.5 mm thickness) using ER70S-6 filler wire and M21 (Ar,
18%CO2) shielding gas. After establishing suitable welding parameters,
beads were deposited with one of several potential causes of
disturbance: sudden change in contact tip to work distance, surface
grease, and an interruption to the flow of the shielding gas. Voltage,
current and sound were monitored during the welding. The results of
signal processing are presented and discussed with regard to weld
quality.

*48-249410
The optical device Welding Expert for measurement and
dimensional inspection of welded joints (Opticke zariadenie
welding expert na meranie a kontrolu rozmerov zvarovych
spojov).
CERNICKY D; JANOK P
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.7-8. July-Aug.2009. pp.197-200. 9 fig.
ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
The features and performance of the commercially available equipment
"Welding Expert" are described. Using computer-controlled optical
imaging, the equipment characterises the geometry of welded joints
from their cross-sections. Forms of data input, displayed images and
results format are described and illustrated.

*48-249497
Regression analysis: a good practice for parameter exploration
and optimisation in laser welding process.
VELARDE G; BINROTH C A
Welding and Cutting, vol.10, no.5. 2011. pp.322-326, 328. 7 fig., 1
tab., 12 ref. ISSN: 1612-3433
[in English]
A regression analysis combined with a quality control data system
based on camera sensors and a dynamic pattern extraction technique is
presented to help identify important features and relationships in
historical data of laser welding parameters for coil joining. The
application concerns laser welding in manufacturing of cold rolled strip,
hot rolled strip and tin plate for materials up to 2.1 m width and
0.1-7.0 mm thickness. A brief introduction is made of the laser welding
process and a review is presented of intelligent methods of data
analysis. Considerations which involve the important relationships
between type of materials, thicknesses and process parameters are
highlighted as forming the basis of the regression analysis. Linear
regression predictions are presented for combinations of materials
under different weld parameters including weld speed, laser power, and
percentage post and preheat conditions. Discussion of the implications
of the analysis include its ability to predict parameter setting for new
metal alloys and the potential to extend it into a multivariate model,

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

55

50 NUCLEAR ENGINEERING
See also abstracts: 07-249211

*50-249171
How AECL [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd] restarted NRU
[National Research Universal] [reactor] with custom welding.
TODD R
Nuclear Engineering International, vol.55, no.677. Dec.2010. pp.14-18.
6 fig. ISSN: 0029-5507
[in English]
The repair of a reactor having a heavy-water leak detected after a
regional power outage is described. Tools and methods developed to
examine the vessel inside and outside are described. The challenges of
using remote welding tools, developing weld cleaning tools and
producing tools to reach the weld sites are described in detail. Testing
to analyse the metallurgy of the vessel wall and assess its weldability
and mock-up test before welding are described. Testing after each
repair by remote visual inspection, eddy current testing , ultrasonic
inspection for weld thickness, phased array ultrasonic angle beam
examination (to scan for near wall and far wall cracking in the HAZ of
the parent material) are outlined. Measures undertaken to return the
NRU to service and the review of training needs are discussed. Changes
in the assessment and testing schedule implemented after the causes for
the corrosion were examined are described.
ATOMIC ENERGY CANADA LTD
*50-249173
Heavy-section steel technology and irradiation programs retrospective and prospective views.
NANSTAD R K; BASS B R; MERKLE J G; PUGH C E;
ROSSEEL T M; SOKOLOV M A
Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology,
vol.132, no.6. Dec.2010. pp.064001.1-064001.20. 24 fig., 1 tab., 104
ref. ISSN: 0094-9930
[in English] [See also Weldasearch 236736]
A review is presented of past achievements and future activities of the
heavy-section steel technology (HSST) and irradiation (HSSI)
programmes developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory,
especially in relation to reactor pressure vessel (RPV) structural
integrity and the development of codes and standards. HSST aspects
summarised include materials characterisation and fracture mechanics,
intermediate test vessels, thermal shock vessel tests, pressurised
thermal shock experiments, wide plate crack-arrest tests, master curve
methodology, and ASTM standards. HSSI issues discussed include
embrittlement of RPV materials under neutron irradiation (a summary
of the major HSSI series is given), Charpy V-notch impact tests,
dynamic fracture toughness curves, small specimen technology and
microstructural analysis. International collaborations are outlined.
*50-249397
Quality of weld overlays in steels fabricated by automated TIG
surfacing.
BARBORKA J; HOLESA M
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2009. pp.29-33. 8 fig., 2
tab., 10 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
Optimum conditions for TIG overlay welding in the maintenance of
steel components of a VVER440 nuclear power plant were
investigated. Pressure vessel and steam generator components of low
alloy steels, high alloy and stainless steels were built up using wire

NUCLEAR ENGINEERING

deposition by TIG surfacing. Considerations included use of steady or


pulsed arc mode, and optimum welding current. Evaluation criteria
included uniformity of deposit thickness, dilution and deposit
homogeneity, susceptibility to solidification cracking and crevice
corrosion. A majority of tests involved 15CH2MFA (0.14%C,
0.46%Mn, 2.7%Cr, 0.64%Mo) or 14CH17N2 (0.11%C, 0.8%Mn,
17%Cr, 2%Ni) steels overlaid with UTP A068HH wire (Ni, 21%Cr,
3%Mn, 2.5%Nb). Some overlay on original CT24 overlay was tested.

51 OFFSHORE AND UNDERWATER


OPERATIONS
*51-249280
Construction continues in the FPS [floating production system]
sector.
MURRAY J
Hart's E&P, vol.84, no.1. Jan.2011. pp.82-83. 2 fig., 1 tab. ISSN:
1527-4063
[in English]
Trends in the floating production systems (FPSs) sector are reported.
The topics discussed include the growth in the number of FPSs in
service or available worldwide; the current order backlog; and factors
influencing the future market for FPSs. Data are presented regarding
the number of floater projects being planned by the top ten field
operators, as are details regarding floating production units available as
of mid-November 2010.
INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ASSOCIATES INC

52 PIPES, PIPELINES AND VESSELS


See also abstracts: 01-249400, 01-249445, 07-249209, 22-249490,
43-249176, 60-249500

*52-249167
BuBi pipes can be reeled: installation of mechanical lined pipe
by the reel-lay method.
MAIR J; BANSE J
Stainless Steel World, vol.22. Dec.2010. pp.43-44, 46-48. 7 fig. ISSN:
1383-7184
[in English]
Reel-lay installation of "BuBi" lined pipes for use in subsea oil and gas
transportation was investigated. The development project used X65
pipes, 12 m long, 273.1 mm outside diameter, 18.9 mm wall thickness
with corrosion resistant liner Alloy 825. The welding consumable was
alloy 625 and each test piece had a girth weld at its centre. A bending
test rig was used for a phase 1 bending and straightening cycle
performed three times at ambient conditions. Phase 2 repeated phase 1
tests and had two additional pipe samples internally pressurised with
water. Video recording of the inside of the pipe and laser measuring
were carried out. The results for the two phases were compared and
conclusions are described.
*52-249175
NTSB's [National Transport Safety Board's] San Bruno blast
study focuses on pipe weld seams.
CARLSEN R
ENR - Engineering News Record, vol.265, no.18. Dec.2010. p.14. 1 fig.
ISSN: 0891-9526
[in English]
Investigations into a natural gas pipeline rupture and explosion, the

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

PIPES, PIPELINES AND VESSELS

56

interim report on it, experts involved and the types of examinations


used on the steel pipe, AP15L, grade X42, are described. The methods
used to evaluate the welds, pipe thickness and fracture surfaces of
ruptured pipe pieces are mentioned. Findings are reported along with
actions to be taken. Laboratory work such as chemical compositional
analysis, mechanical property testing of samples of ruptured pipe
pieces, evaluation of environmental factors and investigations of other
aspects (including pipe welding standards and practices in the time of
installation in 1956) are described as ongoing.
*52-249231
Quality of welded joints of cooling water pipeline made of
austenitic steel X6CrNiTi18-10.
PAWLOWSKI B; KRAWCZYK J; BALA P; PARZYCH S;
PACKO M
Przeglad Spawalnictwa, vol.82, no.4. 2010. pp.3-7. 7 fig., 14 ref. ISSN:
0033-2364
[in Polish]
The quality of welds made in austenitic stainless steel X6CrNiTi18-10
(0.08%C,1.0%Si, 2.0%Mn, 17-19%Cr, 9.0-12.0%Ni, 5xC/0.70 Ti)
were investigated for samples from a water pipeline (diameter 323.9
mm and thickness 4 mm). Emission spectrometer ARL 3460 was used
to confirm the chemical composition of the parent material and weld.
Nondestructive testing methods were used to identify defects; results
of radiography, dye penetrant inspections and observations of
microstructure and macrostructure are shown. Reasons for weld
imperfections (misalignment, porosity, voids, partial joint
penetrations) and associated corrosion in the water pipe are explained.
Recommendations for the welding procedure for such water pipelines
are given, including MIG/MAG and TIG welding.
*52-249232
Welding technology plan for welding of pressure vessel.
SLANIA J; KACZOR T
Przeglad Spawalnictwa, vol.82, no.4. 2010. pp.9-18. 2 fig., 4 tab., 4
ref. ISSN: 0033-2364
[in Polish]
An example of the technology plan required by Polish standard PN EN
ISO 3834-2 for welding of a pressure vessel is shown. Type of
investigations at different stages of welding for quality control are
listed. Compliance with further norms and standards is emphasised:
97/23/WE, WUDT-UC edition 3, 2003 and PN EN 13445. Details
refer to: preparation, material control, non-pressure elements, boiler
head, connector pipe, boiler shell, assembly, final tests, internal and
external lining. Requirements for the design of the pressure vessels are
presented and criteria for material selections (parent metal and filler
materials) are discussed. Selection of the welding technologies,
qualification of welding personnel and preparation procedures are
mentioned. Inspections and quality control procedures at different
stages of the production process are of importance, due to the specific
nature of this product.
*52-249235
Welding in power industry at the beginning of XX Century (from
Jacek Lassocinski's file).
POCICA A
Przeglad Spawalnictwa, vol.82, no.4. 2010. pp.32-35. 2 fig., 16 ref.
ISSN: 0033-2364
[in Polish]
An overview on the development of welding techniques from
1901-1937 for fabrication of boilers is presented. Innovations in boiler
and boiler drum constructions at that time are discussed. Polish

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

standards published in 1925 for the repair of high pressure boilers are
described. Main producers of boilers are listed. Examples of boilers
made in Sosnowiec (1901) and Poznan (1929) are shown.
*52-249239
Investigations of microstructure and mechanical properties of
welded austenitic tubes for heat exchangers.
SWIERCZYNSKA A; ROGALSKI G; FYDRYCH D
Przeglad Spawalnictwa, vol.82, no.6. 2010. pp.11-16. 13 fig., 1 tab., 18
ref. ISSN: 0033-2364
[in Polish]
The influence of the heat treatment and plastic strain on the property
and structure of welded pipes made from the austenitic stainless steel
X3CrNiMo17-13-3 (1.4436: 0.05%C,
1.00%Si, 2.00%Mn,
16.5-18.5%Cr, 10.5-13.0%Ni, 2.5-3.0%Mo) was investigated. Pipes of
diameter 8 mm and wall thickness 0.6 mm were TIG welded without
filler metal. Both smooth pipes and those having a spiral groove around
them ("goffered pipe") were solution treated at 1120 deg.C and 1190
deg.C and quenched in water. NDT (visual and radiographic) and DT
(tensile and flattening tests, metallographic and microhardness
measurements) were carried out for samples before and after heat
treatment. Comparisons are made and results are presented.
*52-249302
Saving time and money - welding of pipes for the Harz-Bremen
drinking water pipeline (Zeit und Geld sparen - Schweissen von
Rohren fur die Trinkwasser-Fernleitung ...).
MINHOFER H C
Praktiker, vol.63, no.3. Mar.2011. pp.68-70. 5 fig. ISSN: 0554-9965
[in German]
The exchangeable body assembly and equipment used to weld the
pipelines to a tight schedule to avoid delaying the road construction is
described. The reasons for the need of the repairs, method used and
problems met are outlined. For the water pipeline a steel pipe of
nominal bore DN 600, diameter 610 mm, wall thickness 6.3 mm (24 x
0.25 in), with plastic material outer protective coating and inner lining
of concrete was used in 16 m lengths. The equipment consisted of a 28
kVA welding generator with two inverters and a radio remote
controlled loading crane mounted together as an exchangeable body on a
lorry. How the pipes are prepared, brought into position, aligned and
held for welding is outlined. Manual metal arc welding was used for
vertical down welding with 3.2 mm diameter electrodes, followed by 4
mm diameter electrodes for filler bead and capping pass.
*52-249408
Erosion and cavitation damage of piping system of alkylate petrol
mixing unit.
BERNASOVSKY P; BRZIAK P; ZIFCAK P; ORSZAGHOVA J
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.7-8. July-Aug.2009. pp.185-188. 3 fig.,
3 tab., 4 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
A case history is reported in which the causes of perforations in the
piping system of a alkylate petrol mixing system were investigated.
Piping material was Alloy 20 (ASME B464: 0.07%C, 2%Mn,
19-21%Cr, 32-38%Ni, 2-3%Mo, 3-4%Cu, 0.5-1%Nb + Ta) with
matching longitudinal weld metal and Inconel 625 (55.4%Ni, 21.4%Cr,
7.3%Mo, 3.4%Nb + Ta, remainder Fe) circumferential welds. Failure
sites, chemical and metallographic analysis, corrosion and erosion sites
on pipe and T-piece inner surfaces are described. Failure was ascribed
to mixing of chemicals at piping junctions, where turbulent flow
patterns lead to erosion and cavitation damage. Failure mechanisms and
their mitigation are discussed.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

57

*52-249441
Properties of high power fibre laser hybrid welds of L485MB pipe
steel.
BERNASOVSKY P; HAMAK I; PALO M; GRUNENWALD S;
SEEFELD T; VOLLERTSEN F
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.59, no.7-8. July-Aug.2010. pp.147-154. 14
fig., 5 tab., 11 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
Properties of pipeline steel L485MB (X70: 0.083%C, 1.73%Mn,
0.03%Cr, 0.05%Ni, 0.05%Nb, 0.08%V, 0.05%Al) joints made by a
combination of MAG and high power fibre laser welding were
investigated. V-butt and U-butt joint preparations were used, with a
gap of 0 mm or 0.5 mm. Welding of the 14 mm plate was carried out in
two passes: a root pass with both MAG and laser welding using a 8
kW YLR-8000 fibre laser and a fill pass with MAG welding only. Two
different filler wires were used, both of 1.2 mm, a solid wire Nertalic
70S (T46 4 M M 1 H5: 0.1%C, 1.31%Mn, 0.034%Ni) and a metal
cored wire SAF DUAL200 (G2Si: 0.098%C, 1.56%Mn, 0.035%Ni).
Shielding gas was 82%Ar+18%CO2. Weld shape (particularly
penetration), microstructures and macrostructures were investigated.
Hardness distribution, transverse tensile strength, bend strength,
Charpy impact toughness and CTOD at -20 deg.C were determined.

53 WELDED PRODUCTS
See also abstracts: 12-249375, 12-249376, 12-249377

53-249373
Tailor welded blanks for advanced manufacturing.
KINSEY B L; WU X
Book. Publ: Cambridge, CB22 3HJ, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd.,
2011. 219pp. 2 Parts. 8 Chapters. Numerous fig., tab., ref. ISBN:
9781845697044
[in English] [For abstracts of individual Chapters: Weldasearch
249374-249381]
The processing of tailor-welded blanks, including weld integrity and
deformation during forming, and mechanics-based and numerical
simulation modelling of the forming process are explored; applications
are given for lightweight alloys and advanced high-strength steel, and
examples are described in the automotive and aerospace industries.
*53-249378
Lightweight metal alloy tailor welded blanks.
PADMANABHAN R; OLIVEIRA M C; MENEZES L F
In Book: Tailor Welded Blanks for Advanced Manufacturing. Ed:
B.L.Kinsey and X.Wu. Publ: Cambridge, CB22 3HJ, UK; Woodhead
Publishing Ltd., 2011. Part 2: Applications. Chapter 5. pp.97-117. 11
fig., numerous ref. ISBN: 9781845697044
[in English]
The properties of lightweight metal alloys (LWMA) such as
aluminium, magnesium and titanium alloys are described and their
applications in tailor-welded blanks (TWBs) in the construction,
automotive and aerospace industries are examined. The advantages of
using LWMA instead of steel in TWB are outlined, and the use of
similar and dissimilar materials is compared. The effect of welding
process, including laser welding, friction stir welding and resistance
mash seam welding, on the formability of TWB is described.
Techniques for reducing failures owing to weld line movement,
including careful drawbead design and the weld clamping method, are
summarised and defects such as intermetallics and porosity-related
internal and external defects are described. Factors governing the

WELDED PRODUCTS

prediction of formability are explored and recommendations are given


for minimising weld displacement. The economic and environmental
benefits of LWMA TWBs are discussed.

*53-249380
Tailor welded blanks for the automotive industry.
KINSEY B L
In Book: Tailor Welded Blanks for Advanced Manufacturing. Ed:
B.L.Kinsey and X.Wu. Publ: Cambridge, CB22 3HJ, UK; Woodhead
Publishing Ltd., 2011. Part 2: Applications. Chapter 7. pp.164-180. 8
fig., numerous ref. ISBN: 9781845697044
[in English]
The advantages and disadvantages of using tailor-welded blanks
(TWBs) in the automotive industry are discussed. Reductions in
weight, increased corrosion resistance, decreased noise, improved
accuracy in production of automobile parts, economic benefits and
environmental and safety benefits are gained at the expense of reduced
formability, increased weld line movement and tearing and wrinkling in
the die addendum as well as problems related to springback and to
trimming, flanging and hemming difficulties. Methods of improving
TWB forming, including strategic location of the weld line, use of a
non-uniform binder force, and use of a lower die cushion, are described.
The advantages and disadvantages of "forging" joining processes such
as friction stir and mash seam welding and a fusion process such as
laser welding are discussed. The effect of the different materials used in
TWBs, including steel, advanced high-strength steel, aluminium and
other lightweight alloys is briefly summarised.

*53-249381
Tailor made blanks for the aerospace industry.
SINKE J; ZADPOOR A A; BENEDICTUS R
In Book: Tailor Welded Blanks for Advanced Manufacturing. Ed:
B.L.Kinsey and X.Wu. Publ: Cambridge, CB22 3HJ, UK; Woodhead
Publishing Ltd., 2011. Part 2: Applications. Chapter 8. pp.181-201. 14
fig., 2 tab., 16 ref. ISBN: 9781845697044
[in English]
The potential applications of tailor-made blanks for reducing weight
and costs in the aircraft industry are explored. Use of TMBs in the
fuselage, wing and tail parts of planes is described. Potential use of
friction stir welding and laser welding is summarised and the universal
processes of rubber forming, bending and stretch forming are described.
Schematic diagrams are given of machined and adhesively bonded
TMBs, and improved formability with friction stir welded TMBs of
aluminium alloys, Al-7075 and Al-2024, is described. A case study of
a rubber-formed TMB wing rib machined from a 2.8 mm thickness Al
2024-T42 sheet is detailed, with comparison with the original wing rib
made from 25 mm thickness Al 7075-T351 plate.

*53-249462
How to assure quality in outsourced welded products.
LaPLANTE W C
Welding Journal, vol.90, no.10. Oct.2011. pp.42-46. 3 tab. ISSN:
0043-2296
[in English]
The responsibilities of original equipment manufactures (OEMs) for
the quality of outsourced welding are addressed through an examination
of the auditing process. The problems most often encountered are
noted: shoddy workmanship; lack of adherence to welding codes; and
shortage of skilled staff. Three tables present example areas of: US
based OEM welding subject matter expert (SME) leadership

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

WELDED STRUCTURES

58

guidelines; US based OEM audit questions; and US based OEM


welding supplier development and lessons learned.
RAYTHEON

54 WELDED STRUCTURES
See also abstracts: 01-249226, 01-249292, 01-249463, 60-249517

*54-249233
Determination of fatigue life of welded structure using structural
hot spot stress method.
LUKASIK T
Przeglad Spawalnictwa, vol.82, no.4. 2010. pp.19-25. 10 fig., 9 ref.
ISSN: 0033-2364
[in Polish]
The fatigue life of a welded structure was determined using a girder as
an example. Calculations were made using the nominal stress method
for the girder cross section. FEM was used (program ANSYS) for
calculation of structural stresses according to the structural hot spot
stress method. Numerical calculations were made for both shell and
solid models. Also, structural stresses were measured using a girder
model in test stand (strain gauges with a load of 45 kN). Comparison
of the measured and computed results was made. A fatigue test was
carried out to determine a real fatigue life of girder. The obtained results
allowed the determination of fatigue class, which can be used for
calculations of fatigue life of welded constructions with a given load.
Formulae are given. Results are presented.
*54-249242
Welding technology plan for welding of flame tube-smoke tube
boilers.
SLANIA J; KWIECIEN L; JAROSINSKI J
Przeglad Spawalnictwa, vol.82, no.6. 2010. pp.32-39. 1 fig., 4 tab., 3
ref. ISSN: 0033-2364
[in Polish]
Requirements of the Polish Technical Inspection Office and standards
on designing, production and control process of shell-tube boilers are
presented. Details include: technical data of the boiler; boiler drum
production technology; control procedure before, during and after
welding; specification of parts working under pressure; and welding
consumables consumption (covered electrodes, wire and flux). An
example of the welding control plan is presented.
*54-249293
Strength of butt joints in ship sections welded with a wide gap
(Festigkeit von mit grossem Luftspalt verschweissten Stossen von
Schiffssektionen).
FRICKE W; ZACKE S; EREN S E; KOCAK M
Schweissen und Schneiden, vol.62, no.12. Dec.2010. pp.680-686. 14
fig., 2 tab., 8 ref. ISSN: 0036-7184
[in German]
Steel samples (D36 or A steel, 150 x 250 x 15 mm, with gap up to 30
mm) were tested for fatigue strength and breaking strength, and the
weaving technique was compared with the conventional stringer bead
technique, to determine whether welded joints with larger gaps
correspond to regulations. Sample manufacture for preliminary and
main tests is outlined. The measurement of reaction forces during and
after welding to estimate residual stress is described. Parent material
and weld material characterisation with hardness tests, chemical
material analysis, microsection evaluation and investigation of cracking

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

resistance is described in detail. Breaking strength investigations of 250


mm wide components using the FITNET evaluation module and
fatigue strength tests carried out in a resonance testing machine on test
pieces of 300 x 40 mm, 15 mm thickness, with gap of 8, 15 and 30 mm
are described.
*54-249392
Diagnosing stress state on the welded structure P frame of rotary
excavator obtained by thermography, tensometry and fracture
mechanics methods.
PROKOLAB M; MILUTINOVIC Z; MARKOVIC N;
JOVANOVIC D; PRVULOVIC M; IGNJATOVIC J; VASOVIC I
Buletinul Institutului National de Cercetare-Dezvoltare in Sudura si
Incercari de Materiale-ISIM Timisoara, vol.20, no.2. 2011. pp.25-29. 4
fig., 6 tab., 6 ref. ISSN: 1453-0392
[in English] [Journal also known as: Sudarea si Incercarea
Materialelor - Welding & Material Testing]
[http://www.bid-isim.ro/bid_arhiva/bid2011/prokolab-2_2011.pdf]
The stress distribution in the welded steel structure P frame of a rotary
excavator was obtained experimentally using thermography and strain
gauging. The P frame was made from structural steel S355 J2G3 (EN
10025). The results from thermography were used to determine the
locations for strain gauging (using 3-element rosettes and single-element
gauges). The studies also included tensile testing (to generate
stress-strain curves), Charpy impact testing (at -20, 0, and +20 deg.C),
fracture toughness testing (K1c), and fatigue crack growth testing
(da/dN versus delta-K, and threshold delta-K), performed on samples
extracted from the P frame. The results were used to assess the
remaining fatigue life of the structure based on fracture mechanics
principles.
*54-249403
Bending-shear load-carrying capacity of welded thin-walled steel
beams in compliance with STN and EN standards.
JUHAS P; BALAZ M
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.4. Apr.2009. pp.106-111. 6 fig., 3 tab.,
8 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
A comparison was made of the load-carrying capacity of welded
thin-walled steel beams in compliance with Slovak standard STN 73
1401:1998 relative to more recent European standards EN
1993-1-1:2005 and EN 1993-1-5:2006. Using the simple and complete
post-critical methods, numerical analyses of beams with a range of
geometries were made, results tabulated and load limits compared.
Steels type S355, S235 and S460 were considered.
*54-249406
Research and development of reliability of welded structures in
the past and today.
KALNA K
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.7-8. July-Aug.2009. pp.175-180. 11
fig., 1 tab., 21 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
An overview is presented on the research interests at the Czech
Welding Institute concerning the mechanical properties of welded
structures. These include high cycle fatigue strength, low cycle fatigue
resistance, fatigue crack growth rates, brittle fracture, lamellar tearing
and creep of parent metals and welded joints. Other topics addressed
are the mechanical treatment of welded joints after welding to alter
residual stresses (e.g. heat treatment, stressing or vibration), testing of
remote pipelines, selection of welding materials for the production of
steel structures, selection of suitable welding conditions, and applying

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

59

the results of research in practice. Some European standards on steel


structures are criticised, including EN 1993-1-9 and EN 1993-1-10
(Eurocode 3) and Czech supplements to these, published in 2007, are
recommended.
*54-249412
Renovation of the Bay Bridge - submerged arc surfacing of pylons
with strip electrode.
KUBENKA M
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.9-10. Sept.-Oct.2009. pp.229-232. 7
fig., 2 tab., 7 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Czech]
The use of submerged arc surfacing for pylon protection against sea
water for the San Francisco - Oakland (USA) Bay Bridge is discussed.
Redesign of the bridge after earthquake damage is described. A new
section is supported on piers of ASTM A709 Gr HPS70W steel
(0.13%C, 1.05%Mn, 0.5%Ni, 0.38%Cu) which require protection
against sea water and wave erosion. Submerged arc surfacing with strip
electrodes and OK flux 10.05 was performed: first layer OK Band
309L (0.017%C, 1.66%Mn, 23%Cr, 13.3%Ni); second layer OK Band
316L (0.012%C, 1.7%Mn, 18.1%Cr, 12.7%Ni, 2.9%Mo) to a total
thickness of 4 mm. Principle of the method, application to the bridge,
and test compositional and hardness data are reported. Merits are
enumerated.
*54-249436
Design and installation of a tank for liquefied petroleum gas
(Izvedba i montaza spremnika za ukapljeni ...).
BRAJKO R; GLOGOVIC Z; KOVACEVIC T T
Zavarivanje, vol.53, no.3-4. May-Aug.2010. pp.99-101. 4 fig. ISSN:
0044-1902
[in Croatian]
Design and assembly are described of LPG tanks of capacity 100 cubic
metres and 550 cubic metres. Specifications are: operating pressure 15
bar, design pressure 7.16 bar, test pressure 25 bar, operating
temperature max. 40 deg.C, anticipated temperature range in operation
-29 to +50 deg.C, and content propane-LPG butane. Materials used
were structural steel grades St35.8 and P235GHTC1. Depending on
material thickness and location of the joint, processes involved were
TIG welding, MAG welding, MMA welding, submerged arc welding
or TIG and MMA welding together.
*54-249451
Experience from the application of the thermomechanical and
normalised rolled steels at the Apollo bridge execution.
KALNA K; VITASEK M
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.59, no.11-12. Nov.-Dec.2010. pp.243-249. 8
fig., 7 tab., 9 ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
Analysis of thermomechanically rolled and normalised rolled steel
plates used in the structure of the Apollo Bridge, Bratislava is
presented including requirements concerning chemical composition and
mechanical properties. Uses of structural steel plates including
S420ML, S355ML, S355NL and S235J2G3 are described. Chemical
composition, carbon equivalent and tensile and toughness properties of
these structural steels were randomly tested and compared with the
values in standards EN 10113 and EN 10025. Test welds were made
by several different welding methods (MMA welding, submerged arc
welding, MAG welding, FCA welding) for each material and each
typical thickness. After NDT, chemical analysis, macrostructure,
hardness and tensile strength of the welds were investigated. Preheat
requirements, heat input, hardness and toughness are highlighted.

CODES AND STANDARDS

*54-249458
Reconstruction of O. Nepela's Winter Stadium in Bratislava.
AGOCS Z; BEZAK A; BEZAK I; VANKO M
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.60, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2011. pp.25-29. 16 fig., 5
ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak]
A reconstruction of the O.Nepalas Winter Stadium in Bratislava is
reported. The original structure and the first reconstruction are
outlined. The new steel construction is described including the
reconstruction of entrance, hall and rear part and a new training hall.
Welding processes used to assemble trusses in the hall are mentioned.
The trusses have 8 parts and are made of parent metals S355JR and
S235JR. Electrodes E42 2 B 42 H10 and E42 4 B 32 H5 were used for
MMA welding, G2Mo (OK Tigrod 13.09) and argon 4.6 in TIG
welding, and ER70S-6(IS-10, IS-10S) and shielding gas M24 in MAG
welding. During manufacture, the root run and one pass were made
using TIG welding, and fill passes were made using IS-10 and IS-10S
filler wires. Electrode EVB 50 was used during the assembly. Welds
were visually, penetrant and ultrasonic tested.

60 CODES AND STANDARDS


See also abstracts: 02-249513, 02-249514, 48-249223

*60-249222
Journey through time into the certified world of welding.
Welding for the military calls for special producer qualification.
Part 2: Activity (Zeitreise in die zertifizierte Welt des
Schweissens. Schweissen fur das Militar erfordert besondere
Herstellerqualifikation - Teil 2: Ablauf).
AICH W
Praktiker, vol.62, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2011. pp.38-41. 2 fig., 1 tab. ISSN:
0554-9965
[in German] (Part 1: vol.61, no.12. Dec.2010. pp.497-499)
The company Aich & Co GmbH qualified for the manufacture of
defence materiel in accordance with German Standard DIN 2303 in late
2010, and can now begin welding tasks for the German Defence
Ministry. The chief executive gives a historical account of the many
hurdles he had to overcome in order to achieve this award. The strict
requirements for such work included: fillers, procedures, equipment,
inspection and personnel. Tabulated data show all the 13 standards,
requirements thereof and issue dates. Six certificates issued to the
company are illustrated.

*60-249228
Principles of assessment of gas voids in steel welded joints on the
grounds of radiographs according to different European standards
(Zasady oceny pustek gazowych w zlaczach spawanych ...).
CZUCHRYJ J; HYC K
Biuletyn Instytutu Spawalnictwa, vol.54, no.6. 2010. pp.31-38. 13
fig., 5 tab., 7 ref. ISSN: 0867-583X
[in Polish]
Standards for quality assessment of welds are discussed and compared
with focus on porosity. Formation of porosity is explained and
different types of porosity found in welds are distinguished. The
influence of gas cavities on weld quality and fatigue performance is
described. On the basis of radiographic examinations, a comparison of
the different evaluation methods used to determine a weld's quality is
made. Different quality and acceptance levels are explained with

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

CODES AND STANDARDS

60

reference to standards PN-EN 25817, PN-EN ISO 13919-1, PN-EN


ISO 5817, PN-EN 12517-1, PN-EN 12061, EN 1435 and PN-EN ISO
6520-1.

*60-249230
Procedure of qualification of welding technology for offshore
structures according to
DNV regulations (Procedura
kwalifikowania technologii spawania konstrukcji offshore ...).
SAPERSKI M
Biuletyn Instytutu Spawalnictwa, vol.54, no.6. 2010. pp.57-62. 5 fig.,
8 tab., 13 ref. ISSN: 0867-583X
[in Polish]
The qualification procedure for welding of butt joints in structural steel
plate applied to offshore structures according to Det Norske Veritas
(DNV) is presented, based on a standard DNV-OS-C401. The
comparison is made with standard EN ISO 15614-1 and the ship
regulations GL. Attention is drawn to: edge parameters, type of
materials used and their thickness, types of welds, welding positions
and additional materials used for welding. The type of investigations
needed for quality control are listed. An example of the certification
procedure is given, including toughness data. A Welding Procedure
Qualification Test was prepared and required documents gathered.
Conclusions are drawn.

*60-249236
Standard ISO 14175 - changes for users of shielding gases.
OPARA S
Przeglad Spawalnictwa, vol.82, no.5. 2010. pp.2-4. 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 ref.
ISSN: 0033-2364
[in Polish]
The changes in American and European legislations on using shielding
gases are presented. Introduction of ISO 14175 standard is discussed.
Classification of technological gases used for welding and similar
processes is given. The differences and similarities between ISO 14175
and previously used norms EN 439 and AWS A5.32 are noted.

60-249498
Aerospace series - weldments and brazements for aerospace
structures - joints of metallic materials by laser beam welding quality of weldments.
BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION;
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
British Standard BS EN 4678: 2011. Publ: London W4 4AL, UK;
British Standards Institution; 2011. 34pp. 3 fig., 6 tab. ISBN:
9780580666285
[in English] (French and German versions also exist)
Rules to be observed to ensure the quality of metallic aerospace
structures fabricated by laser beam welding are set out. They apply to
all forms of laser beam generation, to automatic or manual operation
and to manufacture or repair functions. Principal content includes
weldability classifications; general welding requirements including weld
classification and welder training and qualification; and technical
requirements for materials, preparation and qualification of welding
procedures, nondestructive testing, metallographic testing, process
monitoring and inspection. Acceptance criteria for weld shape and
weld defects are tabulated.

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

60-249499
Aerospace series - steel FE-WM 3504 (X4CrNiMo16-5-1) - air
melted - filler metal for welding - wire and rod.
BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION;
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
British Standard BS EN 4683: 2011. Publ: London W4 4AL, UK;
British Standards Institution; 2011. 8pp. 1 tab. ISBN: 9780580662591
[in English] (French and German versions also exist)
Requirements relating to steel FE-WM 3504 for use as filler wire or
rod are incorporated in a single table, primarily cross-referencing
standard EN 3879. A compositional range is specified (max.0.06%C,
max.1,5%Mn, 15-17%Cr, 4-6%Ni, 0.8-1.5%Mo).
60-249500
Guide for multipass orbital machine pipe groove welding.
AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY
US Standard AWS D10.14M/D10.14: 2010. 1st Edition. Publ: Miami,
FL 33126, USA; American Welding Society; 2010. 71pp. 29 fig., 1 tab.
ISBN: 9780871717801
[in English]
An overview is presented of equipment and techniques used for orbital
machine welding of pipes for plant, and of pipelines for cross-country
and offshore use, using arc welding techniques with added filler metal.
Descriptions are given of welding and ancillary equipment for GMA
(MIG/MAG), TIG and FCA processes, including pulsed arc welding;
pipe bevelling equipment and procedures; clamping systems; and
external welding heads with associated joint tracking. Nondestructive
testing methods and their applications are summarised. Equipment,
operator skills and step-by-step process procedures are described for
each of: plant piping, cross-country pipelaying and offshore
pipelaying by S-lay, J-lay and reel-lay techniques.
60-249501
Structural welding code - reinforcing steel.
AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY
US Standard AWS D1.4/D1.4M: 2011. 7th Edition. Publ: Miami, FL
33126, USA; American Welding Society; 2011. 81pp. 19 fig., 12 tab.
ISBN: 9780871717863
[in English] (Supersedes US Standard AWS D1.4/D1.4M: 2005. 79pp;
[Weldasearch 223573])
This code covers the requirements for welding reinforcing steel to
reinforcing steel and reinforcing steel to carbon or low-alloy structural
steel. It contains rules for the regulations of welding reinforcing steel
and provides suitable acceptance criteria for such welds. The
prescribed welding processes are MMA, GMA and FCA. The code
addresses allowable stresses, structural details, workmanship, filler
metal requirements, tack welds, welding of coated metals, covered
electrodes and consumables for GMA and FCA welding, welding
procedure specification qualification, welder qualification, and
inspection techniques. Safety issues are considered.
60-249502
Specification for the ultrasonic pulse-echo examination of brazed
joints.
AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY
US Standard AWS C3.8M/C3.8: 2011. 3rd Edition. Publ: Miami, FL
33126, USA; American Welding Society; 2011. 24pp. 4 fig., 2 ref.
ISBN: 9780871717924
[in English] (Supersedes US Standard AWS C3.8M/C3.8: 2005. 15pp;
[Weldasearch 223573])
This specification presents minimum fabrication, equipment, and
process procedure requirements for the ultrasonic inspection of brazed

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

61

joints. Its purpose is to standardise brazed joint ultrasonic inspection


requirements as to equipment, procedures and documentation of such
tests. Sections comprise: scope; applicable documents; inspection
requirements (ultrasonic testing and accessory equipment; required
procedures, brazed joint qualification, and inspection techniques); and
acceptance criteria.

60-249509
Health and safety in welding and allied processes - transparent
welding curtains, strips and screens for arc welding processes.
BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION;
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
British Standard BS EN 1598: 2011. Publ: London W4 4AL, UK;
British Standards Institution; 2011. 14pp. 2 fig., 1 tab., 3 ref. ISBN:
9780580656279
[in English] (French and German versions also exist)(Supersedes BS
EN 1598:1998. 10pp; [Weldasearch 189164])
This standard specifies safety requirements for transparent welding
curtains, strips and screens to be used for separating areas where arc
welding processes are conducted from their surroundings. They are
designed to protect people from hazardous radiant emissions from
welding arcs and spatter. Prescribed items are transmittance,
reflectance, UV-stability, resistance to ignition, eyelet strength,
marking, and information for users.

60-249510
Arc welding equipment. Part 12: Coupling devices for welding
cables.
BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION;
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
British Standard BS EN 60974-12: 2011. Publ: London W4 4AL, UK;
British Standards Institution; 2011. 16pp. 3 fig., 4 tab., 13 ref. ISBN:
9780580704451
[in English] (French and German versions also exist)(Supersedes BS
EN 60974-12: 2005) [Identical to IEC 60974-12:2011]
The specification is applicable to cable coupling devices for arc
welding, other than underwater welding, which can be connected
without use of tools. It specifies safety and performance requirements.
It covers environmental conditions, type testing, produced designation,
protection against electric shock, thermal rating, mechanical
requirements, markings and instructions for use.

60-249511
Arc welding equipment. Part 13: Welding clamp.
BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION;
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
British Standard BS EN 60974-13: 2011. Publ: London W4 4AL, UK;
British Standards Institution; 2011. 14pp. 1 fig., 1 tab., 1 ref. ISBN:
9780580648113
[in English] (French and German versions also exist)[Identical to IEC
60974-13: 2011]
The specification applies to clamps which make an electrical
connection to the workpiece during arc welding and do not require use
of tools for fitting. It specifies safety and performance requirements. It
covers environmental conditions, type testing, product designation,
protection against electric shock, thermal rating, mechanical
requirements, markings and instructions for use.

CODES AND STANDARDS

60-249512
Non-destructive testing of welds - ultrasonic testing - use of
time-of-flight diffraction technique (TOFD).
BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION;
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION;
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION
British Standard BS EN ISO 10863: 2011. Publ: London W4 4AL, UK;
British Standards Institution; 2011. 37pp. 23 fig., 6 tab., 2 ref. ISBN:
9780580641930
[in English] (French and German versions also exist)(Supersedes
CEN/TS 14751: 2004)
The specification applies to automated testing of fusion welds in
low-alloyed carbon steels or similar of 6 mm minimum thickness. It
provides guidance on the capabilities and limitations of TOFD for
location, sizing and characterisation of discontinuities in full penetration
welded joints of plate or pipe. Detail includes advice on capabilities of
the method, levels of testing, information required prior to testing,
competence of personnel and equipment, setting up for testing, range
and sensitivity settings and use of reference blocks, actual testing,
interpretation and analysis of data and test report content. Annexes
describe reference block design and provide example scans.
60-249516
A quick guide - API 653 certified storage tank inspector syllabus example questions and worked answers.
MATTHEWS C
Book. Publ: Cambridge, CB22 3HJ, UK; Woodhead Publishing Ltd;
2011. 18 Chapters. 349pp. Numerous fig., tab. ISBNs:
9781845697563, 9780857095275, 9780791859803
[in English]
Guidance is provided for the study of the API 653 Certified Storage
Tank Inspector syllabus. Topics covered include: interpreting API and
ASME codes; introduction to API 653:2009 and related codes;
introduction to API RP 575; reasons for inspection (damage
mechanisms); inspection practices and frequency; evaluation of
corroded tanks; API 650 tank design; tank nondestructive examination;
tank repairs and alterations; tank reconstruction; hydrostatic testing
and brittle fracture; tank linings: API RP 652; introduction to
welding/API RP 577 (welding processes (MMA, TIG, submerged arc
and GMA) and consumables); welding qualifications and ASME IX;
cathodic protection API RP 651 and NDE requirements of ASME V.
Numerous example questions and answers are provided.
60-249517
Fatigue design of steel and composite structures. Eurocode 3:
Design of steel structures. Part 1-9: Fatigue. Eurocode 4: Design
of composite steel and concrete structures.
NUSSBAUMER A; BORGES L; DAVAINE L
Book. 1st Edition. Publ: Bte 20-1200 Brussels, Belgium; European
Convention for Constructional Steelwork (ECCS, CECM, EKS); 2011.
6 Chapters. 337pp. Numerous fig., tab., ref. ISBNs: 9789291471010,
9783433029817
[in English]
Guidance is provided on use of Eurocodes concerning fatigue design of
steel and composite steel and concrete structures giving theoretical
background, explanation of code prescriptions and detailed design
examples. Aspects covered include: an introduction to fatigue design;
application range and limitations; determination of stresses and stress
ranges; fatigue strength; reliability and verification and brittle fracture.
Annexes comprise standards for steel construction, fatigue detail tables
with commentary (for welded built up sections, transverse butt welds,
welded attachments and stiffeners, load carrying welded joints, lattice

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

COMMERCIAL INFORMATION

62

girder node joints and orthotropic decks) and maximum permissible


thickness tables. Fatigue loads are considered in relation to: road and
railway bridges; crane supporting structures; masts, towers and
chimneys, silos and tanks and tensile cable structures. Calculation of
stresses and stress ranges in welds is covered.

61 COMMERCIAL INFORMATION
*61-249241
Analysis of welding market in Poland as regards sales of welding
units and materials.
CHMIELEWSKI T; WEGLOWSKI M
Przeglad Spawalnictwa, vol.82, no.6. 2010. pp.28-31. 4 fig., 1 tab., 7
ref. ISSN: 0033-2364
[in Polish]
The Polish sales market of welding equipment and consumables
between 1999 and 2008 is analysed. This includes equipment used for
TIG, MMA and MIG/MAG welding methods. Sales of different
types of fillers (solid, flux-cored and covered electrodes) are compared.
The reasons for an increase of sales of semi-automatic and automatic
systems are given. The trends and requirements of the sales market are
reported.

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

extent of human capabilities and abilities in these processes are


discussed.
*62-249440
Improving the welding training by a wise integration of new
technologies (Zlepsovanie zrucnosti vo zvarani ...).
Da DALTO L; BALET O; BENUS F
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.59, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2010. pp.25-30. 9 fig., 15
ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak] [Similar paper: Welding in the World, vol.53, Special Issue.
2009. Fabrication and Quality Control. Paper fqc-5. pp.223-228;
Weldasearch 241128]
A review is presented of virtual training technologies for welders,
ranging from basic tools to expert training simulators, incorporating the
methods by which the technologies can be integrated into training
programmes, potential benefits, feedback of users (trainers and
trainees), and the final acceptance or rejection of the systems. Issues
discussed include: sensory motor skills of welders; virtual reality
concepts; virtual training for welders; virtual welding simulators; the
CS WAVE system, a pedagogical tool to facilitate progressive learning
of welding motion parameters; the welding workbenches for CS
WAVE; performance assessment; and the control centre software tool.
The benefits of CS WAVE and its application to Hungarian welder
training are outlined.

62 EDUCATION AND TRAINING


See also abstracts: 60-249516

*62-249224
Awaken understanding and learn efficiently [with a
computerised welding simulator] (Verstandnis wecken und
effizient lernen).
SCHWEISS- UND PRUFTECHNIK
Schweiss- und Pruftechnik, no.2. Feb.2011. pp.20-21. 4 fig. ISSN:
1027-3352
[in German]
Details are given of the development and use of a computerised
welding simulator (named "Virtual Welding") designed to give trainees
simulated practical experience of arc welding. Photographs show
students clad for welding, each handling a welding torch in front of a
computer monitor, doing simulated welding exercises. Results are also
indicated.
*62-249237
Problems of welders training on account of design methods,
technology, materials, and equipment development.
JASTRZEBSKI R; SLIWINSKA A; JASTRZEBSKI A
Przeglad Spawalnictwa, vol.82, no.5. 2010. pp.5-10. 5 fig., 11 ref.
ISSN: 0033-2364
[in Polish] [See also Weldasearch 217268 and 221474]
Repeatability of a manual welding process in the Polish TKS welder
training method is discussed. Human response and the ability to
control the welding process is analysed. A comparison with an
advanced software for process control is made. Different methods used
during the training process are analysed. The influence of the weld pool
temperature control on the quality of weld is discussed and control
methods are described. Traditional designing of the welding process is
compared with new methods required for an advanced class of
materials (high-strength steels, martensitic steels for power plants,
modern stainless steels and nickel alloys - based on ASTME standard)
and a new generation of welding equipment. The role of human and the

*62-249460
Welding's future in South Africa.
TOIT M du
Welding Journal, vol.90, no.10. Oct.2011. pp.31-34. 1 tab., 14 ref.
ISSN: 0043-2296
[in English]
An overview is presented of the large engineering projects underway in
South Africa, which are highlighting a critical shortage of welding
technology and skills. The practical challenges facing the South African
economy, where welding skills are in short supply, are discussed
including: imported workers; lack of training; poor welding
certification; high rejection/defect levels; little research; and reliance on
automation.
*62-249486
Welding research in Indian Universities.
SUNDARESAN S
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.3. July 2011. Special Issue.
pp.86-91. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English]
Welding and surfacing research projects carried out at Indian
universities, are briefly described. Processes studied include pulsed
GMA welding, narrow gap welding, FCA welding, resistance spot
welding of galvanised steel sheet, friction stir welding, and diffusion
bonding. Welding processes have been investigated by modelling. The
development of fluxes and filler materials, mechanical properties,
weldability, including the joining of dissimilar materials, and the
welding of nickel and titanium alloys have also been studied. Surfacing
research includes plasma transferred arc surfacing using cobalt or nickel
alloys, and the plasma nitridation of martensitic stainless steel.
*62-249487
Welder training and certification - role of IIW [Indian Institute of
Welding] India.
BANERJEE R
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.3. July 2011. Special Issue.

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

63

HEALTH AND SAFETY

pp.92-98. 1 fig., 3 tab. ISSN: 0046-9092


[in English]
A review of the role of the Indian Institute of Welding (IIW) in welder
training and certification, in the context of the growth in the welding
industry in India, is presented. The IIW's involvement in meeting the
demands of industry for competent welders, through developing
courses, approving welder training centres and providing independent
examination and certification facilities is discussed. The necessary
qualifications to become a certified welder and the career progression
once qualified are highlighted together with the knowledge and skills
required of a welding inspector. The different training routes available
in India are discussed and include vocational training, state funded
institutional training, apprenticeships and private training institutes.
Schemes and courses adopted by the IIW to accommodate the training
requirements include international welder courses and the national
welder training and certification scheme (NWTS). The latter scheme is
discussed in more detail to include its scope and some of the key
features. Courses available in the NWTS are listed in table form. Lastly
the government of India Directorate General of Employment and
Training (DGE&T) scheme is detailed.

*63-249307
(Not) a question of taste - state of the art in automatic welding
protective filters ((K)eine Frage des Geschmacks - Stand der
Technik bei automatischen Schweisserschutzfiltern).
GUNZ S
Praktiker, vol.63, no.3. Mar.2011. pp.91-93. 2 fig. ISSN: 0554-9965
[in German]
A description is given of the equipment, how it operates and factors to
beware of and to take into account when purchasing a welding
protective filter. The technology used for the optics, the control
electronics for the LCD's and demands on the power supply are
outlined. The need to ensure that equipment purchased complies with
the EU standards and is CE certified is stressed. The choice of fitting a
standard dimension welder protection mask into a helmet or of
purchasing a complete system, advantages and additional costs of
disposable supplementary screens are outlined. Three basic
approaches of passive welder protection glass, filter with adjustable
protection levels and fully automated filter are described. An automatic
welding protective filter that allows colours to be seen is compared
with the conventional equipment.

*62-249492
Exploring welding through YouTube.
CULLISON A; JOHNSEN M R; WOODWARD H; CAMPBELL K
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.3. July 2011. Special Issue. AWS
Section. pp.115-118. 16 fig. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English] [Similar paper: Welding Journal, vol.90, no.4. Apr.2011.
pp.38-41; Weldasearch 247138]
The many and varied examples of welding videos, good and bad,
available through YouTube on the Internet are discussed. The topics
reviewed are: welding safety; MIG welding tips; welding aluminium;
soldering and brazing; inspection; grinding and finishing; welding
projects; and welding career paths.

*63-249308
No safer protection - laser safety with laser protection glasses
(Kein
sicherer
Schutz
Lasersicherheit
durch
Laserschutzbrillen).
ZAH M F; BRAUNREUTHER S
Praktiker, vol.63, no.3. Mar.2011. pp.94-96. 4 fig., 11 ref. ISSN:
0554-9965
[in German]
Research to investigate the level of protection of laser protection
glasses by determining the intensity of laser beam falling on the glasses
is described. The sensor developed to detect scatter distribution for
laser processes and how it functions is described. It was used to
investigate welding a 3 mm stainless steel sheet, X6CrNiTi18-10,
welding speed of 6 m/min using a multimode fibre laser of maximum 8
kW, optics focal length of 460 mm and robot guided. The laser power
was varied in the range 4-7 kW and the laser angle 20-40 degrees. A
performance test of protection glasses using a Yb:YAG single mode
fibre laser, of wavelength 1070-1080 nm, laser beam power 300 W and
focal spot diameter 2 mm, is described. Conclusions from the results
are discussed.

63 HEALTH AND SAFETY


See also abstracts: 60-249509

*63-249238
Evaluation of work environment contamination during [use of]
flux-cored and self-shielded electrodes.
PAKOS R
Przeglad Spawalnictwa, vol.82, no.6. 2010. pp.4-10. 8 fig., 2 tab., 6
ref. ISSN: 0033-2364
[in Polish]
The health hazards during MAG welding with solid wire, metal cored
wire or flux cored wire were investigated. Tests to measure fume and
dust were performed on a test stand equipped with general and stand
ventilation systems. Weld metals were deposited onto low carbon steel
S235JR using a semi-automated welding equipment. Contaminations
were analysed after working with: solid welding wire of diameter 1.2
mm and gas mixture M21 (method 135); flux-cored electrode with
titania core OK Tubrod 15.14 of diameter 1.2 mm and gas mixture
M21 (method 136); self-shielded wire MT-FD2-O (T42ZRN) of
diameter 0.9 mm (method 114). Melting of a self-shielded filler with
and without the ventilation was compared. Results of tests of the
amount of dust particles and the type and concentration of toxic
materials, with and without ventilation are presented and compared.
Results are analysed and health hazards during welding are briefly
explained.

*63-249309
Flexible aids - operational risk assessment in the welding
workplace
(Flexible
Hilfen
betriebliche
Gefahrdungsbeurteilung am Schweissarbeitsplatz).
HIRZLER H
Praktiker, vol.63, no.3. Mar.2011. pp.98-100. 3 fig. ISSN: 0554-9965
[in German]
The use of specialist staff for risk assessment in welding shops and the
work of German trade associations and federations to provide
solutions is described. A list of risk assessment regulations, rules and
information for the welding workplace is provided. Questions to be
raised to determine existing hazards on site and to assess the risk of
each hazard are listed. An example is given of a tailor-made solution
developed for the federation of bodywork and vehicle manufacturers.
The need to consider adjoining areas is described using the example of a
welding company processing high and low alloy chromium nickel steels
by TIG welding having an extraction system and other work activities
around the welding work area. The steps to develop the risk
assessment, taking into account the effect of welding hazards on the

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

MISCELLANEOUS

64

surrounding work areas and of their effect on the welding staff are
described in detail.
*63-249316
Oxyfuel equipment advances help prevent accidents.
BOYER B
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.1. Jan.2011. AWS Section.
pp.65-68. 2 fig. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English] [Similar paper: Welding Journal, vol.89, no.11. Nov.2010.
pp.42-45; Weldasearch 245061]
Safety concerns when using oxyfuel equipment and pressurised gas
cylinders, approaches to best practice and recent technology
advancement are discussed. The topics considered are: reverse flow and
flashback; oxygen and contaminants; inadequate or inappropriate
regulators; Victor Edge Series regulators; standard (CGA E-4 / UL 252 /
ASTM G175) compliance and the "promoted ignition test";
pressurised gas cylinder safety and regulator appendage care.
*63-249385
Welding on vessels with hazardous contents.
WELDING AND CUTTING
Welding and Cutting, vol.10, no.4. 2011. p.218. 3 fig. ISSN: 1612-3433
[in English]
Guidance is presented on issues requiring attention when welding on
vessels (including barrels, tanks, apparatus, pipelines, etc.) containing
hazardous (e.g. toxic, ignitable, or explosive) substances. In particular,
the use of water or inert gas as flame-smothering protective filling is
addressed.

64 MISCELLANEOUS
*64-249394
Foundation, construction and intense development of Vyskuymny
ustav zvaracsky [Vyskumy Institute of Welding] and
transformations in industry of Czechoslovakia, years 1949 up to
1992.
UHER V
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2009. pp.3-14. 21 fig., 11
ref. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak and English] [Related work: Weldasearch 249395, 249396]
[See also Weldasearch 202660]
First of a series of three articles documenting the history of The
Welding Research Institute (VUZ), Bratislava is presented. This covers
the circumstances of its foundation and briefly describes the areas of
activity and technical contributions made over the years 1949-1992,
including its contribution to international activities through the IIW. It
concludes with a discussion of the effects of socio-political change
upon the Institute's activities.
*64-249395
VUZ [Vyskumny Ustav Zvaracsky; Vyskumny Welding Institute]
in conditions of market economy and the independent Slovak
Republic, years 1993-2002.
ZAJIC T
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2009. pp.15-21. 22 fig.
ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak and English] [Related work: Weldasearch 249394 and
249396]
Second of a series of three articles documenting the history of The
Welding Research Institute (VUZ), Bratislava is presented. This covers
the period of introduction of the free market economy to

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

Czechoslovakia and the creation of the Slovak Republic. Equipment


and consumables designed and manufactured by VUZ are listed;
activities in training and certification are listed; and participation in
international activities is described. Practical projects within Slovakia
are described also.

*64-249396
Privatisation, the present and future of VUZ [Vyskumny Ustav
Zvaracsky: Vyskumny Welding Institute] - PI SR, years 2003 till
2008.
KLAMO P
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.1-2. Jan.-Feb.2009. pp.22-28. 13 fig.
ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak and English] [Related work: Weldasearch 249394 and
249395]
The last in a series of three articles documenting the history of The
Welding Research Institute (VUZ), Bratislava is presented. The period
since privatisation in 2003 is covered by the Director General. The
status and administration of the Institute on a not-for-profit basis is
explained. Activities in research and development, manufacturing,
education, certification and international collaborative programmes are
reviewed. Future administrative policies are outlined.

*64-249493
Design, manufacture and build for smooth running large fan
rotors.
CABORN A
Welding and Cutting, vol.10, no.5. 2011. pp.294-298. 12 fig. ISSN:
1612-3433
[in English]
Considerations for the design, manufacture and build for the smooth
running of large fan rotors in passenger aircraft are presented and
discussed. The main subjects of discussion concern the build balance
process and the elements of basic design that effect the vibration
response of the engine. These include the balancing and balance
tolerances, balance simulators, assembly techniques, joint design, the
application of blisks and the role of bearings, together with some of
their associated issues. Methods for in-service trim balancing to reduce
cabin noise to a minimum are also discussed.

*64-249515
2010 trend of welding and joining in Japan.
HAYAKAWA N; NAKAMURA S; WANG K; MIKAMI Y;
MOCHIZUKI M; YAMAGUCHI T; KOSEKI T; SATO Y;
SAIDA K; FUJIYA Y; OBANA T; SHIMIZU H; OKAZAKI T;
HIROSE A; SHIBAYANAGI T; YAMAOKA H; MIYASAKA F;
YAMANE S; KATAYAMA S; KIMURA M; IKESHOJI T T;
MAEDA M; IKEDA R; MATSUMOTO T; KIMURA M;
SATSUTA T; OIKAWA H; MIYAZAWA Y; KOYAMA S;
NISHIKAWA H
Journal of the Japan Welding Society, vol.80, no.5. July 2011.
pp.414-479. 31 fig., 5 tab., numerous ref. ISSN: 0021-4787
[in Japanese]
Reviews are presented, covering the recently published literature
(2009-2010), to give an overview of welding and related topic of
particular interest in Japan. Brief reports are given on the metallurgy of
steels and non-ferrous metals, consumables, joining of non-metals, arc
welding, energy beam welding, friction joining processes, diffusion
bonding, resistance welding, explosive welding, roll bonding, adhesive
bonding, mechanical fastening, brazing, soldering, microjoining,

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Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

65

surfacing, thermal spraying, thermal cutting, the strength of welded


joints, fracture toughness and fracture performance evaluation, fatigue,
creep, distortion and residual stress.

70 WELDING INDUSTRY
*70-249414
The economic importance of welding.
MIDDELDORF K
Zvaranie/Svarovani, vol.58, no.9-10. Sept.-Oct.2009. pp.247-253. 5
fig., 10 tab. ISSN: 0044-5525
[in Slovak] [See also Weldasearch 239770]
The economic impact of welding, joining and allied technologies
(welding, brazing, soldering, structural adhesive bonding, laser
processes, robotics, thermal cutting and thermal spraying), across
Europe in 2007 is surveyed in a summary of a study conducted jointly
by the German Welding Society (DVS). The study covered all 27
European Union (EU) countries, in particular Germany, France, Italy,
the Netherlands, Poland and UK. The statistical data are evaluated and
the results in terms of value added and employee figures are presented
and discussed. Data presented includes numbers of welding inspectors,
welding supervisors, welding designers, welding researchers, welding
trainers, welding NDT inspectors and welding planning engineers.
*70-249482
Welding in the world and the future.
SMALLBONE C
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.3. July 2011. Special Issue.
pp.26-42. 2 fig., 22 ref. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English]
A review is presented of the establishment of the International
Institute of Welding (IIW), including its history, objectives,
achievements and most recent business and strategic planning. Key
objectives include creation and development of best practices, training,
promotion of member societies and services to members. The structure
of the IIW is outlined and covers the administrative structure and the
establishment of the International Authorisation board. Some of the
key achievements included are the activities of the technical
management board which include the publication of technical papers,
databases, ISO support, promotion of national industry, annual
assemblies and regional activities. The objectives of the strategic and
business planning are summarised and examples of international and
regional projects and education, training and support, particularly in
developing countries are discussed. Finally the future challenges of IIW
and its potential global growth are outlined.

WELDING INDUSTRY

different arc welding processes is tabulated and how this share is


translated to equipment is discussed. Efficiency data is presented to
compare of the role of the equipment in India and Western Europe.
The variables for the optimisation of equipment for the SMAW
dominated process are outlined based on scientific and economic
principles. The evolution of arc welding equipment and associated
research and development in this field is also reviewed and key areas
are summarised in table form. Finally ideas are discussed for the way
forward in terms of a more efficient and productive industry. The
discussion highlights comparative R & D expenditure and human
resources between India and other key industrial nations.
*70-249485
Present status of and future direction for welding technology in
India.
DATTA G L
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.3. July 2011. Special Issue.
pp.81-85. 2 fig., 2 tab. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English]
A short presentation is made of the development of welding
technology in India and its future direction. A review of the key
developments including faster welding speed, improved quality,
consistency and reliability of welded joints, improved process
capability, flexibility and control, health and safety and improvements
in cost reduction are each discussed. The present status of welding
activities, the variety of consumables, and the technological
advancements in welding power sources and welding metallurgy are
briefly discussed. Comparisons of the characteristics of different
welding processes are tabulated and the number of welding equipment
and consumable manufacturers in India are listed. Finally the future
direction of welding in terms of enhanced welding requirements in four
major industry sectors (heavy industry, petroleum, automotive and
aerospace) are discussed, as well as the integration of welding into the
manufacturing process, welding of dissimilar metals and materials such
as super alloys, plus economics and environmental considerations are
also reviewed.

*70-249483
Qualitative study of status of indigenous arc welding equipments
in India.
PAUL A K
Indian Welding Journal, vol.44, no.3. July 2011. Special Issue.
pp.58-66. 2 fig., 7 tab., 23 ref. ISSN: 0046-9092
[in English]
Owing to the size and rapid development of India, there is concern in
the welding industry about the energy efficiency and economic
effectiveness of existing welding processes in terms of wastage and
productivity. A qualitative analysis of the status of arc welding
equipment in India is presented as a means of evaluating these
concerns. As the main welding process in India, the productivity and
growth of the arc welding industry is presented. Information relating to
the share and projected share of weld metal and electrodes between the

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

AUTHOR INDEX

66

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

AUTHOR INDEX

ABDURAKHMANOV R 31-249389
ABSI ALFARO S C 48-249390
AGOCS Z 54-249458
AGYAKWA P A 06-249250
AICH W 60-249222
AICHELE G 01-249299
AKOSSY A 01-249401
ALBERT S K 09-249253, 23-249313
ALLEN A M 06-249426
ALLEN C 20-249496
ALLEN D J 44-249475
ALMOSTANEER H 01-249476
ALTINTAS S 07-249343
AMERICAN WELDING SOCIETY 06-249503, 60-249500,
60-249501, 60-249502
AN Y L 10-249262
ANANTHAPADMANABHAN P V 10-249269
ANDERSON T 32-249459
ANDERSON T D 44-249287
ARCINI H 44-249446
ARETZ W 02-249221, 02-249305
ARORA A 07-249283
ARRABAL R 10-249267
ARUNGALAI VENDAN S 01-249342
AUGUSTIN R 05-249444
AZARMI F 10-249351
BABORY H 01-249388
BACH F W 06-249495
BACHE M R 09-249177
BAE J H 06-249169
BAITHER D 06-249285
BALA P 43-249245, 52-249231
BALA SRINIVASAN P 43-249370
BALASIVANANDHA PRABU S 32-249346
BALASUBRAMANIAN V 10-249269
BALAZ M 54-249403
BALET O 62-249440
BANDYOPADHYAY A 01-249353
BANDYOPADHYAY N 43-249278
BANERJEE G 43-249278
BANERJEE R 62-249487
BANKER J G 07-249209
BANNIER E 10-249265
BANSE J 52-249167
BARBINI D 06-249422
BARBORKA J 50-249397
BARTHOUX J P 09-249301, 30-249166
BARTOUT D 07-249294
BASS B R 50-249173
BATH J 06-249422, 11-249421, 11-249428, 31-249419
BAXTER G 07-249368
BEGARD M 10-249272
BENEDICTUS R 07-249158, 12-249377, 53-249381
BENUS F 62-249440
BERDYCHENKO A A 07-249204
BERGER P 03-249296

BERGQUIST E L 44-249446
BERNASOVSKY P 42-249404, 44-249398, 52-249408, 52-249441
BESSHAPOSHNIKOV Yu P 07-249207
BETSOFEN M S 31-249362
BETSOFEN S YA 31-249362
BEZAK A 54-249458
BEZAK I 54-249458
BHADESHIA H K D H 07-249283
BHADURI A K 09-249253, 23-249313
BHATTACHARJEE D 43-249278
BIEMANS H 47-249274
BINROTH C A 48-249497
BIRDEANU V 01-249393
BLAWERT C 43-249370
BOBZIN K 10-249272
BOGDANOVICH P T 07-249206
BOGUNOV A Z 07-249214
BOHME D 40-249391
BOITOUT F 45-249254
BOLELLI G 10-249272
BONACHE V 10-249265
BONDAR M P 07-249202
BONDARENKO S Yu 07-249208
BORGES L 60-249517
BOTHUR C 22-249219
BOUZEKRI M 02-249282
BOYER B 63-249316
BRAJKO R 54-249436
BRAUNREUTHER S 63-249308
BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION 02-249513, 02-249514,
60-249498, 60-249499, 60-249509, 60-249510, 60-249511, 60-249512
BRITTON M A 43-249326
BRODA T 05-249439
BROWN D W 45-249249
BROWN R 07-249367
BRUEHL M 10-249272
BRUNCKO J 11-249450
BRUNO G 45-249147
BRYZGALIN A G 45-249210
BRZIAK P 42-249404, 44-249398, 52-249408
BUFFA G 07-249338
BURDA M 23-249229
BUVANASHEKARAN G 01-249342
BYALL L 22-249325
CABORN A 64-249493
CADIGAN C 01-249476
CAM G 07-249248
CAMPBELL K 62-249492
CAO J 42-249273
CARLSEN R 52-249175
CARON J L 43-249326
CARTON E 07-249211
CASAJUS P 10-249267
CERNICKY D 48-249410
CERRI E 07-249181
CHAKRABARTY S 40-249369

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

67

CHAKRABORTY G 09-249253, 47-249311


CHALK K M 44-249475
CHAMANFAR A 07-249288
CHAN S H 03-249345
CHANG S H 06-249168
CHAURASIA P K 05-249321
CHEN J 31-249359
CHEN J M 10-249262
CHEN J Q 02-249468
CHEN J T 07-249356
CHEN J Y 10-249266
CHEN S B 20-249348
CHEN W X 31-249365
CHEN Y B 03-249345
CHEN Z M 07-249472
CHERNAYA T I 03-249331
CHERNUKHIN V I 07-249207
CHMIELEWSKI T 61-249241
CHOO H 12-249170, 42-249363
CHOVET C 01-249456
CHUANG T H 06-249286
CIUCA C 01-249393
CLARK D 09-249177
CLAUSEN B 45-249249
COMAJ M 01-249400, 01-249445
CONIGLIO N 01-249371
COOK G E 20-249354
CORIC A 01-249430
COYLE T 10-249351
CRAMER H 40-249391
CROSS C E 01-249371
CULLISON A 62-249492
CUTTELL M 03-249341
CZUCHRYJ J 60-249228
Da DALTO L 62-249440
DABROWSKI A 30-249246
DANCETTE S 02-249282
DAS C R 23-249313
DAS G 40-249369
DAS M 40-249369
DAS S 01-249312
DATTA G L 70-249485
DATTA S 01-249353
DAVAINE L 60-249517
DEBROY T 07-249283
DEFRANCQ J 07-249437
DELFAUT-DURUT L 03-249372
DENG H 01-249463
DESCHAMPS A 03-249372
DEVAKUMARAN K 01-249320
DIEPSTRATEN G 12-249179
DIETZEL W 43-249370
DILGER K 01-249388
DISCHERT L 45-249254
DIVYA M 23-249313
DOBRUSHIN L D 04-249200, 07-249203, 07-249204, 07-249212,

AUTHOR INDEX

45-249210
DOLGY Yu G 07-249205
DOLINENKO V V 20-249332
DONALDSON A 06-249423
DONG W X 06-249357
DORFEL I 01-249371
DOS SANTOS J 07-249477
DRESCHER V E 07-249294
DREXLER J M 10-249163
DROFENIK M 10-249272
DUNOVSKY J 20-249453
DUPONT J N 44-249287
DUPUY T 02-249282
DZICHKOVSKY O A 07-249206
EBBINGHAUS M 05-249387
EMILIO B 07-249415
ENAYATI M H 10-249258
ENGELMAIER W 06-249275, 11-249180
EREN S E 54-249293
ERIKSSON I 03-249478
EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION
02-249513, 02-249514, 60-249498, 60-249499, 60-249509,
60-249510, 60-249511, 60-249512
FABREGUE D 02-249282
FADEENKO Yu I 07-249203, 07-249204, 07-249212
FAGHIDIAN S A 45-249172
FALCHENKO Yu V 04-249329
FAN X F 09-249260
FARRAHI G H 45-249172
FEDORCHUK V E 04-249329
FENG J 02-249198
FENG J C 02-249480
FENG Z 42-249363
FENG Z L 12-249170
FIROUZDOR V 07-249150, 07-249156
FISCHER G 07-249294
FISHER D 01-249327
FLEMING P A 20-249354
FONDA R W 07-249161
FRATINI L 07-249338
FRICKE W 54-249293
FRITZSCHE C 48-249295
FUJDA M 02-249409
FUJII H 07-249474
FUJIYA Y 64-249515
FUKUMOTO M 10-249268
FURAR I 09-249162
FUSSEL U 01-249218
FYDRYCH D 52-249239
GALAND E 01-249456
GALINIC V I 31-249457
GAO H M 01-249471
GAO Z G 03-249350
GARASIC I 08-249433
GARCIA J C 10-249265
GAVRISH V S 20-249334, 30-249333

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

AUTHOR INDEX

GEFFERS C 01-249388
GEURTEN A 07-249437
GHOLIPOUR J 07-249288
GHOSH P K 01-249320
GLEDHILL A D 10-249163
GLOGOVIC Z 08-249433, 54-249436
GOKEN M 04-249251
GOLOVKO V V 31-249457
GONCAROV I A 31-249457
GONG Y 42-249273
GOPAL K A 03-249322
GORDAN G N 04-249329
GORKA J 32-249244
GOULD J 11-249466
GRABAR E V 45-249210
GRAFTON-REED C 03-249341
GRANT B 07-249368
GRANT G J 07-249155
GREEN R 30-249315
GRUNENWALD S 52-249441
GU F M 42-249273
GU S 10-249160, 10-249271
GU W 20-249348
GUNGOR S 31-249358
GUNZ S 63-249307
GUO F 06-249357
GUPTA K K 40-249369
GUREVICH L M 07-249216
GURSKY S H 01-249303
GUSHCHIN R V 30-249333
HAKL J 42-249404
HALSIG A 01-249297
HAMAK I 52-249441
HANDWERKER C A 31-249419
HANG C J 11-249360
HANNACH T 07-249294
HARRIS I D 22-249490
HAVER W van 07-249437
HAWLEY J 31-249420
HAYAKAWA N 64-249515
HE B 09-249260
HE J P 01-249344
HENDRICKS C E 20-249354
HENSHALL G 11-249424, 31-249419
HERMANN J 01-249220
HERRMANN J 05-249439
HERTEL M 01-249218
HIGASHI K 12-249279
HILTON P A 20-249496
HIRAOKA K 45-249416
HIRATA T 12-249279
HIROSE A 64-249515
HIRSCHFELD D A 03-249467
HIRZLER H 63-249309
HLAVA P F 06-249152, 11-249153
HOFEMANN M 48-249295

68

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

HOFFMANN P 12-249306
HOLDEN T M 45-249249
HOLESA M 50-249397
HOLLANDER U 06-249495
HOPPEL H W 04-249251
HOSSON J T M de 09-249162
HOU G L 10-249262
HOUDKOVA S 10-249256
HOVANSKI Y 07-249155, 30-249479
HRSTKA D 01-249448
HSU C 30-249318
HU W X 01-249469
HU Z F 42-249273
HUANCA CAYO E 48-249390
HUANG H Y 01-249148
HUANG J 03-249350
HUANG T 10-249266
HUANG T S 10-249259
HUANG X 10-249270
HUANG X X 20-249348
HUANG Y 01-249465, 10-249266
HUANG Y D 02-249480
HUANG Z R 07-249472
HUGEL H 03-249296
HUJANEN A 10-249272
HYC K 60-249228
HYDE T H 42-249178
IACOB M 01-249393
IGAWA J 10-249257
IGNJATOVIC J 54-249392
IKEDA R 64-249515
IKESHOJI T T 64-249515
ILLARIONOV S Yu 07-249203, 07-249212, 45-249210
IMBERT J 07-249199
INDIAN WELDING JOURNAL 01-249489, 06-249328, 22-249314,
22-249317, 43-249324
INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR
STANDARDIZATION 02-249513, 02-249514, 60-249512
JAHAZI M 07-249288
JAHN S 07-249294
JAIN C C 06-249286
JAMSHIDI AVAL H 07-249337, 07-249473
JANA S 07-249155
JANG J 10-249257
JANICKI D 23-249229
JANICKOVIC D 31-249405, 31-249442
JANOK P 48-249410
JAROSINSKI J 54-249242
JASNAU U 03-249399
JASTRZEBSKI A 62-249237
JASTRZEBSKI R 62-249237
JAVOR F 23-249432, 23-249435
JENICEK A 40-249391
JIANG D L 07-249472
JIANG Q 43-249176
JIANG S Q 43-249263

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

JIMENEZ-RUIZ M 45-249147
JOHN B 31-249389
JOHNSEN M R 62-249492
JOHNSON C M 06-249250
JOVANOVIC D 54-249392
JUHAS P 54-249403
JULLIEN J F 45-249254
JUNG S B 06-249169
KACZOR T 52-249232
KALNA K 54-249406, 54-249451
KAMNIS S 10-249160, 10-249271
KAMORNY A A 07-249206
KANG H B 06-249169
KANG H T 41-249518, 41-249519
KAO C R 11-249284
KAPLAN A F H 03-249478
KARIMZADEH F 10-249258
KARLSSON L 44-249446, 44-249455
KASCAK L 02-249409
KASIVISWANATHAN K V 03-249322, 05-249321
KASPAROVA M 10-249256
KATAYAMA S 64-249515
KAY D 05-249488
KE J H 11-249284
KEJANLI H 04-249349
KELLER J 06-249285
KHAN M I 02-249480
KHAN T I 10-249151
KHARCHENKO G K 04-249329
KHASKIN V Yu 03-249331
KIMURA M 64-249515, 64-249515
KINSEY B L 12-249376, 53-249373, 53-249380
KLAMO P 64-249396
KLEIN R 03-249505, 03-249506, 03-249507, 03-249508
KLIMPEL A 23-249229
KLOTZKI V 48-249223
KNIEKE C 04-249251
KNIPLING K E 07-249161
KOCAK M 43-249370, 54-249293
KOKABI A H 07-249337, 07-249473
KOLARIK L 20-249453
KOLENAK R 05-249413, 05-249444
KOLUKISA S 04-249349
KOLYADA V A 20-249332
KONKEVICH V Yu 31-249362
KONOPLYANIK V A 07-249206
KORE S 07-249199
KOROSTASHEVSKY P V 12-249336
KOSEKI T 64-249515
KOSNAC L 05-249413
KOTECKI D J 01-249323
KOU S 07-249150, 07-249156
KOVAC D 20-249431
KOVACEVIC T T 54-249436
KOVALEV O B 09-249261
KOVANDA K 20-249453

69

AUTHOR INDEX

KOYAMA S 64-249515
KOZHEVNIKOV V E 07-249207
KOZMOVA R 01-249445, 31-249454
KOZUH Z 08-249433
KRAJCI D 01-249417
KRAWCZYK J 43-249245, 52-249231
KRIVCHIKOV S YU 09-249335
KRUGER J 09-249301, 30-249166
KUBENKA M 09-249407, 54-249412
KUCHUK-YATSENKO S I 30-249333
KUMAR PAL P 01-249353
KUSANO H 02-249491
KUSCH M 01-249297, 31-249389
KUZMIN S V 07-249201, 07-249205
KUZOVNIKOV A A 07-249214
KWIECIEN L 54-249242
LAI Y S 11-249284
LANDOLT D 42-249504
LaPLANTE W C 53-249462
LASHKEVICH V G 45-249210
LAWRENCE T 12-249179
LEDUEY B 01-249456
LEE Y L 41-249518, 41-249519
LEI Y C 01-249469
LEI Y P 06-249357
LEIGH S 03-249341
LI D S 10-249163
LI D Y 43-249176
LI J C 43-249176
LI J F 06-249250
LI L 03-249341
LI L Q 03-249345
LI M M 48-249374
LI Y 05-249149
LIANG H J 01-249476
LIAO J 03-249470
LIE L 06-249495
LIN P H 43-249263
LIN Q L 07-249472
LINTUNEN P 10-249272
LIPNEVICIUS G 20-249449
LISIECKI A 23-249229
LISJAK D 10-249272
LIU G 10-249262
LIU H 03-249470
LIU L M 01-249191, 02-249198, 03-249188, 03-249361, 31-249186,
32-249182, 32-249183, 32-249187, 43-249189, 44-249184, 44-249185
LIU S 01-249476
LIU X 01-249471
LIU X G 10-249266
LIU Y L 07-249356
LIU Z Z 01-249469
LOBANOV L M 45-249210
LOEWENTHAL W 10-249366
LOUREIRO A 07-249415, 07-249473
LU W H 43-249263

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

AUTHOR INDEX

LUCHENOK A R 07-249206
LUKASIK T 54-249233
LUO X M 42-249273
LUO Z H 07-249472
LUSVARGHI L 10-249272
LYSAK V I 04-249200, 07-249201, 07-249205
MA C W 01-249344
MADHUSUDAN REDDY G 03-249355
MADHUSUDHANA REDDY G 03-249339
MAEDA M 64-249515
MAGNUSSON H 42-249157
MAIER V 04-249251
MAIR J 52-249167
MALVIYA S K 01-249352
MANOHARAN S 01-249342
MARKOVIC N 54-249392
MASSARDIER-JOURDAN V 02-249282
MATHERS G 01-249281
MATSUMOTO T 64-249515
MATTHEWS C 60-249516
MATYKINA E 10-249267
MATYSOVA M 03-249443
MAUER G 10-249255
MAVANY M 03-249298
MAYER M 11-249360
MECK N S 43-249326
MEESTER B de 07-249437
MENAKA M 47-249484
MENEZES L F 53-249378
MERINO M C 10-249267
MERKLE J G 50-249173
MERLIN J 02-249282
MESHCHERYAKOV Yu P 07-249215
MICHAEL J R 44-249287
MIDDELDORF K 70-249414
MIGIAKIS K 44-249364
MIKAMI Y 64-249515
MIKULA P 45-249416
MILAHIN N 07-249294
MILER G 32-249244
MILES M P 30-249479
MILLER S M 32-249159
MILUTINOVIC Z 54-249392
MIN D 31-249359
MINARIK R 44-249398
MINHOFER H C 52-249302
MIRANDA R M 07-249477
MIRANZO P 45-249147
MISCHLER S 42-249504
MISICKO R 02-249409
MIYASAKA F 64-249515
MIYAZAWA Y 64-249515
MOCHIZUKI M 64-249515
MOHEDANO M 10-249267
MOHWALD K 06-249495
MOON J T 11-249360

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Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

MORAVEC J 01-249452
MORISHIGE T 12-249279
MOSTAGHIMI J 10-249351
MOVAHEDI B 10-249258
MRAZ L 44-249455, 45-249416
MRAZ M 01-249401
MROZ M 12-249447
MUCHA M 31-249411
MURAVEJNIK A N 04-249329
MURRAY J 51-249280
MURUGAN S 03-249322, 05-249321
NAGAMANI C 01-249342
NAKAJIMA T 10-249257
NAKAMURA S 64-249515
NAKATA K 03-249470
NANDI G 01-249353
NANSTAD R K 50-249173
NARASIMHAN K 12-249375
NARAYANAN R G 12-249375
NEJLO Yu S 30-249333
NELIAS D 45-249254
NEUMANN H 01-249448, 01-249452
NEWMAN K 11-249427
NGUYEN J 11-249421
NIAGAJ J 08-249227
NISHIKAWA H 64-249515
NISHIYAMA H 10-249257
NITSCHKE-PAGEL T 01-249388
NIU X L 01-249463
NOE X 45-249254
NORRIS J T 03-249467
NORTON M G 32-249159
NOVAK D 01-249434
NOVICHENKO D 09-249261
NOWACKI J 09-249243
NUSSBAUMER A 60-249517
OBANA T 64-249515
OCELIK V 09-249162
OGOLIKHIN V M 07-249215
OIKAWA H 64-249515
OKAZAKI T 64-249515
OKITSU Y 07-249474
OLIVEIRA M C 53-249378
OLSCHOK S 03-249298
OLSON D L 01-249476
OPARA S 60-249236
ORLOWICZ A W 01-249418, 12-249447
ORSMOND C P M 43-249277
ORSZAGHOVA J 52-249408
ORTIZ A L 10-249163
OSENDI M I 45-249147
OSINTSEV O E 31-249362
OSTERLE W 01-249371
OVTAR S 10-249272
PACKO M 52-249231
PADMANABHAN R 53-249378

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

PADTURE N P 10-249163
PAJ V V 07-249207
PAKOS R 63-249238
PAL S 01-249352
PAL S K 01-249352
PAL T K 43-249278, 47-249311
PALIT SAGAR S 47-249311
PALO M 42-249404, 52-249441
PANDA S K 03-249347
PAPADIMITRIOU G D 44-249364
PARDO A 10-249267
PARIDA N 47-249311
PARK J W 06-249169
PARKER R D 11-249429
PARZYCH S 43-249245, 52-249231
PATON WELDING JOURNAL 07-249217
PAUL A K 30-249310, 70-249483
PAWLIK R 10-249366
PAWLOWSKI B 43-249245, 52-249231
PECHA J 01-249401, 01-249417, 42-249404
PENG C F 31-249359
PENTEGOV I V 01-249247
PEQUEGNAT A 02-249480, 11-249360
PEREZ-CASTELLANOS J L 45-249147
PERRICONE M J 03-249467, 44-249287
PERSHIN L 10-249351
PERSIC J 11-249360
PERVUKHIN L B 07-249204, 07-249208
PERVUKHINA O L 07-249204, 07-249208
PETERSON J 30-249479
PETRIENKO O I 01-249247
PETROV I V 07-249206
PETROV V V 09-249335
PETROVIC V 08-249433
PETUSHKOV V G 07-249204
PEUKERT W 04-249251
PHILLIPS D 30-249318
PI Z Q 09-249260
PILAT Z 08-249240
PILCHAK A L 07-249289, 12-249290
PILLAI B C 10-249264
PISMIENNYI A S 01-249247
PISTORIUS P C 43-249277
PIYUSH M 01-249320
PLASTININ A V 07-249213
POCICA A 52-249235
POLROLNICZAK H 02-249221, 02-249305
POWELL J 03-249478
PRAKTISCHE METALLOGRAPHIE/PRACTICAL
METALLOGRAPHY 03-249174
PRASAD RAO K 03-249339
PREUSS M 07-249368
PRIETO C 45-249147
PRIME M B 45-249249
PROKOLAB M 54-249392
PRVULOVIC M 54-249392

71

AUTHOR INDEX

PUETZ P 10-249270
PUGH C E 50-249173
QI X D 03-249361
QIU C J 09-249260
QUINTINO L 07-249415
RAFEJCHIK S I 07-249213
RAIB BULLETIN 23-249481
RAJ S V 10-249366
RAJA V S 43-249154
RAMACHANDRAN C S 10-249269
RAMACHANDRAN K 10-249264
RAMASUBBU V 09-249253, 23-249313
RAUSCHER B 10-249494
RAVI KUMAR D 03-249347
RAY A K 40-249369
REINOSA R D 06-249426
REISGEN U 01-249388, 03-249298
REJENT J A 06-249152, 11-249153
REN J W 01-249344
REVEL O 31-249411
REYNOLDS A P 07-249289, 07-249367
RICHARDS R 01-249476
RIDGES C S 30-249479
RIEKEHR S 43-249370
RIGDAL S 44-249446
RIKHTER D V 07-249208
RINGEVAL S 03-249372
RIST M A 31-249358
ROBERTS P M 43-249386
ROBINO C V 03-249467, 44-249287
RODRIGUES D M 07-249415
ROGALSKI G 52-249239
ROSSEEL T M 50-249173
ROWLSON M 07-249368
ROYANOV V A 12-249336
ROZANSKI M 05-249234
RUDENKO P M 20-249334
RUFF H 10-249300
RUTHER B 10-249494
RUZA V 05-249413, 05-249444
RYBAK C 10-249300
SABER M 42-249178
SAHA G C 10-249151
SAHAYM U 32-249159
SAHIN M 07-249343
SAHINER H 07-249289
SAIDA K 64-249515
SAIDOV R 31-249389
SALVADOR M D 10-249265
SAMANTARAY A K 01-249352
SAMARDZIC I 01-249434
SAMPATH S 10-249163
SANCHEZ E 10-249265
SANDSTROM R 42-249157
SANTELLA M L 30-249479
SANTOS T G 07-249477

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

AUTHOR INDEX

72

SAPERSKI M 60-249230
SARKAR A 01-249312
SATO Y 64-249515
SATSUTA T 64-249515
SCHAFER P 03-249296
SCHMIDT C W 04-249251
SCHMITZ G 06-249285
SCHNEE D 01-249226, 01-249292, 01-249383
SCHNICK M 01-249218
SCHUSTER J 01-249220
SCHUSTER R 03-249296
SCHWEISS- UND PRUFTECHNIK 30-249225, 62-249224
SCHWEISSEN UND SCHNEIDEN 23-249291
SEBO P 31-249405, 31-249442
SEEFELD T 52-249441
SEFTON D E 31-249358
SEJC P 01-249402, 03-249443
SELVAN B 10-249264
SERAJZADEH S 07-249337, 07-249473
SETHURAMAN S 11-249421
SEZER K 03-249341
SHAHIEN H 10-249268
SHAN J 03-249197
SHAPOVALOV E V 20-249332
SHELYAGIN V D 03-249331
SHEN J 31-249359
SHI F H 20-249348
SHI S 20-249496
SHI Y W 06-249357
SHIBAYANAGI T 64-249515
SHIGA C 45-249416
SHIMIZU H 64-249515
SHINODA K 10-249163
SHIPWAY P H 44-249475
SHIUE R K 05-249149
SHIVPURI R 07-249338
SHLENSKY P S 07-249203, 45-249210
SHMORGUN V G 07-249216
SHUGANOV A D 07-249206
SIGURNJAK M 01-249434
SILCHENKO T S 07-249205
SILVESTROV V V 07-249213
SINHA S 40-249369
SINKE J 07-249158, 12-249377, 53-249381
SIORA A V 03-249331
SISNEROS T A 45-249249
SIVARAMAN P 23-249313
SKUBA T G 20-249332
SLANIA J 52-249232, 54-249242
SLIWINSKA A 62-249237
SLOVACEK M 21-249438
SMALLBONE C 70-249482
SMIRNOV G V 07-249206
SMITH D J 45-249172
SMITH S D 07-249164, 07-249165
SMUROV I 09-249261

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

SOKOLOV M A 50-249173
SOLONENKO O P 10-249257
SONG G 01-249192, 01-249194, 01-249252
SONG L 10-249266
SONG T Z 01-249463
SOOD R 23-249319
SOZHAMANNAN G G 32-249346
SREEKUMAR K 43-249154
SRINIVASA MURTHY C V 03-249339
SRINIVASA RAO K 03-249339, 03-249355
ST KLIMPEL A 23-249229
STANO D 01-249401
STEEL R 30-249479
STEFANOVICH R V 07-249206
STEIN L 01-249388
STEPANOV V V 31-249362
STOVER D 10-249255
STRAUSS A M 20-249354
STUIVINGA M 07-249211
SU P 11-249425
SUBHAKAR D 10-249264
SUMPF A 03-249399
SUN W 42-249178
SUN Y F 07-249474
SUNAY T Y 07-249343
SUNDARESAN S 62-249486
SVEC P 31-249405, 31-249442
SWARTZ J 01-249461
SWENSON H 45-249249
SWIERCZYNSKA A 52-249239
TADJIEV D 31-249389
TAHVILIAN A 10-249258
TAKAKI N 07-249474
TAKANA H 10-249257
TAKIGAWA Y 12-249279
TANG W 07-249289, 07-249367
TANG Z 10-249270
TASKIN M 04-249349
TAVOOSI M 10-249258
TEIXEIRA J P 07-249477
TEJC J 21-249438
TEKKAYA A E 10-249494
TEXIER G 03-249372
THE ENGINEER 07-249276
THURNER S 01-249297
TIEMANN S 06-249495
TILLMANN W 10-249494
TODD R 50-249171
TOIT M du 62-249460
TOLOSHNY A A 07-249206
TOPUZ P 04-249349
TRYKOV YU P 07-249216
TSARYUK A K 03-249331
TSUJIKAWA M 12-249279
TSYBULKIN G A 20-249330
TUPAJ M 01-249418

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Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

73

UESUGI T 12-249279
UHER V 64-249394
UHLMANN M 05-249439
VAJA J 45-249249
VALOVA M 20-249453
VANKO M 54-249458
VARDAVOULIAS M 10-249160, 10-249271
VASILIEV A L 10-249163
VASOVIC I 54-249392
VASSEN R 10-249255
VEIT J 48-249295
VELARDE G 48-249497
VENKATRAMAN B 47-249484
VENUGOPAL A 43-249154
VENUGOPAL S 03-249322, 05-249321
VIANCO P T 06-249152, 11-249153
VILA M 45-249147
VILACA P 07-249415, 07-249477
VINAS J 02-249409
VITASEK M 54-249451
VLASAK T 42-249404
VOGEL S C 12-249170
VOLGIN L A 45-249210
VOLLERTSEN F 52-249441
VYROSTKOVA A 42-249404
WANG F 03-249340
WANG H 31-249365
WANG J P 43-249176
WANG K 64-249515
WANG P 01-249252
WANG Y X 02-249468
WANG Z H 43-249263
WANJARA P 07-249288
WARZAWA M 48-249304
WATANABE T 05-249190
WEGLOWSKI M 61-249241
WELDING AND CUTTING 01-249382, 30-249384, 63-249385
WELDING JOURNAL 01-249464
WHITE H J 43-249326
WHITTAKER M T 09-249177
WILDEN J 07-249294
WILK Z 23-249229
WILKE U 06-249285
WILKES D M 20-249354
WILLIAMS J C 07-249289, 12-249290
WINIOWSKI A 05-249234
WITHERS P J 07-249368, 42-249363
WOO W 42-249363
WOODROW T A 11-249428
WOODWARD H 62-249492
WORSWICK M 07-249199
WU F 10-249266
WU L M 05-249149
WU S K 05-249149, 06-249168
WU X 32-249379, 53-249373
WU Y 10-249266

AUTHOR INDEX

WU Y X 03-249350
WYPYCH A 09-249243
XIA Z D 06-249357
XIAO Y F 10-249266
XIE J 02-249468
XU P Q 01-249344
XU Z M 01-249463
XUE H L 01-249469
XUE S B 31-249365
YADEVICH A I 07-249206
YAKOVLEV I V 07-249215
YAMADA M 10-249268
YAMAGUCHI T 64-249515
YAMAMOTO J 45-249416
YAMAMOTO N 03-249470
YAMANE S 64-249515
YAMAOKA H 64-249515
YAN J C 01-249469
YANG C W 06-249169
YANG J 03-249340
YANG Q 10-249270
YANG T L 11-249284
YANG Z G 42-249273
YAO J C 01-249463
YAO S 01-249344
YASUI T 10-249268
YE J 09-249260
YOON J W 06-249169
YU Z Z 12-249170
YUAN B 09-249260
YUE S 07-249288
ZACKE S 54-249293
ZADPOOR A A 07-249158, 12-249377, 53-249381
ZAH M F 63-249308
ZAHALKA F 10-249256
ZAHR J 01-249218, 45-249147
ZAITSEV A V 09-249261
ZAJIC T 64-249395
ZENDER G L 06-249152, 11-249153
ZHANG H 07-249196
ZHANG J L 43-249263
ZHANG J X 07-249472
ZHANG P 02-249468
ZHANG Y M 01-249465
ZHANG Z 07-249356
ZHANG Z D 01-249193, 01-249195
ZHAO F 31-249365
ZHAO M 43-249176
ZHAO X Q 10-249262
ZHENG S M 01-249471
ZHOU H D 10-249262
ZHOU J 09-249260
ZHOU Y 02-249198, 02-249480, 07-249199, 11-249360
ZHOU Z H 43-249263
ZHUDRA A P 09-249335
ZIAN-UL-ABDEIN M 45-249254

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

AUTHOR INDEX

74

ZIFCAK P 42-249404, 52-249408


ZVYAGOLSKAYA M 03-249296

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

75

COMPANY INDEX

ATLAS COPCO TOOLS GMBH 30-249225


ATOMIC ENERGY CANADA LTD 50-249171
CORUS 23-249291
HYPERTHERM 30-249384
INSTITUTE OF ELECTROTECHNOLOGY, LEIBNIZ
UNIVERSITAT HANNOVER 03-249174
INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ASSOCIATES INC 51-249280
JAGUAR 07-249164
KEMPPI OY 01-249382
LAND ROVER 07-249164
LASER ZENTRUM HANNOVER EV 03-249174
RAYTHEON 53-249462

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

COMPANY INDEX

SUBJECT INDEX

76

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

SUBJECT INDEX

A TIG WELDING 01-249148, 01-249195


ACCEPTANCE 02-249514
ACOUSTIC EMISSION 48-249390
ACTIVE FLUXES 01-249195, 01-249402
ADAPTIVE CONTROL 20-249348
ADHESION 12-249306
ADHESIVE BONDING 01-249193
ADHESIVES 07-249165
AEROSPACE 11-249428, 60-249222, 60-249498, 60-249499,
64-249493
AGEING 42-249363
AIRCRAFT 01-249299, 07-249212, 53-249381
AL CU ALLOYS 43-249154
AL LI ALLOYS 32-249459
AL MG ALLOYS 12-249279
AL MG SI ALLOYS 07-249150
ALLOYING ADDITIONS 03-249470, 06-249357, 11-249424,
31-249359, 31-249365, 44-249446
ALUMINIDES 10-249258
ALUMINIUM 03-249298, 04-249251, 06-249495
ALUMINIUM ALLOYS 01-249371, 01-249388, 01-249418,
03-249345, 03-249350, 03-249372, 04-249329, 07-249156,
07-249158, 07-249181, 07-249199, 07-249212, 07-249283,
07-249337, 07-249338, 07-249367, 07-249415, 07-249437,
07-249473, 07-249474, 07-249477, 12-249447, 20-249453,
31-249362, 31-249389, 32-249187, 32-249346, 42-249363,
45-249254, 53-249378
ARC BRAZING 05-249387
ARC SPRAYING 10-249494, 43-249189
ARC WELDING 01-249281, 01-249299, 01-249303, 01-249323,
01-249382, 01-249476, 01-249489, 12-249306, 20-249496,
22-249314, 30-249310, 52-249232, 54-249293, 60-249499,
60-249501, 60-249509, 60-249510, 60-249511, 60-249516,
62-249224, 62-249486, 63-249309, 70-249483, 70-249485
ART 01-249461
AUSTENITE 44-249475
AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS 01-249327, 03-249355,
03-249467, 07-249343, 09-249253, 23-249229, 42-249404,
43-249245, 52-249231, 52-249239
AUTOMATIC CONTROL 01-249388, 01-249434, 20-249330,
20-249354, 20-249449, 20-249496, 63-249307
AUTOMATION 01-249303, 01-249382, 20-249334
AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING 07-249164, 07-249165,
53-249380
AXLES 23-249481
BACKING TECHNIQUES 01-249463, 07-249215, 31-249389
BENDING 52-249167
BISMUTH 31-249359
BOILERS 01-249417, 52-249235, 54-249242
BOOKS 03-249505
BRAZED JOINTS 05-249413, 43-249386, 60-249502
BRAZING 05-249149, 05-249234, 05-249439, 05-249444,
07-249294, 70-249414
BRAZING FILLERS 05-249190, 05-249387, 05-249488, 43-249386
BRAZING FLUXES 05-249190
BRIDGES 54-249412, 54-249451
BUILDING UP BY WELDING 23-249319

BUILDINGS 54-249458
BUTT JOINTS 01-249464
BUTTERING 30-249166
CAPILLARITY 03-249296
CARBIDES 10-249256
CARBON ARC CUTTING 08-249227
CARBON ELECTRODES 08-249227
CARBON STEELS 01-249430, 07-249343
CASE HISTORIES 52-249408
CASTINGS 07-249343, 09-249243
CERAMIC COATINGS 10-249262, 10-249266, 10-249269,
43-249263
CERAMICS 07-249472, 10-249163, 45-249147
CERMET COATINGS 10-249151, 10-249265, 10-249267
CHEMICAL INDUSTRY 48-249304, 52-249408
CHEMICAL REACTIONS 10-249268
CIS 07-249206
CLAD METALS 07-249209
CLAD STEELS 52-249167
CLADDING 07-249205, 07-249207, 07-249208, 07-249209,
07-249211, 07-249212, 07-249213, 07-249215
CLAMPS 60-249511
CLEANING MATERIALS 12-249179
COATINGS 10-249494, 12-249306
COBALT ALLOYS 09-249162
CODES OF PRACTICE 48-249223, 48-249295, 60-249516,
60-249517
COMBINED PROCESSES 03-249298, 03-249399, 09-249260,
10-249494, 20-249496
COMMERCIAL INFORMATION 61-249241, 70-249414
COMPANIES 60-249222
COMPARISONS 70-249483
COMPOSITE MATERIALS 04-249329, 07-249216
COMPOSITION 44-249475
COMPRESSION 09-249260, 31-249358
COMPUTATION 01-249247, 07-249283, 41-249518, 41-249519,
42-249178, 45-249172
COMPUTER PROGRAMS 21-249438, 62-249224, 62-249440
COMPUTERS 20-249334
CONCRETE 60-249501
CONSTRUCTING 52-249302
CONTAINERS 02-249514
COOLING 07-249338
COPPER 05-249444, 06-249250, 11-249360
COPPER ALLOYS 07-249248, 10-249366, 32-249159
CORED FILLER WIRE 01-249456, 44-249455, 63-249238
CORROSION 05-249413, 10-249151, 10-249267, 43-249154,
43-249176, 43-249189, 43-249263, 43-249277, 43-249278,
43-249324, 43-249326, 43-249386, 50-249171, 54-249412
CORROSION TESTS 43-249324
COSTS 01-249218, 01-249292, 08-249433, 22-249219, 22-249314,
22-249317, 30-249225
CRACK PROPAGATION 42-249178, 54-249392
CRACKING 01-249323, 44-249184
CRANES 01-249226, 01-249292, 22-249219
CRANKSHAFTS 09-249335
CREEP 42-249157, 42-249178

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77

CREEP RESISTING MATERIALS 42-249178, 44-249475


CREEP STRENGTH 42-249404
CROSSWIRE WELDING 02-249480
CRYOGENICS 01-249400
CRYSTAL STRUCTURE 07-249161
CURRENT 11-249284
CZECHOSLOVAKIA 64-249394
DEFECTS 01-249281, 06-249286, 07-249205, 11-249425,
48-249374, 53-249378, 60-249512
DEFENCE 11-249428, 60-249222
DESIGN 60-249517
DEVELOPMENT 30-249333
DIFFUSION BONDING 04-249349, 05-249234, 32-249187,
45-249147
DILUTION 09-249253
DIMENSIONS 02-249305, 07-249294
DISSIMILAR MATERIALS 01-249445, 02-249480, 03-249188,
03-249345, 03-249355, 03-249361, 05-249439, 05-249444,
07-249158, 07-249204, 07-249209, 07-249214, 07-249216,
07-249343, 07-249473, 11-249466, 32-249187, 42-249273,
45-249147, 62-249486
DISTORTION 07-249215
DRESSING 02-249491
DRILLING 03-249341
DUCTILITY 11-249180
DUPLEX STAINLESS STEELS 01-249327, 03-249355, 44-249364,
44-249446
EB WELDING 03-249339, 03-249355, 03-249372, 45-249249
ECONOMICS 70-249414, 70-249485
EDUCATION 62-249224, 62-249237, 62-249440, 62-249460,
62-249487
EFFICIENCY 22-249490, 30-249225
ELASTICITY 10-249366
ELECTRIC ARCS 01-249344, 01-249469, 48-249390
ELECTRICAL CABLES 02-249305, 60-249510
ELECTRICAL HAZARDS 07-249199
ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES 07-249477
ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS 01-249342
ELECTRONIC DEVICES 11-249425, 11-249429
ELECTROPLATING 32-249159
ELECTROSLAG SURFACING 09-249407
EMBRITTLEMENT 06-249275
ENCLOSED SPACES 01-249382
ENGINES 09-249243, 23-249229, 64-249493
ENVIRONMENT 31-249420
EROSION 07-249203, 52-249408
EUROPE 70-249414
EXPERIMENT DESIGN 01-249312
EXPLOSIONS 07-249208, 45-249210
EXPLOSIVE WELDING 04-249200, 07-249201, 07-249202,
07-249203, 07-249204, 07-249205, 07-249206, 07-249207,
07-249208, 07-249209, 07-249211, 07-249212, 07-249213,
07-249214, 07-249215, 07-249216, 07-249217
EXPLOSIVES 07-249213
EYE PROTECTION 63-249308
FAILURE 11-249284, 23-249481, 43-249176, 52-249175
FATIGUE LIFE 11-249180, 41-249518, 41-249519, 54-249233,

SUBJECT INDEX

54-249392
FATIGUE STRENGTH 44-249455, 54-249406, 60-249517
FCA SURFACING 09-249335
FCA WELDING 01-249400, 01-249445, 01-249463, 23-249291,
32-249244, 63-249238
FEEDBACK CONTROL 20-249332
FERRITE 01-249400
FERRITIC STAINLESS STEELS 01-249327, 03-249355, 11-249466
FILLER MATERIALS 01-249323, 01-249401, 01-249489,
05-249149, 07-249294, 31-249186, 45-249416, 60-249499, 61-249241
FILLET WELDS 01-249401, 22-249317
FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS 03-249340
FIT UP 03-249443
FLAME CUTTING 08-249433
FLAME SOLDERING 06-249503
FLAME SPRAYING 10-249267
FLASH WELDING 30-249333
FLOW 09-249261, 30-249315
FLUXES 31-249389
FOILS 06-249250, 07-249294
FORGINGS 07-249343
FRACTURE MECHANICS 50-249173, 54-249392
FRACTURE TESTS 11-249427
FRICTION STIR PROCESSING 12-249170, 12-249279, 12-249290
FRICTION STIR SPOT WELDING 07-249474
FRICTION STIR WELDING 07-249150, 07-249155, 07-249156,
07-249158, 07-249161, 07-249181, 07-249196, 07-249248,
07-249283, 07-249289, 07-249337, 07-249338, 07-249356,
07-249367, 07-249415, 07-249437, 07-249473, 07-249477,
20-249354, 32-249379, 42-249363, 53-249378
FRICTION STIR WELDING TOOLS 07-249289, 07-249356,
07-249473, 30-249479
FRICTION WELDING 03-249355, 07-249276, 07-249288,
07-249343, 07-249368
FUEL GASES 08-249433
FUME 63-249238
FUSION WELDING 52-249175
GALVANISED STEELS 01-249402, 02-249409, 03-249347,
03-249443, 43-249278, 44-249398
GAP 07-249207, 07-249208, 54-249293
GAS SUPPLY ACCESSORIES 30-249315, 63-249316
GASES 06-249495, 63-249316
GIRDERS 54-249233
GLASS 10-249163, 10-249266
GLASS SEALANTS 07-249472
GMA SURFACING 01-249220, 09-249243
GMA WELDING 01-249220, 01-249226, 01-249292, 01-249297,
01-249303, 01-249383, 03-249298, 20-249330, 20-249496,
22-249219, 48-249390
GOLD 11-249360
GRAIN SIZE 12-249279
GTA SURFACING 09-249177, 09-249253, 09-249301, 50-249397
GTA WELDING 01-249191, 01-249194, 01-249218, 01-249297,
01-249299, 01-249303, 01-249327, 01-249371, 01-249393,
01-249400, 01-249418, 03-249361, 20-249348, 20-249453,
22-249490, 23-249313, 31-249389, 32-249187, 43-249154, 52-249231
GUIDANCE SYSTEMS 01-249388

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

SUBJECT INDEX

78

HAND SOLDERING 06-249328


HARDFACING 09-249243, 09-249253, 09-249335
HARDNESS 42-249363
HARDNESS TESTS 02-249513
HEALTH AND SAFETY 60-249509, 63-249307, 63-249309,
63-249316
HEAT AFFECTED ZONE 02-249282
HEAT EXCHANGERS 01-249401, 52-249239
HEAT FLOW 10-249271
HEAT RESISTING MATERIALS 03-249331
HEAT TREATMENT 03-249339, 44-249185
HEATING 01-249297
HIGH ALLOY CR MO STEELS 01-249456, 01-249489
HIGH ALLOY STEELS 42-249157, 42-249273, 44-249475
HIGH STRENGTH STEELS 02-249282, 02-249468, 30-249479,
32-249379, 53-249373
HIGH TEMPERATURE BRAZING 05-249321
HISTORY 01-249299, 04-249200, 23-249432, 52-249235,
64-249394, 64-249395, 64-249396
HOT PRESSURE WELDING 04-249329
HUMAN FACTORS 62-249237
HUMIDITY 43-249386
HVOF SPRAYING 10-249151, 10-249256, 10-249258, 10-249259,
10-249271
HYBRID LASER ARC WELDING 01-249465, 03-249399
HYBRID WELDING 01-249194, 01-249393, 03-249188,
03-249298, 03-249350, 52-249441
HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT 40-249391
IIW 70-249482
IN SERVICE OPERATIONS 01-249476
INCONEL 03-249339
INDIA 62-249487, 70-249483, 70-249485
INDUCTION 03-249174
INDUCTION BRAZING 05-249321
INFORMATION 62-249492
INSTITUTIONS 64-249394, 64-249395, 64-249396
INTERFACES 06-249152, 07-249202, 11-249153
INTERLAYERS 04-249329
INTERMETALLICS 05-249149, 06-249152, 06-249275, 07-249156,
10-249258, 31-249359
INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES 31-249405, 70-249482
JAPAN 64-249515
JOINT PREPARATION 01-249464, 20-249496, 44-249185
JOINT TRACKING 20-249354
KEYHOLING 03-249296, 03-249478
LAP JOINTS 07-249181
LASER BEAMS 03-249506, 63-249308
LASER BRAZING 03-249345, 03-249443
LASER CUTTING 03-249296, 03-249341
LASER SURFACING 03-249340, 09-249162, 09-249260,
09-249261
LASER WELDING 01-249194, 01-249393, 03-249174, 03-249197,
03-249296, 03-249298, 03-249322, 03-249331, 03-249345,
03-249347, 03-249361, 03-249399, 03-249467, 03-249470,
03-249478, 03-249505, 03-249506, 03-249507, 03-249508,
07-249276, 11-249450, 20-249496, 23-249229, 32-249187,
32-249379, 43-249370, 44-249287, 44-249398, 45-249254,

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

48-249497, 53-249378, 60-249498


LASERS 03-249506
LEAD FREE SOLDERS 06-249152, 06-249285, 06-249286,
06-249357, 06-249422, 06-249423, 06-249426, 11-249421,
11-249424, 11-249428, 11-249429, 31-249358, 31-249359,
31-249362, 31-249365, 31-249405, 31-249419, 31-249420, 31-249442
LEGAL MATTERS 31-249420
LIGHT METALS 53-249373
LINEAR MOTION 07-249288
LIQUEFIED GASES 54-249436
LOAD BEARING CAPACITY 54-249403
LOCAL EFFECTS 07-249294
LOW ALLOY CR MO STEELS 01-249417, 01-249489
LOW ALLOY STEELS 60-249512
LOW CARBON STEELS 01-249393, 03-249188, 03-249361
MAG WELDING 01-249247, 01-249312, 01-249320, 01-249430,
01-249434, 01-249445, 01-249448, 01-249452, 01-249471,
03-249399, 20-249332, 31-249411, 31-249454, 32-249244,
32-249379, 44-249446, 52-249441, 63-249238, 63-249385
MAGNESIUM ALLOYS 01-249191, 01-249192, 01-249193,
01-249194, 01-249195, 01-249252, 02-249198, 03-249188,
03-249197, 03-249361, 05-249190, 07-249150, 07-249155,
07-249156, 07-249196, 07-249199, 07-249248, 10-249267,
12-249170, 31-249186, 32-249182, 32-249183, 32-249187,
43-249189, 43-249370, 44-249184, 44-249185, 53-249378
MAGNETIC PULSE WELDING 07-249199
MANUFACTURING 01-249434, 53-249373, 70-249485
MARTENSITIC STAINLESS STEELS 01-249327, 23-249313
MATERIALS HANDLING 12-249336, 30-249318
MATERIALS QUALIFICATION 48-249295
MATHEMATICAL MODELS 01-249342, 03-249340, 03-249350,
07-249206, 07-249356, 07-249368, 10-249160, 10-249264,
10-249271, 12-249376, 12-249377, 20-249330, 20-249332,
21-249438, 42-249363, 62-249486
MEASUREMENT 10-249255, 45-249249, 54-249392
MEASURING INSTRUMENTS 48-249410
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 01-249393, 07-249367, 12-249170,
54-249293
MECHANICAL STRESS RELIEF 45-249210
MECHANICAL TESTS 02-249514
MECHANISMS 03-249505, 03-249507, 07-249201, 07-249202,
07-249205, 07-249208
MEDICAL EQUIPMENT 03-249322
METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES 07-249248, 32-249346
METAL TRANSFER 01-249252, 01-249465, 01-249471,
30-249246, 31-249411
METAL WORKING 12-249375, 12-249377
METALLIC COATINGS 10-249258
METALLURGICAL WELDABILITY 04-249329
METALLURGY 44-249184
MIAB WELDING 01-249342
MICROALLOYED STEELS 03-249347, 32-249244
MICROJOINING 01-249344, 03-249322, 06-249168, 06-249169,
06-249423, 11-249180, 11-249360, 11-249424, 11-249428,
11-249450, 11-249466
MICROSTRUCTURE 01-249371, 03-249355, 03-249372,
06-249169, 06-249285, 07-249155, 07-249156, 07-249158,
07-249161, 07-249289, 07-249477, 09-249162, 09-249177,

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

79

10-249163, 12-249170, 31-249389, 32-249159, 40-249391,


42-249404, 43-249176, 54-249293
MIG WELDING 01-249192, 01-249252, 01-249352, 01-249388,
44-249446, 52-249231
MMA SURFACING 23-249319
MMA WELDING 43-249277, 52-249302, 63-249385
MO ADDITIONS 44-249287
MOLTEN POOL 01-249452, 03-249350
MONITORING SYSTEMS 01-249297, 01-249448, 48-249390
MOTOR VEHICLES 11-249429
MOULDS 07-249215
MULTILAYER CONSTRUCTIONS 07-249216
MULTIRUN WELDING 07-249367
NANOMATERIALS 10-249151, 10-249265
NANOTECHNOLOGY 07-249294
NARROW GAP WELDING 22-249490
NEUTRON RADIATION 50-249173
NI ADDITIONS 44-249364
NICKEL ALLOYS 03-249341, 05-249444, 05-249488, 07-249288,
07-249368, 09-249177, 09-249253, 10-249270, 10-249351,
11-249466, 43-249277, 43-249326
NITRIDES 10-249268
NITROGEN 44-249364
NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING 07-249276, 50-249171,
60-249502, 60-249516
NUCLEAR ENGINEERING 07-249211, 50-249171, 50-249173,
50-249397
OFFSHORE STRUCTURES 51-249280, 60-249230
OIL 01-249476
OIL INDUSTRY 43-249176
ONE SIDED WELDING 01-249463
OPTIMISATION 01-249352, 01-249353, 10-249269
ORBITAL WELDING 60-249500
OXIDATION 05-249413, 10-249270
OXIDES 10-249259
PACKAGING 22-249325
PARTICLE REINFORCED COMPOSITES 04-249251, 10-249272
PARTICLE SIZE 42-249157
PARTICLES 09-249261, 10-249255, 10-249257, 10-249271
PASTES 47-249274
PERSONNEL 62-249460, 70-249414
PERSONNEL QUALIFICATION 60-249516, 62-249487
PH STAINLESS STEELS 01-249327
PHOSPHORUS 05-249488
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 10-249272
PIPE CONNECTIONS 01-249400
PIPELINE STEELS 52-249441
PIPELINES 52-249167, 52-249175, 52-249231, 52-249302,
60-249500
PIPEWORK 52-249408
PITTING CORROSION 43-249245
PLASMA 03-249296, 10-249255, 10-249257
PLASMA SPRAYING 10-249163, 10-249262, 10-249264,
10-249265, 10-249266, 10-249268, 10-249269, 10-249270,
10-249272, 10-249351
PLASMA SURFACING 01-249220
PLASMA WELDING 01-249193, 01-249344, 01-249402,

SUBJECT INDEX

01-249469, 44-249364
PLASTIC COATINGS 10-249272
PLASTIC DEFORMATION 07-249202
PLASTICS 03-249506
PLATE 01-249383
PLATINUM METALS 02-249480, 06-249152, 11-249153
PNEUMATIC EQUIPMENT 30-249225
POLAND 61-249241
POROSITY 03-249467, 10-249160, 10-249271, 60-249228
POROUS MATERIALS 10-249351
POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT 07-249181, 44-249475
POWDER 10-249271
POWER STATIONS 01-249456
PREDICTION 42-249363
PREHEATING 01-249417, 01-249489
PRESSURE VESSELS 50-249173, 52-249232, 63-249385
PRINTED CIRCUITS 06-249426, 11-249427
PROCESS CONDITIONS 01-249218, 01-249400, 01-249402,
01-249418, 02-249221, 02-249305, 02-249409, 03-249331,
03-249505, 03-249508, 05-249149, 07-249150, 07-249211,
07-249294, 09-249162, 09-249301, 09-249335, 11-249153,
12-249170, 12-249179, 20-249496, 31-249411, 50-249397, 63-249308
PROCESS EQUIPMENT 01-249226, 01-249303, 01-249382,
01-249388, 02-249221, 02-249305, 03-249174, 03-249399,
06-249503, 09-249301, 12-249336, 20-249334, 22-249219,
30-249166, 30-249384, 52-249302, 60-249500, 61-249241, 70-249483
PROCESS PARAMETERS 01-249247, 01-249352, 01-249353,
01-249452, 07-249201, 07-249202
PROCESS PROCEDURES 06-249503, 52-249232, 60-249500
PROCESS QUALIFICATION 48-249223, 60-249222, 60-249230
PROCESS SELECTION 01-249303, 32-249182
PRODUCTS 48-249410
PROTECTION 60-249509, 63-249307
PULSED ARC WELDING 01-249192, 01-249252, 01-249320,
01-249352
QUALITY 48-249390
QUALITY ASSURANCE 06-249503, 10-249300, 48-249223,
48-249295, 48-249304, 48-249410, 48-249497, 53-249462
QUALITY CONTROL 20-249334, 47-249274, 60-249498
RADIATION 03-249322
RADIOGRAPHY 47-249484
RAILS 23-249291
RECORDS 48-249304
RECYCLING 31-249420
REFERENCE LISTS 07-249217
REFLOW SOLDERING 06-249250, 12-249179, 31-249359
REFRACTORY METALS 11-249466
REGULATIONS 63-249309
REINFORCEMENT 60-249501
RELIABILITY 11-249427, 11-249428, 11-249429, 54-249406
REMOTE CONTROL 50-249171
REPAIR 01-249327, 09-249335, 23-249229, 23-249291, 23-249313,
23-249319, 23-249432, 23-249435, 30-249166, 43-249154,
50-249171, 50-249397
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT 07-249206, 31-249405,
64-249394, 64-249395, 64-249396
RESIDUAL STRESSES 03-249355, 45-249147, 45-249172,

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

SUBJECT INDEX

80

45-249210, 45-249249, 45-249254, 45-249416


RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING 02-249198, 02-249221,
02-249282, 02-249305, 02-249409, 02-249468, 20-249334,
43-249278, 44-249398, 47-249311, 48-249295
RESISTANCE WELDING 02-249221, 02-249513, 02-249514,
41-249518, 41-249519, 53-249378
RESISTANCE WELDING ELECTRODES 02-249491
REVIEWS 64-249515
RIVETS 07-249164
ROBOTS 01-249303, 01-249382, 08-249240, 20-249330,
20-249431, 20-249449, 20-249453
ROLL CLADDING 04-249251
ROLLING 32-249244
ROLLING STOCK 01-249434
ROLLS 10-249259
ROOT RUNS 03-249331
RULES 02-249513, 06-249503, 60-249498, 60-249499, 60-249500
SAFETY 60-249510, 60-249511, 63-249308, 63-249309, 63-249385
SANDWICH CONSTRUCTIONS 10-249351
SCREENS 60-249509
SEALING 43-249263
SENSORS 03-249322
SERVICE CONDITIONS 43-249277
SHAPE 30-249384
SHAPE MEMORY ALLOYS 04-249349
SHAPE WELDING 03-249340, 09-249177
SHEAR STRENGTH 06-249285
SHEET 12-249336, 48-249295
SHIELDING GASES 01-249148, 01-249218, 07-249204, 30-249315,
31-249411, 31-249454, 60-249236, 63-249238
SHIPBUILDING 01-249382
SHIPS 54-249293
SI ADDITIONS 01-249371
SIGNAL PROCESSING 48-249390
SILICON CARBIDE 07-249472, 32-249346
SILVER ALLOYS 43-249386
SIMULATING 01-249297, 12-249377, 42-249157, 45-249416,
62-249224
SINTERED MATERIALS 04-249349
SIZE 22-249317
SLOVAKIA 64-249395, 64-249396
SOLDERABILITY 06-249357
SOLDERED JOINTS 06-249169, 06-249275, 11-249284,
11-249425, 11-249427, 11-249428
SOLDERING 06-249495, 70-249414
SOLDERS 06-249168, 11-249153, 31-249442
SOLID FILLER WIRE 22-249325, 63-249238
SOUTH AFRICA 62-249460
SPATTER 12-249306
SPRAYED COATINGS 10-249256, 10-249258, 10-249259,
10-249262, 10-249265, 10-249266, 10-249300, 10-249366,
42-249504, 43-249263
SPRAYING 10-249160, 10-249255, 10-249257, 10-249300,
70-249414
STABILITY 01-249320, 20-249330
STAINLESS STEELS 01-249148, 01-249218, 01-249312,
01-249323, 01-249400, 01-249445, 02-249480, 03-249298,

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

05-249444, 05-249488, 40-249369, 40-249391, 42-249273,


43-249277, 43-249386, 44-249287, 52-249408, 60-249499
STANDARDS 02-249514, 48-249223, 52-249232, 54-249403,
60-249222, 60-249228, 60-249236, 60-249502, 60-249510,
60-249511, 60-249512
STEEL CONSTRUCTION 01-249292, 54-249412
STEEL MAKING 10-249259
STEELS 07-249155, 07-249207, 07-249248, 45-249210, 48-249295,
50-249397, 60-249517, 62-249486
STORAGE TANKS 54-249436, 60-249516
STRAIN 31-249358
STRENGTH 07-249155, 07-249158
STRESS CORROSION 43-249370
STRESS DISTRIBUTION 54-249233, 54-249392
STRESS RUPTURE STRENGTH 42-249273
STRIP ELECTRODES 01-249471, 54-249412
STRUCTURAL MEMBERS 54-249403
STRUCTURAL STEELS 01-249218, 01-249220, 01-249292,
01-249303, 01-249352, 01-249383, 01-249445, 08-249433,
40-249391, 50-249173, 54-249293, 54-249406, 54-249451,
54-249458, 60-249230, 60-249501
STRUCTURES 54-249406
STUD WELDING 30-249318, 40-249391
SUBMERGED ARC SURFACING 09-249407, 54-249412
SUBMERGED ARC WELDING 01-249292, 01-249353, 01-249401,
01-249417, 01-249456, 44-249446
SURFACE CONDITIONS 07-249203, 40-249391
SURFACE MELTING 01-249418, 12-249447
SURFACE MOUNTING 11-249284, 11-249421, 11-249424
SURFACE PREPARATION 05-249190, 07-249214, 44-249185
SURFACES 06-249495
SURFACING 30-249166, 62-249486
TACK WELDING 48-249304
TAILORED BLANKS 03-249347, 12-249375, 12-249376,
12-249377, 32-249379, 48-249374, 53-249373, 53-249378,
53-249380, 53-249381
TANDEM WELDING 22-249490
TEMPERATURE 06-249168, 07-249289, 10-249255, 44-249475
TESTING 06-249426, 40-249369
THERMAL BARRIER COATINGS 10-249163, 10-249269
THERMAL CUTTING 08-249240, 30-249384, 70-249414
THERMIT BRAZING 07-249294
THERMOMECHANICAL TREATMENT 32-249244
THERMOPLASTICS 03-249505, 03-249507, 03-249508
THICKNESS 07-249158
TIN 06-249250, 11-249425, 32-249159
TITANIUM 03-249470, 07-249204, 07-249207
TITANIUM ALLOYS 01-249281, 03-249345, 07-249161,
07-249248, 07-249289, 12-249290, 53-249378
TOFD TECHNIQUES 60-249512
TOLERANCES 20-249496
TOUGHNESS 01-249456
TRANSFORMATION 44-249287, 44-249455, 45-249254,
45-249416
TRANSIENT LIQUID PHASE BONDING 06-249250
TRANSITION PIECES 07-249212
TUBES AND PIPES 01-249383, 20-249449, 22-249490, 43-249245,

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

Welding Abstracts, Vol.24, No.12, December 2011

81

52-249239, 63-249385
TUNGSTEN 07-249211
TURBINES 23-249313
ULTRASONIC TESTING 47-249311, 47-249484, 60-249502
ULTRASONIC WELDING 05-249190, 05-249439
UNSOLDERING 06-249423
URANIUM 45-249249
USA 11-249428
UTILISATION 03-249399, 07-249209, 09-249407
VEHICLE BODIES 03-249443, 05-249387, 53-249380
VIBRATION 01-249469, 06-249168, 64-249493
VISUAL INSPECTION 47-249484
WATER 43-249245
WAVE SOLDERING 06-249422
WEAR 01-249418, 42-249504
WEAR RESISTANCE 01-249220, 10-249151, 10-249256,
10-249265, 30-249479
WEAVING 54-249293
WELD METAL 40-249369
WELD SHAPE 01-249402, 20-249332, 48-249410
WELD ZONE 07-249156, 42-249404
WELDABILITY 01-249371, 01-249371, 03-249188, 03-249507,
07-249204, 07-249212, 32-249182, 32-249459, 44-249184,
44-249398, 62-249486
WELDED JOINTS 01-249383, 01-249456
WELDING 48-249223, 60-249222, 64-249515, 70-249414
WELDING ACCESSORIES 30-249225, 63-249307
WELDING FLUXES 31-249457
WELDING GLASS 63-249307, 63-249308
WELDING INVERTERS 30-249310, 30-249318
WELDING POWER SOURCES 30-249246, 30-249333, 70-249483
WELDING SHOPS 30-249225
WELDING TRANSFORMERS 02-249221
WETTABILITY 31-249365
WIRE 11-249360
WIRE BONDING 11-249180, 11-249360
WORKING CONDITIONS 63-249309
ZINC 06-249495

Copyright 2011, TWI Ltd

SUBJECT INDEX